WorldWideScience

Sample records for council solar energy

  1. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  2. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  3. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  4. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  5. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  6. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  7. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  9. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  10. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  11. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  12. Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω r...

  13. Interstate Solar Coordination Council. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L.

    1981-02-15

    The ISCC program accomplishments and future plans are reported as follows: overall activities; development of a national standards and certification program for solar collectors; development of a national organization for operating the collector certification program; review of applicability and use of solar collector rating procedures; development of a program for evaluation/testing/certification of solar systems; development of ISCC as a formal and independent organization; development of sizing and installation manual; and coordination efforts with other solar groups. (MHR)

  14. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  15. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  16. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  17. Solar energy directories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1984-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 275 directories relating to solar energy and renewable energy resources. The references include the newsletters and in-house publications of small firms and groups, plans and designs for solar housing, catalogs, and directories of agencies and organizations involved in solar energy. The references are listed in alphabetical order.

  18. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  19. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  20. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  1. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  2. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  3. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  4. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  5. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  6. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  7. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  8. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  9. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to solar energy engineering, covering topics such as radiation, absorption, its practical applications in space and hot water heating, and solar geometrical and geographical forms.

  10. Physics of solar energy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2011-01-01

    The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy-solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more ""green"" jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy

  11. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  12. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  13. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  14. Solar energy in Czechoslovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Eva

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of my tour to Czechoslovakia was to participate the Third International Conference Applied Optics in Solar Energy, which was held in Prague, Octoher 2-6, 1989, and then visit some scientific institutes and solar collector plants as guest of the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science. This was made possihle hy an exchange researcher grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences.

  15. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  16. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  17. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  18. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  19. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  20. Tehnical day: solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Carli, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an example of planning and carrying out a technical activity day in the field of solar energy in primary school grades 7 and 9. Firstly, we briefly present technical activity days, the goals and criteria for the planning of technical days, and the topics and devices connected to the technical day in question and were needed in the execution of the experiments. We have selected four simple experiments in the field of solar energy and prepared the needed worksheets fo...

  1. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  2. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  3. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks u...

  4. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  5. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  6. Council of Energy Engineering Research. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Richard J.

    2003-08-22

    The Engineering Research Program, a component program of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), was established in 1979 to aid in resolving the numerous engineering issues arising from efforts to meet U.S. energy needs. The major product of the program became part of the body of knowledge and data upon which the applied energy technologies are founded; the product is knowledge relevant to energy exploration, production, conversion and use.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  8. Solar energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George W.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2007-01-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  10. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  11. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Energy Resource Council, Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B... Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, Knoxville, TN 37902 and will be open to the...

  12. Solar energy to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R

    2010-01-01

    In a solar economy, sustainably available biomass holds the potential to be an excellent nonfossil source of high energy density transportation fuel. However, if sustainably available biomass cannot supply the liquid fuel need for the entire transport sector, alternatives must be sought. This article reviews biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes that treat biomass primarily as a carbon source and boost liquid fuel production substantially by using supplementary energy that is recovered from solar energy at much higher efficiencies than the biomass itself. The need to develop technologies for an energy-efficient future sustainable transport sector infrastructure that will use different forms of energy, such as electricity, H(2), and heat, in a synergistic interaction with each other is emphasized. An enabling template for such a future transport infrastructure is presented. An advantage of the use of such a template is that it reduces the land area needed to propel an entire transport sector. Also, some solutions for the transition period that synergistically combine biomass with fossil fuels are briefly discussed.

  13. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Tennessee Valley...

  14. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  15. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  16. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  17. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  18. Solar energy and environmental ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current directions in the scientific development and advocacy of solar technology emphasize its technical efficiency, its ability to function in place of conventional energy technologies, and measures of its long-run cost effectiveness. Those directions do not consider human experience or the effect of their preoccupation with technical thinking. Even environmental ethics, as it relates to solar energy, and legal aspects of the use of solar energy are biased toward finding fixed solutions to social problems. The German thinker Martin Heidegger argued that meaningful involvement in any saturation depends on one's ability to think clearly and thoroughly. Heidegger's emphasis on thinking and thoughtfulness fits best with ways of using solar energy that are appropriate to both the nature of solar energy and the lifestyles of the users. Truly appropriate use of solar energy requires what Heidegger called a composure toward solar technology, in which solar technology might change to suit new circumstances but not to the point where the user cannot control it. The horizons of solar technology itself are broadened in the context to include scientifically less-sophisticated equipment, and ways of using solar energy that reflect changes in lifestyle and greater awareness of the sun.

  19. Solar energy for the hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    You can't scrap your boiler and expect solar panels to provide steam for process and heating, but solar systems are cost-effective now for domestic hot water generation, according to a leading solar energy engineering/design/build firm.

  20. Solar energy technical training directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1979-06-01

    Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse information. An alphabetical index of institutions in included. (MHR)

  1. A solar energy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurentiu, A.

    1981-05-30

    A simplified design of a flat solar energy collector with an absorber made from plastic, and a housing stamped from polyethylene with a thermal insulation layer made from porous plastic is patented. The thermal insulation layer is also stamped out as a hole part in the necessary shape. A transparency made from transparent plastic in the form of a cover is applied to the housing. The cover has edges that attach to the vertical walls of the housing. In order to improve the seal of the internal area of the collector, the edges of the transparency fit into the gap between the vertical walls of the housing and the attachment piece on the walls. The collector is characterized by simplicity in assembly and low cost.

  2. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  3. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  4. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  5. Photovoltaic solar energy; Energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru; Vilela, Olga de Castro; Barbosa, Elielza Moura de Souza [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco(UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from thermal solar energy, analysing the international markets of the photovoltaic modules, the changes which are being produced in the application character, the environmental phenomena resulting from the modules production, briefly describes the physical phenomena explaining the photovoltaic effect, analyses the process of module price formation and performs the energy costs resultant for the user and subsides politics being practiced in various countries.

  6. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  7. U.S. Council for Energy Awareness 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report of the US Council for Energy Awareness covers the following main topics. (1) Electricity and Economic growth: growth of these has been roughly parallel. New electric generating capacity will be needed if the US is to sustain economic growth. All resources - coal, oil, natural gas, renewables, energy efficiency, and nuclear energy - have a role to play. (2) Nuclear Energy and the Environment: Nuclear energy is one of the cleanest sources of electric power. (3) Nuclear Power and Energy Independence: Nuclear energy is partly responsible for the dramatic reduction in oil use by electric utilities over the past 20 years. (4) Nuclear Energy: Insurance for the future: As US utilities plan to meet the growing need for electric power, they face major uncertainties (increased competion; the extent that demand-side management and efficiency can reduce need; future price and supply of natural gas; impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments; possibility of increased fossil fuel restrictions) Nuclear energy represents prudent, strategic planning against these uncertainties.

  8. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  9. Technical use of solar energy: Conversion from solar to thermal energy, solar cooling and thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, A.; Fisch, N.; Hahne, E.; Kraus, K.; Seemann, D.; Seifert, B.; Sohns, J.; Schetter, G.; Schweigerer, W.

    1983-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies in the field of solar energy utilization are reviewed. Specific topics considered are: flat plate water collectors, solar absorbers, air collectors, solar absorption cooling, solar simulators, aquifiers, latent heat stores, and space heating systems.

  10. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities.

