WorldWideScience

Sample records for counter illicit nuclear

  1. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking

  2. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Niemeyer, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  3. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. It remains an association of active practitioners of nuclear forensics underwritten by funding from sponsoring countries and organizations. While the primary mission of the ITWG continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to combat nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises, promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in nuclear forensics investigations. By its very nature nuclear trafficking is a transboundary problem; nuclear materials

  4. Uzbekistan - nonproliferation and continuous activities on countering nuclear materials and other radioactive sources illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, V.D.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Shipilov, N.N.; Karimov, Yu.N.; Fazilov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Countering illicit trafficking of nuclear weapon and its components is an important task in the modern world. For this reason, at the borders and customs points the control of transportation is to be conducted in order to determine radioactive and fissile materials in them. This report presents the results of works performed in the period of 2001 - 2005 years on the program for development of radiation monitors and equipping the Uzbekistan border customs points with them, in order to fight the smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Republic of Uzbekistan is located on the transit transportation crossroad, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Western Europe - to the North, and Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and others - to the South. Therefore, this program is important for saving peace in the world and fighting any attempts to create nuclear weapon in the region. The radiation monitoring equipment is installed at the border customs points through which the transportation enters the Uzbekistan and at the Tashkent International Airport where passengers arrive by air. Also, the customs points are equipped through which the transportation quits for South and international passenger depart. The radiation portal monitors are designed by CIS Aspect (Dubna, Moscow region), however, we develop our own portal monitoring system which can be produced after certification. The Institute of Nuclear Physics provides the technical expertise that includes installation, calibration, maintenance, and secondary alarm response; mobile response units are being developed to rapidly and accurately identify seized material and recommend handling procedures. At present we are accumulating information on the alarm from the Yantar - type radiation monitor at the customs check-points and examining characteristics of the system to improve the results of our research

  5. Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Scams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Trafficking Scams are situations where the scam artist(s) offer something (material or information) that is not what he/she/they represent it to be. Example of a scam is when attempt is made to sell fake nuclear material. The offered material may not be nuclear material or may be of a lower grade. The offered material may not actually exist . Radioactive material may be offered as nuclear material. A small sample of actual nuclear material may be offered, but the bulk material may be something else.

  6. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  7. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  8. Nuclear timer/counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthayavanich, S.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis represents the development of a Timer/COUNTER compatible to the standard Nuclear Instrument Module Specifications. The unit exhibits high accuracy, light weight and ease of maintenance. The unit also has a built-in precision discriminator to discriminate unwanted signals that may cause interference in counting. With line frequency time base the timer can be preset in steps from 0.1 sec. to 9 x 10 5 min. The counter with six digits miniature display and an overflow output has a maximum counting rate of 10 MHz. The accumulated counting data can be transferred to a teletype or printer for hard copy printout with the aid of ORTEC 777 Line Printer or 432 A Print-out Control or any print out interface with input compatible to the print output of the Timer/Counter. Owing to its NIM compatibility the unit is directly powered by the NIM power supply

  9. Illicit financial flows and measures to counter them: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandra; Hearson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The most common sources of illicit financial flows are tax evasion and money laundering. Countermeasures include institution building strategies, international cooperation and information exchange, and fiscal transparency. Development practitioners need to understand the nature of the problem of illicit financial flows as an obstacle to development, and be aware of interventions that can reduce such flows.

  10. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  11. Illicit diversion of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, F.L.

    1975-08-01

    This paper discusses the means of preventing illegal use of nuclear material by terrorists or other sub-national groups and by governments. With respect to sub-national groups, it concludes that the preventive measures of national safeguards systems, when taken together with the practical difficulties of using nuclear material, would make the diversion and illegal use of nuclear material unattractive in comparison with other avenues open to these groups to attain their ends. It notes that there are only certain areas in the nuclear fuel cycle, e.g. production of some types of nuclear fuel embodying highly enriched uranium and shipment of strategically significant nuclear material, which contain material potentially useful to these groups. It also discusses the difficult practical problems, e.g. coping with radiation, which would face the groups in making use of the materials for terrorist purposes. Concerning illegal use by Governments, the paper describes the role of international safeguards, as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the real deterrent effect of these safeguards which is achieved through the requirements to maintain comprehensive operating records of the use of nuclear material and by regular inspections to verify these records. The paper makes the point that Australia would not consider supplying nuclear material unless it were subject to international safeguards. (author)

  12. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  13. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  14. Development of measures to deal with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Amoako, J.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The world has now become a global village as such no country can isolate itself from global trends. Reported cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials have focused international attention on ways to combat an emerging phenomenon of the 1990's. Of the 324 confirmed cases of illicit trafficking nearly 130 involved individuals trying to illegally sell radioactive materials used in medicine or industry whose unauthorized use or movement poses a danger to public health. Some other cases have involved samples of weapons-grade materials confiscated from individuals. These incidents have raised public and governmental concerns. This has prompted stronger efforts to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking by state authorities, including collaboration and co-operation with international organizational such as the IAEA. The IAEA has established the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme and is encouraging all Member States to participate and to report all incidents of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive materials and other radioactive sources that come to their notice. From the data available from the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), Ghana, there are 344 highly enriched uranium fuel elements (998.2g) in use in the 30kW Research Reactor, (GHARR-1) and 80 radioactive materials in use in medicine, history, research and teaching. The reactor has been subjected to safeguards inspections by IAEA on regular basis. Additionally there have been on the average about nine authorized imports of radioactive into the country in the past seven years. Unlawful use of nuclear materials, through criminal or terrorist activities, may pose a proliferation treat, while unlawful use of radiation poses risks to the public. Ghana has therefore decided to established an effective counter measure against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other materials which might pose both proliferation threat as well as radiological risk to the public and

  15. Country Presentation on Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwandime, C.

    2010-01-01

    Assess the role of various agences in Kenya in fighting illicit traficking of nuclear materials. These includes the police, customs, National Council for Science and Technology, Radiation and Protection Board. Gives incidences of trafficking of various materials in Kenya and related activities like the 1998 terrorist attack of American Embassy in Nairobi and the Kikambala Tourist Hotel in Mombasa

  16. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.; Yavuz, U.

    2001-01-01

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  17. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Illicit nuclear trafficking and the new agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Vladimir A. . V.Orlov@gcsp.ch

    2004-01-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are a serious international concern and have been at least for nearly a century. After World War I, the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibited the use of chemical and biological warfare. The advent of nuclear weapons, with their extraordinary destructive capacity, made the proliferation of WMD an even greater concern after the Second World War. Moreover, during the post-Cold War period the dangers of proliferation of WMD have increased due to regional tensions, the dissolution of the Soviet Union (and resulting looser controls over weapons scientists and dangerous materials), and the ready availability of sensitive technologies. More than ten States have active WMD-related programmes, and probably about ten more have capabilities to start them. At the same time, non-State actors (transnational organized criminal communities and international terrorist networks) today are seen as playing an increasingly active role in unauthorized access to and proliferation of sensitive materials, technologies, and weapons. After 9/11, the risk of such actors using WMD components as a tool for blackmailing governments has become a real scenario, still with low probability but with highly significant - and disastrous consequences. The international community has responded to problems and challenges in two major ways. The first has been the elaboration of multilateral international treaty regimes intended to prevent the proliferation of WMD. These include the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). The second approach has been the formation of non-treaty arrangements, generally known as 'suppliers' clubs', aimed at preventing the proliferation of technologies and equipment that could be used by a 'proliferant' State or non-State actor to develop WMD and/or delivery systems (e.g., ballistic or cruise missiles) associated with such weapons. These

  19. The Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D K

    2007-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the movement of nuclear contraband. To achieve the objectives, all cases involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials must be vigorously pursued and prosecuted when appropriate. The importance of outreach and formal government-to-government relationships with partner nations affected by nuclear trafficking cannot be under-estimated. States that are situated on smuggling routes may be well motivated to counter nuclear crimes to bolster their own border and transportation security as well as strengthen their economic and political viability. National law enforcement and atomic energy agencies in these states are aggressively pursuing a comprehensive strategy to counter nuclear smuggling through increasing reliance on technical nuclear forensics. As part of these activities, it is essential that these organizations be given adequate orientation to the best practices in this emerging discipline including the categorization of interdicted nuclear material, collection of traditional and nuclear forensic evidence, data analysis using optimized analytical protocols, and how to best fuse forensics information with reliable case input to best develop a law enforcement or national security response. The purpose of formalized USG relationship is to establish an institutional framework for collaboration in international forensics, improve standards of forensics practice, conduct joint exercises, and pursue case-work that benefits international security objectives. Just as outreach and formalized relationships are important to cultivate international nuclear forensics, linking nuclear forensics to ongoing national assistance in border and transpiration security, including port of entry of entry monitoring

  20. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  1. Decision-based model development for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear material is vulnerable to a range of theft, sabotage, smuggling and illicit use scenarios. These scenarios are dependent on the choices of individuals and organizations involved in these activities. These choices, in turn; are dependent on the perceived payoff vectors of the involved players. These payoff vectors can include monetary gain, ability to avoid detection, penalties for detection, difficulty of accomplishment, resource constraints, infrastructure support, etc. Threat scenarios can be developed from these individual choices, and the set of worst-case threat scenarios can be compiled into a threat definition. The implementation of physical protection controls is dependent on the developed threat scenarios. The analysis of the composition of the postulated threat can be based on the analysis of the postulated decisions of the individuals and organizations involved on theft, smuggling, and illicit use. This paper proposes a model to systematically analyze the significant decision points that an individual or organization addresses as result of its goals. The model's dependence on assumptions is discussed. Using these assumptions, a model is developed that assigns probabilities to a set of decisions performed by the individuals involved in theft/smuggling. The individual and organisation's decisions are based on the perceived cost/benefit of the decisions and the resource constraints. Methods for functionally obtaining decision probabilities from perceived cost/benefit are proposed. The treatment of high-consequence/low-probability events is discussed in terms of analysis of precursor events, and the use of sensitivity analysis is discussed. An example of a simplified model for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use is presented, and the results of this simplified model are evaluated. By attempting to model the potential distribution of nuclear material theft/smuggling events, this model increases the analytical tools available

  2. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  3. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  4. Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratov, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)

  5. Federal Bureau of Investigation's use of nuclear forensics in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysak, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This presentation outlines the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) role, responsibility and use of nuclear forensics analysis in combating illicit trafficking and nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics is defined and approached from a law enforcement perspective using the objectives of anticipation, prevention, attribution and prosecution in a court of law. A sustained, systematic and integrated approach is discussed utilizing established standard operating procedures and protocols between the law enforcement and scientific establishments as well as the challenges that still exist. (author)

  6. Traces of evidence. Nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    2003-01-01

    An IAEA databank lists a number of reported cases of illicitly trafficked nuclear or other radioactive materials. Apart from the traditional concern with nuclear proliferation, the post September 11th public is now wary of a possible attack by terrorists with a nuclear or radiation dispersion device (RDD). Until now, the seized quantities have not been sufficient to manufacture a nuclear explosive device, but they might be enough to construct an RDD. Recognizing the latent global challenge to public health and safety, the G8 States (Japan, USA, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Canada, and Russia) have called for 'joint international efforts to identify and suppress illicit supply' of, and demand for, nuclear material and to deter potential traffickers. One measure gaining in significance is to identify seized material and trace it back to its origin the objective of an emerging science known as nuclear forensics. Repeatedly nuclear or other radioactive material of unknown origin are observed being released into the environment or illegally possessed. This follows from: accidents involving dispersed material; illegal dumping of nuclear scrap or waste; releases of traces from declared or clandestine activities; orphaned radioactive sources; diverted nuclear material; illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material. In investigating such incidents, questions arise regarding the intended use, the origin and, where applicable, the smuggling route of the detected material. For this purpose the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group developed a 'Model Action Plan' outlining a series of steps to be taken once material is found or seized. The IAEA and ITU jointly assisted Member States in its implementation and application through a demonstration exercise. As a result of training and technical upgrading, law enforcement services in those States are now able to establish to what extent seized nuclear material might constitute an occupational hazard

  7. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.

  8. Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rexton Kan

    2014-01-01

    Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics op...

  9. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-01-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  10. Measures Against-Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.B.; Nassef, M.H.; El Mongy, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early nineties, illicit trafficking (IT) of nuclear materials and radioactive sources appeared as a new trend which raised the concern of the international community due to the grave consequences that would merge if these materials or radioactive sources fell into the hands of terrorist groups. However, by the end of the last century illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources lost its considerable salience, in spite of seizure of considerable amounts of 2 '3'5U (76% enrichment) in Bulgaria (May 1999) and also 235 U (30% enrichment) in Georgia (April 2000). Nevertheless, IT should be always considered as a continued and viable threat to the international community. Awareness of the problem should be developed and maintained among concerned circles as the first step towards combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials needs serious consideration and proper attention by the governmental law enforcement authorities. Measures to combat with IT of nuclear material or radioactive sources should be effective in recovery, of stolen, removed or lost nuclear materials or radioactive sources due to the failure of the physical protection system or the State System Accounting and Control (SSAC) system which are normally applied for protecting these materials against illegal actions. Measures such as use of modern and efficient radiation monitoring equipment at the borders inspection points, is an important step in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across the borders. Also providing radiological training to specific personnel and workers in this field will minimize the consequences of a radiological attack in case of its occurrence. There is a real need to start to enter into cooperative agreements to strengthen borders security under the umbrella of IAEA to faster as an international cooperation in the illicit trafficking

  11. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J.F. [Institute of Strategic Studies, Asuncion (Paraguay)], E-mail: jfacetti@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration

  12. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In order to be effective, a defence system must be designed on the basis of real conflict hypotheses, that is, on the basis of well identified real possibilities of occurrence of aggressions against national interests. Threat assessment and analysis depend on complete and correct information. By making an accurate appreciation of the strategic situation we can identify quite precisely current or potential conflicts that could genuinely affect national interests and be prepared to meet them in the form best suited to their nature, rationally using the budget resources allocated to defence. Lack of preparation to counterattack real threats implies being absolutely defenceless. On the other hand, being prepared without knowing exactly what for is a waste of people's money. A growing concern, not only of G8 countries but also of affected countries, is governance and lawless areas, or areas where the State is absent. The concept of lawless areas in particular has been time and again used by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of several European countries, by the Pentagon and by the US Department of State to refer to lawless areas or areas without government in Latin America, Africa, Asia and even Central Europe, where presumably there exist groups of terrorists and traffickers of weapons and other illicit materials. In such as areas some terrorist group can be actively seeking nuclear weapons or the materials and knowledge need to make them or to make Radiation Dispersion Artefacts RDA, improvised nuclear artefacts (INA). At the end of March 2008 the Colombian Police seized at least 66 pounds (30 kg) of uranium from the terrorist group FARC. This is new for Latin America and could bring the FARC into the major leagues of black market terrorist transactions. In Latin America, one of these areas is the Tri-Border Area; the other is the Leticia-Tabatinga area between Colombia and Brazil. Recently, the countries of the 3 + 1 Agreement signed a joint declaration

  13. From illicit trafficking to nuclear terrorism? - The role of nuclear forensics science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Cromboom, O.; Daures, P.; Janssens, W.; Koch, L.; Mayer, K.; Ray, I.

    2002-01-01

    The events of 11th September 2001 have reminded us of the importance of taking preventive action in the field of nuclear terrorism as well as measures to mitigate the effects after such an attack. We have seen in the last 10 years the emergence of a new and potentially hazardous form of smuggling: that of nuclear and radioactive materials. The threat of terrorist activities involving nuclear materials has now become a matter of concern as well. Dispersion of such materials over urban areas, their introduction in the food chain or drinking water system are examples of currently perceived risks to our modern societies. Following its early involvement in a large number of cases of illicit trafficking and environmental issues the Institute for Transuranium Elements has developed a new discipline to support Member State authorities to combat illicit trafficking and dealing with criminal environmental issues: nuclear forensic science. The principal aims of research in this field at ITU are: (1) To maintain and develop further investigative techniques for identifying the nature of seized materials, to assess the immediate danger, to locate the original source of the material and, as far as possible, the route it has taken, and to give an opinion on the probable intended use of the material; (2) To foster close contacts with law enforcement agencies -- Europol, Interpol, World Customs Organisation and national police forces -- and to develop techniques to optimise collaboration between standard forensic techniques and the special requirements of the nuclear scientist; (3) To develop and implement a programme of assistance for applicant countries in combating illicit trafficking within their own borders. This involves giving advice, training operators and officials in the detection of illicit materials and the supply of appropriate equipment, such as radiation detectors; (4) To maintain and update an extensive database on commercial nuclear materials -- a separate section

  14. Problems and management of radioactive sources and measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    1998-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials continues to pose a danger to public health and safety and to nuclear non proliferation efforts. The majority of cases so far have involved only small amounts of fissile materials or mainly radioactive sources in Bulgaria. A proper scheme for analysis of seized nuclear materials will be developed based on existing equipment for NDA analysis of nuclear materials supplemented by new system through PHARE project assistance by EU experts. (author)

  15. Application of Nuclear Forensics in Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As a scientific discipline, nuclear forensics poses formidable scientific challenges with regard to extracting information on the history, origin, movement and processing of nuclear and other radioactive material found to be out of regulatory control. Research into optimized techniques is being pursued by leading nuclear forensic research groups around the world. This research encompasses areas including evidence collection, analytical measurements for rapid and reliable categorization and characterization of nuclear and radioactive material, and interpretation using diverse data characteristics or the 'science of signatures' from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. In this regard, the IAEA recently concluded the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Application of Nuclear Forensics in Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material. The CRP seeks to improve the ability of Member States to provide robust categorization and characterization of seized material, reliable techniques for the collection and preservation of nuclear forensic evidence, and the ability to interpret the results for law enforcement and other purposes. In accordance with broader IAEA objectives, the CRP provides a technical forum for participating institutes from Member States to exchange technical information to benefit national confidence building as well as to advance the international discipline of nuclear forensics. This CRP was initially planned in 2006, commenced in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Three research coordination meetings (RCM) were convened at the IAEA in Vienna to review progress. The leadership of the chairpersons was essential to establishing the technical viability of nuclear forensics at the IAEA and with the Member States

  16. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: the 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could lead to the creation of a nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device (RDD), has been a subject of concern for more than a decade now. This concern became even more pronounced after the September 11 th attacks in the United States, which demonstrated that modern day terrorists are willing and capable of inflicting mass casualties among civilian population in target countries in order to further their goals. The problem of illicit trafficking - intentional diversion and smuggling of nuclear fissile material and radioactive sources - has been closely watched and studied by several national institutions and international organizations. This resulted in the establishment of several nuclear smuggling databases, tracking illicit trafficking incidents. The number of such incidents for a given period varies widely between the different databases, reflecting the different sources of information used, the different geographical regions covered, as well as the different methodologies applied to data mining and data analysis. One major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to illicit trafficking is the inclusion of incidents in the analysis, which do not represent a security threat in the sense of being the pre-stage of a terrorist operation or a malevolent act. Such incidents mainly involve inadvertent movement of illegally disposed of radioactive sources in scrap metal or contaminated goods across international borders and discoveries of so called 'orphan' radiation sources. This paper analyzes the global data contained in the database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO) operated by the University of Salzburg, using special filters to discriminate between illicit trafficking incidents involving a criminal intent and those that do not. Thereby, the net security threat of illicit trafficking will be determined to help provide a realistic

  17. Improved Technology To Prevent Nuclear Proliferation And Counter Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J; Yuldashev, B; Labov, S; Knapp, R

    2006-06-12

    As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation. As nuclear energy and hence nuclear materials become an increasingly global phenomenon, using local technologies and capabilities facilitate incorporation of enhanced monitoring and detection on the regional level. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation and countering radiological/nuclear terrorism. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, passive detection, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity many-fold at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Different detection algorithms enable fissile materials to be distinguished from other radioisotopes.

  18. Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.S., E-mail: johnson329@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Hagmann, C.A.; Hall, J.M.; McNabb, D.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kelley, J.H.; Huibregtse, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

  19. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  20. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  1. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional co-operation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's geographical location - between Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East - exposes it to much illegal trafficking: of people, arms, drugs, etc. The trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials in Bulgaria can be divided in two main parts - internal and transit. Internal trafficking consists of stolen radioactive sources such as counters and densitometers, irradiation devices, tools for removing static electricity, and smoke detectors, which mainly contain the isotopes 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 226 Ra and 241 Am. The external trafficking of illicit nuclear materials is connected with transfer of raw materials and expensive metals from the former Soviet Union to countries in Western Europe and the Middle East, including aluminium, osmium, caesium, scandium, rare earth elements, red mercury, plutonium and enriched uranium. Detecting internal and external trafficking poses serious problems for the Bulgarian authorities, in terms of equipment and qualified personnel at the borders and inside the country. Developing countries need protocols for detecting and responding to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, which is a new threat that requires rapid implementation of comprehensive measures and efforts, novel approaches, coordination of services and institutions, and even new legislation. The paper describes a three step model for better and more rapid responses for combating illicit nuclear trafficking in Bulgaria.The steps involve developing first response protocols, using nondestructive analytical means to categorize materials on-site, followed by in-depth analysis. It is also important to initiate contacts with neighbouring countries to foster regional collaboration among law enforcement agencies, customs authorities, analytical laboratories, etc., to improve efficiency in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. (author)

  2. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation

  3. Sub-regional Workshop on Illicit Nuclear Trafficking Information Management and Coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The workshop was organized to; have a comprehensive set of information which effectively supports implementation of the Nuclear Security Plan; understand nuclear security needs on a global scale to identify areas of cooperation between and among the Agency and Member States; determine illicit global trafficking trends and patterns, including theft and other malicious acts involving radioactive material; fully protect sensitive nuclear security information from disclosure; coordinate the nuclear security support programmes of Member States and international organizations with those of the Agency and have effective mechanisms of interaction with other international organizations

  4. An intelligence led approach to intercepting the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, O.

    2001-01-01

    Recognizing the actuality and importance of nuclear material illicit trafficking problems, the Security Service of Ukraine pays great attention to the security and theft prevention of nuclear materials in Ukraine. For this purpose the state system, which includes organizational and legislative measures, has been established and is functioning. Within the frame of this system the detection and perception of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances take an important place in the work of law enforcement authorities, including Security Service, in Ukraine. The Laws of Ukraine nuclear power utilization and radioactive safety, sanitary and epidemiological population control, the respective articles of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (art. 228-2, 228-3, 228-4, 228-5) and the statement of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine no. 207 on 04.03.1997 which determines the interaction procedure between executive authorities in case of illicit trafficking of radiation source detection, are its legislative basis. The analysis of the situation shows that this problem became the most pressing after the USSR collapse in 1991 due to some objective and subjective causes. Some criminals and common staff of the enterprises and organizations which were responsible for the above mentioned materials as well as former military men were involved in illegal activity associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Although after the USSR collapsed the Ukraine had the nuclear arsenal which was the third in the world, it did not become the source of nuclear weapons material proliferation. It shows the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the government within the system of nuclear material physical protection provision. It is evident that nuclear weapon removal from the territory of Ukraine was performed without any case of its loss or theft. Therefore, currently in Ukraine there is only the necessary amount of nuclear material

  5. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  6. Legal framework and practice to prevent and detect illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials in the country and across country borders has become serious problem from both nuclear proliferation and radiological hazard point of view. Prevention and detection of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is based on the regulation and procedure set up to ensure the control of the nuclear and radioactive materials throughout their life. Practically, prevention and detection measures in ensuring that nuclear materials do not become the subject of unauthorized use leading to illicit trafficking constitute (1) accounting for and (2) control of nuclear and radioactive materials and (3) physical protection of such materials. The Nuclear Energy Act No. 10 year 1997 is the legislative basis for the safety, including nuclear material accounting and control activities as well as security measures on the utilization of the nuclear and radioactive material in Indonesia. Government establishes Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN) as Regulatory Body having the task to control any activities using nuclear energy. The activities of control are implemented through regulation, licensing and inspection. The mission of the BAPETEN is to ensure adequate protection of the public health and safety, the common security, and the environmental in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Indonesia. To support this mission, BAPETEN has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish regulation; (2) issue licenses and (3) inspect nuclear facilities. First component of regulatory function is establishing regulations, which define the capabilities that need to be satisfied by facility operators to protect against theft which in turn could lead to illicit trafficking. BAPETEN established the Decree on National System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) based on the Agreement between Rl and IAEA on the Application of Safeguards in connection with NPT ratified in the Act No.8 year 1978

  7. Efforts of Turkey in combating with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucel, F.A.; Akats, N.; Yilmazer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources creates both non-proliferation problems and also is a radiation hazard risk for the law enforcement officers, public and the environment. Since the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources has been increasing over the past years, it is very important to take immediate measures for preventing these activities. Turkey, as a country having a unique position at the crossing points of the two major routes - one connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and the other connecting Europe to Asia and the Middle East - is situated on the routes of illicit trafficking. Thus, Turkey attaches great importance to combating illicit trafficking and strongly supports all efforts in this field. After the IAEA resolution GC(XXXVIII)RES/15 requesting Member States to 'take all necessary measures to prevent illicit trafficking in nuclear materials' had been adopted, Turkey gave full support to the IAEA Programme on Combating Illicit Nuclear and other Radioactive Materials and also took some measures to combat such trading. Regulatory activities regarding nuclear and radiological safety, including safeguards and physical protection in Turkey, are under the responsibility of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). The TAEA ensures that the licensed activities do not cause any unreasonable risk to the public and to environmental safety and that they do not impair the common defense and security interest of Turkey. TAEA was established by the Act No.2690 of 9th July 1982 and replaced the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission created by the Act No.6821 in 1956. The Act No.2690 Authorizes the TAEA to carry out the activities connected with the fulfillment of Turkey's obligations arising from international agreements in the field of safeguards and physical protection. This paper covers the efforts and coordination role of TAEA's planned activities and the measures

  8. Transweb and trafficking in illicit nuclear materials: beyond the borders of physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.; Dilger, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Transweb is a developing threat assessment analytical protocol that uses real time GIS based assessments (a.k.a., GTA for GIS Threat Assessment) to better understand potential trafficking in illicit nuclear materials that may come from energy related sites and/or weapons production facilities. This is not a physical security protocol nor is this program a border check format like the DOE's Second Line of Defense which is designed to detect special nuclear fuels. Transweb is a tool that allows the user to look at surreptitious transportation pathways that may be used to move illicit nuclear materials after they have already breached traditional physical security barriers and allows for movement prediction and potential mitigation/intervention if they are not traveling on the highways or railways, traversing the waterways, or entering ports equipped with detecting equipment like that deployed in Second Line of Defense program. Transweb is for the real world, a world where physical security may be breached and the smugglers that capture these materials do not follow the most traveled highways, railways, or waterways in a given society. Transweb focuses on the less obvious transportation routes that may be the most likely ways that illicit nuclear materials will be transported. Thus this program offers an additional layer of security analysis not currently in use as physical protection or as border mitigation. (author)

  9. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. 'Mixed methods' research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material: The 'net' security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Steinhausler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, which could be used for building a nuclear weapon or a radiological dispersal device, has been a subject of concern for more than a decade. A major obstacle to assessing the actual security threat due to nuclear trafficking is the inclusion in the analysis of incidents that do not represent a security threat, in the sense of being a possible pre-stage to a clandestine nuclear weapons programme or a terrorist operation involving a crude nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device. International transport of contaminated scrap metal, or discovery of lost or abandoned radioactive sources are examples of such incidents, which have little or no security relevance. This paper analyses the global data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSO) using special filters to discriminate between incidents that are of security relevance and those that are not. (author)

  11. The nuclear smuggling international technical working group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation; 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis; 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation; 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises; and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past five years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics of seized nuclear materials. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is uncovered, e.g. incident response, crime scene analysis, collection of evidence (both radioactive and 'traditional' forensics, transportation to a nuclear facility, subsequent laboratory analysis, and then development of the case. At the most recent meeting (ITWG-6

  12. Future World of Illicit Nuclear Trade: Mitigating the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    David Albright and Corey Gay , “Taiwan: Nuclear Nightmare Averted,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 1998, vol. 54, issue 1, p. 54. 8...38 Figure 6: A photo of a model of the IR-1 centrifuge in Iran, showing four aluminum rotor tubes and three bellows. The top and bottom tubes ...are painted black, possibly intended to help control the temperatures along the rotor assembly. The small tubing wrapped around the outside of the

  13. Sustainable training for customs officer involved in illicit nuclear trafficking detection: national solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Gilisman, Jorge Luis; Lopez Forteza, Yamil

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The illicit nuclear trafficking detection capabilities demand adequate training, cooperation and equipment. Often customs personnel changing takes place in our countries. A sustainable training strategy should be implemented for avoiding forfeit on detection capabilities. Cuba, not excluded from this particular, designed an Action Plan to provide Customs authorities with basic tools for their own training. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority developed three main addresses: initial training, development of e-tools and preparation of train-of-trainers. Experiences, outcomes and challenges are shown in the present paper. In a simple, quick and not expensive way answer has been given to a national sustainable training strategy. (author)

  14. Combating illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsev, A.; Dimitov, K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbulent history of the Republic of Bulgaria is proof of its importance for the commercial and military interests of the nations that have conquered and exploited the country through the ages. It is clear that it is the connecting node of two continents, Europe and Asia. It is a natural stop in the movement of goods for transcontinental commercial purposes as well as a natural resting place for the movement of armies during the ancient and medieval times. The geopolitical situation that currently exists in the Republic of Bulgaria may form conditions for illicit trafficking. This paper gives a short description of the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials: modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  16. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - near the where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers, which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high b) Presently

  17. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2010-01-01

    Fixed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed at border, seaport, airport and key traffic checkpoints have played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM is usually large and heavy and can't easily be moved to different locations. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Field tests to characterize the developed detection system were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of measurements and detection limits of our system are described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle

  18. The prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguygen, N.T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: I Introduction - Vietnam has signed the Safeguard Agreement under NPT in 1989 and is preparing to join the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. To enhance the fulfillment of commitment, at the beginning of 1993 a joint group of experts from VAEC, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Security was set up to: Search the current situation of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material; and Prevent the illicit trafficking. Activities were carried out during four years with modest resources and results achieved are remarkable, no case of illicit trafficking has been detected from 1997 until now. II Searching the illicit trafficking situation - The objectives of searching are the following: What is material in the illicit trafficking?; What is the motivation of illicit trafficking?; What is the illicit trafficking ploy? 1. Material in the illicit trafficking - At the end of the seventies and during the eighties, there were rumors of black trade of precious and mysterious metal with unbelievable high prices, higher many times than the gold price. Rumors said the name of the metal was uranium, black copper or osmium . We have collected all material confiscated during that time and during our activities, and the study shows: 516.56 kg of confiscated material is depleted uranium with U-235 mass content ranging from 0.2% to 0.32%, uranium mass content (U-235+U-238) ranging from 80% to 99%; Mostly pieces have a mark Made in USA. The masses of pieces range from 0.3 kg to 150 kg. By geometry and structure there are some mechanical parts of still unidentified machines; All pieces can be considered as radioactive material, the radioactive dose rate at their surface ranges from 10μSv/h to 100μSv/h. (Background: 0.2μSv/h); 268.65 kg confiscated material is false uranium made of lead. Its mark is written in very bad English trying to imitate the mark of real pieces. One false osmium body is made of silver. 2. Motivation of illicit

  19. Progress in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurselis, S.; Stadalnikas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper gives a general overview of the progress which has been made in the activities on prevention and combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material in Lithuania. It describes the measures which were taken to strengthen nuclear material accounting and control and physical protection. The current status of the national legislation and the functions of institutions involved in control of nuclear material and combating of illicit trafficking are discussed. Lithuania, similar to many countries, did not avoid a new type of a crime - smuggling of nuclear materials - which was observed in the 1990's. The most serious case in Lithuania happened in 1993 when fresh fuel assembly was stolen from Ignalina NPP. This assembly contains approximately 124 kg of UO 2 (enrichment 2%). 100 kg of the pellets from this assembly was found later in several pieces at different places. This case served as a strong stimulus to strengthen prevention measures of Illicit trafficking. The legal basis was created and governmental institutions were obliged with special duties related with nuclear material. The laws and regulations set the order for the shipment and handling of nuclear material. The penalties for violation of these laws and regulations specified in Penal Code and Administrative Code were made stricter. The State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) is a very important element in prevention of the illicit trafficking. The Regulations of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material at Nuclear Facilities and LOFs was issued by the State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) on 10 December 1997 following the provisions of the Law on Nuclear Energy. Lithuania extended its international obligations by ratifying the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement (entered into force on 5 July 2000). The fully computerized nuclear material accountancy system was created at Ignalina NPP. The system gives the possibility to find the

  20. International conference in Stockholm to address protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources from illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Conference will look at approaches for enhancing security of material in general as well as protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. More specifically it will address measures for interception and response to illicit trafficking and discuss the practices and measures currently being used to minimize the possibilities of the unauthorized removal and movement of nuclear materials and critical equipment. It will also consider the importance of closer co-operation with law enforcement authorities and intelligence agencies and the necessity of applying new technologies to this effort

  1. Supporting PECO countries in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials - Status of ongoing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, W.; Daures, P.; Cromboom, O.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In order to support the development of an efficient and validated response to counteract illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in the EU, the candidate countries and some CIS countries, ITU is currently executing a series of dedicated projects with the Candidate Countries to the European Union, based upon the experience gained in previous Phare and Tacis projects. Following the recommendations of the International Technical Working Group (ITWG), the objectives of the projects are: assessment of the national situation during a fact-finding mission in the country; technical upgrade and/or training related to the categorisation of nuclear material on the spot and assistance for the identification of seized nuclear material, through joint analysis at ITU; implementation of the recommended Model Action Plan in the form of a national handbook called RITNUM (Response to Illicit Trafficking of NUclear Material); validation of the national Model Action Plan by the organisation of a demonstration exercise in the country involving all the identified services in the field. After a kick-off meeting held in Karlsruhe in November 2000 and attended by two participants of each country, 5 fact-finding missions have been already performed (Romania, Slovenia and the three Baltic States). A general meeting with all the involved parties (Customs, Police, Intelligence services. Health Physics, Nuclear reference laboratory...) was organised to describe the procedure of the integrated response and the national needs were assessed. The corresponding training sessions are planed in January 2002 at ITU for three participants for each country (Customs and Police officer and high level scientist dealing with nuclear measurements). This training session will be organised and supported by IAEA which have a common interest through its Regional Program on Combating Illicit Trafficking (RER60). This joint action will be extended to other eastern countries (ex. Belarus) on IAEA request

  2. The ''nuclear car wash'': a scanner to detect illicit special nuclear material in cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Dougan, A. D.; Hall, J. M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D. R.; Pohl, B. A.; Prussin, S. G.; Walling, R. S.; Weirup, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the reliability of screening cargo containers for illicit nuclear material that may be hidden there for terrorist purposes. A screening system is described for detection of fissionable material hidden in maritime cargo containers. The system makes use of a low intensity neutron beam for producing fission; and the detection of the abundant high-energy γ rays emitted in the β-decay of short-lived fission products and β-delayed neutrons. The abundance of the delayed γ rays is almost an order of magnitude larger than that of the delayed neutrons normally used to detect fission and they are emitted on about the same time scale as the delayed neutrons, i.e., ∼1 min. The energy and temporal distributions of the delayed γ rays provide a unique signature of fission. Because of their high energy, these delayed γ rays penetrate loW--Z cargoes much more readily than the delayed neutrons. Coupled with their higher abundance, the signal from the delayed γ rays escaping from the container is predicted to be as much as six decades more intense than the delayed neutron signal, depending upon the type and thickness of the intervening cargo. The γ rays are detected in a large array of scintillators located along the sides of the container as it is moved through them. Measurements have confirmed the signal strength in somewhat idealized experiments and have also identified one interference when 14.5 MeV neutrons from the D, T reaction are used for the interrogation. The interference can be removed easily by the appropriate choice of the neutron source

  3. International dimension of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, L.; Bunn, G.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material is primarily associated with Russia and other former Soviet republics. Indeed, with the collapse of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in 1991, hundreds of tons of weapons-usable nuclear material and thousands of radiation sources were left without adequate control and protection, thus posing a risk for sabotage, theft and diversion. Out of 700 illicit trafficking incidents recorded in the Stanford's database on nuclear smuggling, theft and orphan radiation sources (DSTO), over 450 either took place in the former Soviet Union or involved material that had reportedly originated from the FSU. In the period 1992-1994, Western and Eastern Europe were heavily affected by the inflow of nuclear material smuggled from the FSU. Since then, various measures were taken by the European countries and former Soviet republics to prevent the trafficking of radioactive substances ranging from the improvement of physical security at nuclear facilities to the installation of detection equipment at international borders. However, although the number of illicit trafficking incidents in Western Europe has decreased dramatically since 1994 and the overall annual number of such cases has been lower than in 1994, evidence suggests that diverted nuclear material is still being smuggled out of the FSU. An increased number of interceptions of nuclear and other radioactive material in the Caucasus, Turkey and Central Asia, well-known for their drugs and arms smuggling routes, over the past three years demonstrates that the material may now be moving south rather than west. This is particularly alarming considering the proximity of three countries to the potential end-users of nuclear and other radioactive material, such as AI Qaida terrorist network and aspiring nuclear weapon states in the Middle East. Although the FSU remains the major potential source of nuclear and other radioactive material, it is not the only one. Thefts

  4. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  5. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials in Argentine border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Duran, Stella M.; Canibano, Javier A.; Menossi, Sergio A.; Rodriguez, Carlos E.

    2004-01-01

    The inadvertent and illegal movements of radioactive and nuclear materials are issues of increased national and international awareness. States are progressively becoming more conscious of the need to adequately respond to these events. As regards the States' regulatory infrastructure, the design and enforcement of control and verification measures to maintain the continuity of knowledge about possession, use and movements of radioactive and nuclear materials is of critical importance. The existence of an appropriate legislative framework and a regulatory authority empowered to establish effective safety and security measures are essential to prevent inadvertent and illegal movements of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. The events of Sep. 11, 2001 in the US have increased the States' awareness on the need to review their national infrastructure to identify additional measures against inadvertent and illegal movements of radioactive and nuclear materials as well as against sabotage of nuclear facilities. Argentina has more than a half- century- old tradition regarding the control and supervision of all activities involving the use of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina is the organization with federal competence in radiation protection, nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection. It is responsible for issuing licenses and permits to any activity involving radioactive materials and for controlling and verifying that these activities are performed in full compliance with ARN standards and requirements. In the region, Argentina has been playing an important role in the prevention of illicit traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials for the last years within the framework of Security Commission of MERCOSUR. The last goals of this initiative are to define and coordinate actions and to establish a set of common operational procedures in the countries participating in the mentioned multilateral

  6. Global risks due to illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The global widespread applications of of the peaceful uses of atomic energy resulted in the production and accumulation of huge amounts of dangerous nuclear wastes and nuclear materials, the greater part of which is left either unattended or insufficiently protected. In the mean time, many terrorist groups appeared in the international arena aiming at fighting against all forms of pressure, discrimination or injustice in the international relations among developed and developing countries particularly in politically unstable regions of the world. Unfortunately, these terrorist groups were inclined to adopt the use of nuclear or radiological rather crude weapons to improve their methods and efforts in imposing situations of maximum horror possible to subjected communities. In the present work a brief study of the dimensions of nuclear terrorism, its forms and means directed to its support , has been carried out. The efforts to combat against nuclear proliferation in Central Asia as a region in which most of the violations of the non proliferation efforts occurred has been treated. In contrast, the prevailing conditions and efforts in the Americas region are discussed being a region in which combined efforts of the united states with other American countries were rather successful in combating nuclear proliferation. Some recommendations have been given concerning the necessary measures to face the global risk of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials all over the world. (author)

  7. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The suitable geographical situation on the crossroad between Europe, the former Soviet Union and the Middle East puts Bulgaria into the stream of many illegal traffics - people, arms, drugs etc. The illicit traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials is a serious violation of nonproliferation laws as well as a risk for the health of the population. Criminal diversion of fissile materials could lead to the potential construction of nuclear weapon or applied with conventional explosives the radioactive material could pose a threat to dwelling places, water supplies etc. The traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials in Bulgaria can be divided in two main parts -- internal and transit. I. Internal traffic The internal traffic consisted of stolen radioactive sources mainly imported with the Soviet equipment from companies or plants that were privatized or stopped functioning due to the economic changes in the country. There there were attempts to divert and transport materials from the Uranium mining industry including different amounts of 'yellow cake', depleted Uranium containers or shielding. These devices consisted of level and dense meters, irradiation devices, removing static electricity, smoke detectors etc. mainly containing the isotopes Cs-137, Co-60, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241 etc. II. External traffic The external traffic of illicit nuclear materials is connected with the transfer of raw materials and expensive metals from the former Soviet Union towards Western Europe and the Middle East. This traffic included Al, Os, Cs, Sc, Rare earth elements, Red Mercury, Pu, Enriched U. The traffic of the last three items is of greatest concern and should be addressed with highest priority. III. Response to the illicit traffic of nuclear materials The detection of both the internal and external traffic raises serious problems to the Bulgarian controlling organs both for equipment and qualified personnel at the borders and inside the country. The creation of

  8. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group: Making a difference in combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Koch, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ITWG was first formed in 1995 for the purpose of fostering international cooperation for combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The initial focus for the ITWG was on the development of nuclear forensics to help answer attribution questions regarding nuclear materials of unknown origin. More recently, the ITWG has also expanded its focus to include detection of nuclear materials during transit. This paper presents some of the key developments by this group and their potential impact for combating nuclear smuggling. The initial focus of the ITWG was to write a status report on international cooperation on nuclear smuggling forensic analysis. This 26-page report summarized previous work on nuclear forensics and gave an initial analysis on prioritizing techniques and methods for forensic analysis regarding source and route attribution. This report was submitted to the G-8 countries, and shortly thereafter, nuclear forensics was endorsed at the Moscow Summit in April, 1996, as part of an illicit trafficking program. The work of the ITWG has also been noted at subsequent summit declarations, e.g. Cologne. The ITWG's primary goal is to develop a preferred approach to nuclear forensic investigations that is widely understood and accepted as credible. The technical elements include: 1) development of protocols for a) collection and preservation of evidence and b) for laboratory investigation, 2) prioritizing of techniques for forensic analysis, 3) development of forensic databanks to assist in interpretation, 4) executing inter-laboratory exercises, and 5) facilitating technical assistance to countries upon request. The development of protocols has been conducted jointly by law enforcement officials and laboratory scientists. A major focus during much of the past six years has been the development of a model action plan for nuclear forensics. This action plan lays out the elements that are needed in the instance that illicit nuclear material is

  9. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotoukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Republic of Belarus strives to take an active part in international cooperation in the field of prevention and interception of illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources through: multilateral international agreements and bilateral interagency treatments; information exchange within the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; participation in different international seminars, workshops, conferences including those under the IAEA auspices etc. Belarus is constantly improving regulatory, legal and technical aspects of activities aimed at: accounting, control and ensuring of physical protection of nuclear material and security of radioactive sources; exercising efficient control over their export and import; detecting cases of their illicit uses and illegal cross-border movements and informing of such cases through the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; developing and providing training opportunities for personnel. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety (PROMATOMNADZOR) was appointed as the authority responsible for ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Fulfillment of Provisions of the Non-Proliferation Treaty' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Promatomnadzor was designated as the national competent authority responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the State System of Accounting and Control of nuclear material. The system accounts all the nuclear material meeting the criteria defined in the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. The system includes two levels: i.e. on-site accounting and control and state accounting and control exercised by Promatomnadzor. Apart from reporting to the Agency, the system also provides for national tasks being accomplished: control over uses of nuclear material, its physical protection, access

  10. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coker, A.J.; Adesanmi, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Background Information - The concern worldwide over the dangers associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources is shared by the Federal Government and people of Nigeria. In order to protect its territories, the government in the second quarter of 1998 gave a directive that Nigeria should be registered as a participating nation in the Illicit Trafficking Database Programme being organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Immediately, a National Committee (NC) was established comprising all relevant ministries and government agencies, particularly the ones involved in the control and use of radioactive materials, such as the Federal Radiation Protection Service (FRPS), Nuclear Research Centres, Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Energy Commission of Nigeria, the Nigerian Police Force, the Customs and the Ports Authority. By August 1998, the committee got Nigeria duly registered with the IAEA as a participating nation and presented a proposal to the Federal Government on how to monitor our ports of entry, borders and the entire country in order to participate effectively in the programme. In other to check illicit trafficking of nuclear materials effectively and efficiently within and across the Nigerian borders, the National Committee gave priority to proper organisational structure, manpower training and development, and the provision of adequate and necessary facilities and infrastructure for nationwide radiation monitoring programme. Organisational Structure - In Nigeria, there is the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Decree No. 19 of 1995 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and an Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP). The decree empowers the NRA to regulate the production, possession, transfer, import, export, trade, use, transportation, storage and disposal of radioactive materials and radiation equipment in order to ensure radiation

  11. Countering Putins Nuclear-Backed Aggression with a Continuous Nuclear-Capable Bomber Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    comprehensive strategy to counter Putin in Europe. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear Deterrence , Continuous Bomber Presence, NATO, Russia, Europe, B-52, B-2 16...conventional deterrence , such as Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) systems, to be moved into eastern areas in order to destroy Russian nuclear missiles after... deterrent is achieved when the enemy believes one has both the will and the capability (or credibility) to use the nuclear weapons. 28 While the U.S

  12. Nuclear counter effect and pi-e misidentification

    CERN Document Server

    Zürcher, D

    2000-01-01

    The e sup+-/pi sup+- discrimination within the CMS(1) ECAL is investigated using GEANT simulations and the 1998 test beam results. If one takes into account the energy left in the ECAL crystals alone (i.e. without read-out effects), the probability that a pi sup+- leaves more than 95% of its initial energy decreases from about 0.01% for 10 GeV to about 0.001% for 50 GeV. The Nuclear Counter Effect within the Avalanche Photo-Diodes (APD) enhances the probability of an electron misidentification. With the expected value of this effect (approx 100 MeV), this probability appears then to be between 0.2% and 0.01% for initial momenta varying, respectively, between 5 and 50 GeV. Important consequences of the pion-electron misidentification could appear in the form of new possible backgrounds for physics channels.

  13. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Technical guidance. Reference manual. (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    exposure and the means of protection against such exposure. Also discussed are the authorized uses of nuclear and other radioactive material and the regime governing their transport. Sections 9-11 offer guidance on how to manage efforts aimed at preventing, detecting and responding to the threat of criminal or unauthorized acts. Appendix I provides statistics on specific cases of illicit trafficking and highlights aspects of these incidents. Appendix II suggests general search procedures for use by responders when the presence of nuclear or other radioactive material is suspected.

  14. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    exposure and the means of protection against such exposure. Also discussed are the authorized uses of nuclear and other radioactive material and the regime governing their transport. Sections 9-11 offer guidance on how to manage efforts aimed at preventing, detecting and responding to the threat of criminal or unauthorized acts. Appendix I provides statistics on specific cases of illicit trafficking and highlights aspects of these incidents. Appendix II suggests general search procedures for use by responders when the presence of nuclear or other radioactive material is suspected

  15. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials; Strahlende Geschaefte. Gefahren des internationalen Atomschmuggels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges berichten die Medien immer haeufiger ueber Schmuggel von Atomtechnologie und spaltbarem Material. Bis heute ist uns eine Katastrophe erspart geblieben. Was geschieht aber, wenn Uran oder Plutonium in die Haende von Terroristen, Fanatikern oder mafiaaehnlichen Kartellen faellt? Der Autor ist im Auftrag des Generalsekretaers der Vereinten Nationen dieser Frage nachgegangen. Rund um die Welt fuehrten ihn seine Nachforschungen und Gespraeche. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seinem brisanten Bericht enthuellt er in diesem Buch. (orig./HP)

  16. Measures to prevent to illicit users of radioactive sources and nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiunaitiene, R.M.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The government of every country, depending on its economic recourses, attaches a great importance to the radiation protection and safety of population. And one of the instruments that helps in realization of this problem is to create a system in the country that prevents the possibility to illicitly use sources of ionizing radiation. It was a very important task to create such a system after Lithuania got back its independence in 1991. Because of its geographic location, Lithuania becomes a transit country of illicit transport of radioactive materials from Russia, Ukraine and other former Soviet states into western countries. At the same time it was very important to ensure the safety of the sources (that means to ensure from stealing, plundering, loss, etc.), because when the former system disintegrated, companies became bankrupt. The system was developed to solve such problems. Under the requirements of legal acts there were prescribed (delegated) functions of State institutions in order of competence in solving the problems to ensure Radiation Protection. Under the requirements of the Law on Radiation Protection, Radiation Protection Center is the main institution in Lithuania responsible for solving the problems of Radiation Protection of the population from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The responsibilities and obligations of the users of the sources were defined in legal acts: 1. The Law on Nuclear Energy; 2. The Law on Radiation Protection; 3. The Law on Radioactive Waste Management; 4. The Law on Changes and Appendices of the Code of the Administrative Law Violations; 5. On the Establishing the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, Governmental Resolution; 6. On the Confirm an Regulation of Licensing the Practices with Ionizing Radiation Sources, Governmental Resolution. After approval of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, all the users of sources of

  17. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This presentation contains description of measures used in the Slovak Republic to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. The main goal of these measures is to allow safe and effective utilization of nuclear and other radioactive materials under surveillance of responsible state authorities as well as recover materials that were removed form legal utilization despite the preventive measures. Prevention is the most effective and the cheapest way how to overcome problems. An important precondition for prevention is existence of a national (or state) system for controlled utilization of nuclear and other radioactive materials completed by an effective physical protection of these materials and facilities involved and supported by sufficient low enforcement. A state system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Slovakia is based on the IAEA INFCIRC/153 requirements. A fact that the IAEA inspectors never have recognized any unaccounted nuclear material could be the best proof of its quality. Physical protection system in both Slovak NPPs is based on principles applied in development of advanced physical protection systems used in western NPPs. Technological systems and nuclear materials are categorized into three categories - first one is most sensitive. Barriers of each category zone are equipped with sufficient detection systems and are monitored by TV system. The system is operated by NPPs operators. Entrances are guarded by private security guards. Response forces are created by the police. A legal support provides the Act No. 130/1998 on peaceful use of nuclear energy and regulations on accounting and control of nuclear materials, on physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials and on transports of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. The Criminal Code of the Slovak Republic has been amended and an illegal possession of nuclear and radioactive materials is treated as a crime. Response

  18. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  19. Combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.L.; Grama, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) is the national authority, which is contact point for illicit trafficking and coordinates all measures and activities to combat and prevent illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. Legal framework regarding illicit trafficking has been improved due to new Physical Protection Regulations, Regulations on using the DBT, Regulations on requirements for qualification of guards and physical protection personnel, Design Basis Threat for each nuclear facility to avoid the unauthorized removal or theft of nuclear material or radioactive sources. New amendments of the Law for the safe deployment of nuclear activities, Law no. 111/1996, republished, in respect of illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources are in the process to be approved by the Parliament. CNCAN is member of the Romanian Non-proliferation Group that is an interdepartmental mechanism of cooperation entered into force in August 1999. During the sessions of this group there are discussions focused on the preventing and combating illicit trafficking with nuclear material and radioactive sources. CNCAN is member of the Interministerial Council that controls import and export with strategic products including nuclear material, non nuclear material and equipment pertinent for proliferation of nuclear weapons. An Emergency Mobile Unit has been created in 2001 that contains instruments (gamma dose rate instruments portable and personal, contaminometers, mini MCA with CdZnTe detector, a CANBERRA Inspector with Nal, CdZnTe and HPGe detectors and 2 FiedSPEC, a mobile laboratory, 2 cars and individual equipment). CNCAN is cooperating with the Police through a National Plan to verify the authorization holders in order to prevent and combat illicit trafficking, and to find the orphan sources. CNCAN is the beneficiary of the PECO Project initiated by the European Commission in cooperation with the IAEA and

  20. Counter-Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ..., with little or no warning. Success in defending our nation, our military forces, and partners and allies depends on how effectively we apply air, space, and cyberspace power to counter this threat...