  11. Chemistry of Personalized Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized energy (PE) is a transformative idea that provides a new modality for the planet’s energy future. By providing solar energy to the individual, an energy supply becomes secure and available to people of both legacy and non-legacy worlds, and minimally contributes to increasing the anthropogenic level of carbon dioxide. Because PE will be possible only if solar energy is available 24 hours a day, 7 day a week, the key enabler for solar PE is an inexpensive storage mechanism. HX (X = halide or OH−) splitting is a fuel-forming reaction of sufficient energy density for large scale solar storage but the reaction relies on chemical transformations that are not understood at the most basic science level. Critical among these are multielectron transfers that are proton-coupled and involve the activation of bonds in energy poor substrates. The chemistry of these three italicized areas is developed, and from this platform, discovery paths leading to new HX and H2O splitting catalysts are delineated. For the case of the water splitting catalyst, it captures many of the functional elements of photosynthesis. In doing so, a highly manufacturable and inexpensive method has been discovered for solar PE storage. PMID:19775081

  12. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  13. Photochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important issue of the 21st century. About 85% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, a finite resource unevenly distributed beneath the Earth's surface. Reserves of fossil fuels are progressively decreasing, and their continued use produces harmful effects such as pollution that threatens human health and greenhouse gases associated with global warming. Prompt global action to solve the energy crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy and to use energy in more efficient ways, but we are also forced to find alternative energy sources, the most convenient of which is solar energy for several reasons. The sun continuously provides the Earth with a huge amount of energy, fairly distributed all over the world. Its enormous potential as a clean, abundant, and economical energy source, however, cannot be exploited unless it is converted into useful forms of energy. This Review starts with a brief description of the mechanism at the basis of the natural photosynthesis and, then, reports the results obtained so far in the field of photochemical conversion of solar energy. The "grand challenge" for chemists is to find a convenient means for artificial conversion of solar energy into fuels. If chemists succeed to create an artificial photosynthetic process, "... life and civilization will continue as long as the sun shines!", as the Italian scientist Giacomo Ciamician forecast almost one hundred years ago.

  14. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  15. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  16. A solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, L.L.; Avakyan, Yu V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Grakovich, L.P.; Khustalev, D.K.; Morgun, V.A.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    During collector operation, solar emission is absorbed by the evaporator section of the heating tube; the degree of blackness of the forward wall of the section is increased significantly by the use of corrugations in this section. Boiling of the working fluid in the longitudinal slotted channels is accompanied by outbursts of the steam fluid mixture in the direction of the forward wall, resulting in wetting of the longitudinal corrugation on this wall. In this solar collector, there is a continuous flow of the working fluid onto the internal surface of the leading wall of the evaporation section of the heat tube; the working fluid evaporation process is accelerated by the spraying resulting from the popping of vapor bubbles.

  17. Solar energy program. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    this annual report describes the work done at Argonne National Laboratory on the Solar Energy Program during FY 1978 (July 1, 1977 to June 30, 1978). Areas included in this report are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, satellite power systems, bioconversion, central receiver solar thermal power, and wind energy conversion.

  18. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  19. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  20. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzberger, Adolf; Hoffmann, Volker U.

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems.

  1. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  2. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  3. Short review on solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herez, Amal; Ramadan, Mohamad; Abdulhay, Bakri; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Solar energy can be utilized mainly in heat generation and electricity production. International energy agency (IEA) shows, in a comparative study on the world energy consumption that in 2050 solar arrays installation will provide about 45% of world energy demand. Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy source which plays a great role in providing energy solutions. As known there is wide variety of types of collectors and applications of solar energy. This paper aimed to make a short review on solar energy systems, according to types of collectors and applications used.

  4. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  5. Solar energy and substainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

  6. Energy measures report: summary for English county councils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report is a summary of information for English county councils on measures local authorities in England and Wales can take to improve energy efficiency, increase the levels of microgeneration, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce fuel poverty. It highlights the main areas in which local authorities can take action. In October 2006, the Stern Review of the economics of climate change was published. This assessed the evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the economic costs. Local authorities are uniquely placed to act on climate change mitigation and to alleviate fuel poverty. They can take action on their own estates and housing stock but can also play a key role in motivating the wider community to take action, based on their understanding of local priorities, risks and opportunities. Local authorities already have a number of responsibilities to incorporate climate change and energy policy considerations into the way in which they carry out their powers and functions. The publication of the Local Government White Paper 2006 signalled a shift in the role of local authorities. Tackling climate change is now recognised as one of the key areas in which local authorities can take on a community leadership role. The new performance framework, detailed in the White Paper, will have an appropriate focus on climate change, with the 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review making decisions on national outcomes, indicators and any national targets. The Review concluded that there is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if action is taken now and in concert with other countries. A key conclusion was that in the long term the cost of inaction would be far higher than the cost of tackling climate change now. The Government's view is therefore that taking action to mitigate the effects of climate change is the only strategy consistent with long-term economic growth and global stability. See URN: 07/1439 for the main report.

  7. Energy measures report: summary for English town and parish councils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report is a summary of information for English town and parish councils on measures local authorities in England and Wales can take to improve energy efficiency, increase the levels of microgeneration, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce fuel poverty. It highlights the main areas in which local authorities can take action. In October 2006, the Stern Review of the economics of climate change was published. This assessed the evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the economic costs. Local authorities are uniquely placed to act on climate change mitigation and to alleviate fuel poverty. They can take action on their own estates and housing stock but can also play a key role in motivating the wider community to take action, based on their understanding of local priorities, risks and opportunities. Local authorities already have a number of responsibilities to incorporate climate change and energy policy considerations into the way in which they carry out their powers and functions. The publication of the Local Government White Paper 2006 signalled a shift in the role of local authorities. Tackling climate change is now recognised as one of the key areas in which local authorities can take on a community leadership role. The new performance framework, detailed in the White Paper, will have an appropriate focus on climate change, with the 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review making decisions on national outcomes, indicators and any national targets. The Review concluded that there is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if action is taken now and in concert with other countries. A key conclusion was that in the long term the cost of inaction would be far higher than the cost of tackling climate change now. The Government's view is therefore that taking action to mitigate the effects of climate change is the only strategy consistent with long-term economic growth and global stability. See URN: 07/1439 for the main report.

  8. Energy measures report: summary for English district councils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report is a summary of information for English district councils on measures local authorities in England and Wales can take to improve energy efficiency, increase the levels of microgeneration, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce fuel poverty. It highlights the main areas in which local authorities can take action. In October 2006, the Stern Review of the economics of climate change was published. This assessed the evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the economic costs. Local authorities are uniquely placed to act on climate change mitigation and to alleviate fuel poverty. They can take action on their own estates and housing stock but can also play a key role in motivating the wider community to take action, based on their understanding of local priorities, risks and opportunities. Local authorities already have a number of responsibilities to incorporate climate change and energy policy considerations into the way in which they carry out their powers and functions. The publication of the Local Government White Paper 2006 signalled a shift in the role of local authorities. Tackling climate change is now recognised as one of the key areas in which local authorities can take on a community leadership role. The new performance framework, detailed in the White Paper, will have an appropriate focus on climate change, with the 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review making decisions on national outcomes, indicators and any national targets. The Review concluded that there is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, if action is taken now and in concert with other countries. A key conclusion was that in the long term the cost of inaction would be far higher than the cost of tackling climate change now. The Government's view is therefore that taking action to mitigate the effects of climate change is the only strategy consistent with long-term economic growth and global stability. See URN: 07/1439 for the main report.

  9. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  10. Food dehydration by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

    1982-01-01

    Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying.

  11. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  12. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  13. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  14. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  15. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills......Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  16. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  17. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  18. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  19. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  20. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  1. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  2. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  3. Solar-energy storage-systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R W

    1981-04-01

    Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

  4. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  5. Introductory guide to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, WN

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available an extra tank to pre-heat the water supplied to the geyser. Solar water heaters can also be added to a system where an appliance such as a solid fuel stove or gas water heater is employed, with a useful saving in fuel. The following diagrams illustrate... were imminent. From what was said earlier it is obvious that the sun must eventually supply most of the earth's energy needs. In several parts of the world hot air engines that take their heat from the sun are in use to drive water pumps. One...

  6. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  7. French participation in the world energy council; Presence francaise au conseil mondial de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, Ch. [Secretariat General du Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Roussely, F.; Francony, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Ailleret, F. [Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F. [ADEME, Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Villaron, Th. [Conseil Mondial de l`Energie (France)

    1999-02-01

    The Revue de l`Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m{sup 2}, the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l`Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary`s office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  8. Biomimetic utilization of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

    2012-12-01

    The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  9. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  10. Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar e

  11. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  12. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  13. Chalcogenide Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Turmezei

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical energy storage can possibly be solved with the help of electrochemical solar cells, which are suitable to generate either electrical energy or hydrogen gas under special conditions. The greatest problem of the electrochemical solar cell technology is to find novel materials which have appropriate properties for electrochemical energy conversion. In this work Cd4GeSe6, a novel material for electrochemical solar cells, will be presented.