  1. The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear materials and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear materials and radioactive sources consists of a variety of different elements: International and national laws and regulations covering safeguards, physical protection, and import/export control; Licensing and regulatory supervision of all activities related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources, including import and export; Responsibility of the licensee to ensure compliance with licensing conditions; sanctions; Law enforcement by police, security and customs authorities; prosecution and penalties; Detection of illicitly trafficked radioactive materials through intelligence and technical means; analysis capabilities; Response arrangements for normal and for severe cases of illicit use of nuclear materials; Participation in international programmes and POC-systems. Safeguards measures have been implemented in Germany in accordance with the Non- Proliferation Treaty and with safeguards agreements based on INFCIRC/153. As Germany is a member of the European Union, the Euratom Treaty and the Euratom-Ordinance Nr. 3227/76 together with the Verification Agreement between the IAEA, the European Commission and the European Member States have led to safeguards measures jointly implemented by the IAEA and by Euratom. The relevant international law for the physical protection of nuclear material in force in Germany is the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. The recommendations on physical protection objectives and fundamentals and on physical protection measures specified in INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4 have been taken into account in various national regulations pertaining to the national design basis threat, the physical protection of LWR nuclear power plants, of interim spent fuel storage facilities, of facilities containing category III material, of nuclear material and radioactive waste transports by road or railway vehicles, aircraft or sea vessels; additional guidelines

  2. National Training Course on Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials at Borders. PPT presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The workshop was held in Namanga between between 7-11 August 2006. The objectives of the workshop were to, increase understanding of radiation and their effects, raising awareness on illicit trafficking through hands-on experience and practical exercises, develop confidence and competency in the use of detection and monitoring technology and equipment and developing responses to incidents.(Lead Abstract).

  3. Statement at UN Secretary General's High-Level Meeting on Countering Nuclear Terrorism, 28 September 2012, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Secretary-General, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to begin by thanking you, Secretary-General, for taking the initiative to convene this important conference. The threat of nuclear terrorism has not diminished. Although much progress has been made in recent years in countering it, more needs to be done. Primary responsibility for ensuring nuclear security lies with national governments, but international cooperation is vital. The importance of the IAEA's role in helping countries to improve nuclear security has been recognised by the United Nations General Assembly, most recently in resolution 65/74 on preventing the acquisition by terrorists of radioactive sources. Our central role reflects the Agency's extensive membership, our mandate, our unique technical expertise and our long experience of providing specialist, practical guidance to countries. No other organization offers these advantages. Heads of state and government recognised the Agency's role at the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul in March this year. Last week, the IAEA General Conference - the annual gathering of our 155 Member States - adopted a resolution in which it reaffirmed t he central role of the Agency in ensuring coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security, while avoiding duplication and overlap . To put it simply, our work focuses on helping to minimize the risk of nuclear and other radioactive material falling into the hands of terrorists, or of nuclear facilities being subjected to malicious acts. The IAEA has established internationally accepted guidance that is used as a benchmark for nuclear security. We help countries to apply this guidance through expert peer review missions, specialist training and human resource development programmes. The Agency helps countries to put laws and regulatory infrastructure in place to protect nuclear and other radioactive material. We provide guidance to States on how to implement their

  4. A report on recent progress of Central Analytical Laboratory (NRI Rez plc.) for upgrading capabilities for identification of illicit nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.; Sus, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the first half of the 90's, the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) -- in close co-operation with other state organizations and following the IAEA's extended safeguards system - strengthened its attention to the development of procedures for the characterization of unknown nuclear materials. This problem become important in the context of increasing danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear material which emerged with the political changes in former 'Comecon' countries during late 80's and 90's. Particular attention has been drawn to the upgrade of the counter-potential in possible transit countries situated in Central Europe. The Central Analytical Laboratory as the main Czech institution working in the field of nuclear material analytical chemistry participated in the development and upgrading of analytical procedures for detailed identification and characterization of nuclear material samples. The special methods for the determination of uranium content, isotopic composition, swipe sample analysis, determination of age and long-lived radioisotopes were developed. In second half of the 90's within the IAEA Project entitled 'Special Analytical Methods for Determination of Traces Radioactivity and Detection of Undeclared Nuclear Activities' basic procedures were prepared for the determination of: - selected isotopes of the natural disintegration series in the samples of water, sediments and technological waste solutions after termination of the uranium ores mining, - age of uranium and plutonium materials based on the 230 Th/ 234 Th, 226 Ra/ 234 U and 241 Am/ 241 Pu pairs, studies on the application of the 231 Pa/ 235 U pair were started. In 1998 PHARE PH5.01/95 project, 'Assistance in setting up special analytical services including a data bank for analysis of radioactive substances and nuclear materials of unknown origin' was started. The project was funded from the European Commission's PHARE Programme. The activities were performed at the

  5. Recent Movement, Issues and Some Counter plans in Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Lee, J. K.; Cho, C. S.; Lee, C. C.; Park, C. O.

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt 'Nuclear Energy' is the only source that can ensure the world's steady development in the foreseeable future. Nowadays is definitely what is called 'renaissance of nuclear.' As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation capacity. On the other hand, as current movement of world nuclear field, Korea has faced to one of the most important times since introducing nuclear power. Twenty nuclear power plants are run in Korea i.e. sixteen PWRs and four PHWRs now, and the capability of nuclear power production has been ranked world number six. In spite of this grand appearance, however, the influencing power on world nuclear society is not well matched to its status since it does not have a special hidden card which can appeal and impact on international community. In the era of nuclear renaissance, paradoxically, Korea is not in the situations of optimistic or pessimistic view. Now let's As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation

  6. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M.

    2010-07-15

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  7. French regulations for countering external violent forces affecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the general principles underlying nuclear safety regulations to counter external violent forces to which plants can be exposed. It then examines the statutory directives concerning external violences connected with human activities or originating from natural phenomena. 3 refs [fr

  8. Nuclear collisions in measurements of the cosmic ray charge spectrum with a counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstam, S.

    1975-06-01

    The importance of nuclear collisions of cosmic ray particles in a counter detector telescope is studied by simple Monte Carlo techniques. The interest concentrates on the charge region just below iron and the calculations are restricted to fully relativistic cosmic rays. It is found that it is difficult to avoid a blurring in the charge spectrum from nuclear collisions leading to considerable systematic errors in some abundance ratios. (Auth.)

  9. Implementation of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture card and counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the implementation techniques of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture board and digital counter was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the PCI based capture board and counter was investigated, and the characteristics of related SDK library was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder

  10. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  11. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  12. Commercial Satellite Imagery Analysis for Countering Nuclear Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, David; Burkhard, Sarah; Lach, Allison

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution commercial satellite imagery from a growing number of private satellite companies allows nongovernmental analysts to better understand secret or opaque nuclear programs of countries in unstable or tense regions, called proliferant states. They include North Korea, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Israel. By using imagery to make these countries’ aims and capabilities more transparent, nongovernmental groups like the Institute for Science and International Security have affected the policies of governments and the course of public debate. Satellite imagery work has also strengthened the efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency, thereby helping this key international agency build its case to mount inspections of suspect sites and activities. This work has improved assessments of the nuclear capabilities of proliferant states. Several case studies provide insight into the use of commercial satellite imagery as a key tool to educate policy makers and affect policy.

  13. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2004-01-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  14. Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Is there a need for an international convention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Scott

    2012-01-01

    It is generally recognised that illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials is a serious problem, and one that must be tackled with a comprehensive response involving national governments as well as a number of intergovernmental organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA notes that 1 773 incidents were reported to its Illicit Trafficking Database, or ITDB, between January 1993 and December 2009, and that 351 of these involved '... unauthorized possession and related criminal activities' such as '... illegal possession, movement or attempts to illegally trade in or use nuclear material or radioactive sources'. The IAEA adds that 222 more incidents were confirmed between July 2009 and June 2010 and concludes that: - the availability of unsecured nuclear and other radioactive material persists; - effective border control measures help to detect illicit trafficking, although effective control is not uniformly implemented at all international border points; and - individuals and groups are prepared to engage in trafficking this material. A disturbing trend is trafficking in particularly sensitive regions of the world, such as in countries that were formerly a part of the former Soviet Union. In November 2010, Georgian officials seized four individuals allegedly trying to sell cesium-137, which though fairly common can be used to make a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. This closely followed a court case in Georgia involving Armenian nationals who had attempted to sell weapon-grade plutonium. More recently, in June 2011, Moldovan police arrested six individuals suspected of trafficking in uranium-235. In view of the problem, this paper considers whether an international convention specifically targeting illicit trafficking is needed or not. The paper does not go conceptually beyond the legal aspects of controlling and repressing illicit trafficking; rather, it will look at whether the existing

  15. Improvement of technical measures to detect and respond to illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials [Results of a coordinated research project 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    This publication summarizes the research conducted during an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) undertaken to address technical and operational difficulties in the detection of and response to illicit trafficking of nuclear material. Equipment to detect illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials at borders has specific technical and operational requirements that are very different from equipment used in other radiation monitoring cases. Automated and manual measurements need to be done in the field, often outdoors, at land or sea borders, crossing points or airports. The free flow of goods and passengers must not be impacted, thus requiring that the measurement time be short. The design needs to take into account that the users of the equipment are not experts in radiation detection; thus the results of the measurements should be easy to understand

  16. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-01-01

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures

  17. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Kristo, M.J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures. (author)

  18. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radiological Terrorism Consequence Management

  19. A study on the trend of the Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joung-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2008-01-01

    As part of its overall programme on nuclear material security, the IAEA has maintained a database on the number of incidents of trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources since 1995. The ITDB's principle objective is to facilitate the exchange of authoritative information on reported incidents among states. The information collected from the various states is subjected to ongoing analysis by the Agency's ITDB staff to identify common trends and patterns, to assess threats, and to evaluate weaknesses in material security and detection capabilities and practices. In this paper, we will discuss the trends and patterns which are analyzed using the ITDB from 1993 to 2006

  20. Modern Approaches to the Establishment of National Geoinformation Systems as a Means of Combating Nuclear Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navumenka, M.; Ivasechko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report deals with the approaches to the establishment of National geoinformation systems as a means of combating nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (hereinafter National geoinformation systems), which represent the integration of already existing and brand-new hardware and software into a single system for illicit trafficking control. It illustrates the model of transition from current operation system, which is based on engagement of different resources used by governmental agencies, to network solutions enabling to automatize and optimize the process of radiation control, to organize on-line radiological information exchange, thus, enhancing efficiency of reacting on illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials. The report also describes operational algorithm of National geoinformation systems and experience of implementation of modern radiological network based equipment, which enables to indicate location, to take measurements and transfer results to the remote expert centre on-line using different data transmission means. Web-application of National geoinformation systems enables to automatize processing of radiological information, which is transferred from different users to a single server, to display the location on the map, to maintain the database of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, and to exchange information between concerned member-states and IAEA contact points. In general, the suggested system combines new possibilities, which allow to integrate a number of devices into a single network, to display radiological data with GPS-location marks, to give access to the experts for estimating the results of the radiological measurements, to manage the actions of different users from a single remote expert centre and, if necessary, to render on-line expert assistance. The described in the report National geoinformation system has been adopted by a number of users, has turned

  1. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  2. Nuclear energy: from scientist mobilisation to the rise of counter-expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Sezin

    2006-01-01

    The management of nuclear energy in France was restricted until the mid 1970's to a small circle of government experts. Within the scientific community criticism against nuclear power mostly targeted nuclear weapons while the sphere of civil nuclear energy remained unchallenged. The launch of the French nuclear programme in 1974 led to the first protest against civil nuclear power and its management within the scientific community. The mobilisation of thousands of researchers against the programme, initially through a petition, the so-called 'Appeal of the 400', then through the creation of an association, the 'Group of Scientists for Information on Nuclear Energy (GSIEN)', beside reflecting a rupture in the relations with science, progress and decision-making processes in the nuclear field, also expressed in the following decades the appropriation of critical knowledge on nuclear risks by the actors of non-governmental organisations. The criticism raised by scientists in 1975 therefore underlies two major shifts between the 1950's to 1990's in collective action vis-a-vis nuclear risk: from the mobilisation of 'distinguished scientists' against the atom bomb in the 1950's and 1960's (Joliot, Russell, Einstein, Rostand) to the politicisation of nuclear power by 'critical scientists' in the post-May 1968 period (GSIEN) and finally, after the Chernobyl accident, to the rise of associations of counter-expertise on nuclear energy (creation of expert NGOs such as the Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity-CRIIRAD and the Association for the Control of Radioactivity in the West-ACRO). This paper examines the crucial role that the community of physicists has played in transforming the relations between scientists, science, expertise and society

  3. Counter Action Procedure Generation in an Emergency Situation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident revealed various weak points in the design and operation of nuclear power plants at the time although there were many resilient activities made by the plant staff under difficult work environment. In order to reinforce the measures to make nuclear power plants more resilient, improvement of hardware and improvement of education and training of nuclear personnel are considered. In addition, considering the advancement of computer technology and artificial intelligence, it is a promising way to develop software tools to support the activities of plant staff.This paper focuses on the software tools to support the operations by human operators and introduces a concept of an intelligent operator support system that is called as co-operator. This paper also describes a counter operation generation technique the authors are studying as a core component of the co-operator.

  4. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law-enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our member states, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  5. The role of Europol in the field of combating the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridling, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains a short general presentation of Europol and of its links to the various agencies dealing with combating the illicit trafficking of radioactive substances, inside and outside the European Union. The main difficulties we have to face in this mission are from various origins. The collection of intelligence, from both law-enforcement and scientific sides, seems to be the most efficient way to detect smuggling networks. The necessary co-operation between these two communities is a challenge for both parties, but its beginnings are encouraging. However, multiple constraints still remain that hamper the process. Europol commits itself to bridging the gap between police or intelligence agencies and the nuclear scientific community, and plans to increase its involvement in the near future, by organizing training sessions for law enforcement personnel in co-operation with our partners. Europol is also busy with producing threat assessments and possible scenarios of terrorist attacks, which also show that, in a general manner, the collection of intelligence on the criminal groups or individuals, modus operandi, or smuggling routes is a much more efficient way of prevention than the on-site physical protection, even if this latter method is indispensable. But, if despite preventive actions, a terrorist attack using mass destruction weapons actually occurs, its effects would be lessened by an appropriate reaction of the concerned authorities. That is why our organization is also involved in a process of awareness of our Member States, as only a few of them have set up a response capability in this domain. (author)

  6. Usage of portable spectrometers for prevention of radioactive and nuclear materials illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, Evgenij; Antonau, Uladzimir; Gurinovich, Uladzimir; Kazhamiakin, Valery; Petrov, Vitaly; Shulhovich, Heorhi; Tischenko, Siarhei

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is publicly known that radioactive and nuclear materials can be shielded not only with passive protection but also be masked with legally transported radioactive substances. These radioactive substances can be contained as medical radionuclides incorporated in human body or in cargos with high content of natural isotopes 40 K, 232 Th, 238 U, etc. This constitutes an additional serious obstacle to detection of radioactive substances trafficking. Dosimeters, search monitors or radiation portal monitors have insufficient capability for this objective. It is necessary to use much more intellectual instruments that can detect both gamma radiation and other types of radiation (neutron, alpha, beta), recognize radionuclide type and identify it with high probability. To address these objectives, we have developed portable scintillation gamma spectrometers AT6101 and AT6102 with neutron radiation detection and measurement of surface contamination with alpha and beta particles. Gamma scintillation spectrometry methods using NaI(Tl) crystal allow to detect source of gamma radiation, measure ambient dose rate equivalent of gamma radiation and identify radionuclide composition. The implemented spectrometry method of gamma radiation dose rate measurement using 'spectrum-dose' function allows to measure ambient dose rate equivalent of gamma radiation with relative error up to 20%. Radionuclide identification is based on channel-by-channel spectrum convolution with the second derivative from Gaussian function. Peak search and analysis and peak position comparison to energy values of gamma lines of library radionuclides is performed in convolution spectrum. Analysis of relative intensity of detected gamma lines with peak detection threshold overrun allows qualitative definition of radionuclide composition in object under examination. The special feature of the spectrometers is LED stabilization through spectrometric path. The stabilization system covers PEM, pre

  7. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  8. Modern technical and technological solutions of radiation control to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frymire, A.; Kagan, L.; Stavrov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Preventing the illicit nuclear and radioactive materials transportation across the state borders has recently taken on a special significance due to ongoing threat of utilizing these materials for terrorist purposes. Currently more and more countries are gaining better understanding of the importance of creating the national security system. It is obvious that the threat of nuclear terrorism is not the only reason to stimulate these efforts and actions. Another reason is existence of 'orphan' sources which number in the world is approaching to 200 000 including the ones with a very high activity. Uncontrolled presence of such sources and materials in the human environment can be hazardous to human health and it may cause significant economical losses. Radiation control at the borders of the countries in this case is the first line of defense on the route of illicit nuclear and radioactive material movement and therefore vitally important for country/state radiation protection. Radiation control at the borders of the states requires three steps: 1) primary control or detecting the presence of radioactive sources on a controlled object; 2) additional radiation control or locating the exact place of the radioactive source on the person, within the vehicle or inside the container; 3) identification of the nature of the radioactive source. To accomplish the first and the main step of radiation control process the high sensitive gamma-neutron portal monitors operating in automatic mode are utilized. They are used to alert authorities to the appearance of any radioactive source in the controlled area. These monitors are developed and manufactured in some countries and currently deployed at the borders of the countries and also in areas where the radioactive sources may appear. However, the experience of deploying the portal monitors in various countries (Poland, Russia, Belarus) (1-3) has proved that the installation even the best of the best monitors is just

  9. MUSE observations of the counter-rotating nuclear ring in NGC 7742

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Sarzi, Marc; Knapen, Johan H.; Coccato, Lodovico; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2018-04-01

    Aims: We present results from MUSE observations of the nearly face-on disk galaxy NGC 7742. This galaxy hosts a spectacular nuclear ring of enhanced star formation, which is unusual in that it is hosted by a non-barred galaxy, and because this star formation is most likely fuelled by externally accreted gas that counter-rotates with respect to its main stellar body. Methods: We used the MUSE data to derive the star-formation history (SFH) and accurately measure the stellar and ionized-gas kinematics of NGC 7742 in its nuclear, bulge, ring, and disk regions. Results: We have mapped the previously known gas counter-rotation well outside the ring region and deduce the presence of a slightly warped inner disk, which is inclined at approximately 6° compared to the outer disk. The gas-disk inclination is well constrained from the kinematics; the derived inclination 13.7° ± 0.4° agrees well with that derived from photometry and from what one expects using the inverse Tully-Fisher relation. We find a prolonged SFH in the ring with stellar populations as old as 2-3 Gyr and an indication that the star formation triggered by the minor merger event was delayed in the disk compared to the ring. There are two separate stellar components: an old population that counter-rotates with the gas, and a young one, concentrated to the ring, that co-rotates with the gas. We recover the kinematics of the old stars from a two-component fit, and show that combining the old and young stellar populations results in the erroneous average velocity of nearly zero found from a one-component fit. Conclusions: The spatial resolution and field of view of MUSE allow us to establish the kinematics and SFH of the nuclear ring in NGC 7742. We show further evidence that this ring has its origin in a minor merger event, possibly 2-3 Gyr ago. Data used for the flux and kinematic maps (Figs. 1 and 3-5) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  10. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Countering Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Diamond, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to identify connections between technology needs and the underlying science and technology, and to establish research strategies that will advanced our ability to counter this form of terrorism. The objectives were met by bringing together international experts familiar with the relevant technologies and policies at a four-day workshop that was held at the Regional Advanced Science and Technology Center (ASTEC), Yerevan, Armenia during October 2005. The many topics covered included: radiation detector development, risk assessment and decision making, decontamination techniques, structural materials resistance to conventional explosives, vulnerability and physical protection of nuclear facilities, security of radiation sources, response to radiological dispersion devices, relevant international and national laws, and non-proliferation

  11. IAEA coordinated research project on improvement of technical measures to detect and respond to illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Abou-Zahra, A.; Weiss, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Monitoring to detect the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials includes screening vehicles, cargo and individuals at borders to 1) detect smuggling of these materials; 2) locate, measure and characterize the source of radiation; and 3) fully characterize any confiscated material. Currently available instruments used for the field measurements are not optimized for this purpose and may not detect shielded plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Confiscated radioactive materials need to be characterized with macro- and microanalysis techniques to fully understand the significance of the material and to provide credible evidence in the event of prosecution of the traffickers. Although most States have national laboratories capable to determine the basic characteristics of such material, only a few member States have the sophisticated analytical capability necessary to perform proper forensics analysis. The coordinated research project on 'Improvement of Technical Measures to Detect and Respond to Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and other Radioactive Materials' has been established to: Improve the detection capability and performance of hand-held and portable isotope measurement devices, including the technical and functional specifications for such devices; standardize procedures to examine suspicious packages and to assess the hazard of confiscated material; and develop recommendations and guidelines for establishing a system to provide nuclear forensics support to member States for the characterization of seized nuclear material. Related to the nuclear forensics support, it should be noted that with the inception of the Agency's nuclear security programme in 1995, the IAEA has offered the services of its laboratories in Seibersdorf and associated laboratories to assist States in analysing confiscated nuclear materials. Since 1993 the IAEA has received reports of over 300 cases of smuggling of nuclear and other radioactive materials

  12. Countering Putin’s Nuclear Backed Aggression with a Continuous Nuclear Capable Bomber Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    bribery and propaganda to instigate protesting within the populace and thus destabilize Ukraine. 16 Russia was very careful to legally qualify any...proved again that Putin is willing to use different tactics to secure their buffer zone. Though the aggression into the Ukraine was called “an act of...Credible Nuclear Deterrent.” Air and Space Journal. (Fall, 2010 ). 29 Pifer, Steven. “Obama’s Faltering Nuclear Legacy: The 3 Rs.” The Washington

  13. Detection and monitoring systems for the prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials at sea ports in EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorbraak, W.P.; Freudenreich, W.E.; Deurwaarder, C.P.; Kaa, Th. V.D.; Carchon, R.; Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Holkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials at sea ports may be considered as a serious problem. For this reason, a feasibility study has been carried out in order to investigate the detection possibilities of nuclear materials hidden in cargo which is handled at sea ports. Special attention is given to cargo packed in and transported with freight containers. Detection methods depend upon the measurement of gammas and neutrons, emitted by the nuclear material which is hidden. Detection limits of existing monitoring systems are unknown for geometrical configurations comparable to those specific at sea ports. For this reason calculations were carried out by means of the MCNP-4A Monte Carlo code in order to estimate these detection limits. These calculations are related to passive and active neutron assay, localised gamma sources and contaminated iron scrap. Results of this study are that radioactive materials can be detected without major problems. Passive neutron assay allows the detection of nuclear material in relative small quantities of plutonium in the absence of any deliberate neutron shielding, whereas in the case of dense neutron shielding, detection limits of several kilos of plutonium are obtained. A promising method appears to be a gamma- and neutron monitoring system in combination with an existing X-ray scan installation for cargo verification of container content. The detection probability is further increased when extra intelligence is applied about the origin and route of the cargo. (author)

  14. Measuring variation of indoor radon concentration using bare nuclear tracks detectors, scintillation counters and surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, I.; Mahat, R.H.; Amin, Y.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bare LRI 15 nuclear track detectors , scintillators counter and surface barrier detectors were used to measured the indoor radon concentration in various location within two rooms. Spatial variation of the radon concentration is caused by positioning of the door, windows, furniture, cracks in the building and also distances from floor, wall and ceiling. It is found that the change in temperature are causing radon concentration to increase at certain time of the day

  15. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  16. IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) was established in 1995 as a unique network of points of contact connecting 100 states and several international organizations. Information collected from official sources supplemented by open-source reports. The 1994 - GC 38, resolution intensifies the activities through which the Agency is currently supporting Member States in this field. Member states were notified of completed database in 1995 and invited to participate. The purpose of the I TDB is to facilitate exchange of authoritative information among States on incidents of illicit trafficking and other related unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; to collect, maintain and analyse information on such incidents with a view to identifying common threats, trends, and patterns; use this information for internal planning and prioritisation and provide this information to member states and to provide a reliable source of basic information on such incidents to the media, when appropriate

  17. Physical protection system to detect and control the illicit trafficking and transfer of nuclear materials in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Ho [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Physical protection has played an essential role in ensuring the implementation of global nuclear nonproliferation framework for the past decades. Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks upon the United States, physical protection has also played the same role in combating nuclear terrorism. Nowadays, physical protection is more highlighted than before with global nuclear security regimes more strengthened. Ever since the commencement of the first nuclear power plant in 1978, Korea has devotedly implemented international physical protection standards as an exemplary country in respect of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The Korean government has recently reinforced national physical protection policy including the revision of laws and regulations. In this paper, the national policy is extensively reviewed and additional measures are proposed to enhance the national physical protection system. (orig.)