  14. Solar Energy Cell with Rare Earth Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Baojun; Yang Tao; Zhou Yao; Zhou Meng; Fu Xiliang; Fu Li

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic of the solar energy cell with the rare earth film according to theory of molecular structure was introduced.When sunlight shines, the molecules of the rare earth film can absorb energy of the photon and jump to the excited state from the basic state, and play a role in storing solar energy.When sunlight do not shine, the electron of the excited state returns to the basic state, the rare earth film can automatically give out light and shine to surface of the solar cell, which can make solar cell continuously generate electric current.The rare earth film can absorb direct,scattering sunlight, and increase density of solar energy to reach surface of the solar cell, and play focusing function.The rare earth film can bear 350 ~ 500 ℃, which make the solar cell be able to utilize the focusing function system.Because after luminescence of the rare earth film, it can release again the absorbed solar energy through 1 ~ 8 h, and play a role in storing solar energy; The solar cell with the rare-earth film can generate electricity during night and cloudy days, and remarkably increase efficiency of the solar cell.

  15. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  16. The necessity of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1996-09-01

    The idea of limits to growth has, understandably, achieved notoriety since the days of Malthus and, more recently, the Club of Rome. However, there must be some limits to the ability of the Earth to sustain a growing population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world`s population will probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next hundred years. The question is whether the Earth`s resources are sufficient to sustain that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy. It is clear that present trends in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Regardless of this, however, prudence demands a drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, in view of the possibility of global warming. It can be shown that, combined with greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to a solar (renewable) energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world economy, is possible, but the constraints are extremely tight. (Author)

  17. The Solar Energy Timetable. Worldwatch Paper 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication proposes a timetable for converting the world economy to solar energy. The contents include: (1) A solar-powered world by 2025; (2) Heating and cooling; (3) Renewable fuels; (4) Electricity; (5) Getting there from here; and (6) Notes. Numerous facts are presented within these sections. International solar research programs are…

  18. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  20. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  1. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  2. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  3. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  4. Development of solar energy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, H. O.; Nahui, A.

    1981-06-01

    Development of solar energy technology utilization in Peru is discussed. Peru receives a high degree of solar radiation (except for part of its coastal area) and has almost an ideal climate for the development of solar energy. The development of low temperature applications, including the design of passive solar heated buildings for the high Andes, the design and evaluation of various types of solar water heaters and crop dryers for both household and industrial uses (based on flat plate collectors), and the construction of a desalinization prototype plant are reported. Photovoltaic systems are investigated for suitable applications and have an excellent potential, especially in telecommunications.

  5. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date.

  6. Nuclear Processes at Solar Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, C

    2003-01-01

    LUNA, Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics at Gran Sasso, is measuring fusion cross sections down to the energy of the nucleosynthesis inside stars. Outstanding results obtained up to now are the cross-section measurements within the Gamow peak of the Sun of $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p)^{4}He$ and the $D(p,\\gamma)^{3}He$. The former plays a big role in the proton-proton chain, largely affecting the calculated solar neutrino luminosity, whereas the latter is the reaction that rules the proto-star life during the pre-main sequence phase. The implications of such measurements will be discussed. Preliminary results obtained last year on the study of $^{14}N(p,\\gamma)^{15}O$, the slowest reaction of the CNO cycle, will also be shown.

  7. Solar Energy Generation in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Marco; Wan, Jin H; Villalon, Rachelle; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the conversion of solar energy to electricity is central to the World's future energy economy. Flat photovoltaic panels are commonly deployed in residential and commercial rooftop installations without sun tracking systems and using simple installation guidelines to optimize solar energy collection. Large-scale solar energy generation plants use bulky and expensive sun trackers to avoid cosine losses from photovoltaic panels or to concentrate sunlight with mirrors onto heating fluids.[1,2] However, none of these systems take advantage of the three-dimensional nature of our biosphere, so that solar energy collection largely occurs on flat structures in contrast with what is commonly observed in Nature.[3,4] Here we formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three-dimensions.[5] We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build three-dimensional photovoltaic (3DPV) structures that can generate ...

  8. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  9. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  10. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  11. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  12. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  13. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  14. Projects in a Solar Energy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes student projects on applications of solar energy optics to home design. Project criterion (requiring sketches and detailed calculations of time rate of energy flow/production) is that half the heat for the heating season be taken from the solar resource; calculations must be based on meteorological data for a specific location. (JM)

  15. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  16. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  17. Solar energy in Norway; Solstroem i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern; Nordal, Siv Helen; Bugge, Lars; Authen, Mari L.; Bernhard, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Enova SF produced in 2010/11 a report that described the potential of solar energy until 2020. Developments in the market for the production of electricity from solar energy happens so fast that it is prepared a new report describing the market and technology per 2012. (eb)

  18. Photovoltaic Solar Energy - From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date ac

  19. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, V

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  20. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  1. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  2. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  3. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  4. Ethics of energy production and use: debate within the National Council of Churches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, P.

    1979-02-01

    An Energy Policy Statement emanating from a panel for the National Council of Churches (NCC) in the United States was presented in May 1978 to the governing board of the NCC. The proposed Energy Policy Statement is composed of four sections: Opinions and Perspectives, Theological Dimensions of the Energy Situation, Ecological Justice and Human choice, and A Challenge to the Churches. Controversy concerning the proposed plan was great. The controversy on nuclear energy is specifically described. While the NCC was anti-nuclear, the World Council of Churches was tilting toward nuclear power. The NCC focused on ethics of energy and the WCC is not focusing on ethics; its nuclear statement does not constitute policy; and another WCC committee is aggressively promoting conservation and appropriate technology. The lessons drawn from the NCC debate are summarized. (MCW)

  5. The State Council:Strictly Enforce Access System in High Energy Consumption Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The General Office of the State Council recently printed and distributed the"Action Plan for Implementing and Enforcing Quality Development Outline 2016"(The"Action Plan").The"Action Plan"clarified work highlights in 2016,including strengthening quality rectification to phase out outdated capacity and diffusing surplus capacity,in high energy consumption and high pollution

  6. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  7. Solar energy: a viable alternative energy source; Energia solar: uma fonte de energia alternativa viavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros Mattoso e Sousa, Karla de; Sousa, Renato M.A. de [KR Consultoria Projetos e Edificacoes Ltda., MG (Brazil)

    1997-01-01

    This work describes the advantages of using solar energy for water heating instead of conventional systems. Also, the socio and environmental benefits are specified. Finally, the different stages, by which the carrying out of a solar energy project goes through are described, starting by a technical and economical analysis, followed by calculations, and the installation of the solar system. 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  9. White House science council ponders measures to improve energy funding

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "The business strategy of the Energy Department's Office of Science is largely based on its 20-year plan for constructing or upgrading 28 facilities, most of them at department laboratories, DOE science chief Raymond Orbach told members of a White House advisory panel last week" (1 page).

  10. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  11. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and start-up of the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project (the Project). The Project is a proposed 110- megawatt solar power...

  13. Renewable Energy Solar Power Surges On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the increased focus and attention solar power is receiving around the world as a potentially significant energy alternative, it makes sense that China's solar enterprises are today doing big business and raking in massive profits. Among the most notable returns have been those of newcomer Suntech Power Holdings.

  14. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  15. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  16. Dormitory Solar-Energy-System Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    102-page report analyzes long-term economic performance of a prepackaged solar energy assembly system at a dormitory installation and extrapolates to four additional sites about the U.S. Method of evaluation is f-chart procedure for solar-heating and domestic hotwater systems.

  17. Energy transfer in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelbring, H.

    2013-12-01

    Different types of energy transfer are presented from the literature and are approached and commented on. It follows from these articles that energy transfer in addition to solar irradiation is less well understood by contemporary scientist. The transformation of energy between kinetic and potential energy in planetary orbits might be of crucial importance for understanding energy transfer between celestial bodies and the development of commensurabilities. There is evidence pointing to interactions (friction) between space and satellites producing volcanism. The reversible transfer of energy between the orbit of Moon and Earth's rotational energy is crucial to the creation of the 13.6-day and 27.3-day periods in both solar variables and Earth bound climate variables. It is hypothesized that the Earth-Moon system is modulating the sunspot numbers and creating both these periods, and that the great planets are responsible for the 11 yr solar cycle.