  18. Illicit Activities and Goondagardi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research analyzes the pathways through which exclusionary urban ... casual labour in construction or small-scale trade activities, etc) and ... PATHWAYS TO ILLICIT ACTIVITIES .... VGG Nagar had become a gambling den for some time.

  19. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia

  20. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  1. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, Vuthy, E-mail: vuthy.khun@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  2. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  3. Nuclear energy, about the necessity of counter-powers. Interview with Michele Rivasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    In an interview, the founder of the Crii-Rad (an independent research commission for information on radioactivity) explains why she created this commission after Chernobyl and the way public information was organised, indicates difficulties faced while creating the Crii-Rad and the relationships with the nuclear lobby. She also indicates the various bodies and associations which have been created and emulated the Crii-Rad, evokes the Crii-Rad financial resources. She notices the strong relationships between the nuclear lobby and a majority of members of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Choices, and comments the implications of this fact on the way elected representatives take their decisions. She assesses the influence the Crii-Rad had on official communication on nuclear issues. Then, she addresses the issue of nuclear wastes, the choice of sites, the opinion of the population which could be favourable only because the people make their living from this activity. She outlines the role of the military nuclear sector and that it is an opaque one. She states that nuclear is obsolete, that the waste issue has not been solved, and that nuclear fission still creates new radioactive materials and thus raises problems. She outlines that it will always be more difficult to build a nuclear power plant, that the concept of public interest is not relevant for nuclear energy. She finally briefly evokes alternate solutions such as gas which indeed produces CO_2 but much less than transports

  4. Views of the state customs committee of Russian Federation to system approach to threat evaluation and development of a national system of counteraction of the illicit trafficking of nuclear and/or radioactive materials (nuclear facility - territory - border)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, I.; Kravchenko, N.; Babich, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that until recently the efforts of the national structures and international organizations were focused on nuclear objects to provide conditions preventing non-proliferation of nuclear materials. However, various countries possess plenty of radioactive materials (nuclear and other kind of radioactive materials) used in different areas (medicine, crack detection, oil and gas production, mining, science, etc.). Those materials are used and stored within the objects, which lack a strict monitoring system of non-proliferation control. Therefore, for every country three areas of threat of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (ITRM) can be pointed out: an object containing radioactive materials, the territory of the country, the border. Each area must have the bodies responsible for ITRM prevention, which are appointed by the national legislation. Within the first area: competent body in the field of atomic power application; owners of enterprises (not only state structures); the structure of the Ministry of Defense; police; intelligence services. Within the second area: police; intelligence services. Within the third area: customs; border guards. Analyzing possible threat of ITRM within these three interrelated areas, one can specify a number of specific threats for each responsibility area: at an object, on the territory of the country, at the border. (author)

  5. Development of a detector-counter for teaching purposes in nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio E. da; Hamada, Margarida M.; Pereira, Maria Conceicao C. Pereira; Mesquita, Carlos H.

    2000-01-01

    A detector system constituted of a monochannel analyzer with digital counter, amplifier, charge sensitive preamplifier and CsI(Tl) scintillator detector coupled to photodiode PIN was developed to gamma radiation detection. The crystal was grown by Bridgman Method. The crystal luminescence spectra has good match with the photodiode efficiency spectrum. The combination CsI(Tl)- photodiode made at possible to obtain a compact and rugged detector, insensitive to magnetic fields and may be operated at low voltages. This detector system has a baseline for 1 MeV and 2 MeV selected by the use, with two discriminators (inferior and superior) for advancements 10 or 20 KeV division. The system showed good energy linearity in the range from 122 to 1440 KeV. (author)

  6. Realization of nuclear aggregates detector integrated into 4Π counter at S.I.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezkratt, R.

    1992-06-01

    A new cluster detector composed of ionization chambers and thin plastic scintillation, has been developed as part of the large 4 PI counter of SIS/ESR, in order to explore central collisions of high energy heavy ions. In the first part are reported the definition, description, theoretical and experimental studies and installation on site of this detector. Its expected response has been investigated with the use of GEANT simulation program. Results are presented and discussed in second part. The efficiency of the track reconstruction with plastic wall has been tested. The excitation function measurement of Au+Au system at 100, 150, 250, 400, 600 and 800 A MeV has been realized. The purpose of the last part is the presentation of the first data acquisition. The cluster gauging and the algorithm development of trajectory reconstitution between the cluster detector and plastic scintillator wall are also presented

  7. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism - nuclear terrorism - has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks - or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port - suddenly becomes possible.

  8. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  9. Action to counter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials in the northern region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reistad, O.; Maerli, M.

    1998-01-01

    Norway has not traditionally maintained any defence against smuggling of nuclear material. The 1993/94 report to Parliament on nuclear activities in areas adjacent to Norway mentioned the risk of such smuggling in the context of non-proliferation. In the light of this perceived risk a contact group was established with representatives from the Norwegian customs administration, police, armed forces and National Protection Authority. The group today has responsibility for the introduction of countermeasures against nuclear material smuggling in Norway. Another measure was establishment of Norwegian measurement facilities to combat smuggling of nuclear material. There arrangements are based on three lines of defence. The first will typically be the individual officer, the second, the special staff deployed following warnings or other indicators of smuggling, and the third would be any laboratory examination of specimens carried out in Norway or abroad

  10. Planning for countering nuclear terrorism. Chapter 1. Motivation and redirection: rationale and achievements in the russian closed nuclear cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, G.

    2006-01-01

    The non-proliferation rationale and achievements of the collaboration between the UK and Russia for a personnel redirection programme in the Closed Nuclear Cities is described. A framework for the interaction between demand and supply dimensions of proliferation threats is developed to show how redirection programmes to enable WMD (weapons of mass destruction) specialists move into civilian activities reduce these same threats. Early results from the UK-Russia Closed Nuclear Cities Partnership are presented and compared with the parallel US funded Nuclear Cities Initiative and similar local economic development measures

  11. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuzo

    1977-01-01

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Cooperation Among Nations: Understanding the Counter Nuclear Smuggling Network In Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Belarus Moldova GICNT DOE GMS Belgium Montenegro IAEA DOS EXBS Bosnia and Herzegovina Netherlands Interpol DOS NSOI Bulgaria Norway NATO EU CBRN COE...that the terror cell intended to kidnap the researcher or members of his family in order to gain access to the nuclear plant .102 Had the terrorists...IS in Syria. Boughalab worked at the Doel power plant for three years before joining IS and was ultimately killed in 2014.103 Although Boughalab was

  13. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of lung counting efficiency using a whole-body counter at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongming, L.; Shuhai, J.; Houwen, L.

    2016-01-01

    In order to routinely evaluate workers' internal exposure due to intake of radionuclides, a whole-body counter (WBC) at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (TQNPC) is used. Counting would typically occur immediately after a confirmed or suspected inhalation exposure. The counting geometry would differ as a result of the height of the individual being counted, which would result in over- or underestimated intake(s). In this study, Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the counting efficiency when performing a lung count using the WBC at the TQNPC. In order to validate the simulated efficiencies for lung counting, the WBC was benchmarked for various lung positions using a 137 Cs source. The results show that the simulated efficiencies are fairly consistent with the measured ones for 137 Cs, with a relative error of 0.289%. For a lung organ simulation, the discrepancy between the calibration phantom and the Chinese reference adult person (170 cm) was within 6% for peak energies ranging from 59.5 keV to 2000 keV. The relative errors vary from 4.63% to 8.41% depending on the person's height and photon energy. Therefore, the simulation technique is effective and practical for lung counting, which is difficult to calibrate using a physical phantom. (authors)

  15. The development of a specialized in-vivo body counter for radiation monitoring in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction, calibration and testing of a prototype mobile counting system to measure natural uranium in the lungs of workers in the nuclear fuel industry is described. The measurement method is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted during the decay of the daughters of uranium. The mobile facility consisted of a shadow shield and phoswich detector system mounted in a medium-sized trunk. Care was taken to ensure undistorted visual and verbal contact between the subject and the operator. Tests were made to optimize the location and thickness of the lead shielding. A single axle truck was insulated and a heater was installed for winter operation. There was sufficient room in the box to include a change room and waiting area as well as the shadow shield and electronics rack. An extensive series of test measurements was made at a number of locations. Control group studies of males were carried out and a model was developed which correctly predicted the subject background in the uranium region of the gamma spectrum when no uranium was present. The mobile counter was calibrated using the Rando Phantom. On a field trip to Bancroft In February 1981 the shadow shield configuration was shown to provide adequate background reduction for accurate uranium-in-lung measurements. With repeated measurements, changes in an individual's lung burden as small as 2 mg uranium could be detected. The minimum detectable amount of uranium on the basis of one measurement was 5.4 mg

  16. Nuclear radiation detector. Realization and study of the G.M. counters with halogens, the multiples anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhavat, A.

    1975-01-01

    A substantial improvement of the halogene GEIGER-MULLER counters properties has been carried out by the research of new anode forms. This amelioration has been revealed by the comparison of the new counters with the classical ones, absolutely identical as to their size and production. The anodes alone are different

  17. Nuclear accident dosimetry: the calibration of Geiger-Mueller and 2π proportional counters for sulphur and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Reading, A.H.

    1981-10-01

    A reference, 2π precision counter was set up at Harwell and absolutely calibrated for the measurement of sulphur discs ( 32 P) and gold foils ( 198 Au) used in the UK personnel criticality dosimeter. Sample sulphur discs and gold foils were irradiated in the GLEEP reactor at Harwell, counted in the 2π counter, and their activities absolutely assayed by the National Physical Laboratory. The 2π counter was then used to intercalibrate the GM counters used routinely for the assessment of the criticality dosimeter. The mean measured efficiencies of the GM counters were found to be for 32 P in sulphur discs within +- 4%, and for gold ( 198 Au) within +- 6% of the values given by previous calibrations. (author)

  18. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority. By means

  19. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority. By means

  20. Report on combating of illicit trafficking. The Illicit Trafficking Combat Project Group. January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose improvements of different means and methods for the prevention of illicit trafficking and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. An essential requirement imposed on authorities and operators through basic nuclear legislation is the establishment and implementation of: a) nuclear material accountancy and control; b) physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; and c) export/import control of nuclear material and, so called, dual-use items. The legislation would make it possible for the State nuclear authority to be informed continuously about the location and quantity of nuclear material in the country, and to monitor that it is under satisfactory protection and guard in accordance with the requirements. The introduction of requirements on licensing of practices and activities involving dual-use items, and other products used for nuclear weapons manufacturing, would also give the authority the possibility to prevent unauthorised transfers of such products. The nuclear legislation must clearly stipulate the distribution of responsibilities between nuclear authority, operator and employees. This would give a solid basis for attaining high safety culture, including positive motivation and active commitment among executives and other employees. It would also ensure that nuclear material would not be lost through negligence or internal criminal activities. A further step of improvements on the national level, would be the urgent and firm introduction of modern Quality Assurance and Internal Control Systems into all forms of nuclear activities. In modern, safety related quality control systems, the operator alone is responsible for all activities and operations, and he must establish an internal control that will ensure that the authority's rules and requirements are thoroughly implemented and adhered to. The operator's organisation, including competence and procedures, must be approved by the State authority

  1. Impunity: Countering Illicit Power in War and Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    when international and U.S. national security depend ever more on our partners throughout the world , the persistent fragility of so many states—and...Scarcity, Crime, Overpopulation , Tribalism, and Dis- ease Are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet,” Atlantic, Feb. 1994. 3 Fund for...military-grade weaponry, staggering sums of money, and world -class professional and technical services—including legal, financial, infor- mation and

  2. Imaging of illicit drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatanarasimha, N., E-mail: nandashettykv@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Rock, B.; Riordan, R.D.; Roobottom, C.A.; Adams, W.M. [Department of Radiology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.

  3. Imaging of illicit drug use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatanarasimha, N.; Rock, B.; Riordan, R.D.; Roobottom, C.A.; Adams, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.

  4. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaile, J.E.; Banzi, F.P.; Kifanga, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  5. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  6. Novel concept for neutron detection: proportional counter filled with 10B nanoparticle aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, F. D.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Antognini, A.

    2017-01-01

    The high neutron detection efficiency, good gamma-ray discrimination and non-toxicity of 3He made of proportional counters filled with this gas the obvious choice for neutron detection, particularly in radiation portal monitors (RPM), used to control the illicit transport of nuclear material, of which neutron detectors are key components. 3He is very rare and during the last decade this gas has become increasingly difficult to acquire. With the exception of BF3, which is toxic, no other gas can be used for neutron detection in proportional counters. We present an alternative where the 3He atoms are replaced by nanoparticles made of another neutron sensitive material, 10B. The particles are dispersed in a gaseous volume, forming an aerosol with neutron sensitive properties. A proportional counter filled with such aerosol was exposed to a thermal neutron beam and the recorded response indicates that the neutrons have interacted with the particles in the aerosol. This original technique, which transforms a standard proportional gas mixture into a neutron sensitive aerosol, is a breakthrough in the field of radiation detection and has the potential to become an alternative to the use of 3He in proportional counters. PMID:28181520

  7. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  8. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  9. ITRAP. Illicit trafficking radiation detection assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    2001-02-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of the a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material, particularly, caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The IAEA data base counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal deposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexiko). As the study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program) can show, also in Austria the cases of partly considerable contaminated scrap transports from neighbouring countries exists. Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German-Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems. (author)

  10. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods

  11. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods.

  12. Long life boron-lined proportional counters fitted to the start-up range of the nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, G.; Duchene, J.

    1983-03-01

    CEA has been engaged in a research and development program in technical cooperation with RTC, to improve the life time of the boron lined proportional counters used for PWR's start up. The present report is a synthesis of these works. The processes by which the discrimination curves show a shift in count rate versus the neutron fluences are described and, the possible ways to get improved performances and the tests performed on the different prototypes are presented. Analysis of the results is given [fr

  13. The IAEA's Illicit Trafficking Database Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelon, G.; Hammond, W.; Nicholas, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: As part of its overall programme on nuclear material security, the IAEA has since 1995 maintained a database of incidents of trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. The Illicit Trafficking Database Programme (ITDP) is intended to assist Member States by alerting them to current incidents, by facilitating exchange of reliable, detailed information about incidents, and by identifying any common threads or trends that might assist States in combating illicit trafficking. The ITDP also seeks to better inform the public by providing basic information to the media concerning illicit trafficking events. Approximately 70 States have joined this programme for collecting and sharing information on trafficking incidents. Reporting States have the opportunity to designate what information may be shared with other States and what may be shared with the public. In cases where the IAEA's first information about a possible incident comes from news media or other open sources rather than from a State notification, the information first is evaluated, and then, if warranted, the relevant State or States are contacted to request confirmation or clarification of an alleged incident. During 2000, as a result of experience gained working with information on illicit nuclear trafficking, the IAEA developed of a flexible and comprehensive new database system. The new system has an open architecture that accommodates structured information from States, in-house information, open-source articles, and other information sources, such as pictures, maps and web links. The graphical user interface allows data entry, maintenance and standard and ad-hoc reporting. The system also is linked to a Web-based query engine, which enables searching of both structured and open-source information. For the period 1 January 1993 through 31 March 2001, the database recorded more than 550 incidents, of which about two-thirds have been confirmed by States. (Some of these

  14. The Department of Homeland Security’s Approach to Countering Nuclear Terrorism through Detection and Technical Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huban A. Gowadia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To combat the threat of nuclear terrorism, the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO was established within the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to focus efforts on developing and enhancing radiological and nuclear detection and national technical nuclear forensics capabilities. With respect to nuclear detection, we at DNDO, in concert with interagency partners, are developing and enhancing a multi-faceted, layered, defense-in-depth framework to make prohibitively difficult the importation, possession, storage, development, transportation, or use of nuclear or other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. In furtherance of this framework, we conduct research and development on detection and forensics technologies, characterize system performance, acquire and deploy detection systems, and support operational partners with the development of programs to effectively perform detection operations. To support the U.S. Government’s (USG attribution process, we focus on improving the readiness of the overarching USG forensic capabilities; advancing the technical capabilities to perform forensic analyses on pre-detonation nuclear and other radioactive materials; and building and sustaining an expertise pipeline for nuclear forensic scientists. These efforts, coupled with the work of interagency partners, will advance USG capabilities to detect and interdict a nuclear threat and hold accountable those who are responsible for such actions.

  15. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  16. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  17. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  18. Emerging and Underrecognized Complications of Illicit Drug Use

    OpenAIRE

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Merchant, Elisabeth A.; Clark, Roger P.; Stone, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review of infectious and noninfectious syndromes associated with illicit drug use focuses on underrecognized complications of common illicit drugs and constellations of syndromes associated with emerging illicit drugs.

  19. NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed

  20. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  1. Plea and counter-plea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The bulk of papers written during the hearing 'Plea and counter-plea', the so-called 'Gorleben hearing', which was held from 28th March until 3rd April 1979, comprises ca. 4,200 pages. It consists of the written comments put forward by the critics of nuclear energy, the minutes of the hearing as well as the supplementary statements of the counter-critics. This report is trying to confront those essential objections made by the critics which put in doubt the feasibility of a fuel-cycle centre with regard to safety engineering with the facts which are considered correct from the view of the DWK. The oral and written explanations of the counter-critics are particularly referred to in this debate. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Do Digital Technologies Facilitate Illicit Financial Flows?

    OpenAIRE

    Tropina, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The emerging concept of illicit financial flows has become a crosscutting issue on the international agenda in recent years. This umbrella term refers to money illegally earned, transferred, or used. With the development of digital technologies, the use of information and communications networks as a tool for facilitating illicit financial flows is rising as one of the key challenges in ta...

  3. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  4. Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Cherenkov counter described for use at Isabelle is a threshold counter in which light is focussed on phototubes. The counter is applicable in large-angle, small-aperture magnetic spectrometers for measurement of particle yields at large p/sub T/. Three of these counters will provide complete π-K-p separation in the range of 7-20 GeV/c. Other Cherenkov counters are discussed and a bibliography of relevant literature on the counters utilizing photoionization is included

  5. Broad Energy Range Neutron Spectroscopy using a Liquid Scintillator and a Proportional Counter: Application to a Neutron Spectrum Similar to that from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n) 3 He and D(d,n) 3 He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9 Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  6. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is now obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment - present a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international level. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. In order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such regime will define a number of criteria and demands to be met by-the states to ensure effective combat illicit trafficking. The international regime should be based on national systems of combating illicit trafficking, which include measures for prevention, detection and response regarding illicit trafficking in each specific state of across its borders. When undertaking these measures one should take into account specific characteristics of the state, its unique features and its geography, political and economic situation, as well as different types of potential threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons; availability of materials subjected to illicit trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking in this state, general situation of criminal trafficking with radioactive materials, potential consumers and suppliers, market features, possible incentives for crime etc. In the paper I would like to reflect the vital components of national systems for combating

  7. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80 's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the front-line officers. (author)

  8. Establishing capabilities for combating illicit trafficking: the Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Suman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the late 80's, Syria has been taking steps towards combating illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement involving radioactive or nuclear material within the country or across its border. By applying the proper combination of technical and procedural measures, an acceptable level of performance has been achieved. The measures undertaken by AECS include anticipative measures, which aim at identifying potential loss of control over radioactive sources and potential illicit trafficking within the country, as well as defensive measures which aim at detection of and response to events of illicit trafficking. In addition, a tight follow up of radiation source along their entire lifetime in the Syrian territory, supported by proper data analysis is one of the most efficient tools for identifying potential loss of control over sources. AECS has established Border Monitoring Centers (BMC) in almost all border crossings. They work in close cooperation with the customs and other relevant authorities at the Syrian borders. AECS has been also providing the necessary training for the frontline officers. (author)

  9. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  10. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  11. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  12. Arrhythmogenic effects of illicit drugs in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, Francesco; Bentivegna, Stefano; Cappato, Riccardo; De Ambroggi, Luigi

    2003-12-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are among the most important causes of non-eligibility to sports activities, and may be due to different causes (cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, coronary abnormalities, valvular diseases, primary electrical disorders, abuse of illicit drugs). The list of illicit drugs banned by the International Olympic Committee and yearly updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency includes the following classes: stimulants, narcotics, anabolic agents (androgenic steroids and others such as beta-2 stimulants), peptide hormones, mimetics and analogues, diuretics, agents with an antiestrogenic activity, masking agents. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, in the short, medium or long term, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular), lethal or not, even in healthy subjects with no previous history of cardiac diseases. Therefore, given the widespread abuse of illicit drugs among athletes, in the management of arrhythmic athletes the cardiologist should always take into consideration the possibility that the arrhythmias be due to the assumption of illicit drugs (sometimes more than one type), especially if no signs of cardiac diseases are present. On the other hand, in the presence of latent underlying arrhythmogenic heart disease including some inherited cardiomyopathies at risk of sudden cardiac death, illicit drugs could induce severe cardiac arrhythmic effects.

  13. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  14. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  15. Measuring illicit cigarette trade in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca Amalia; Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Escobar, Diego

    2018-03-14

    By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey. Street cross-sectional survey with smokers' self-report on consumption pattern, last purchase information and direct observation of smoker's packs. Sampling frame: smokers, men and women, 12 years old or older, all income levels, resident in five Colombian cities (Bogotá, Medellín, Cali, Cartagena and Cúcuta) with 1 733 316 smokers in 2013. Sample size 1697, simple random sample by city, sampling weights based on age groups and cities. Confidence level 95%, margin of error 3.5% for Bogotá and Medellín and 5% for the other three cities. Data collection period: 24 August-14 September 2016. Illicit cigarettes represent 3.5% of consumption in the five cities, a much lower estimate than the industry data. There are significant differences across cities, with Bogotá at the bottom (1.5%) and Cúcuta at the top (22.8%). The low overall penetration of illicit cigarettes in Colombia indicates that the industry's warnings against tax increases are not justified. The limited importance of tax levels as determinant of consumption of illicit cigarettes is also suggested by the differences across cities, all of them with the same tax regime. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  17. Physical protection as the most important part of the national system of combating illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Kokhan, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is obvious today that illicit trafficking, including its most dangerous manifestations proliferation of nuclear weapons, smuggling of nuclear materials and equipment, presents a serious threat to the international community. To defeat this evil is possible only by joint efforts, by undertaken protective measures on national and international levels. Joint efforts should be directed at fulfilling three main tasks as follows: 1. Safe and reliable handling of nuclear material, effective measures of its physical protection, accountancy and control in order to prevent proliferation; 2. Joint activities of intelligence customs and law-enforcement authorities directed at prevention of international trafficking and marketing of stolen goods; 3. Joint activities directed at identification and prevention of illegal supply and demand of fissionable materials counteracting thereby various criminal structures. We believe that in order to solve these problems an international regime should be established. Such an international regime will make the states implement the existing international agreements that will strengthen their postings regarding non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, ensure combating of illicit trafficking as well as facilitating cooperation between national and international databases on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, bilateral agreements between state authorities and international organizations regarding joint investigation procedures of the cases involving illicit trafficking. We believe that these goals of an international regime against illicit trafficking can be achieved by only one organization - the IAEA, an authority respected by the international community and presently responsible for nuclear safeguards. Recommendations and guidelines on physical protection, including the Convection on Physical Protection, have been developed under its auspices. The IAEA enjoys great respect and has extensive contacts including those with Interpol; it

  18. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  19. The lung effects of illicit drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista Laslo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drugs use is a real public health issue, especially among young people. The totality of the drugs harmful effects on the body is difficult to quantify, especially because of poor epidemiological data and ethical concerns about the inclusion of consumers in clinical trials. However, health professionals need to be alert to identify, report and fight drug-related pathology. This article aims to draw attention to the lung pathology induced by the consumption of some of the most commonly used illicit drugs: cocaine, heroin and cannabis.