  18. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  19. Active Solar Energy Use Approaching Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NikouJavadiEshkalak,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sustainability becomes one of the most important issues that should be taken into consideration in various fields especially in architecture. Our responsibility for the future generation insinuates us for using renewable energy sources and integrating this pioneer system into the built environment. Although the world is facing problems of fossil fuel resources but unfortunately Utilization of solar energy received limited attention until recently. However, Integrating of active solar energy devices into the building envelopes is one of the good strategies for heat producing and power generating simultaneously from the same building. This paper discusses some characteristics about integration of PV s and solar thermal collectors. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find suitable and possible ways of PV s and solar thermal collector's building integration in order to increasing energy efficiency without any impact on architectural features. \\

  20. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacit...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  1. Community impediments to implementation of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M. D.; Armstrong, J. E.

    1979-11-01

    The complete array of institutional problems expected to energy when solar technology are implemented on a national scale is assembled. The findings of the study are presented in two formats. First, the results are organized by the time frames of delays in solar implementation caused by the inherent difficulties a national energy policy would encounter in changing the way a given institution responds to specific solar technologies. Delay categories of 10 years or more, 6 to 8 years, and 3 to 5 years were selected; all were assigned under the assumption that a strong national policy promoting adoption of solar technologies would be in effect. The second format constitutes a description of the difficulties at the community level, associated with implementing each solar technology. (MHR)

  2. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  3. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  4. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  5. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  6. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  7. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10(-3) Whcm(-3). In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10(-1) Whcm(-3)- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  8. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  9. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10−3 Whcm−3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10−1 Whcm−3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications. PMID:28361924

  10. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilrain, E. E.

    1991-05-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  11. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A. [Higher Technical Inst., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2004-11-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO{sub 2} and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gases are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water systems the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gases are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future. (Author)

  12. The solar energy; L'Energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    This document provides information the today technology concerning the photovoltaic cells and presents the research programs in the domain: silver cells, black silicon, spherical cells, mini sensors, solar spectrum cells Hercules europe project of solar energy concentration. Many Internet addresses are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  14. Groove / Solar energy cataloque; Groove aurinkoenergian yritysluettelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    According to Tekes, renewable energy offer Finnish companies opportunities for renewal and international growth. Especially in the field of solar energy, development is fast and the market is growing rapidly. The purpose of this catalogue is to provide information about organizations active in the field of solar energy so that different players can find each other more easily. Information is provided about organizations active both on the supply side (solar energy solution and service providers) and demand side (cities, construction contractors, real estate owners) as well as research teams at universities and research centers. We hope that this catalogue will help different actors to find each other both nationally and internationally so that good development and demonstration projects in the field of solar energy can get started. Tekes participates for instance in Solar Eranet, a joint effort of several funding organizations in Europe support transnational solar projects. This catalogue is provided by Tekes program Groove - Growth from renewables. Tekes' programmes and initiatives are topical entities targeted at financial and expert service areas. Within the programmes and initiatives, businesses and public research units can develop new know-how, build networks and have an impact on the development of their field. (orig.)

  15. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  16. Harnessing Solar Energy for Every Home: Energy Saving Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Most of the present day resources of energy are limited and irreplaceable. The next generation will face acute energy crisis if alternate resources of energy are not developed concurrently. Increasing cost and import of conventional resources have bad effect on the economy of a country, and the only cheaper solution is “unlimited power” from the sun. The use of solar energy is so far limited in household applications. In fact, if we harness only 0.0034 percent of the solar energy reaching the...

  17. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any...

  18. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  19. Energy efficient lighting and controls at North Lanarkshire Council: Good practice case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The Sir Matt Busby Sports Complex is an important local facility for the people of Bellshill, North Lanarkshire. The sports and leisure complex, a North Lanarkshire Council property, offers a combination of indoor and outdoor sporting facilities including a floodlit synthetic football pitch and a comprehensive mix of swimming, sauna, gym and sports hall facilities. The electrical demand imposed by lighting for any business can be very significant, constituting up to 30% of the electrical power consumption. At the Sir Matt Busby Sports Complex a combination of new efficient light fittings and controls has improved lighting levels, reduced overall energy consumption by nearly 10% and provided substantial cost savings. The Carbon Trust has assisted the Council by identifying and prioritising energy saving opportunities and providing a prioritised implementation plan. This partnership arrangement and the Council's access to UK Pound 930,000 of 'spend to save' funding, provided by the Scottish Executive, has allowed the rapid implementation of energy efficiency measures. (GB)

  20. Solar energy estimation using REST2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizwan, Majid Jamil, D. P. Kothari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The network of solar energy measuring stations is relatively rare through out the world. In India, only IMD (India Meteorological Department Pune provides data for quite few stations, which is considered as the base data for research purposes. However, hourly data of measured energy is not available, even for those stations where measurement has already been done. Due to lack of hourly measured data, the estimation of solar energy at the earth’s surface is required. In the proposed study, hourly solar energy is estimated at four important Indian stations namely New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Jaipur keeping in mind their different climatic conditions. For this study, REST2 (Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 bands, a high performance parametric model for the estimation of solar energy is used. REST2 derivation uses the two-band scheme as used in the CPCR2 (Code for Physical Computation of Radiation, 2 bands but CPCR2 does not include NO2 absorption, which is an important parameter for estimating solar energy. In this study, using ground measurements during 1986-2000 as reference, a MATLAB program is written to evaluate the performance of REST2 model at four proposed stations. The solar energy at four stations throughout the year is estimated and compared with CPCR2. The results obtained from REST2 model show the good agreement against the measured data on horizontal surface. The study reveals that REST2 models performs better and evaluate the best results as compared to the other existing models under cloudless sky for Indian climatic conditions.

  1. Rosier future for solar energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent progress in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) research and development,which use innovative light-harvesting dye (the "sensitizer") to improve the optical absorption coefficient of the stained nanostructured electrodes,might color our seemingly dimming future energy security with a tint of rose,despite the looming depletion of fossil fuels.Costing only 10~20% as its silicon counterparts,the new devices might make it affordable for much more people to utilize solar energy,a handy renewable energy source.

  2. Using Solar Energy to Desalinate Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Harry Z.

    1978-01-01

    Material presented is adapted from Desalination with Solar Energy, a paper presented before the International Symposium on Energy Sources and Development, held in Spain in 1977. Desalination systems energized by the sun, conditions governing their efficiency, and their costs are discussed. (HM)

  3. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  4. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  5. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Port of Galveston (POG), Galveston, TX (United States); Cuclis, Alex [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Freundlich, Alex [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  6. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  7. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  8. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  9. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  10. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  12. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  13. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  14. The Texas Instruments Solar Energy System development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. L.

    The system is described, showing that energy conversion and storage functions are combined in a novel way. Here, small silicon solar cells are immersed in an electrolyte and the current generated by the cells is used directly to electrolyze a halogen acid, for example, HBr. The hydrogen and bromine produced can be stored separately until needed and then recombined in a fuel cell to give electrical energy on demand. The fuel cell HBr product is returned to the solar chemical convertor, thus completing the closed loop energy cycle. In summarizing the achievements to date, it is noted that feasibility demonstration of a 13% array electrical efficiency prepared by a laboratory process and 10% array efficiencies have been obtained from potentially scalable solar cell and array processes.

  15. Solar energy - When, where and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touryan, K. J.

    1981-05-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the conversion technologies by which solar energy may be turned into useful end products. The degree of maturity of these technologies, which include photovoltaics, biomass conversion, and direct and indirect solar thermal conversion systems such as wind energy and ocean thermal gradients, ranges from those that are available commercially, such as hot water heating, to those that are in a robust embryonic stage, such as the production of ethanol from woody biomass. The cost, performance, market potential and environmental/social impact of these technologies are considered to determine (1) what fraction of the U.S. energy budget will be solar in the short, middle, and long terms, and (2) what the mix and distribution of these technologies will be in the year 2000.

  16. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  17. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  18. Open cycle cooling systems using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Sovrano, M.

    Open cycle cooling systems are particularly suitable for utilizing solar energy. In all these systems the adsorption and absorption phenomena are very important, hence they are described separately. The cycles used are essentially two: the Baum-Kakabaev cycle using liquid absorbers and the dehumidification/humidification cycle where also adsorbent substances can be utilized. Solar energy is used in the regeneration process of dehumidifying substances. Reactivation modes can be various: suitability of one mode or the other can depend on the climate of the site where the system is installed.

  19. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  20. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  1. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  2. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  3. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  4. Energy dissipation processes in solar wind turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Feng, X S; Xu, X J; Zhang, J; Sun, T R; Zuo, P B

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation cannot be ultimately achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind magnetic reconnection region. We find that the magnetic reconnection region shows a unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for the intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a magnetic reconnection site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy...

  5. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  6. Geostellar: Remote Solar Energy Assessments Personalized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-01

    Geostellar has produced an online tool that generates a unique solar profile for homeowners to learn about the financial benefits to installing rooftop solar panels on their home. The website incorporates the physical building characteristics of the home, including shading, slope, and orientation of the roof, and applies electricity costs and incentives to determine the best solar energy estimated energy production values against actual installed rooftop photovoltaic systems. The validation conducted by NREL concluded that over three-quarters of Geostellar's potential size estimates are at least as large as the actual installed systems, indicating a correct assessment of roof availability. In addition, 87% of Geostellar's 25-year production estimates are within 90% of the actual PV Watts results.

  7. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  9. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results a

  10. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  11. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  12. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  13. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  14. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  15. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  16. Chalcogenide Perovskites for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Samanthe

    Methylammonium Lead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing high efficient low cost photovoltaic modules. Charge transport properties of the solution processed halide perovskites are comparable to some of the existing absorbers used in the current PV industry which require sophisticated processing techniques. Due to this simple processing required to achieve high efficiencies, halide perovskites have become an active field of research. As a result, perovskite solar cells are rapidly reaching towards theoretical efficiency limit of close to 30%. It's believed that ionicity inherent to perovskite materials is one of the contributing factors for the excellent charge transport properties of perovskites. Despite the growing interest for solar energy harvesting purposes, these halide perovskites have serious limitations such as toxicity and instability that need to be addressed in order to commercialize the solar cells incorporating them. This dissertation focuses on a new class of ionic semiconductors, chalcogenide perovskites for solar energy harvesting purposes. Coming from the family perovskites they are expected to have same excellent charge transport properties inherent to perovskites due to the ionicity. Inspired by few theoretical studies on chalcogenide perovskites, BaZrS3 and its Ti alloys were synthesized by sulfurizing the oxide counterpart. Structural characterizations have confirmed the predicted distorted perovskite phase. Optical characterizations have verified the direct band gap suitable for thin film single junction solar cells. Anion alloying was demonstrated by synthesizing oxysulfides with widely tunable band gap suitable for applications such as solid state lighting and sensing.

  17. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. Professor Wolf, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and ""artificial leaf"" approaches, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools.The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energ

  18. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  19. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  20. Announcement from the General Office of the State Council about Issuing the "2009 Work Plan for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The announcement from General Office of the State Council about Issuing the "2009 Work Plan for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction" on July 19, 2009, requested that governments in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, ministries and commissions under the State Council, departments directly under the State Council must strictly implement the work plan.

  1. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  2. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  3. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  4. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  5. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  6. Solar energy, conservation, and rental housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.

    1981-03-01

    Renters must pay the majority of energy costs either directly or in their rents. They have limited financial and legal abilities to make improvements necessary to increase substantially the energy efficiency of rental housing. This report discusses the problem of how to increase investments in energy conservation and solar energy devices for rental housing, which constitutes over one-third of US housing. As background, this report characterizes the rental-housing market, including owners' decision-making criteria. Federal, state, and local policies that affect energy-related investments in rental housing are described. Programs are divided into five major categories: (1) programs for tenants, (2) financial incentives for owners, (3) leasing of solar energy equipment, (4) mediation between tenants and landlords, and (5) regulation. The report concludes that energy and conservation programs aimed at the residential sector must disaggregate owner-occupied housing from rental housing for maximum effect. No one program is advocated since local rental-housing markets differ substantially. For improvements greater than no-cost or low-cost items, programs must be directed at rental-housing owners and not only at tenants.

  7. Mobil Solar Energy Corporation thin EFG octagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejs, J. P.

    1994-06-01

    Mobil Solar Energy Corporation manufactures photovoltaic modules based on its unique Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) process for producing octagon-shaped hollow polycrystalline silicon tubes. The octagons are cut by lasers into 100 mm x 100 mm wafers which are suitable for solar cell processing. This process avoids slicing, grinding and polishing operations which are wasteful of material and are typical of most other wafer production methods. EFG wafers are fabricated into solar cells and modules using processes that have been specially developed to allow scaling up to high throughput rates. The goals of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Initiative (PVMaT) program at Mobil Solar were to improve the EFG manufacturing line through technology advances that accelerate cost reduction in production and stimulate market growth for its product. The program was structured into three main tasks: to decrease silicon utilization by lowering wafer thickness from 400 to 200 (mu)m; to enhance laser cutting yields and throughput while improving the wafer strength; and to raise crystal growth productivity and yield. The technical problems faced and the advances made in the Mobil Solar PVMaT program are described. The author concludes with a presentation of the results of a detailed cost model for EFT module production. This model describes the accelerated reductions in manufacturing costs which are already in place and the future benefits anticipated to result from the technical achievements of the PVMaT program.

  8. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low

  9. Renewable energy forecasts for solar applications : an Environment Canada perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, L. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada

    2006-07-01

    The Meteorological Service of Canada has made weather datasets available in real-time on the Internet, for use by those with an interest in solar applications. Ensemble weather models can be used to produce medium range forecasts of weather events and to predict the likely available kilowatt-hours (kWhrs) of solar energy. As such, solar sites can maximize their harvest and use of solar energy. This presentation highlighted several different types of renewable energy forecasts obtained from weather models, including forecasts of expected kWhrs from solar panels and wind turbines, daily forecasts of expected solar heated water volumes and forecasts of water collection potential from impending precipitation events. The value of renewable energy forecasts in helping the solar energy sector monitor daily energy loads as well as daily and weekly solar energy supply was emphasized. It was suggested that renewable energy forecasts could raise public awareness of the potential of solar energy applications and help promote the solar energy market. Vendors of solar technology can also use the forecasts to help customers harmonize predicted solar energy coming to their sites with daily energy use patterns. figs.

  10. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  11. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  12. National Research Council Research Associateships Program with Methane Hydrates Fellowships Program/National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basques, Eric O. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-03-20

    This report summarizes work carried out over the period from July 5, 2005-January 31, 2014. The work was carried out by the National Research Council Research Associateships Program of the National Academies, under the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program. This Technical Report consists of a description of activity from 2005 through 2014, broken out within yearly timeframes, for NRC/NETL Associateships researchers at NETL laboratories which includes individual tenure reports from Associates over this time period. The report also includes individual tenure reports from associates over this time period. The report also includes descriptions of program promotion efforts, a breakdown of the review competitions, awards offered, and Associate's activities during their tenure.

  13. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  14. Solar Energy Forecast System Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascourt, S. D.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Cassidy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Forecast systems for predicting real-time solar energy generation are being developed along similar lines to those of more established wind forecast systems, but the challenges and constraints are different. Clouds and aerosols play a large role, and for tilted photovoltaic panels and solar concentrating plants, the direct beam irradiance, which typically has much larger forecast errors than global horizontal irradiance, must be utilized. At MDA Information Systems, we are developing a forecast system based on first principles, with the well-validated REST2 clear sky model (Gueymard, 2008) at its backbone. In tuning the model and addressing aerosol scattering and surface albedo, etc., we relied upon the wealth of public data sources including AERONET (aerosol optical depth at different wavelengths), Suominet (GPS integrated water vapor), NREL MIDC solar monitoring stations, SURFRAD (includes upwelling shortwave), and MODIS (albedo in different wavelength bands), among others. The forecast itself utilizes a blend of NWP model output, which must be brought down to finer time resolution based on the diurnal cycle rather than simple interpolation. Many models currently do not output the direct beam irradiance, and one that does appears to have a bias relative to its global horizontal irradiance, with equally good performance attained by utilizing REST2 and the model global radiation to estimate the direct component. We will present a detailed assessment of various NWP solar energy products, evaluating forecast skill at a range of photovoltaic installations.