  20. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  1. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Cruz, A.S.C. da

    1986-01-01

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author) [pt

  2. Presettable up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Meyer, U.; Weidhase, F.

    1976-01-01

    A module containing a presettable binary up-down CAMAC counter for 24 bit is described. The use of dataway is discussed. As an example for application in nuclear physics, control of beam position by the up-down counter is illustrated

  3. Illicit drugs and cardiac arrhythmias in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, Francesco; Serdoz, Laura Vitali; Cappato, Riccardo; De Ambroggi, Luigi

    2007-08-01

    The current management of athletes with cardiac arrhythmias has become complicated by the widespread use of illicit drugs, which can be arrhythmogenic. The World Anti-Doping Agency annually updates a list of prohibited substances and methods banned by the International Olympic Committee that includes different classes of substances namely, anabolic androgenic steroids, hormones and related substances, beta2-agonists, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticosteroids, alcohol, beta-blockers and others. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular) that can even be lethal and which are frequently sport activity related. A large use of illicit drugs has been documented in competitive athletes, but the arrhythmogenic effect of specific substances is not precisely known. Precipitation of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in the presence of a latent electrophysiologic substrate including some inherited cardiomyopathies, at risk of sudden death or due to long-term consumption of the substances, should raise the suspicion that illicit drugs may be a possible cause and lead cardiologists to investigate carefully this relationship and appropriately prevent the clinical consequences.

  4. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  5. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  6. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  7. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  8. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  9. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-01-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future

  10. Recommendations for strengthening the national systems and the international regime for combating of illicit trafficking. Keynote address/session 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, P.; Wredberg, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Illicit trafficking activities involving nuclear material and equipment are acts of nuclear proliferation. The threat of illicit trafficking is an international concern and the consequences of illicit trafficking, such as war or terrorist attacks using illegally manufactured nuclear weapons, might affect any country. As long as these materials and equipment remain a potential for theft and smuggling due to insufficient security and control conditions, there is a possibility that proliferators or terrorist groups may illegally take possession of such materials and equipment for illicit purposes. A precondition for preventing illicit trafficking is the existence of effective national systems for supervision and control of nuclear material and equipment, including physical protection and export/import control, based on an accurate and complete legislation. In addition thereto, national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, through prevention and detection within a state's territory or across its borders, incorporate such components as: supervision and control of nuclear operations; organisation of operator activities through quality assurance, internal control, security culture, etc.; law enforcement functions (police, intelligence, customs, investigation, prosecution, penalties and sanctions); and procedures for co-ordination and co-operation between supervising and law enforcement authorities. According to a joint Swedish-Norwegian-Latvian study, there are imperfections in many national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, such as: Incomplete legislation on nuclear non-proliferation and safety, physical protection and export/import control; Unclear or overlapping responsibilities between national supervision and law enforcement authorities, leading to poor co-operation and co-ordination of preventing and detecting measures; Incomplete rules and regulations concerning operator functions and responsibilities, including requirements on

  11. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    environmental radiation. The operation mechanism is quite simple. First step is scintillation in scintillator. Second step is conversion from photon to charge in photodiode. Third step is signal amplification in charge amplifier. Fourth step is pulse shaping for discrimination in shaping amp. Fifth step is reduction of noise pulse in discriminator. Final step is pulse counting in counter. This new radiation detection system can give reliable radiation dose data as low cost. So we can supply this new radiation dosimeter to the area near radiation and nuclear facilities. I will hope this new radiation dosimeter can contribute to the public acceptance on radiation use and nuclear facilities

  12. Neural network application for illicit substances identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Wallace V.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R.; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation analysis is based on neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analysis and has been used in wide variety of fields, for examples, for inspection of checked airline baggage and for detection of buried land mines. In all of these applications, the detected γ-ray intensities from the elements present are used to estimate their concentrations. A study about application using a trained neutral network is presented to determine the presence of illicit substances, such as explosives and drugs, carried out in the luggages. The illicit substances emit characteristic detected γ-ray which are the fingerprint of each isotope. The fingerprint data-base of the gamma-ray spectrum of substances is obtained via Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code, MCNP, version 4B. It was possible to train the neural network to determine the presence of explosives and narcotics even hidden by several materials. (author)

  13. The lung effects of illicit drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Crista Laslo; Beatrice G. Ioan; Ovidiu G. Bratu; Bogdan Socea; Camelia Diaconu

    2018-01-01

    Illicit drugs use is a real public health issue, especially among young people. The totality of the drugs harmful effects on the body is difficult to quantify, especially because of poor epidemiological data and ethical concerns about the inclusion of consumers in clinical trials. However, health professionals need to be alert to identify, report and fight drug-related pathology. This article aims to draw attention to the lung pathology induced by the consumption of some of the most commonly ...

  14. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  15. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  16. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  17. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  18. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  19. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  20. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  2. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  3. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  4. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  5. Whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G A; Kosterev, V V

    1975-01-24

    A counter for detecting radiation of a man (CRM) is described, which consists of two measuring converters and a recording device. In order to obtain data on spatial distribution of a gamma-radiating nuclide studied, a fixed collimator and a mobile coder made of separate slit elements are placed between the measuring converters and an object investigated.

  6. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  7. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  8. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  9. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  10. Decree No 82-1050 of 13 December 1982 creating a Central Service for repression of illicit trading in weapons, munitions, explosive products and nuclear, biological and chemical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Central Service was set up within the Ministry of the Interior and is responsible for the protection of the State and the national territory against criminal attempts, conspiracies and acts of terrorism and is vested with the necessary powers to discharge its duties. It co-operates with the other departments concerned in the study of measures to prevent unlawful use of weapons and nuclear materials. (NEA) [fr

  11. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fareed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  12. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  13. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  14. The WCO/IAEA technical committee meeting to develop guidance related to illicit trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, L [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Following the initiative of the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Dr. Hans Blix, of September 1995 and the subsequent resolution of the 38. session of the General Conference, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization jointly undertook action to deal with the problems that can be caused by the illicit movement of radioactive materials. The ``Illicit Trafficking Programme``, co-sponsored by the two organizations aims at developing close co-operation between the Member States` radiation and nuclear safety competent authorities and their border control and customs authority counterparts. The main elements of this programme are: (1) the development of a guidance document covering the prevention and detection of unauthorized movements of radioactive materials as well as the proper response to such activities; (2) the definition of the terms for a pilot study to test border monitoring equipment under field conditions; and (3) the creation of an IAEA/WCO training module for border control and customs officers.

  15. The WCO/IAEA technical committee meeting to develop guidance related to illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.

    1997-07-01

    Following the initiative of the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Dr. Hans Blix, of September 1995 and the subsequent resolution of the 38. session of the General Conference, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization jointly undertook action to deal with the problems that can be caused by the illicit movement of radioactive materials. The ''Illicit Trafficking Programme'', co-sponsored by the two organizations aims at developing close co-operation between the Member States' radiation and nuclear safety competent authorities and their border control and customs authority counterparts. The main elements of this programme are: (1) the development of a guidance document covering the prevention and detection of unauthorized movements of radioactive materials as well as the proper response to such activities; (2) the definition of the terms for a pilot study to test border monitoring equipment under field conditions; and (3) the creation of an IAEA/WCO training module for border control and customs officers

  16. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voytchev, M.; Chiaro, P.; Radev, R.

    2006-01-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'

  17. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  18. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  19. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  20. 21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by employees. It is the position of DEA that employees who possess, sell, use... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illicit activities by employees. 1301.92 Section...

  1. Evaluation of filters in RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) in OPAL research reactor at ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) using Gamma Spectrometry System and Liquid Scintillation Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jim In; Foy, Robin; Jung, Seong Moon; Park, Hyeon Suk; Ye, Sung Joon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization(ANSTO) has a research reactor, OPAL (Open Pool Australian Lightwater reactor) which is a state-of-art 20 MW reactor for various purposes. In OPAL reactor, there are many kinds of radionuclides produced from various reactions in pool water and those should be identified and quantified for the safe use of OPAL. To do that, it is essential to check the efficiency of filters which are able to remove the radioactive substance from the reactor pool water. There are two main water circuits in OPAL which are RSPCS (Reactor Service Pool Cooling System) and HWL (Hot Water Layer) water circuits. The reactor service pool is connected to the reactor pool via a transfer canal and provides a working area and storage space for the spent and other materials. Also, HWL is the upper part of the reactor pool water and it minimize radiation dose rates at the pool surface. We collected water samples from these circuits and measured the radioactivity by using Gamma Spectrometry System (GSS) and Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to evaluate the filters. We could evaluate the efficiency of filters in RSPCS and HWL in OPAL research reactor. Through the measurements of radioactivity using GSS and LSC, we could conclude that there is likely to be no alpha emitter in water samples, and for beta and gamma activity, there are very big differences between inlet and outlet results, so every filter is working efficiently to remove the radioactive substance.

  2. Ongoing efforts to combat illicit trafficking in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, I.U.; Khamidov, F.; Makhmudov, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Present article is devoted to ongoing efforts to combat illicit trafficking in Tajikistan. The radiation protection system created in our country is the instrument for prevention of nuclear and radiological terrorism but such parts of the radiation protection infrastructure as accounting and control of sources of ionizing radiation, physical security of sources, means for detection and analysis of orphan sources and public information which is useful and helpful to prevent the nuclear and radioactive materials against theft, important equipment against sabotage, to prevent illegal trafficking of such materials is not developed due to the fact that socio-economic conditions were affected by civil war (1992-1997). The Republic of Tajikistan just in 2001 became the member of IAEA and the established regulatory authority is functioning just four years. There are currently 4 Laws and 6 regulations are worked out for ensuring the radiation safety in Tajikistan and new regulations are under the process of development. Mainly radiation safety in Tajikistan is based on the Law on Radiation Safety (June, 2003) and on the Law on Utilization of Atomic Energy (November, 2004). Unfortunately in the Republic of Tajikistan because of limited national budget there are no any appropriate and accredited technical services. There is only one functioning laboratory (Republican Chemical and Radiometric Laboratory) which performs measurements and radiation measurement laboratory analysis of material. Metrological attestation of devices and sources of this laboratory was carried out by the laboratory of technique measuring KSAVO (Central Asian military division) but it was in 1992. After that period no metrological attestation was carried out. Some devices were delivered under IAEA project but it is not enough at all to cover the needs of the country. One of the most disturbing problems nowadays is terrorism with use of nuclear materials. Also terrorists are able to use so

  3. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. This study presents the first systematic review of the network

  4. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  5. IAEA Nuclear Security Programme: The role of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Discusses collecting and collating information on needs integrated in Nuclear Security Support Plans and analyzing data on illicit trafficking and nuclear security incidents. Coordination with donor States and international organizations on Illicit trafficking Database reports and other related information provided by states.

  6. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  7. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  8. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  9. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  10. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  11. Nuclear Smuggling and Threats to Lithuanian Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murauskaitė Eglė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores threats related to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and dual-use goods applicable in state level nuclear programs, actualizing the global trends for the Baltic region. The article points to Eastern Europe’s changing risk profile in this respect, as increasing penetration of Russian criminal groups inside Ukraine and the destabilized situations in neighboring countries create an environment where the risk of nuclear smuggling is on the rise. Criminal entities can be seen forming new bonds, with trafficking routes intersecting and zones of influence shifting - consequently, an unusual level of criminal involvement in nuclear smuggling is observed, alongside a geographic shift of smuggling patterns. In addition, states seeking materials and technologies for their military programs have taken a notable interest in this region as a way of circumventing international transit regulations. The article looks at the likely implications of these new nuclear smuggling trends for the security of the Baltic states. It suggests that Lithuania may soon be facing a relatively new threat, and one that it is ill-prepared to counter. The article discusses the risk factors and indicators to watch before that risk becomes reality, and offers ways for Lithuania to contribute to addressing these increasingly acute problems on a regional level.

  12. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended.

  13. A new neutron counter for fission research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B., E-mail: benoit.laurent@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A new neutron counter for research experiments on nuclear fission has been developed. This instrument is designed for the detection of prompt fission neutrons within relatively high levels of gamma and neutron background. It is composed of a set of {sup 3}He proportional counters arranged within a block of polyethylene which serves as moderator. The detection properties have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments with radioactive sources. These properties are confirmed by an experiment on neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U at the WNR facility of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during which the mean prompt fission neutron multiplicity, or ν{sup ¯} has been measured from 1 to 20 MeV of incident neutron energy.

  14. Nuclear Materials Diversion Safety and the Long-term Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2002-01-01

    Primarily due to irresponsible cold war politics of nuclear weapon countries nuclear proliferation situation is little short of getting out of control. In addition to five nominal nuclear weapon countries there are at present at least three more nuclear weapon countries and several countries with nuclear weapon potential. Non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed in 1970, has been recognized by most non-nuclear weapon countries as unjust and ineffective. After the initial, deliberate, nuclear weapon developments of five nominal nuclear weapon countries, subsequent paths to nuclear weapons have been preceded by nominal peaceful use of nuclear energy. Uranium enrichment installations as well as reprocessing installations in non-nuclear weapon countries are the weakest spots of fuel cycle for diversion of nuclear materials either by governments or by illicit groups. An energy scenario, which would, by the end of century, replace the large part of fossil fuels use through extension of present nuclear practices, would mean very large increase in a number of such installations, with corresponding increase of the probability of diversion of nuclear materials. Such future is not acceptable from the point of view of proliferation safety. Recent events make it clear, that it cannot be accepted from the requirements of nuclear terrorism safety either. Nuclear community should put it clearly to their respective governments that the time has come to put general interest before the supposed national interest, by placing all enrichment and reprocessing installations under full international control. Such internationalization has a chance to be accepted by non-nuclear weapon countries, only in case should it apply to nuclear weapon countries as well, without exception. Recent terrorist acts, however horrible they were, are child,s play compared with possible acts of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear energy can be made proliferation safe and diversion of nuclear materials safe, and provide

  15. 12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine; Brännström, Lars

    2017-01-01

    12-step programs for reducing illicit drug use are neither better nor worse than other interventions Illicit drug abuse has serious and far-reaching implications for the abuser, their family members, friends, and society as a whole. Preferred intervention programs are those that effectively reduce...... illicit drug use and its negative consequences, and are cost-effective as well. Current evidence shows that overall, 12-step programs are just as effective as alternative, psychosocial interventions. The costs of programs are, therefore, an important consideration. However, the strength of the studies...

  16. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. the international politics of nuclear weapons: a constructivist analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JK

    regarding the export of and trade in nuclear weapons and technology. ... Since 1945, there has been no change in this position of the government of. Japan as ...... process, the Agency discovered illicit nuclear procurement networks (UN News.

  18. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.

    1984-03-01

    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  19. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  20. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  1. Differentiation of illicit drugs with THz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guifeng; Ma Shihua; Ji Te; Zhao Hongwei; Wang Wenfeng

    2010-01-01

    The tera hertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used for sensing and identifying illicit drugs. The absorption spectra of seven illicit drug samples(morphine and its hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride, codeine phosphate, papaverine hydrochloride, pethidine hydrochloride, and thebaine) were studied by THz-TDS at 0.3-2.0 THz at room temperature. The geometric structure and vibration frequencies of morphine were calculated by density functional theory. The four absorption features were dominated by intra-/inter-molecular collective or lattice vibration modes. Each illicit drug has a distinct signature in its THz spectra. The results indicate that the THz-TDS can be used to identify and discriminate illicit drugs by their characteristic fingerprints. (authors)

  2. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  3. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Herkenrath, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing...

  4. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Yule, T.J.; Humm, P.; Sagalovsky, L.; Martin, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    We are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast-neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. We discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Yule, T.J.; Humm, P.; Sagalovsky, L.; Martin, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. They discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

  6. IAEA Director General welcomes landmark convention to combat nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the adoption of an International convention against nuclear terrorism. 'This is a landmark achievement which will bolster global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It will be a key part of international efforts to prevent terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons'. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the convention, The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, on 13 April 2005. The Convention strengthens the global legal framework to counter terrorist threats. Based on a proposal by the Russian Federation in 1998, the Convention focuses on criminal offences related to nuclear terrorism and covers a broad range of possible targets, including nuclear reactors as well as nuclear material and radioactive substances. Under its provisions, alleged offenders - for example any individual or group that unlawfully and intentionally possesses or uses radioactive material with the intent to cause harm - must be either extradited or prosecuted. States are also encouraged to cooperate with each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings. The Convention further requires that any seized nuclear or radiological material be held in accordance with IAEA safeguards, and handled in keeping with the IAEA's health, safety and physical protection standards. Dr. ElBaradei also recalled that the Agency is in the process of amending the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, in order to broaden its scope, and in so doing, strengthen the current legal framework for securing nuclear material against illicit uses. A conference will be held from 4 to 8 July in Vienna to consider and adopt the amendments. The Convention opens for signature in September this year. Dr ElBaradei urged all States to 'sign and ratify the Convention without delay so nuclear terrorism will have no chance'. (IAEA)

  7. Geolocation and route attribution in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, I.; Niemeyer, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix of 60 possible forensic tools. If the specifics of the types of materials and analytical techniques are included, the number becomes vastly greater. Accordingly, the prioritization and discretion is addressed that should be utilized to select the most useful tools

  8. "Shotgunning" as an illicit drug smoking practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, D C; Perkins, M P; Paone, D; Kochems, L; Salomon, N; Friedmann, P; Des Jarlais, D C

    1997-01-01

    There has been a rise in illicit drug smoking in the United States. "Shotgunning" drugs (or "doing a shotgun") refers to the practice of inhaling smoke and then exhaling it into another individual's mouth, a practice with the potential for the efficient transmission of respiratory pathogens. Three hundred fifty-four drug users (239 from a syringe exchange and 115 from a drug detoxification program) were interviewed about shotgunning and screened for tuberculosis (TB). Fifty-nine (17%; 95% CI 12.9%-20.9%) reported shotgunning while smoking crack cocaine (68%), marijuana (41%), or heroin (2%). In multivariate analysis, age alcohol to intoxication (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3), having engaged in high-risk sex (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.04-6.7), and crack use (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.0-12) were independently associated with shotgunning. Shotgunning is a frequent drug smoking practice with the potential to transmit respiratory pathogens, underscoring the need for education of drug users about the risks of specific drug use practices, and the ongoing need for TB control among active drug users.

  9. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  11. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    OpenAIRE

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlight...

  12. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative.

  13. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  14. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Stewart, David; Childress, Darrell

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on established clinical evidence. All applicable full-text English language articles and abstracts found were evaluated and included in the review as appropriate. The interactions of illicit drugs with prescription therapies have the ability to potentiate or attenuate the effects of both the illicit agent and/or the prescription therapeutic agent, which can lead to toxic effects or a reduction in the prescription agent's therapeutic activity. Most texts and databases focus on theoretical or probable interactions due to the kinetic properties of the drugs and do not fully explore the pharmacodynamic and clinical implications of these interactions. Clinical trials with coadministration of illicit drugs and prescription drugs are discussed along with case reports that demonstrate a potential interaction between agents. The illicit drugs discussed are cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, and sodium oxybate. Although the use of illicit drugs is widespread, there are little experimental or clinical data regarding the effects of these agents on common prescription therapies. Potential drug interactions between illicit drugs and prescription drugs are described and evaluated on the Drug Interaction Probability Scale by Horn and Hansten.

  15. In-vivo radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes a radiation counter utilizing at least one detector for sensing radiation from a living body. The radiation counter also includes an aperture for forming a corridor between the body and the detector. A shield outside the corridor prevents passage of background radiation through the corridor and gaining access to the detector. The counter also includes a device for isolating a selected portion of the body from the corridor such that radiation counting is restricted to a region of the body through a separate detector. The corridor formation permits a user to stand in an upright position while the detector and detectors are able to separately monitor different sections of the body. The radiation counter overcomes the problem of obtaining accurate and quick measurements or radiation doses sustained by a large group of persons. (author)

  16. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  17. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  18. Portable microcomputer controlled radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Weber, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A portable microcomputer controlled counter for use as a radiation counter is described. The counter uses digital processing of input pulses from a radiation detector. The number of counts received by the microcomputer per unit time is used to calculate a value for display using a calibration factor obtained during physical calibration of the instrument with a radiation source or with a pulse generator. The keyboard is used to enter calibration points. The number of calibration points which may be entered depends on the degree of accuracy desired by the user. The high voltage generator which drives the detector is triggered by pulses from the microcomputer in relation to the count rate. After processing the count, the resulting count rate or dose rate is displayed on the liquid crystal display. The counter is autoranging in which the decimal point is shifted as necessary by the microcomputer. The units displayed are determined by the user by means of a multiposition switch. Low battery and an overrange condition are displayed. An interface is provided via a connector to allow parallel transmission of data to peripheral devices. Low battery power consumption is featured. The counter is capable of providing more accurate readings than currently available counters

  19. Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison

    2010-07-01

    The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of 'command and control'. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to illicit drugs-primarily self-regulation and market regulation. There has been an overreliance on strategies from the top of the regulatory pyramid. Two other regulatory strategies--self-regulation and market regulation--can be applied to illicit drugs. Self-regulation, driven by the proactive support of consumer groups may reduce drug-related harms. Market strategies such as pill-testing can change consumer preferences and encourage alternate seller behaviour. Regulatory theory is also concerned with partnerships between the state and third parties: strategies in these areas include partnerships between police and pharmacies regarding sale of potential precursor chemicals. Regulatory theory and practice is a rich and well-developed field in the social sciences. I argue that governments should consider the full array of regulatory strategies. Using regulatory theory provides a rationale and justification to strategies that are currently at the whim of politics, such as funding for user groups. The greater application of regulatory approaches may produce more flexible and structured illicit drug policies. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Herkenrath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Illicit financial flows — cross-border capital movements for the purposes of concealing illegal activities and evading taxes — pose major challenges to developing countries. They deprive the country concerned of urgently needed resources for private and public investment, thereby hampering infrastructure building and economic growth. This research overview shows that illicit financial flows also favour political changes that go hand in hand with the weakening of state institutions and growing corruption and rent-seeking. As yet, there are no empirical quantitative findings as to the exact functioning and significance of these effects. What is clear, however, is that approaches to problem-solving must come not only from the countries where illicit financial flows originate but also from the recipient countries — offshore financial centres with a high level of financial secrecy.

  1. Licit and illicit drugs: a group approach with teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Amaral Donnini; Darilene Rocha Cordeiro; Bruna Camargos de Lima; Selma Maria da Fonseca Viegas

    2017-01-01

    This work is an extension intervention arising from the results of an epidemiological cross-sectional study with 605 teenagers from 13 to 16 years old. The extension actions had as a method the group educational practice on licit and illicit drugs, with 2.012 teenagers from 22 municipal and state public schools of the urban region of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from March 2015 to February 2016. It aimed to work with group educational practices on licit and illicit drugs in the...

  2. THE EFFECT OF ILLICIT TRADE IN NARCOTICS ON GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-07-01

    Illicit markets especially those dealing with narcotics constitute grievous issues to the world’s economies, putting to test global safety, economic progress as well as security and many other aspects. Seemingly, illicit narcotics trade in the last decade – that is 2000 to 2011 underwent a significant boom, resulting from a wide spectrum of illegal drugs such as cocaine as well as heroin among many other hard drugs. In today’s global society, several concerns are emerging on the rise of illicit narcotics trade accompanied with organized crime, chiefly as major hindrances to consistent global economic progress. Apparently, some of the effects of illicit narcotics trade are that; this trade gradually turns upside down business rules, opening way for new unruly market players besides reconfiguring influence in global economics as well as politics. Surprisingly, the revenue from illegal drugs in 2011 alone was roughly 10% of the global GDP. Hence, exaggerating local economies’ incomes and triggering ceaseless conflicts among market players, while at the same time reducing legal business activities likewise disintegrating socioeconomic conditions. An empirical research method was adopted for this study, analyzing illicit trade in narcotics on the global arena as from 2000 to 2011 and its resultant effects. The research findings indicate that, illegal drugs trade particularly on the world economy besides growing at a high rate, it endangers the overall welfare of humans likewise the business environment. This is ostensibly because this trade has high chances of engrossing regional economies into illegal drugs business activities, causing them to neglect sustainable ethical businesses. Now, to effectively address negative economic issues related to illegal drugs trade, there is apparent need for integrated efforts from local as well as international authorities. Such efforts are chiefly to control not only the harmful effects resulting from the use of illicit

  3. A vegetal Geiger counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the Chernobyl accident impact on ecosystems, Ukrainian and Swiss scientists have used a plant: the Arabidopsis thaliana. They have introduced in its genome a gene coding an enzyme called β-glucuronidase. This substance, when it is expressed, colours vegetal cells blue. In fact the introduced gene is divided between 2 paired chromosomes. When the plant is placed on a nuclear contaminated soil, radiation damaged chromosomes exchange fragments and the 2 parts of the enzyme gene may recombine, the enzyme can then be expressed. For low and medium contamination ( 2 ) biologists have found a correlation between the number of blue spots on the plant and the irradiation rate. (A.C.)