  15. Light harvesting for quantum solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvart, Tomas

    2000-05-01

    Despite wide structural and functional differences, the laws that govern quantum solar energy conversion to chemical energy or electricity share many similarities. In the photosynthetic membrane, in common with semiconductor solar cells, the conversion process proceeds from the creation of electron-hole pairs by a photon of light, followed by charge separation to produce the required high-energy product. In many cases, however, mechanisms are needed to enhance the optical absorption cross-section and extend the spectral range of operation. A common way of achieving this is by light harvesting: light absorption by a specialised unit which transfers the energy to the conversion apparatus. This paper considers two examples of light harvesting - semiconductor solar cells and the photosynthetic apparatus - to illustrate the basic operation and principles that apply. The existence of a light harvesting unit in photosynthesis has been known since the early 1930's but details of the process - relating, in particular, to the relationship between the structure and spectral properties - are still being unravelled. The excitation energy carriers are excitons but the precise nature of the transport - via the solid state Frenkel-Peierls variety or by Förster's resonant energy transfer - is still subject to debate. In semiconductor solar cells, the energy of the absorbed photon is collected by minority carriers but the broad principles remain the same. In both cases it is shown that the rate of energy conversion is described by a law which parallels the Shockley's solar cell equation, and the light harvesting energy collection is subject to reciprocity relations which resemble Onsager's reciprocity relations between coefficients which couple appropriate forces and flows in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Differences in the basic atomic make-up in the two systems lead to different energy transport equations. In both cases, however, similar mathematical techniques based on Green

  16. Economical solar-heating or cooling system with new solar-energy concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1975-01-01

    Economical solar energy collector, made from array of cylindrical Fresnel lenses, does not require tracking mechanism. As the sun changes position, lenses focus solar energy on different collector elements.

  17. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  18. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  19. Solar and Wind Power in Hybird Energy Systems in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Qing

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems created by traditional energy, reducing the amount of usage of traditional energy and enlarging the range of usage of new energy, particularly some renewable energy should be developed immediately. In the recent years, China has been paying more attention to the utilization of renewable energy resources. Wind energy and solar energy are particularly popular due to lower cost and high economic effectiveness. As the development of wind energy and solar energy, scienti...

  20. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  1. Review of feasible solar energy applications to water processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Alarcon, D.; Gernjak, W.; Maldonado, M.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas-Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT-PSA), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    In the context of an upcoming energy crisis due to the decline of the Oil Era, water problems are expected to substantially worsen. And vice versa, due to the close relationship between water and energy issues, water problems are also expected to contribute to increased energy problems. Furthermore, environmental considerations, such as global warming, will surely add significant pressure. In this scenario, renewable energies are rapidly increasing their contribution to the global mix, with solar energy clearly having the greatest potential, and in view of the worldwide coincidence that where there is water stress and/or scarcity, there are also good solar radiation levels, the conclusion seems clear suitable technologies must be developed to permit the use of solar energy to simultaneously help solve energy and water problems. The main solar energy applications for water processes presented in this paper are: (1) solar desalination; (2) solar detoxification and; (3) solar disinfection. (author)

  2. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani D/O Ramachandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into electrical energy. Solar energy is the abundant renewable energy source available, and the Malaysia has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Electric energy is becoming one of the source energy which is required daily. However, electric power outages always happened. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device isimplemented as an electric power source by using solar as a help and support. It is used by providing charge through solar panel from sunlight. Then, the charge is flowing through the solar controller to charges battery that will flow to the load. Since energy that obtained from the battery are shaped in direct current (DC, then the inverter used to change direct current (DC to alternating current (AC for purpose of using device or application that using alternating current (AC to operate.

  3. Online National Solar Energy Directory and 2005 Solar Decathlon Product Directory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Julia; Taylor, Mike

    2008-12-31

    The Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), in partnership with the American Solar Energy Society, developed an online National Solar Energy Directory with clear, comprehensive information on suppliers and purchasing options. The site was originally located at FindSolar.com, but has recently been moved to Find-Solar.org. The original FindSolar.com domain name has been taken by the American Solar Energy Society (a partner in this project) and utilized for a similar but different project. This Find-Solar.org directory offers the rapidly growing base of potential solar customers a simple, straightforward destination to learn about their solar options. Members of the public are able to easily locate contractors in their geographic area and verify companies' qualifications with accurate third-party information. It allows consumers to obtain key information on the economics, incentives, desirability, and workings of a solar energy system, as well as competing quotes from different contractors and reviews from customers they have worked with previously. Find-Solar.org is a means of facilitating the growing public interest in solar power and overcoming a major barrier to widespread development of U.S. solar markets. In addition to the development of Find-Solar.org, SEPA developed a separate online product directory for the 2005 DOE Solar Decathlon to facilitate the communication of information about the energy efficiency and renewable energy products used in each university team's home.

  4. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  5. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  6. GPP Webinar: The Solar Roadmap—Navigating the Evolving Solar Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPP and State & Local Climate and Energy Branch webinar on the Solar Roadmap and the evolving solar energy market. This webinar discussed local and state government’s success stories and opportunities for progress in renewable energy goals using the Solar

  7. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  8. Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kadırgan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

  9. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  10. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  11. Community Solar Program Final Report for Austin Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-02-10

    Austin Energy seeks to expand its portfolio of renewable programs with an innovative community solar program. The program provides an opportunity for Austin Energy's customers, who are unable or uninterested in installing solar on their own premises, to purchase solar power.

  12. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  13. Wind and solar energy in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1993-04-01

    Hourly wind-speed data at four meteorological observatories (Quetta, Karachi, Peshawar, and Lahore) in Pakistan have been analysed to determine monthly and annual wind power and these are then compared with the monthly mean solar radiation energies for the period 1980-1984. The monthly average wind speeds for the four stations range from 2.5 to 4.4, 2.75 to 6.7, 0.6 to 1.7, and 0.7 to 1.6 m/sec while the solar radiation varies from 3.6 to 7.65, 3.39 to 6.31, 2.4 to 6.35, and 2.8 to 6.27 kWh/m[sup 2], respectively. (author)

  14. Calculating the Solar Energy of a Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solar energy that could be obtained by a flat plate solar collector of one square meter dimension is calculated in three different locations: Tampa FL, Fairbanks AL, and Pontianak Indonesia, considering the varying sunset time for each day of the year. The results show that if the collectors are placed near the equator, more total energy could be obtained. In fact, by placing a solar collector in Pontianak, Indonesia 12.42% more solar energy can be obtained than by placing it in Tampa and 96.9% more solar energy than Alaska.

  15. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SOLAR ENERGY EDUCATIONAL SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim SEFA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an educational tool which can be used to obtain electrical energy from solar energy has been designed and implemented. The obtained energy can be used both for direct current and alternating current. Moreover, the energy can be charged into an accumulator group on request. Several experiments related to obtaining electrical energy from solar energy, storing the energy and conversion systems are prepared on the developed educational set. The educational set presented in this paper can be used as an educational tool for increasing knowledge, skill and abilities of students about the converting solar energy to the electrical energy.

  16. Solar/Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of existing works and solutions in the field of solar/electromagnetic energy harvesting and wireless power transmission. More specifically, the paper covers: solar/electromagnetic harvesters where solar antenna structures are used to obtain a compact implementation, direct current (dc) combining circuits necessary to combine the outputs of the solar and the electromagnetic harvesters, and efficient solar-to-electromagnetic (EM) converters that can be used to synth...

  17. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  18. Soboba Community Energy Solar Project – Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Michael [Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, San Jacinto, CA (United States); DeForge, Deborah [Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, San Jacinto, CA (United States); Estrada, Steven [Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, San Jacinto, CA (United States)

    2017-03-29

    Since time immemorial the descendants of the Soboba people are those whom have lived on and occupied the land that is presently known as the cities of San Jacinto, Hemet, Valle Vista and Winchester. On June 19, 1883, President Chester Arthur by Executive Order established the Soboba Indian Reservation, a 3,172-acre tract which included the Soboba village and the adjacent hills. The President had limited authority as he was only able to set aside public land for the establishment of a reservation and had no authority to take private land. Thus the Soboba village; cultivated lands and major springs were part of Rancho San Jacinto Viejo and belonged to Matthew Byrne. Today the Soboba Indian Reservation lies in the lower reaches of the San Jacinto Mountains, across the San Jacinto River from the city of San Jacinto. The Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians was awarded a community solar grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The incorporated cities of San Jacinto and Hemet, and the unincorporated community of Valle Vista border the Reservation. All three of these surrounding communities have experienced tremendous population growth over the past two decades, with slower growth during the recent economic downturn. The Tribal community that benefits from under this grant includes 1,161 enrolled members, the majority of which live on the reservation. Nearly 41% of the enrolled members are youth, age 18 and under. The elders and community leaders value preserving and maintaining the Luiseño and Cahuilla cultures and Tribal structure for future generations. The proposed project was administered from the Tribal Administration offices located on the reservation. The Soboba Tribal Government consists of five Tribal Members who are elected by the general membership to Tribal Council for a staggered two year term. The Chairman/Chairwoman is elected by a majority vote of the general membership but the positions for Vice-Chair, Tribal Secretary, Tribal Treasurer and Sergeant at

  19. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  20. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  1. Assessment of solar energy programmes in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthan, B.; Monga, P. [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Giri, S. [UNDP, United Nation Building, Thimphu (Bhutan); Adhikari, R.N. [Norlha Associates, Thimphu (Bhutan)

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports on the renewable energy and solar electrification programmes in Bhutan. Findings from a field survey of PV systems have been presented and lessons identified. A discussion of the key results from the assessments are also presented and conclusions drawn. The paper provides direct feedback on the performance of PV systems in difficult geographical conditions such as those prevailing in Bhutan. The results and findings of this paper are relevant to PV industry targeting rural electrification markets and policy makers and aid-planners involved in PV rural electrification initiatives. (authors)

  2. First ITER Council convened in Cadarache - historic step in the quest for clean Energy 28 November 2007 Cadarache

    CERN Multimedia

    Hay, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    "On 27 November 2007, the ITER Council convened for the first time in the history of the new International Organization. Opening the meeting, Dr Werner Burkart, Deputy Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA), said: "Let me congratulate all who have contributed to the achievements of the ITER initiative to date.... (1,5 page)

  3. Adoption of renewable energy technologies in oil-rich countries: Explaining policy variation in the Gulf Cooperation Council states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atalay, Yasemin; Biermann, Frank; Kalfagianni, Agni

    2016-01-01

    While the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council have economically and politically been dominated by the exploitation of fossil fuels, recent years have seen an increasing adoption of renewable energy technologies, the reasons of which are not yet sufficiently understood. This paper argues th

  4. Defect Tolerant Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakutayev, Andriy; Caskey, Christopher M; Fioretti, Angela N; Ginley, David S; Vidal, Julien; Stevanovic, Vladan; Tea, Eric; Lany, Stephan

    2014-04-03

    Defect tolerance is the tendency of a semiconductor to keep its properties despite the presence of crystallographic defects. Scientific understanding of the origin of defect tolerance is currently missing. Here we show that semiconductors with antibonding states at the top of the valence band are likely to be tolerant to defects. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that Cu3N with antibonding valence band maximum has shallow intrinsic defects and no surface states, in contrast to GaN with bonding valence band maximum. Experimental measurements indicate shallow native donors and acceptors in Cu3N thin films, leading to 10(16)-10(17) cm(-3) doping with either electrons or holes depending on the growth conditions. The experimentally measured bipolar doping and the solar-matched optical absorption onset (1.4 eV) make Cu3N a promising candidate absorber for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, despite the calculated indirect fundamental band gap (1.0 eV). These conclusions can be extended to other materials with antibonding character of the valence band, defining a class of defect-tolerant semiconductors for solar energy conversion applications.

  5. Residual Energy Spectrum of Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; Maruca, B A

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that the energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not in equipartition. In this paper, we present an analysis of 5 years of Wind data at 1 AU to investigate the reason for this. The residual energy (difference between energy in velocity and magnetic field fluctuations) was calculated using both the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normalization for the magnetic field and a kinetic version, which includes temperature anisotropies and drifts between particle species. It was found that with the kinetic normalization, the fluctuations are closer to equipartition, with a mean normalized residual energy of sigma_r = -0.19 and mean Alfven ratio of r_A = 0.71. The spectrum of residual energy, in the kinetic normalization, was found to be steeper than both the velocity and magnetic field spectra, consistent with some recent MHD turbulence predictions and numerical simulations, having a spectral index close to -1.9. The local properties of residual energy and cros...

  6. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  7. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  8. Solar Energy: Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices (Small 19/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Nanoengineered materials and structures can harvest light efficiently for photovoltaic applications. Device structure design optimization and material property improvement are equally important for high performance. On page 2536, X. Mo, Z. Fan, and co-workers summarize the design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices to assist with a better understanding of device physics.

  9. Nuclear energy + solar energy, why not?; Energia nuclear + energia solar, por que no?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, I.; Nelson E, P., E-mail: ihernandezc91@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Clean energies such as nuclear and solar are part of the solution to the energy dependence that we face today and also help us to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, thus avoiding a global average temperature increase that is irreversible and harmful to all living beings on the planet. Independently the nuclear and solar energies have had a great development in recent years, so in this work we set ourselves the task of creating a synergy between them. First, we conducted a survey of different people involved in the area of energy (energy efficiency, clean energy and renewable sources) in order to know if the area of which they are part influences with respect to the impression that they have of safety in terms of supply, return on investment and safety to the health and environment of another energy source for which we use a correlation analysis. With the results obtained we propose to use photo thermic solar energy as a support to reduce the frequency of accidents by station blackout and we perform the analysis of the combination using the methodology of Probabilistic Analysis of Security with the help of SAPHIRE 7 software to realize the event trees by station blackout of a nuclear power plant and faults for a photo-thermal solar plant. Finally, the decrease in the probability of station blackout from the proposed combination is quantified. The results were favorable to indicate that the probability of station blackout is reduced in half and that is why is suggested to continue studying the combination. (Author)

  10. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  11. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  12. Magnetic Energy Release in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Terry G.

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares are the result of a rapid release of magnetic energy stored in the solar corona. An ideal-MHD process, such as a loss of magnetic equilibrium, most likely initiates the flare, but the non-ideal process of magnetic reconnection quickly becomes the dominant mechanism by which energy is released. Within the last few years EUV and X-ray instruments have directly observed the kind of plasma flows and heating indicative of magnetic reconnection. Relatively cool plasma is observed moving slowly into the reconnection region where it is transformed into two high-temperature, high-speed outflow jets moving in opposite directions. Observations of the flow in these jets suggest that they are accelerated to the ambient Alfvén speed in a manner that resembles the reconnection process first proposed by H. E. Petschek in 1964. This result is somewhat surprising because Petschek-type reconnection does not occur in most numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection. The apparent contradiction between the observations and the simulations can be understood by the fact that most simulations assume a uniform resistivity model that is unlikely to occur in reality. Recently, we have developed a theory that shows how the type of reconnection is related to the plasma resistivity. The theory is based on a form of the time-dependent, MHD-nozzle equations that incorporate the plasma resistivity. These equations are very similar to the equations used to describe magnetized plasma flow in astrophysical jets.

  13. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  14. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  15. Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador comments on public discussion paper : Developing an energy plan for Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustins, D.

    2006-02-02

    The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador has promoted public debate on the future energy needs of the province in order to assess all alternatives. The Salmonid Council of Newfoundland and Labrador (SCNL) supports this effort and recognizes that new energy needs are necessary to support the developing economy. The SCNL has provided advice on preserving the valuable sport fishery for Atlantic salmon and trout in the province. The Council is dedicated to the conservation and wise management of salmonids and their habitat. The 12 affiliated members of the Council were identified along with other organizations that actively support the objectives of the SCNL. The Council has been active in the following activities: development of salmon and trout management plants; establishment of the Cooperation Agreement for Salmonid Enhancement; moratorium on the commercial exploitation of wild salmon; moratorium on small hydroelectric development; growth and development of community stewardship groups; conservation and restoration of salmon stocks in the province; and, the promotion of catch and release angling. This document reviewed issues such as the value of the sport fishing industry; stock status; effects of hydroelectric development on salmon; candidate rivers for hydroelectric development; and, recent investments in restoring salmonid habitat and stocks. This document also presented the Council's 12 recommendations to the government to develop the maximum amount of power with the least environmental damage. The Council's vision is to double the growth of sport fishery over the next 10 years through improved management of this resource which generates economic wealth throughout the province, particularly in rural areas that are greatly challenged in available economic opportunities.