  4. Illicit substance use among university students from seven European countries: a comparison of personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards illicit substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, S M; Mikolajczyk, R T; McAlaney, J; Vriesacker, B; Van Hal, G; Akvardar, Y; Guillen-Grima, F; Salonna, F; Stock, C; Dempsey, R C; Bewick, B M; Zeeb, H

    2014-10-01

    To compare European students' personal use and approval of illicit substance use with their perceptions of peer behaviours and attitudes, and investigate whether perceptions of peer norms are associated with personal use of illicit substances and attitudes. This study used baseline data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE (SNIPE) project involving 4482 students from seven European countries in 2012. Students completed an online survey which included questions on personal and perceived peer illicit substance use and personal and perceived peer attitude towards illicit substances. 8.3% of students reported having used illicit substances at least once in their life. 49.7% of students perceived that the majority of their peers have used illicit substances more frequently than themselves. The perception was significantly associated with higher odds for personal illicit substance use (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.53-2.54). The perception that the majority of peers approve illicit substance use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of illicit substance use (OR: 3.47, 95% CI: 2.73-4.41). Students commonly perceived that their peers used illicit subtances more often than themselves. We found an association between the perceived peer norms/attitudes and reported individual behaviour/attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron counters for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looman, Marc; Peerani, Paolo; Tagziria, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    MCNP-PTA is a new Monte Carlo code for the simulation of neutron counters for nuclear safeguards applications developed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). After some preliminary considerations outlining the general aspects involved in the computational modelling of neutron counters, this paper describes the specific details and approximations which make up the basis of the model implemented in the code. One of the major improvements allowed by the use of Monte Carlo simulation is a considerable reduction in both the experimental work and in the reference materials required for the calibration of the instruments. This new approach to the calibration of counters using Monte Carlo simulation techniques is also discussed.

  6. A semiconductor counter telescope for neutron reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalovic, B I; Ajdacic, V S [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1963-12-15

    A counter telescope consisting of two or three semiconductor counters for {delta}E/{delta}x vs. E analysis was made for studying nuclear reactions induced by 14.4 MeV neutrons. Various factors important for the telescope performance are discussed in details and some solutions for getting an optimum resolution and a low background are given. Protons, deuterons and alpha particles resulting from scattering and reactions of 14.4 MeV neutrons on deuterium, tritium, praseodymium and niobium were detected, and pulses from the counters recorded on a two-dimensional analyzer. These experiments have shown that the telescope compares favorably with other types of telescopes with regards to the upper limit of neutron flux which can be used, (DELTADELTA)x and E resolution, versatility and compactness (author)

  7. Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training

  8. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 199...

  9. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlightenment.  In the process, they defined the main terms of an enduring vision of the world that we now associate with the Right.

  10. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/CTHIR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiaro, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Radev, R. [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Subcommittee 45 B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the International Electrotechnical Commission (I.E.C.) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three I.E.C. standards are in advanced stages of development. They are expected to be approved and published in 2006-2007. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: I.E.C. 62327 'Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation', I.E.C. 62401 'Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material' and I.E.C. 62244 'Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders'.

  11. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  12. ''Conventional'' Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Cherenkov counters to be used with ISABELLE are described. The three counters used in the Hadron Spectrometer can be used to identify particles in the range 10 to 40 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 3 GeV/c. A longer spectrometer for 400 x 400 GeV operation should also be used. The spectrometers may be used with CO 2 and H 2 . The range of particle identification of 8 to 60 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 5 GeV/c is possible

  13. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  14. Illicit Financial Flows and Governance : The Importance of Disaggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    After decades of billion dollar scandals around long-serving dictators removing vast fortunes from their impoverished nations, the broader phenomenon of which this is part has acquired a label: Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs). The term encompasses the international transfer of moneys generated by bribery, tax evasion and illegal markets. IFFs have been the object of much attention from high...

  15. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  16. Illicit Drugs, Policing and the Evidence-Based Policy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari

    2013-01-01

    The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…

  17. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  18. Illicit online marketing of lorcaserin before DEA scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Archer-Hayes, Ashley N; Shinn, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    Antiobesity drugs have been marketed illicitly by "no prescription" online pharmacies after approval and scheduling by the drug enforcement agency. We assess whether antiobesity drug Belviq® (lorcaserin HCl) was available from illicit online vendors before DEA-scheduling when sales are unauthorized. Online searches of "buy Belviq no prescription" examining first five result pages marketing the drug. Searches were performed from 11/5/2012-12/8/2012, prior to DEA scheduing. Belviq® is actively marketed by "no prescription" online vendors despite official unavailability and prescription requirements. Approaches included direct-to-consumer advertising using descriptive website URLs; linking to illicit marketers; and directing customers to other weight-loss websites for additional marketing. Finally, large quantities were marketed by business-to-business vendors. Illicit online "no prescription" pharmacies are marketing unauthorized, suspect antiobesity drugs before DEA scheduling and permitted marketing. Regulators must legally intercede to ensure patient safety, and providers must educate patients about online-sourcing risks. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. B O'Hare, M Curtis. Abstract. This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax ...

  20. Illicit drug use among adolescent students. A peer phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Cousineau, D.; Savard, M.; Allard, D.

    1993-01-01

    Illicit drug use was studied in 2071 students 11 to 18 years of age. Almost all drug users had friends who consumed drugs, compared with only one third of those who did not use drugs. This suggests a bond between adolescent drug users, who form a distinct group of which most students are unaware.

  1. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.; Fleming, I.; Grant, T.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas in nuclear power plants are fit for duty. The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in the report is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other sources of impairment on the job are discussed. The report examines the prevalence of fitness-for-duty problems and discusses the use and effects of illicit drugs, prescription drugs, over-the-counter preparations and alcohol. The ways in which fitness-for-duty concerns are being addressed in both public- and private-sector industries are reviewed, and a description is provided of fitness-for-duty practices in six organizations that, like the nuclear industry, are regulated and whose operations can affect public health and safety. Methods of ensuring fitness for duty in the nuclear industry are examined in detail. The report also addresses methods of evaluating the effectiveness of fitness-for-duty programs in the nuclear power industry

  2. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  3. Dimensions of Counter-Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...

  4. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  5. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  6. [Illicit drug use by pregnant women infected with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade

    2014-12-01

    To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.

  7. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding

  8. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  9. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  10. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  11. NELIS-an illicit drug detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokhale, P.A.; Csikai, J.; Womble, P.C.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    2001-01-01

    NELIS (Neutron Elemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect pallets laden with various commodities for contraband (drugs, etc.). NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays from the elements in drugs such as C, O, H, Cl, N, etc. that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons (Pulsed Fast/Thermal Neutron Analysis). Hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios. NELIS can be coupled with conventional X-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry

  12. Charged particle counters in the pre-modern period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beringer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The history of nuclear particle and radiation counting techniques divides itself naturally into three epochs that may be labeled: Early, Pre-Modern, and Modern. The Pre-Modern era is designated as the period starting in the 1930's during which the several types of gas-ionization counters of the Early period were perfected and coupled to vacuum tube circuits and recording apparatus. These developments are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, P. B. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book.

  14. An introduction to automatic radioactive sample counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; the detection of radiation in sample counters; nucleonic equipment; liquid scintillation counting; basic features of automatic sample counters; statistics of counting; data analysis; purchase, installation, calibration and maintenance of automatic sample counters. (U.K.)

  15. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  16. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  17. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  18. Virtual experiment instrument of nuclear pulse measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jian; Zhao Xiuliang; Yu Hong; Zhang Meiqin

    2009-01-01

    Study on the scheme of application of virtual instrument(VI) technique in measuring of nuclear pulse. The system of Counter based on technology of LabVIEW and NI company's products USB-6009-DAQ is developed. Virtual nuclear instrument-Virtual Counter is realized. This system extends the application of technology of virtual instrument. The experimental results indicate that the system of Counter had the good counting measuring function of Nuclear Pulse. (authors)

  19. INTRODUCING OVER THE COUNTER COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacist in today’s world has a great responsibility – to help and educate patients about diverse ways for effective self-treatment. Whereas self-care is becoming increasingly popular among patients today the availability of over-the-counter medications makes it possible for patients to treat numerous conditions on their own but still under the supervision of a healthcare provider. During the pharmacist-patient encounter, the pharmacist’s obligation is to evaluate the patient’s medical condition, provide proper advice and counsel the patient on the proper course of treatment to be taken. Also by employing effective over the counter (OTC counseling as the most proper means in a pharmacist/patient communication process and, accordingly, rapport building in the OTC area, the pharmacist needs to demonstrate high energy, enthusiasm, respect, empathy, know-how of sensitive intercultural issues alongside personal appearance, body language, eye contact that all together make his/her personal “signature”. Accordingly, apart from patient education, the primary objective of OTC counseling becomes to educate pharmacists on basic principles used in assisting patients in the selection of over-the-counter (OTC products, provide examples of proper communication techniques for effective patient counseling concerning the OTC products (i.e. dosage, administration technique, storage, food and beverage interaction, monitoring etc where the pharmacist plays the key role in helping patients maximize their pharmaceutical care.

  20. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  1. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  2. Drug decriminalization and the price of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sónia; Portugal, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This study is an empirical assessment of the impact of the drug decriminalization policy followed by Portugal in July 2001, on the price of illicit drugs. The analysis is performed using a difference-in-differences approach and the Synthetic Control Method in order to construct a synthetic control unit from a convex combination of countries. The results suggest that the prices of opiates and cocaine in the post-treatment period did not decrease in the sequence of the policy change. We conclude that the drug decriminalization policy seems to have caused no harm through lower illicit drugs prices, which would lead to higher drug usage and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  4. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  5. Strengthening global practices for protecting nuclear material (NUMAT). Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Heissl, C.

    2002-08-01

    The International Conference on Physical Protection 'Strengthening Global Practices for Protecting Nuclear Material' was organized by the Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg University in cooperation with/supported by the European Commission, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, European Forum of the Stanford University's Institute for International Studies and Austria Institute for European Security. Its purpose was fostering exchange of information on the policy and technical aspects require to ensure the security of nuclear material around the world. There is a general concern that the international community needs to establish effective measures to counter theft, sabotage, and other illicit uses of nuclear fissile and other radioactive materials. The main subjects addressed by this conference were: a) global and local threat development and 'design basis'; b) standards for physical protection (PP), its adequacy and future needs; c) national practices in PP of nuclear materials (how to strengthen national security culture?); d) current R and D in security and detection technologies (identification of focus points for future R and D); e) programmes to aid in training, design, and implementation of physical protection systems (how to improve efficiency and assure sustainability of assistance programmes?). (nevyjel)

  6. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...

  7. Illicit networks targeting the nexus between terrorists, proliferators, and narcotraffickers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Rebekah K.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Globalization and the liberal international marketplace have provided fertile ground for the rise of transnational and non-state actors. Unfortunately, while states and businesses have profited from the increased fluidity of borders and the rise of global commerce, so have the criminal organizations that threaten national and international security. These illicit networks are stateless; they conduct their business in failed or failing ...

  8. Implementing the illicit financial flows agenda: Perspectives from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Alessandra; Hansen-Shino, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    While once considered solely a concern of law enforcement agencies; money laundering, tax evasion and secrecy jurisdictions are now perceived as important obstacles to development. Dealing with illicit financial flows is an important aspect of the policy coherence agenda in international development, and developed country governments have made international commitments to tackle the problem Reforms and actions are necessary both in developed and developing countries, and this Brief looks at t...

  9. Human trafficking: fighting the illicit economy with the legitimate economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Louise; Bain, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and lead...

  10. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-01-01

    Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufac...

  11. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Jakelline Cipriano dos Santos Raposo; Ana Carolina de Queiroz Costa; Paula Andréa de Melo Valença; Patrícia Maria Zarzar; Alcides da Silva Diniz; Viviane Colares; Carolina da Franca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolesc...

  12. Identification of illicit drugs by using SOM neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Meiyan; Shen Jingling; Wang Guangqin [Beijing Key Lab for Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging, Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037 (China)], E-mail: liangyan661982@163.com, E-mail: jinglingshen@gmail.com, E-mail: pywgq2004@163.com

    2008-07-07

    Absorption spectra of six illicit drugs were measured by using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique in the range 0.2-2.6 THz and then clustered with self-organization feature map (SOM) artificial neural network. After the network training process, the spectra collected at another time were identified successfully by the well-trained SOM network. An effective distance was introduced as a quantitative criterion to decide which cluster the new spectra were affiliated with.

  13. Illicit drugs and the environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-10-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites are the latest group of emerging pollutants. Determination of their concentration in environment (such as water bodies, soil, sediment, air) is an indirect tool to estimate the community level consumption of illicit drug and to evaluate potential ecotoxicological impacts from chronic low level exposure. They enter the wastewater network as unaltered drugs and/or their active metabolites by human excretion after illegal consumption or by accidental or deliberate disposal from clandestine drug laboratories. This article critically reviews the occurrence and concentration levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites in different environmental compartments (e.g., wastewater, surface waters, groundwater, drinking water, and ambient air) and their potential impact on the ecosystem. There is limited published information available on the presence of illicit drugs in the environment, reports are available mainly from European countries, UK, USA, and Canada but there is a lack of information from the remainder of the world. Although the environmental concentrations are not very high, they can potentially impact the human health and ecosystem functioning. Cocaine, morphine, amphetamine, and MDMA have potent pharmacological activities and their presence as complex mixtures in water may cause adverse effect on aquatic organisms and human health. However, there is no current regulation demanding the determination of occurrence of these emerging pollutants in treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water, or atmosphere. Thus, critical investigation on distribution pattern of this new group of emerging contaminant and their potential harmful impact on our environment needs immediate attention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  15. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jonathan; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espio...

  16. Identification of illicit drugs by using SOM neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Meiyan; Shen Jingling; Wang Guangqin

    2008-01-01

    Absorption spectra of six illicit drugs were measured by using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique in the range 0.2-2.6 THz and then clustered with self-organization feature map (SOM) artificial neural network. After the network training process, the spectra collected at another time were identified successfully by the well-trained SOM network. An effective distance was introduced as a quantitative criterion to decide which cluster the new spectra were affiliated with

  17. Illicit financial flows and foreign direct investment in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Innocents Edoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is facing a number of challenges that are negatively affecting socio-economic development at all levels of governments and local governments are expected to play a leading role for Africa’s development. One of these challenges are illicit financial flows that are perceived by many as a crime against Africa’s transformation. The continent is losing billions of dollars every year because of tax evasion, corruption and inappropriate transfer pricing and maladministration. With tax being one of Africa’s main sources of revenue, current and past researches revealed that, illicit financial flows (IFFs cripple African Governments tax base as a results of capital outflows and lack of good governance. This situation obviously is a challenge for Africa’s development as governments struggle to finance structuring projects and this in turn compels these governments to seek funds from international organisations at very high interest rates. It is also important to reveal that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI rapidly grew after the Second World War with the intention to maximize profit on investment in less developed countries and specifically in the African continent. In competing in Africa, most multinationals main objective is to pay less tax, make extensive profits and transfer the proceeds to their country of origin. This subsequently gave rise to illicit financial flows in Africa where the continent is losing billions of dollars. Past studies equally revealed that, Africa’s revenue could increase between 55 and 65%, if appropriate mechanisms of monitoring the flows were in place. This study therefore is based on the premise that, tax evasion, illicit financial flows, corruption and abusive transfers pricing are all factors that affect Africa’s development. Using appropriate method of inquiry, this study wants to demonstrate the presence of FDI’s in Africa as a modus operandi behind tax evasion. It also using the

  18. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, E; Afanador, ZR; Deep-Soboslay, A; Gallegos, G; Darwin, WD; Lowe, RH; Barnes, AJ; Huestis, MA; Cadet, JL; Herman, MM; Hyde, TM; Kleinman, JE; Freed, WJ

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine, and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and 9 opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine, and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identif...

  19. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Atreya, Ravi V; Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit dru...

  20. Licit and illicit drugs: a group approach with teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Amaral Donnini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension intervention arising from the results of an epidemiological cross-sectional study with 605 teenagers from 13 to 16 years old. The extension actions had as a method the group educational practice on licit and illicit drugs, with 2.012 teenagers from 22 municipal and state public schools of the urban region of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from March 2015 to February 2016. It aimed to work with group educational practices on licit and illicit drugs in the school environment with teenagers. The extension and research allowed us to understand the context in which adolescents were inserted through the communication kept with them and among them; to know the level of information the teenagers had about licit and illicit drugs; to provide new knowledges, attitudes and opportunities in the recreation of an own way of selfcare. It was stressed that education is an important tool for health promotion and prevention of risks and hazards, as well as plays a key role in the formation of the proactive subject.

  1. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  2. Protecting the Homeland: The Importance of Counter-Illicit Trafficking to Prevent an Attack with Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Congressional Research Service, U.S. International Borders: Brief Facts, Janice Cheryl Beaver , RS21729 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, November 9...and the opportunity to utilize the breadth of smuggling options for transportation. The commercial prevalence of radiological material and the...Janice Cheryl Beaver . RS21729. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office November 9, 2006. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21729.pdf (accessed

  3. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  4. Counter terms for low momentum nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Jason D.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Brown, G.E.; Bogner, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    There is much current interest in treating low energy nuclear physics using the renormalization group (RG) and effective field theory (EFT). Inspired by this RG-EFT approach, we study a low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, V low-k , obtained by integrating out the fast modes down to the scale Λ∼2 fm -1 . Since NN experiments can only determine the effective interaction in this low momentum region, our chief purpose is to find such an interaction for complex nuclei whose typical momenta lie below this scale. In this paper we find that V low-k can be highly satisfactorily accounted for by the counter terms corresponding to a short range effective interaction. The coefficients C n of the power series expansion ΣC n q n for the counter terms have been accurately determined, and results derived from several meson-exchange NN interaction models are compared. The counter terms are found to be important only for the S, P and D partial waves. Scaling behavior of the counter terms is studied. Finally we discuss the use of these methods for computing shell model matrix elements

  5. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  6. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  7. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  8. Performance of an active well coincidence counter for HEU samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Peerani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is the reference NDA technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. For high-enriched uranium (HEU) samples active neutron interrogation is generally performed and the most common device used by nuclear inspectors is the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). Within her master thesis at the Polytechnic of Milan, the first author performed an intensive study on the characteristics and performances of the AWCC in order to assess the 235 U mass in HEU oxide samples at the PERLA laboratory of JRC. The work has been summarised in this paper that starts with the optimisation of the use of AWCC for nuclear safeguards, describing the calibration procedure, reporting results of a series of verification measurements, summarising the performances that can be obtained with this instruments during inspections at fuel production plants and concluding with the discussion of uncertainties related to these measurements.

  9. Technical considerations for detection of and response to illicit trafficking in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.; Cunningham, J.; Gayral, J.P.; Kravchenko, N.; Smith, D.; York, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The need for guidance and recommendations explicitly directed to the problem of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources was raised by the IAEA Director General at the IAEA General Conference in December 1994, and measures were agreed by the IAEA Board of Governors in March 1995. Measures that might be taken to prevent, detect, and respond to illicit trafficking will be common for all radioactive materials, including nuclear materials. However, nuclear materials are, or should be, subject also to safeguards for nuclear non-proliferation purposes and to physical protection to prevent diversion. The IAEA has established close co-operation with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in particular the World Customs Organization (WCO) and INTERPOL to conduct joint studies, meetings and training programs to support Member States in their border control activities. Within this programme technical information has been derived on requirements and methods to detect and respond to events involving inadvertent movement of and illicit trafficking in radioactive materials. The paper summarises the most important results and the experience obtained in this field. Concerning 'detection' information on strategy of detection, selection of an investigation level, techniques for radiation monitoring at borders, verification of alarms, search techniques and identification of radionuclides has been developed. This includes recommended minimum requirements for monitoring equipment, derived from the results of an extended international pilot study on border monitoring equipment ITRAP, conducted by IAEA in co-operation with the Austrian government. In order to discover illicit trafficking or inadvertent movement in radioactive materials, the following steps are required: detection of any abnormal radiation level, verification of such detection, localisation of the origin of the radiation, radiation safety measurement, and

  10. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  11. Improvements to well scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farukhi, M.R.; Mataraza, G.A.; Wimer, O.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of ionising radiation detection. It concerns in particular scintillation detectors of the type that is commonly used in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube and that is used for monitoring radiation, for instance in the clinical measurements of isotopes. This invention enables well scintillation counters to be made, characterised by a high efficiency in measuring the thindown rate of radio-pharmaceutical solutions and to resolve the distribution of energy emanating from the radioactive source. It particularly consists in improving the uniformity of the luminous efficiency, the quality of the resolution and the efficiency whilst improving the reception of light [fr

  12. Young people's attitudes towards illicit drugs: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.

  13. Corruption and illicit financial flows: The limits and possibilities of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Quentin; Fontana, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the links between illicit financial flows and corruption, and how corruption may be tackled by stemming such flows. For this purpose, it clarifies the terminology surrounding illicit flows, describes the impact of such flows, outlines the techniques used to launder them (with a particular focus on laundering of the proceeds of corruption), and critically analyses existing policies designed to tackle illicit flows. This paper contributes to the regulatory de...

  14. The global diversion of pharmaceutical drugs. India: the third largest illicit opium producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Letizia; Greenfield, Victoria A; Charles, Molly; Reuter, Peter

    2009-03-01

    This paper explores India's role in the world illicit opiate market, particularly its role as a producer. India, a major illicit opiate consumer, is also the sole licensed exporter of raw opium: this unique status may be enabling substantial diversion to the illicit market. Participant observation and interviews were carried out at eight different sites. Information was also drawn from all standard secondary sources and the analysis of about 180 drug-related criminal proceedings reviewed by Indian High Courts and the Supreme Court from 1985 to 2001. Diversion from licit opium production takes place on such a large scale that India may be the third largest illicit opium producer after Afghanistan and Burma. With the possible exceptions of 2005 and 2006, 200-300 tons of India's opium may be diverted yearly. After estimating India's opiate consumption on the basis of UN-reported prevalence estimates, we find that diversion from licit production might have satisfied a quarter to more than a third of India's illicit opiate demand to 2004. India is not only among the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates but also one of the largest illicit opium producers. In contrast to all other illicit producers, India owes the latter distinction not to blatantly illicit cultivation but to diversion from licit cultivation. India's experience suggests the difficulty of preventing substantial leakage, even in a relatively well-governed nation.

  15. Illicit Drugs and the Terrorist Threat: Causal Links and Implications for Domestic Drug Control Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleiman, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    ...: supplying cash, creating chaos and instability, supporting corruption, providing "cover" and sustaining common infrastructures for illicit activity, and competing for law enforcement and intelligence attention...

  16. Illicit Drugs and the Terrorist Threat: Causal Links and Implications for Domestic Drug Control Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleiman, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    ...: supplying cash, creating chaos and instability, supporting corruption, providing cover and sustaining common infrastructures for illicit activity, and competing for law enforcement and intelligence attention...

  17. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-10-20

    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of illicit drugs, the prevalence was highest for the large metropolitan areas compared with

  18. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.E.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Vorobjev, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  19. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  20. The whole-body counter of the radiation centre Giessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    The layout of the whole-body counter at the institute for biophysics of the Giessen radiation centre is decribed. With suitable collimators, the whole-body counter may be used to determine the radioactivity in human and animal organs. The shielding and the measuring and waiting rooms for the patients are described with regard to their technical details. The whole-body counting system enables the radioactivity and the retention of various radioisotopes (e.g. 58 Co-vitamin B 12 , 40 K, 54 Mn, 137 Co, 131 J, 22 Na) to be measured. The estimation of the radiation exposure due to different types of examinations in nuclear medicine, in terms of the critical organs for each type of examination, is very accurate with this counting device. (GSE) [de

  1. Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs

  2. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  3. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  4. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material has been an issue of concern since the first seizures in the early 1990s. By the end of 2004 Member States had confirmed 540 cases, while about another 500 remain unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if they were not for known terrorist purposes. The attacks of September 2001 in the USA dramatically emphasized the requirement for the enhanced control and security of nuclear and other radioactive material. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 the IAEA has adopted an integrated approach to protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together IAEA activities concerned with the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear installations, nuclear material accountancy, detection and response to illicit nuclear trafficking, the security and safety of radioactive sources, emergency response measures - including pre-emergency measures in Member States and at the IAEA - and the promotion of State adherence to relevant international instruments. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movements of radioactive material. The IAEA cooperates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by providing relevant advice through a range of technical assistance and documents. In this context, the IAEA issued a group of three technical documents, co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization, Europol and Interpol, on the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive material. The first is Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1311), the second is called Detection of Radioactive Material at Borders (IAEA-TECDOC-1312) and the third is Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement

  5. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  6. Introduction of Counter-Proliferation Capabilities in Development States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulfield, P.; Edwards, T.; Witkin, A.; Elgebaly, A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent history we have seen a number of States develop their indigenous industrial skills to a point suitable for the manufacture of nuclear components. Private individuals unbeknown to the State have then utilized this capability to supply directly into proliferation networks - potentially reducing international confidence in such a State. To combat this possibility, a developing State must recognize the challenges that are raised by its emerging skills and take action to introduce measures that not only help the State identify proliferation activities but also ensure the national security of the State. One of those measures might be to develop a capability within the State to recognize and counter the activities of would-be-proliferators. In many States this capability is managed and applied through a dedicated counter-proliferation unit that has strong links with border controls and customs organizations. A counter-proliferation unit, once established could show dramatic returns for a modest investment. The activities of such a Unit could save the State political embarrassment by hindering and narrowing the chances of unintentional proliferation activities. The Unit should not be introduced as part of a Safeguards agreement or as part of a non proliferation treaty. It should rather be established as an act by the State to protect and control its emerging technologies from being involved, willingly or unwittingly, in proliferation activities. This is a sovereign act of the State - solely for its benefit and should not be imposed by any external power. Today's would-be-proliferators around the world cooperate and act together; similarly emerging counter-proliferation units should act and work together in order to be a step ahead of the proliferators. Improved world-wide cooperation should increase the detection rate of proliferation incidents which will in turn curtail the spread of nuclear weapons - for the benefit of all. (author)

  7. The 'miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Bellettini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Muon detection is fundamental to many of the interesting analyses at CDF II. For more efficient muon registration in Run II it was decided to increase geometrical coverage. The so-called 'miniskirt' counters are part of this upgrade. The original design parameters of the 'miniskirt' and mixed 'miniskirt' scintillation counters for the CDF Muon System are presented. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of mixed 'miniskirt' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns

  8. Chiral Analysis of Methamphetamine in Oral Fluid Samples: A Method to Distinguish Licit from Illicit Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth; Lantigua, Cindy; Stripp, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAMP) is a popular illicit drug abused for its central nervous system stimulating effects. MAMP is also used therapeutically in the treatment of overeating disorders, narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, in over-the-counter (OTC) products to ease nasal congestion. MAMP exists in two enantiomeric forms, dextrorotary (d-MAMP) or levorotary (l-MAMP). The compounds are similar in chemical structure, simply differing in the orientation of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon. In part because of the availability of l-MAMP in OTC nasal inhalers, forensic guidelines require a sample to contain greater than 20% d-MAMP to consider illicit drug use when interpreting results. Standard analytical methods readily detect MAMP in biological specimens but cannot resolve the enantiomeric composition of the sample. Specialized analytical techniques based on chiral separation of the enantiomers are required to differentiate d-MAMP from l-MAMP. Our laboratory sought to develop and validate a method for the analysis of oral fluid specimens for d/l-MAMP using a chiral derivatizing agent and traditional reverse phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). MAMP was extracted from dilute oral fluid samples using Strata-XC solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and derivatized with Marfey's reagent. Chromatographic separation was achieved using Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 columns. Linearity, accuracy and precision, recovery, matrix effects and specificity of the method were all within acceptable criteria. Intraday accuracy ranged from 93.3 to 103.4% and precision 0.1 to 1.6%. Interday accuracy ranged from 90.0 to 103.4% and precision 3.8 to 11.6%. Finally, having previously tested positive for MAMP using non-chiral analysis, 256 de-identified authentic oral fluid samples were analyzed using this validated method. 98% of all samples tested positive for d-MAMP at greater than 20%.

  9. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  10. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  11. Binge drinking and illicit drug use among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da

    2017-09-04

    To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas

  12. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  13. Sexual revolution and counter-revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents of today inherit the conflicting legacies of the sexual reformation of the 1960s and the counter-reformation of the 1980s/1990s. Sexual mores are influenced by a younger age of puberty than in earlier generations and by the availability of effective contraception and antibiotics to combat sexually transmitted diseases. In the era of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, however, absolutely safe sex cannot be guaranteed, only relative degrees of safety and risk. Masturbation may be one way of achieving safe sex. Advancing technology also allows greater equality of opportunity and economic emancipation for women, enabling men and women to share equally in the care of older infants and children, also influencing sexual roles. Sex education for adolescents is provided sporadically and inconsistently, being seen by opposing factions as either encouragement to early pregnancy or a means of preventing it. In particular, the images delivered by the mass media are blatantly contradictory, ranging from endorsement of teenage sexual expression to condemnation of abortion and teenage pregnancy. Cultural traditions have strong influences on the acceptability of early pregnancy and on family structure. Black American culture is based on the three-generational family as opposed to the white tradition of the nuclear, two-generational family. It is important to realize a social policy that will respect not only the sexual rights of young people, but also the sexual health of the community.

  14. Evaluation of waste crate counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Shaw, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel nondestructive measurement system has been developed to perform combined gamma-ray, passive neutron, and active neutron analyses of radioactive waste packaged in large crates. The system will be used to examine low level and transuranic waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing facility at Westinghouse-Hanford Corp. Prior to delivery of the system, an extensive evaluation of its performance characteristics will be conducted. The evaluation is to include an assessment of the mechanical properties of the system, gamma-ray attenuation correction algorithms, instrument response as a function of source positions, performance of the high resolution gamma-ray detector for ''hot spot'' and isotopic analyses, active and passive neutron counter response, instrument sensitivity, matrix effects, and packaging effects. This report will discuss the findings of the evaluation program, to date, and indicate future directions for the program

  15. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  16. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  17. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  18. Radiological Emergency Preparedness using Old ORTEC Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological emergency (RE) a large number of occupational and public may be exposed externally and to a number of radionuclides internally as a result of inhalation or injection. The radiological effect is directly proportional to the time of exposure and the activity of the contaminant materials. The main task of this paper is to show the emergency preparedness capability of using the old ORTEC whole body counter (WBC). In case of a nuclear accident ORTEC WBC is ready for use to estimate the radioactivity which inhaled or digested with food, as well as in case of medical exposure in general and nuclear medicine in particular. The present study showed that the duration time to make analysis for only one individual is about 25 min. Hence 57 individuals are monitored per day. Consequently, old ORTEC WBC is effective tool in field of research and limited use for radiological and nuclear emergencies

  19. Development of new portable radiation counters for promotion of better understanding of radiation by the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    This study aims to promote the correct understanding of radiation to the public. All the questions asked by participants at forums held in Aomori, where commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities are planned, were studied. More than half of these questions were concerned about radiation hazards. Measurements, using radiation counters at the meeting, provided the most effective means of explanation about radiation hazards to the public. For this purpose, portable β- and α-ray counters, being able to detect small amounts of radioactive substances around us, were developed. Each new counter is easily handled, is light-weight (about 10-20% that of domestic survey meters) and inexpensive (about 20-25% the price). The methods used to explain radiation with both counters have been also studied. This explanation has provided the public with a better understanding of the nature and hazards of radiation on human health than the former methods using textbooks. (author)

  20. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel, E-mail: atarifeno@cchen.cl, E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Mayer, Roberto E. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche R8402AGP (Argentina)

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  1. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods

  2. Fatalities involving illicit drug use in Pretoria, South Africa, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently detected drug was heroin, the presence of which was confirmed in 35.2% of cases, followed by cocaine in 19.9%. Alcohol in combination with an illicit drug or drugs was detected in 56 cases (36.4%). Conclusions. Results from this study indicate that illicit drugs were implicated in a considerable number ...

  3. Screening for illicit heroin use in patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, Elisabeth J.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; van den Brink, Wim; Hillebrand, Michel J. X.; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of illicit heroin among patients in a heroin-assisted treatment program. In this program, pharmaceutical-grade heroin was administered to heroin-addicted patients. Monitoring of illicit heroin use was considered important for the evaluation of this

  4. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.; De Haan, C.; Langeveld, J.G.; Klootwijk, M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection

  5. Whistleblowing in the financial industry: The right means to curb illicit flows from developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Ledergerber, Zora; Fontana, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information provided by insiders can contribute to the goal of reducing illicit capital flight from developing countries. It helps address one of the most difficult aspects in investigating such flows (the secrecy of the banking industry) and makes accepting illicit money a riskier endeavour for banks.

  6. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.

  7. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  8. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  9. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  10. Illicit drug use and violence in acute psychosis among acute adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch ... Background and objective: The prevalence of mental illness and illicit .... risk to the patients or adverse implications on their rights ... (age, gender, and drainage area), illicit drug use, violent ... whom (62.6%) were older than 35 years.

  11. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  13. Illicit use of androgens and other hormones: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-06-01

    To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Androgens and other appearance-enhancing and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, and clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public health concern.

  14. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  15. Charged particle identification: Cherenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary is given of a study of Cherenkov counters for ISABELLE. The study was certainy not exhaustive and was meant primarily to suggest future detector development. A substantial research effort is needed in order to insure that Cherenkov counters utilizing photoionization are fully exploited

  16. Development of photocathodes for gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    A lot of ways of physics needs the development of high sensibility imaging devices with large sensitive surface. The problems brought by the building of such devices may be solved by the use of gaz counters. But we must sensitize these counters to low energy photons ( [fr

  17. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, A C; Hasheminejad, S M; Nadesan, T; Tandiono; Low, H T; Lee, T S

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  18. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  19. Aerogel Cherenkov Counters of the KEDR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ovtin, I V; Barnyakov, M Y; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Danilyuk, A F; Katcin, A A; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Rodiakin, V A

    2017-01-01

    The particle identification system of the KEDR detector is based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters called ASHIPH counters. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers. An event reconstruction program for the ASHIPH system was developed. The position of each counter relative to the tracking system was determined using cosmic muons and Bhabha events. The geometric efficiency of the ASHIPH system was verified with Bhabha events. The efficiency of relativistic particle detection was measured with cosmic muons. A π/K separation of 4δ in the momentum range 0.95 −1.45 GeV/c was confirmed. A simulation program for the ASHIPH counters has been developed.

  20. Encouraging the Disuse of Illicit Drugs Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-05-01

    Youth at risk of illicit drug abuse and other delinquent acts are the target of social work services. Preventing or discouraging the use of illicit drugs among at-risk youth is a long-standing practical and research concern. For this reason, the preventive function of courage is a research gap the present study seeks to fill. The study collected data from 169 at-risk youths and their social workers with two-wave panel surveys. Results show that courage in Wave 1 presented a strong negative effect on illicit drug use in Wave 2 in the youth, controlling for illicit drug use in Wave 1 and background characteristics. Moreover, the negative effect was stronger when Wave 1 drug use was more likely. These results imply the helpfulness of encouraging at-risk youth to gather courage to resist the temptation to use illicit drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Denial of pain medication by health care providers predicts in-hospital illicit drug use among individuals who use illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Voon, Pauline; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Undertreated pain is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD), and can often reflect the reluctance of health care providers to provide pain medication to individuals with substance use disorders. To investigate the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital. Data were derived from participants enrolled in two Canadian prospective cohort studies between December 2012 and May 2013. Using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital was examined. Among 1053 PWUD who had experienced ≥ 1 hospitalization, 452 (44%) reported having ever used illicit drugs while in hospital and 491(48%) reported having ever been denied pain medication. In a multivariable model adjusted for confounders, having been denied pain medication was positively associated with having used illicit drugs in hospital (adjusted OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.14 to 1.88]). The results of the present study suggest that the denial of pain medication is associated with the use of illicit drugs while hospitalized. These findings raise questions about how to appropriately manage addiction and pain among PWUD and indicate the potential role that harm reduction programs may play in hospital settings.

  2. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  4. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  5. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... 1117-AB24 Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic... for the List I chemicals ergotamine and ergonovine to illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled..., due to growing concerns regarding its use for the illicit manufacture of LSD. [[Page 17779...

  6. The new nuclear nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it

  7. Risk behaviours of illicit drug users while travelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatja Kostnapfel Rihtar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite various formal limitations, an increasing number of opioid users, especially those stabilised in substitution therapy, travel abroad, away from their permanent residence to neighbouring and remote countries on other continents. Drug users are particularly at risk to get infected with hepatitis A, B, C and HIV during travelling.The main objectives of the study were to identify and determine the frequency of potential travel-related risk behaviour, such as illicit drug use, sharing of injecting equipment, unprotected sex, involvement in criminal activities and the extent of risk in illicit drug users, included in the programmes of the Centers for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction in Slovenia.Methods: The study was carried out in two phases. The first phase included semi-structured interviews conducted in a group of drug users willing to participate in the study. Based on the analysis of transcripts and additional data, the original questionnaire Risky behaviour of illicit drug users during travels was developed and filled in anonymously and on a voluntary basis at the network of Centres for Prevention and Treatment of Drug Addiction. Univariate analysis between independent and dependent factors was conducted based on chi-square test and t-test for independent factors. Multivariate analysis of the impact of independent factors on the dependent factor was conducted based on binary logistic regression.Results: The questionnaire was filled out anonymously and voluntarily by 776 individuals in 14 Slovene centres for prevention and treatment of drug addiction. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that drug users travelling away from their permanent residence are more likely to share their injecting equipment, and engage in unprotected sex and in drug-related crime, and the second hypothesis stating that illegal drug users included in the substitution treatment programmes, who regularly use drugs at home, more often

  8. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  9. Drug affordability-potential tool for comparing illicit drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Royuela, Luis; Singleton, Nicola; Saggers, Tony; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    The importance of illicit drug price data and making appropriate adjustments for purity has been repeatedly highlighted for understanding illicit drug markets. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has been collecting retail price data for a number of drug types alongside drug-specific purity information for over 15 years. While these data are useful for a number of monitoring and analytical purposes, they are not without their limitations and there are circumstances where additional adjustment needs to be considered. This paper reviews some conceptual issues and measurement challenges relevant to the interpretation of price data. It also highlights the issues with between-country comparisons of drug prices and introduces the concept of affordability of drugs, going beyond purity-adjustment to account for varying national economies. Based on a 2015 European data set of price and purity data across the heroin and cocaine retail markets, the paper demonstrates a new model for drug market comparative analysis; calculation of drug affordability is achieved by applying to purity-adjusted prices 2015 Price Level Indices (PLI, Eurostat). Available data allowed retail heroin and cocaine market comparison for 27 European countries. The lowest and highest unadjusted prices per gram were observed for heroin: in Estonia, Belgium, Greece and Bulgaria (lowest) and Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Latvia (highest); for cocaine: the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (lowest) and Turkey, Finland, Estonia and Romania (highest). The affordability per gram of heroin and cocaine when taking into account adjustment for both purity and economy demonstrates different patterns. It is argued that purity-adjusted price alone provides an incomplete comparison of retail price across countries. The proposed new method takes account of the differing economic conditions within European countries, thus providing a more sophisticated tool for cross

  10. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  11. Aerogel Cerenkov counters at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelz, G.

    1984-11-01

    In high energy physics it is common to identify a charged particle and its kinematical parameters by the measurement of its momentum and its velocity. Cerenkov detectors have developed into a standard tool because they operate in the γ = (1-β 2 )sup(-1/2) range from about 1 to 100 which is not easily accessible by other devices. Pions, kaons and protons in present high energy experiments reach energies of several GeV. Threshold Cerenkov detectors for these particles need indices of refraction below 1.1 which are often produced with gases under high pressure. The design for chambers operating in this region was drasticly simplified when porous materials serving as Cerenkov radiators were invented. These chambers complement the time-of-flight counters, which cover the low energy region. Aerogel of silica is up to now the only porous substance with sufficient optical transparency. Its quality has been improved substantially in recent times so that large size detectors can be constructed. (orig.)

  12. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  13. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  14. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  15. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Illicit Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information on illicitly used synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are structurally heterogeneous and commonly used drugs of abuse that act as full agonists of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor but have a variety of additional pharmacologic effects. There are numerous cases of patient harm and death in the United States, Europe, and Australia with many psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal adverse events. Although most users prefer using cannabis, there are convenience, legal, and cost reasons driving the utilization of synthetic cannabinoids. Clinicians should be aware of pharmacologic and clinical similarities and differences between synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis use, the limited ability to detect synthetic cannabinoids in the urine or serum, and guidance to treat adverse events. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Illicit dopamine transients: reconciling actions of abused drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Roitman, Mitchell F; Garris, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. Although compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyperactivating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyperactivation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural rewards and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Fast neutron attenuation measurements for detection of illicit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seock; Chung, Chin Wha; Guon, Ki Il; Lee, Bo Young; Ko, Seung Kook; Shin, Yong Mu

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a novel method using neutron attenuation for the detection of illicit materials. By using pulsed fast neutrons generated from a Bi target bombarded with a 2 GeV electron beam, attenuation spectra of C, N, and O have been measured to study the feasibility of a practical application. The spectral dependence on the material thickness and the geometrical distribution as well as the ability to identify different elements in a layered environment have been studied. For the elements mentioned here, the total cross sections have been obtained from the measured attenuation spectra and compared with ENDF-VI, which showed good agreement. The study confirms that a conventional low energy electron linac can be put into a practical use, and some practical idea is presented

  19. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  1. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  2. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. A Structural Model of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenianos, Manolis; Gavazza, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    We estimate a model of illicit drugs markets using data on purchases of crack cocaine. Buyers are searching for high-quality drugs, but they determine drugs' quality (i.e., their purity) only after consuming them. Hence, sellers can rip off first-time buyers or can offer higher-quality drugs to induce buyers to purchase from them again. In equilibrium, a distribution of qualities persists. The estimated model implies that if drugs were legalized, in which case purity could be regulated and hence observable, the average purity of drugs would increase by approximately 20 percent and the dispersion would decrease by approximately 80 percent. Moreover, increasing penalties may raise the purity and affordability of the drugs traded by increasing sellers’ relative profitability of targeting loyal buyers versus first-time buyers.

  4. Detection of illicit online sales of fentanyls via Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kalyanam, Janani

    2017-01-01

    A counterfeit fentanyl crisis is currently underway in the United States.  Counterfeit versions of commonly abused prescription drugs laced with fentanyl are being manufactured, distributed, and sold globally, leading to an increase in overdose and death in countries like the United States and Canada.  Despite concerns from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency regarding covert and overt sale of fentanyls online, no study has examined the role of the Internet and social media on fentanyl illegal marketing and direct-to-consumer access.  In response, this study collected and analyzed five months of Twitter data (from June-November 2015) filtered for the keyword "fentanyl" using Amazon Web Services.  We then analyzed 28,711 fentanyl-related tweets using text filtering and a machine learning approach called a Biterm Topic Model (BTM) to detect underlying latent patterns or "topics" present in the corpus of tweets.  Using this approach we detected a subset of 771 tweets marketing the sale of fentanyls online and then filtered this down to nine unique tweets containing hyperlinks to external websites.  Six hyperlinks were associated with online fentanyl classified ads, 2 with illicit online pharmacies, and 1 could not be classified due to traffic redirection.  Importantly, the one illicit online pharmacy detected was still accessible and offered the sale of fentanyls and other controlled substances direct-to-consumers with no prescription required at the time of publication of this study.   Overall, we detected a relatively small sample of Tweets promoting illegal online sale of fentanyls.  However, the detection of even a few online sellers represents a public health danger and a direct violation of law that demands further study.

  5. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Methods Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. Results There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19–6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (psport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code. PMID:22893512

  6. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. A review of illicit psychoactive drug use in elective surgery patients: Detection, effects, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Elander, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Limited information is present in literature regarding detection of illicit drug users visiting physicians when planning elective surgery; also, there is no update manuscript that is illustrating the effects of illicit drugs use that require reconstructive surgery interventions. Aims of this manuscript are: 1) to summarize existing knowledge, and give surgeons information how to detect patients who might possible use illicit drugs; 2) to review the effects of illicit drug use that specifically require reconstructive surgery interventions; 3) to assess on existing policies on asymptomatic illicit drug users when planning elective surgery. Studies were identified by searching systematically in the electronic databases PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+. Because of the nature of research questions to be investigated (drug policy and surgery), a "systematic review" was not possible. In spite of some existing policies to detect illicit drug use in specific situations such as workplaces or acute trauma patients, there is a lack of data and lack of information, and subsequently no policy has ever been made, for detection and management of illicit drug use asymptomatic patients requesting or referred for plastic surgery interventions. This manuscript poses questions for further ethical evaluations and future policy. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  9. U.S. Nuclear Declaratory Policy The Question of Nuclear First Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gompert, David

    1995-01-01

    The motivation behind this reexamination of American nuclear declaratory policy is the striking absence of deterrence from the debate over how to counter the widening threat from nuclear, biological...

  10. Visualization study of helium-air counter flow through a small opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven counter flows of helium-air were investigated through horizontal and inclined small openings. Counter flows may occur following a window opening as ventilation, fire in the room as well as a pipe rupture accident in a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The experiment has carried out by a test chamber filled with helium and flow was visualized by the smoke wire method. The flow behavior has recorded by a high-speed camera with a computer system. The image of the flow was transferred to the digital data, thus the flow velocity was measured by PTV software. The mass fraction in the test chamber was measured by electronic balance. The detected data was arranged by the densimetric Floude number of the counter flow rate that derived from the dimensional analysis. The method of mass increment was developed and applied to measure the counter flow rate. By removing the cover plate placed on the top of the opening, the counter flow initiated. Air enters the test chamber and the mass of the gas mixture in the test chamber increased. The volumetric counter flow rate was evaluated from the mass increment data. In the case of inclination openings, the results of both methods were compared. The inclination angle for maximum densimetric Floude number decreased with increasing length-to-diameter ratio of the opening. For a horizontal opening, the results from the method of mass increment agreed with those obtained by other authors for a water-brine system. (author)

  11. Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. 18 European countries. For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thac Nguyen

    Full Text Available Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine

  13. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  14. A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

    2012-10-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19-6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7 years (p<0.0001). The reduction in positive tests may be related to player education, the greater number of tests conducted and the harm minimisation approach of the illicit drug policy. An illicit drugs programme using a harm minimisation strategy can work effectively alongside a sport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code.

  15. The Role of Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Control of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Automatic radiation monitoring in Slovenia comprises monitoring of external gamma radiation, aerosol radioactivity, radon progeny concentration, and radioactive deposition measurements. The officer on duty has an important part in assuring proper and undisturbed functioning of our automatic radiation monitoring. He is the one who gets the first alert message on radiation levels when exceeded pre-set values in the territory of Slovenia. Together with continuous control over the functioning of automatic radiation monitoring, the officer on duty has been also assigned for receiving messages from users, who carry the 'Radiation pager' (it is a trade mark for Sensor Technology Engineering, inc. from USA). All valuable experiences of the officer on duty who has been accepting reports from customs officers, police officers, from Slovenian radiation and nuclear safety inspectors, are described in this article. The officer on duty with his new role contributes to prevention of the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of radioactive materials over the territory of Slovenia. In the last year there where many different causes of emergency calls: from many cases of patient after radioisotopes medical treatment to serious rejected shipment with exceeded radiation. This is only a beginning of responsible task how to introduce and assure the control of the inadvertent movement of radioactive materials in Slovenia. (author)

  16. ITRAP results: detection of radioactive material at the borders to combat Illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Mueck, K.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the results of the extended pilot study ITRAP (Illicit trafficking radiation assessment program) of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at border crossings. ITRAP was carried out from the Austrian research center Seibersdorf (ARCS) for the Austrian Government, coordinated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labour. In co-operation with the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) the program was also supported by the word customs organisation (WCO), the international criminal police organization (INTERPOL) and the Hungarian Government. The ITRAP study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border Nickelsdorf and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimised technical and economic conditions. First results of the ITRAP study were given at the IAEA Conference On the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, Dijon, France, in September 1998 [1]. (orig.)

  17. Performance tests and comparison of microdosimetric measurements with four tissue-equivalent proportional counters in scanning proton therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farah, J.; De Saint-Hubert, M.; Mojzeszek, N.; Chiriotti, S.; Gryzinski, M.; Ploc, Ondřej; Trompier, F.; Turek, Karel; Vanhavere, F.; Olko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, JAN (2017), s. 42-52 ISSN 1350-4487 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 662287 - CONCERT Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : tissue-equivalent proportional counters * microdosimetry * proton therapy * stray neutrons and prothons Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  18. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  19. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  20. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Le Thanh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [fr

  1. The counter ion: expanding excipient functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excipients have increasingly become 'enablers' of drug delivery and efficacy rather than passive bystanders. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have enabled the ability to deliver specific counter ions (in the form of the counter ion containing excipient and the API simultaneously to preselected targets in the body. This, coupled with a near universal mechanism of columbic interactions that determine the [API- counter ion] efficacy, can be harnessed to exploit this hitherto unavailable or unrecognized enabling mechanism. New excipients may be assembled by a near inexhaustible supply of different permutations of counter ions and their judicious use in specific situations could potentially drive a renaissance in excipient innovation (and drug delivery and efficacy despite regulatory stagnation.

  2. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  3. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  4. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  5. Countering North Korean Special Purpose Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Troy

    1999-01-01

    As United States and Republic of Korea forces stand to defend against a DPRK attack, one of the most formidable tasks is how to counter a second front in the Joint Rear Security Area of the Republic of Korea...

  6. Tests of BF3 counters with getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.

    1968-01-01

    BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented

  7. Counter - Drug: Mandate for the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding to new missions assigned...observations for determining the short-, mid-, and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide...and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding

  8. Lifetime characteristics of Gaiger-Muller counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of functional aging of Geiger-Muller counters. Two types of Geiger-Muller counter chambers were characterized in an experiment using a combined constant voltage. Chamber A had a coaxial geometry and chamber B had a plan-parallel geometry. The experimental results indicate that the aging process was faster in the case of chambers with a coaxial geometry. The results are explained based on the process of electrical discharges in gasses.

  9. Quality control and the multicrystal counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, G.C.; Davis, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of multicrystal counters for use in counting large numbers of radioimmunoassay samples is studied. In particular, the dependencies of the outputs from the array of detectors, and hence their degree of matching, on the count rate and volume of the samples being counted are investigated. Quality control procedures are described to assist in the assurance of consistent performance of the counter in the clinical situation. (U.K.)

  10. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  11. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  12. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26{approx}27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part.

  13. Accomplishments and future suggestions of 2012 seoul nuclear security summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San

    2012-01-01

    The second Seoul Nuclear Security Summit was held in Seoul, March 26∼27, 2012. It was a very big political event for nuclear security. National and International organization leaders had a time to discuss in depth issues about nuclear security; nuclear terrorism, illicit trafficking of nuclear /radiological materials, sabotages for nuclear facilities, etc. Why did many national leaders still take part in the second nuclear security summit compared to Washington summit and what is the importance of nuclear security? This paper will be the answer from those questions and handle the background, outcomes and future tasks of nuclear security summit. And suggestions for the next summits were considered in the conclusion part

  14. Legal Elements For Nuclear Security: Egyptian Nuclear Law As A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the legal bases for nuclear security. First, It analysis the international legal framework for nuclear security. Second, it analysis the legal bases for the import-export control. The legal aspects related with illicit trafficking (IT) were also reviewed. Third, It deals with the Egyptian nuclear law no. 7 and its executive regulation. The Egyptian legal regime for nuclear security and the role of State System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in realizing the nuclear security were also discussed. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the Egyptian legal framework for nuclear security.

  15. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Corey R.; Geist, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF 6 spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing 238 U from those containing the lighter 235 U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF 6 gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  16. Emerging nuclear security issues for transit countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tragic events of September eleventh have made nuclear terrorism dangers more evident. In the light of increased terrorism preventing the spread of nuclear and nuclear related items as well as radioactive materials that can be used for production so-called 'dirty bomb'is an urgent global claim. Nuclear Security issues cover multiple aspects of the security and first of all the threat from nuclear terrorism, detection and protection of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources, legal shipment of such type materials as well as nuclear related dual use items. In the face of emerging threats the prevention of proliferation by the development of effective national system of nuclear export controls is hugely important for transit countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped export controls and strategic locations along trade and smuggling routes between nuclear suppliers States and countries attempting to develop nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive devices. Thus, in the face of increasing international threat from nuclear terrorism the role and place of Azerbaijan Republic in the struggle against terrorism increases. In this context it is very important to establish effective national capabilities for detection and prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials as well as nuclear related dual use items across Azerbaijan's borders. One of the ways for enhancing and strengthening existing activities in this field is carrying out joint actions between scientists and enforcement officials in order to improve knowledge of the front-line customs and border guard inspectors concerning multiple aspects of Nuclear Security

  17. A NRESPG Monte Carlo code for the calculation of neutron response functions for gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, K; Takeda, N; Fukuda, A [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Torii, T; Hashimoto, M; Sugita, T; Yang, X; Dietze, G

    1996-07-01

    In this paper, we show the outline of the NRESPG and some typical results of the response functions and efficiencies of several kinds of gas counters. The cross section data for the several kinds of filled gases and the wall material of stainless steel or aluminum are taken mainly from ENDF/B-IV. The ENDF/B-V for stainless steel is also used to investigate the influence on pulse height spectra of gas counters due to the difference of nuclear data files. (J.P.N.)

  18. Illicit drug use and violence in acute psychosis among acute adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Illicit drug use, violence, acute psychosis, psychiatric hospital. ... violence and substance abuse. Methods ... and identifiable data were anonymized and/or stored in .... only a handful had urine tests done at the referral centres.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of illicit drug use among school-going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % females) reported having ever used marijuana or glue. ... Conclusions: Public health intervention aimed to prevent marijuana or glue use among adolescents should be designed with the understanding that illicit drug use may be associated ...

  20. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  1. Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Illicit drug policy has long been an area that has attracted international policy intervention, however, the European Union has declared it an area of subsidiarity, leaving ultimate control to national governments. Nevertheless, European Union preoccupation with the illicit drug issue and international drug trafficking and organised crime concerns have ensured that continued and increased cooperation in illicit drug policy is never off the agenda. This article examines the history of European integration in contrasting areas of policy and considers both the desirability and the viability of an increasingly harmonised drug policy for Europe. Finally, it proposes a model of integrated illicit drug policy that is strongly connected to developing patterns of European social policy, calling on multi-level governance and close involvement at the level of the citizen.

  2. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  3. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittirattanapaiboon P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon,1 Sirijit Suttajit,2 Boonsiri Junsirimongkol,1 Surinporn Likhitsathian,2 Manit Srisurapanont2 1Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods: Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment, mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results: Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59% and (methamphetamine (24%. Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537 had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81. While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder (n=348 had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65, the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively. Conclusion: A key

  4. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  5. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Extractive sectors and illicit financial flows: What role for revenue governance initiatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Billon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Countries highly dependent on natural resources are among the most severely affected by the problem of illicit financial flows. Despite a lack of definite studies proving the correlation between higher dependency on natural resources and higher levels of illicit flows, there are grounds to believe extractive industries’ revenues provide a large contribution to these flows. Most existing initiatives to address governance issues in extractive sectors have not been designed with the problem of i...

  7. Illicit Flows and Trade Misinvoicing: Are we looking under the wrong lamppost?

    OpenAIRE

    Forstater, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) have become a high profile issue in recent years. The Sustainable Development Goals include a target (16.4: significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime ), and the issues has been included in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and the work of the G20 and the OECD. Donors including NORAD and DFID and multilateral organisations such as the World Bank and African Devel...

  8. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the tota...

  9. Crisis and the Emergence of Illicit Markets: A Pragmatist View on Economic Action outside the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although illicit exchange has also been an organized, silent, and ever-present response to harsh economic crisis, only protest and social movements have captured scholars’ attention. In order to fill this void, this paper analyzes the emergence of illegal markets under situations of social breakdown. I claim that an illicit market emerging under socio-economic crisis conditions might be understood as the result of a constant valuation process and the intervention of what Herbert Mead called “...

  10. Trauma activation patients: evidence for routine alcohol and illicit drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested. Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

  11. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  12. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients in Brazil: a national representative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Miriam Almeida; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Mckinnon, Karen; Wainberg, Milton; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals) was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively). Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority. PMID:28832753

  14. Increasing availability of illicit drugs among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Nosyk, Bohdan; Ti, Lianping; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kaplan, Karyn; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the Thai government has strengthened drug law enforcement as a strategy to address a continuing epidemic of illicit drug use. We sought to assess temporal trends in street-level availability of illicit drugs among injection drug users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand. Using univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression, we assessed changes in the availability of five substances (heroin, methamphetamine, crystal methamphetamine, midazolam, and illicit methadone) between 2009 and 2011 and examined social, structural and individual factors influencing availability among community-recruited samples of IDUs in Bangkok. Availability was measured in three levels: immediate (available in ≤10 min); moderate (available in 10-90 min); and delayed (available in >90 min; our reference category). The analyses included 718 IDUs, including 165 (23.0%) women. Controlling for changes in participant characteristics between assessments, and in a period of constant nominal illicit drug prices, moderate availability of all substances increased significantly between 2009 and 2011, with adjusted odds ratios ranging between 2.36 (illicit methadone) and 4.61 (crystal methamphetamine) (all pdrug suppression efforts, the availability of illicit drugs among IDUs in Bangkok increased significantly between 2009 and 2011. The findings raise concern about the overreliance on drug law enforcement-based approaches and point to the need for greater investment in evidence-based drug policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye Victoria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC. Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

  17. Systematic review of surveillance by social media platforms for illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Donna M; Borsari, Brian; Levine, Maureen J; Dooley, Beau

    2017-12-01

    The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Included studies were original research published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2005 and June 2015 that primarily focused on collecting data from SM platforms to track trends in illicit drug use. Excluded were studies focused on purchasing prescription drugs from illicit online pharmacies. Selected studies used a range of SM tools/applications, including message boards, Twitter and blog/forums/platform discussions. Limitations included relevance, a lack of standardized surveillance systems and a lack of efficient algorithms to isolate relevant items. Illicit drug use is a worldwide problem, and the rise of global social networking sites has led to the evolution of a readily accessible surveillance tool. Systematic approaches need to be developed to efficiently extract and analyze illicit drug content from social networks to supplement effective prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients in Brazil: a national representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Almeida Nahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use. RESULTS The prevalence of any recent illicit drug use was 11.4%. Men had higher prevalence than women for all substances (17.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Lower education, history of physical violence, and history of homelessness were associated with drug use among men only; not professing a religion was associated with drug use in women only. For both men and women, younger age, current hospitalization, alcohol and tobacco use, history of incarceration, younger age at sexual debut, and more than one sexual partner were statistically associated with illicit drug use. CONCLUSIONS Recent illicit drug use among psychiatric patients is higher than among the general Brazilian population and it is associated with multiple factors including markers of psychiatric severity. Our data indicate the need for the development of gender-based drug-use interventions among psychiatric patients in Brazil. Integration of substance use treatment strategies with mental health treatment should be a priority.

  19. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Christian C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siciliano, Edward R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  20. An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, B; Curtis, M

    2014-12-01

    This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes: Illicit financial flows (IFF) from the country, Tax incentives. We find that there are significant financing gaps in the health sector; for example, government expenditure is United States Dollars (USD) 177 million for 2013/2014 while projected donor contribution in 2013/2014 is USD 207 million and the total cost for the minimal health package is USD 535 million. Thus the funding gap between the government budget for health and the required spending to provide the minimal package for 2013/2014 is USD 358 million. On the other hand we estimate that almost USD 400 million is lost through IFF and corporate utilization of tax incentives each year. The revenues foregone plus the current government health spending would be sufficient to cover the minimal public health package for all Malawians and would help tackle Malawi's disease burden. Every effort must be made, including improving transparency and revising laws, to curtail IFF and moderate tax incentives.

  2. Open source intelligence: A tool to combat illicit trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, J [Swedish Armed Forces HQ, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of my presentation is to provide some thoughts on Open Sources and how Open Sources can be used as tools for detecting illicit trafficking and proliferation. To fulfill this purpose I would like to deal with the following points during my presentation: What is Open Source? How can it be defined? - Different sources - Methods. Open Source information can be defined as publicly available information as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access to it. It comes in print, electronic or oral form. It can be found distributed either to the mass public by print or electronic media or to a much more limited customer base like companies, experts or specialists of some kind including the so called gray literature. Open Source information is not a single source but a multi-source. Thus, you can say that Open Sources does not say anything about the information itself, it only refers to if the information is classified or not.

  3. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Novick, A.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) uses standard time-of-flight techniques to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons emitted from a collimated continuum source before and after transmission through the interrogated sample. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is used to model fast-neutron transmission experiments using a 9 Be(d, n) source (E d =5 MeV). The areal densities (number of atoms per cm 2 ), and the uncertainties, of various elements present in the sample are determined by an unfolding algorithm which includes the effects of cross-section errors and correlations. Results are displayed in the form of normalized densities, including their errors and correlations, which are then compared to the values for explosives and benign substances. Probabilistic interpretations of the results are discussed in terms of substance detection and identification. ((orig.))

  4. Illicit substance detection using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micklich, B.J.; Harper, M.K.; Novick, A.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) uses standard time-of-flight techniques to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons emitted from a collimated continuum source before and after transmission through the interrogated sample. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP is used to model fast-neutron transmission experiments using a 9 Be(d,n) source [E d = 5 MeV]. The areal densities (number of atoms per cm 2 ), and the uncertainties, of various elements present in the sample are determined by an unfolding algorithm which includes the effects of cross-section errors and correlations. Results are displayed in the form of normalized densities, including their errors and correlations, which are then compared to the values for explosives and benign substances. Probabilistic interpretations of the results are discussed in terms of substance detection and identification

  5. Illicit drug detection using energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. J.; Griffiths, J. A.; Koutalonis, M.; Gent, C.; Pani, S.; Horrocks, J. A.; George, L.; Hardwick, S.; Speller, R.

    2009-05-01

    Illicit drugs are imported into countries in myriad ways, including via the postal system and courier services. An automated system is required to detect drugs in parcels for which X-ray diffraction is a suitable technique as it is non-destructive, material specific and uses X-rays of sufficiently high energy to penetrate parcels containing a range of attenuating materials. A database has been constructed containing the measured powder diffraction profiles of several thousand materials likely to be found in parcels. These include drugs, cutting agents, packaging and other innocuous materials. A software model has been developed using these data to predict the diffraction profiles which would be obtained by X-ray diffraction systems with a range of suggested detector (high purity germanium, CZT and scintillation), source and collimation options. The aim of the model was to identify the most promising system geometries, which was done with the aid of multivariate analysis (MVA). The most promising systems were constructed and tested. The diffraction profiles of a range of materials have been measured and used to both validate the model and to identify the presence of drugs in sample packages.

  6. Open source intelligence: A tool to combat illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of my presentation is to provide some thoughts on Open Sources and how Open Sources can be used as tools for detecting illicit trafficking and proliferation. To fulfill this purpose I would like to deal with the following points during my presentation: What is Open Source? How can it be defined? - Different sources - Methods. Open Source information can be defined as publicly available information as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access to it. It comes in print, electronic or oral form. It can be found distributed either to the mass public by print or electronic media or to a much more limited customer base like companies, experts or specialists of some kind including the so called gray literature. Open Source information is not a single source but a multi-source. Thus, you can say that Open Sources does not say anything about the information itself, it only refers to if the information is classified or not

  7. Position-sensitive proportional counters using resistance-capacitance position encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1975-12-01

    A new method was developed for encoding the position of individual photons, neutrons, or charged particles in proportional counters by using the distributed RC line characteristics of these counters. The signal processing is described and guidelines for the design and operation of these position sensitive proportional counters (PSPCs) are given. Using these guidelines, several prototypic PSPCs were constructed to improve the spatial resolution and shorten the signal processing time; for example, the intrinsic spatial uncertainty was reduced to 28 μ fwhm for alpha particles and 100 μ fwhm for low-energy x rays (2 to 6 keV). Also, the signal processing time was reduced to 0.6 μsec without seriously degrading the spatial resolution. These results have opened new fields of application of the RC position encoding method in imaging distributions of photons, charged particles, or neutrons in nuclear medicine, physics, and radiography

  8. The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolache Rada

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.

  9. CORNELL: CLEO's counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Particle identification by measuring ionization is complicated by the fact that the energy lost to ionization in passing through matter has large fluctuations, first calculated by Landau. These large fluctuations imply that many measurements must be made in order to determine the most probable ionization value that is characteristic of the particle type. The JADE chamber at PETRA and the TPC chamber at PEP measure both the ionization and the momenta of tracks in the same device. In the CLEO experiment at Cornell's CESR ring, ionization is measured in dedicated energy loss counters contained in each of the eight octants surrounding the drift chamber and superconducting coil. The last of these were installed in the summer of 1981, replacing Cherenkov counters that were used while the energy loss counters were being developed and built

  10. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  11. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  12. The nuclear era: what can we do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Vega, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an interview of Michele Rivasi who is a member of the French parliament and a co-founder member of Crii-rad (independent research commission on radioactivity). M.Rivasi thinks that the nuclear lobby has too much power in France, and that this power is a direct consequence of the importance of nuclear energy for France, trade unions support nuclear energy because this activity represents a large job pool. M.Rivasi fears that a real debate about nuclear energy never happens because it would imply a counter-power able to make counter-evaluations whereas most nuclear experts belong to the nuclear lobby. (A.C.)

  13. Predictors of illicit drug/s use among university students in Northern Ireland, Wales and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Vallentin-Holbech, Lotte; Stock, Christiane

    2014-12-16

    The use of illicit drug/s among university students is a public health concern. Nevertheless, many UK studies investigated a narrow spectrum of variables to explore their association/s with illicit drug/s use. We assessed the associations between a wide range of socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and having used illicit drug/s regularly, occasionally or never in life (dependent variables). Data (3706 students) were collected from seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, using a self-administered questionnaire. About 5% of the sample had regularly used illicit drug/s, 25% occasionally, and 70% never. Regular drug use (RDU) was significantly more likely among males aged 21-29 years, daily smokers, those with heavy episodic drinking or possible alcohol dependency (CAGE test), and those who perceived their academic performance better than their peers. RDU was less likely among students with high health awareness and those living with parents. The predictors of occasional drug use (ODU) were similar to those of RDU. However, in addition, students with higher perceived stress were less likely, and students who felt financial burden/s were more likely to report ODU, while no association with academic performance was found. Never use of illicit drug/s was inversely associated with most of the variables listed above, and was positively associated with religiosity. Illicit drug/s use goes along with other substance use (alcohol and smoking). The finding that illicit drug/s use was higher among students reporting good academic performance was surprising and raises the question of whether illicit drug/s may be used as performance enhancing drugs. The factors identified with illicit drug/s use in this study could be utilized to develop appropriate public health policies and preventive measures for the health of students. Multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plans are required. This

  14. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  15. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  16. Counter of radiation in body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiation counter for the determination of radiocontaminated body parts has been designed. Composed of several movable detectors, shielded from background radiation and focused on different parts of the human body by narrow apertures in the lead enclosure, the invention provides a quick tool for quantitative and qualitative part-by-part analysis of the body with respect to radiocontamination. The counter can be handled easily by the tested person himself and consequently, it is suitable for mass controls etc. (G.J.P.)

  17. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  18. Prepovedane droge v slovenskih množičnih medijih: Illicit drugs in Slovene mass media:

    OpenAIRE

    Drev, Andreja; Kamin, Tanja; Sever, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the article was to establish the frequency of Slovene media reports on illicit drugs, as well as to identify the main initiators of media coverage of illicit drugs and to determine the influence of health institutions on the information provided. Method: During the period studied, we collected 360 articles on illicit drugs published in twelve selected Slovene mass media. Basic techniques of descriptive statistical analysis and statistical significance tests were used. The ...

  19. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  1. Nuclear power and world energy needs: Looking ahead. Address at the 'Quatrieme Annuelle Conference Strategique', Institut de Relations Internationales et Strategiques, Paris, 5 May 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the 'Quatrieme Annuelle Conference Strategique' (Institut de Relations Internationales Strategiques, Paris, 5 May 1999), the Director General of the IAEA presented the future role of the nuclear power from Agency's perspective, emphasizing the following aspects: nuclear power and the environment, nuclear safety and public confidence, economic competitiveness, and the importance of nuclear verification and prevention of illicit trafficking

  2. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  3. Proportional Counter Calibration and Analysis for 12C + p Resonance Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Austin; Rogachev, Grigory; Uberseder, Ethan; Hooker, Josh; Koshchiy, Yevgen

    2014-09-01

    Light exotic nuclei provide a unique opportunity to test the predictions of modern ab initio theoretical calculations near the drip line. In ab initio approaches, nuclear structure is described starting from bare nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. Calculations are very heavy and can only be performed for the lightest nuclei (A objective of this project was to test the performance and perform position calibration of this proportional counter array. The test was done using 12C beam. The excitation function for 12C + p elastic scattering was measured and calibration of the proportional counter was performed using known resonances in 13N. The method of calibration, including solid angle calculations, normalization corrections, and position calibration will be presented. Light exotic nuclei provide a unique opportunity to test the predictions of modern ab initio theoretical calculations near the drip line. In ab initio approaches, nuclear structure is described starting from bare nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions. Calculations are very heavy and can only be performed for the lightest nuclei (A objective of this project was to test the performance and perform position calibration of this proportional counter array. The test was done using 12C beam. The excitation function for 12C + p elastic scattering was measured and calibration of the proportional counter was performed using known resonances in 13N. The method of calibration, including solid angle calculations, normalization corrections, and position calibration will be presented. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program; Grant No. PHY-1263281.

  4. Illicit drug consumption in school populations measured by wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Parabiaghi, Alberto; Senta, Ivan; Riva, Francesco; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year. Samples were analysed by mass spectrometry to measure ID and consumption by students was compared to that of the general population. We found THCCOOH (human metabolite of THC) concentrations in 2010 indicating significant consumption of cannabis in all the schools and benzoylecgonine (human metabolite of cocaine) suggesting a limited consumption of cocaine in all but one school. Morphine was only found in traces, and amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone were not detectable. Repeated analysis showed cannabis stable until 2012 with increases in 2013, low cocaine and morphine levels, and none of the other ID. WW analysis suggested that students used amounts of cannabis comparable to the general population, with low, sporadic use of cocaine and opioids, but excluded the use of significant amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone. WW analysis was useful to confirm SPS figures and provides complementary findings for effective prevention strategies. This is the first time WW analysis has been used to investigate consumption of a large number of ID and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  6. Adulteration Practices of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria C; Pellegrini, Manuela; Minutillo, Adele; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardò, Francesco P; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse. A literature search up to January 2017 was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and reports and documents of international agencies or institutions were also searched. Pharmacologically active substances such as: paracetamol, caffeine, dextromethorphan, clenbuterol for heroin; levamisole, phenacetine, lidocaine, hydroxyzine and diltiazem for cocaine; caffeine and phentermine for amphetamine, have been identified over the years. Furthermore, since cocaine and morphine (this latter as a precursor of heroin) are both extracted from natural products, some impurities and minor alkaloids can be present in the final preparation. In this context, it is worth considering that new psychoactive substances are also used as cutting agents. The wide availability of illicit psychotropic drugs is the most serious hazard threatening consumers. Indeed emergency departments are often responsible in evaluating damages caused not only by the base substance, but also by other eventual compounds added to mimic or antagonize drug effects or simply dilute the drug amount, with a possible harmful synergic toxic action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  8. Performance evaluation of the multidetector gamma counter Multigamma 1260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, L.; Fingerova, H.; Husak, V.; Erban, J.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical trials were carried out in co-operation with the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Teaching Hospital, of MULTIGAMMA 1260 by LKB WALLAC, Finland, an instrument for gamma counting of samples in RIA. The experience is summed up gained with the operation of the instrument, a brief description is presented and a comparison is given with the NE 1612 multidetector instrument and a conventional automatic single-detector gamma counter by Searle which has been used for some time in routine operation. The major advantage of the instrument being tested is its high speed evaluation given by the simultaneous measurement of 12 samples and immediate processing of the results by a microprocessor unit. Concentration values are printed out immediately after the last point of the curve has been measured, calculated and plotted. The accuracy, efficiency and stability of measurement at this high speed remains comparable to conventional instruments. (author)

  9. 'Miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Artikov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Muon detection is fundamental for the most of the interesting analyses at CDF. At the course of Run II, the collaboration expects to collect hundreds of t t-bar decays yielding a muon as well as several million B-hadron events involving J/ψ → μ + μ - decays. Muon detection is also of fundamental importance in the study of W-boson properties and in the search for Higgs production associated with W or Z bosons. Considerable effort therefore went into extending the muon detector coverage for Run II, which started in March 2001. The CDF II muon detector system consists of multiple layers of drift chambers and scintillation counters, which span the pseudorapidity (|η|) range between 0 and 1.5. Detectors spanning different ranges have different geometries, and the muon scintillation counter system includes subsystems in the regions that have come to be known as the 'central' (0 pe for WLS fiber readout is smaller than for conventional readout, we can also expect an increase in the statistical contribution to the overall uncertainty. Our first concern, before adopting this solution, was therefore to ascertain that the mean timing resolution obtained under these conditions was adequate. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of MSX' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns. (author)

  10. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  11. A gridded air counter for measuring exoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Chiba, Yoshiya; Kirihata, Humiaki.

    1980-01-01

    A gridded air counter with a quenching circuit is described, which serves to detect low-energy electrons such as thermionic electrons, photoelectrons and exoelectrons emitted into the atmospheric air. The air counter consists of a loop-shaped anode and two grids provided for quenching the gas discharge and for protecting the electron emitter from the positive ion bombardment. The quenching circuit with a high input sensitivity of 5 mV detects the initiation gas discharge caused by an incident electron and immediately supplies a rectangular wave pulse of 300 V in amplitude and of more than 3 msec in width to the quenching grid near the anode. Simultaneously, the voltage of the suppressor grid is brought down and kept at -30 V against the earthed sample for the same period of time. Performance of the gridded air counter was examined by use of photoelectrons emitted from an abraded aluminum plate. The quenching action was successfully accomplished in the anode voltage range from 3.65 to 3.95 kV. The photoelectrons emitted into the atmosphere could be counted stably by use of this counter. (author)

  12. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  13. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  14. Micropipette as Coulter counter for submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzevich, Yauheni; Ordonez, Tony; Evans, Grant; Chow, Lee

    2011-03-01

    Coulter counter based on micropipette has been around for several decades. Typical commercial Coulter counter has a pore size of 20 μ m, and is designed to detect micron-size blood cells. In recent years, there are a lot of interests in using nanometer pore size Coulter counter to detect single molecule and to sequence DNA. Here we describe a simple nanoparticle counter based on pulled micropipettes with a diameter of 50 -- 500 nm. Borosilicate micropipettes with an initial outer diameter of 1.00 mm and inner diameter of 0.5 mm are used. After pulling, the micropipettes are fire polished and ultrasound cleaned. Chlorinated Ag/AgCl electrodes and 0.1 M of KCl solution are used. The ionic currents are measured using an Axopatch 200B amplifier in the voltage-clamp mode. Several types and sizes of nanoparticles are measured, including plain silica and polystyrene nanospheres. The results will be discussed in terms of pH values of the solution and concentrations of the nanoparticles. Financial support from National Science Foundation (NSF-0901361) is acknowledged.

  15. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  16. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  17. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  18. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  19. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  20. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)