  16. Evaluation of the photochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppert, J. A.

    1977-08-09

    The potential for utilizing solar energy through photochemical storage were investigated. Both water and nitrosyl chloride systems are examined. A comprehensive review of the literature led to the conclusion that many major questions must be answered before photochemical energy storage becomes a viable alternate means of exploiting solar energy.

  17. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program that challenges 20 collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. In addition to showcasing the cost savings and environmental benefits of market-ready solar technologies, the event encourages participating students to think in new ways about incorporating practical, affordable clean-energy solutions into residential applications.

  19. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  20. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California (75 Federal Register...

  1. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...

  2. The solar energy in Israel; L'energie solaire en Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, L

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  3. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    ..., renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment...

  4. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  5. School and District Wellness Councils and Availability of Low-Nutrient, Energy-Dense Vending Fare in Minnesota Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006–2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006–2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council. PMID:21185978

  6. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  8. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  9. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  10. California solar energy study: decision-analysis panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, J.B.; Misch, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    In order to investigate motivations behind an individual's decision to purchase or not to purchase a solar energy system for a home, the California Energy Commission initiated a comprehensive survey program to analyze, in some depth, attitudes toward solar energy use. As part of that program, the CEC contracted for a series of panels comprised of homogenous groups of individuals who were not solar adopters, to probe for underlying attitudes about solar and, through the group dynamics process, elicit information which generally cannot be obtained using a standard questionnaire. The results shed additional light on consumer perceptions about the energy situation, the solar industry, economics, government's role and acceptance of the technology which, in turn, affect the individual's decision to adopt or not to adopt a solar energy device.

  11. Bidirectional control system for energy flow in solar powered flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An energy storage system for a spacecraft is provided which employs a solar powered flywheel arrangement including a motor/generator which, in different operating modes, drives the flywheel and is driven thereby. A control circuit, including a threshold comparator, senses the output of a solar energy converter, and when a threshold voltage is exceeded thereby indicating the availability of solar power for the spacecraft loads, activates a speed control loop including the motor/generator so as to accelerate the flywheel to a constant speed and thereby store mechanical energy, while also supplying energy from the solar converter to the loads. Under circumstances where solar energy is not available and thus the threshold voltage is not exceeded, the control circuit deactivates the speed control loop and activates a voltage control loop that provides for operation of the motor as a generator so that mechanical energy from the flywheel is converted into electrical energy for supply to the spacecraft loads.

  12. Energy collector for collecting solar energy and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, J.M.; Kumar, A.

    1978-10-03

    A solar energy collector connectable with a fluid-circulating system is contained in a plenum within an insulative housing and has a plurality of generally parallel, heat-absorbing conduits extending between intake and outlet manifolds and confronting the sun or other heat source through a transparent window, each conduit being separated from an adjacent conduit by an intervening slot. Positioned below the conduits is a heat-absorbing tank which is connected in fluid-flow relationship with the outlet manifold and also with the circulation system so that a heat-transfer medium may flow continuously between the energy collector and the circulation system. The tank receives radiant energy through the slots and after absorbing some of the radiation reflects the remaining portion upwardly to the conduits to thereby increase radiation intensity on and heat absorption by the conduits. Multiple reflections between tank and conduits further increase energy absorption both by tank and conduit. The conduits may be of round cross section or may have a planar heat-absorbing surface facing the sun and an arcuate, convex surface facing the tank. The tank may be provided with a plurality of arcuate troughs, a trough underlying and paralleling each conduit to both absorb energy and reflect energy toward the overlying conduit. The conduits may be provided with internal air ducts which communicate with the hot-air plenum and permit heat from the hot air to be transferred through the duct walls and to the fluid medium within the conduits.

  13. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  14. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M. [Grupo de Materiales Hibridos, ETSIM-UPM, Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canadas, I.; Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  15. Solar radiation practical modeling for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Daryl Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Written by a leading scientist with over 35 years of experience working at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Radiation: Practical Modeling for Renewable Energy Applications brings together the most widely used, easily implemented concepts and models for estimating broadband and spectral solar radiation data. The author addresses various technical and practical questions about the accuracy of solar radiation measurements and modeling. While the focus is on engineering models and results, the book does review the fundamentals of solar radiation modeling and solar radiation m

  16. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  17. On the energy release in solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Pustil'nik, L A; Beskrovnaya, N G; 10.1063/1.3701351

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution observations show the fine structure of the global equilibrium magnetic field configuration in solar atmosphere to be essentially different from that assumed in the traditional 'potential + force-free' field scenarios. The interacting large-scale structures of fine field elements are separated by numerous non-force-free elements (tangential discontinuities) which are neglected in the traditional field picture. An incorporation of these elements into the model implies a dynamical rather than statical character of equilibrium of the field configuration. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the ballooning mode of flute instability of prominences or/and coronal condensations. Tearing-mode and MHD instabilities as well as the effects of overheating of the turbulent current sheet prevent the field from stationary reconnection as it is adopted in the traditional scenario. We speculate around the assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenar...

  18. Inorganic perovskite photocatalysts for solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Irvine, John T S

    2016-10-24

    The development and utilization of solar energy in environmental remediation and water splitting is being intensively studied worldwide. During the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to developing non-toxic, low-cost, efficient and stable photocatalysts for water splitting and environmental remediation. To date, several hundreds of photocatalysts mainly based on metal oxides, sulfides and (oxy)nitrides with different structures and compositions have been reported. Among them, perovskite oxides and their derivatives (layered perovskite oxides) comprise a large family of semiconductor photocatalysts because of their structural simplicity and flexibility. This review specifically focuses on the general background of perovskite and its related materials, summarizes the recent development of perovskite photocatalysts and their applications in water splitting and environmental remediation, discusses the theoretical modelling and calculation of perovskite photocatalysts and presents the key challenges and perspectives on the research of perovskite photocatalysts.

  19. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  20. (seminario usos de la energia solar en la vivienda) solar energy applications for dwellings. Seminar 17-19 nov 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Contents include: National Ecoplan; National Urban Development Plan; The National Housing Program and the Use of Solar Systems and not Conventional Energies in Human Settlements; National Infrastructure for the Development of Solar Energy; Plans to Incorporate Solar Energy Systems into Mexican Communities; General Panorama of Solar Energy Projects Being Carried out in Mexico; and Recent Demonstration Projects in Mexico.

  1. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  2. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  3. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  4. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  5. Wind loads on solar energy systems, mounted on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads on solar energy systems, which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The resu

  6. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  7. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  8. Solar and wind energy potential and utilization in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics); Abro, R.S. (Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Architecture Studies)

    1994-08-01

    This paper identifies the potentials of solar and wind energy. The prime sites for wind are coastal area, arid zone and hill terrains. Solar energy is abundant over most parts of the country, the maximum being received over Quetta valley. (author)

  9. Wind loads on solar energy systems, mounted on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads on solar energy systems, which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The resu

  10. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  11. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential, development and large-scale, market-driven deployment of solar energy technologies worldwide still has to overcome a number of technical and financial barriers. Unless these barriers are overcome, maintaining and increasing electricity supplies from solar energy will require continuation of potentially costly policy support. Indexing terms/

  12. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  13. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  14. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  15. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  16. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    evaluation of shelf type solar driers. Sol. Energy 16(2):81-88. N Selcuk, M. K. 1967. Final report of the solar fruit dryer . Cooperation Medi- terraneenne...at one dryer orientation (long axis north-south) from 30 percent to 10 percent moisture content. 49 Table 15.--Greenhouse-type solar kiln capacity...out the success or failure of some design features, construction details, and applications of solar dryers . Feasibility _; estimates concluded that

  17. How to use solar energy in the home and garden? Instructions and suggestions for easy self-construction of solar-powered systems: garden lighting, fountains, solar accumulators and solar motors; Wie nutze ich Solarenergie in Haus und Garten?. Bauanleitungen und Anregungen zum leichten Selbstbau von Solaranlagen wie z.B. Solar-Gartenbeleuchtung, Solar-Springbrunnen, Solar-Akkumulatoren, Solar-Elektromotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, B.

    1995-08-01

    The book reports on solar energy utilization: - solar energy and photovoltaics, - solar cell modules for self-construction, - self-sufficient solar power supply, - solar-powered pumps and engines, - ventilation and cooling using solar power, - heating using solar power, - garden lighting using solar power. (HW) [Deutsch] Das Buch berichtet ueber die Nutzung von Solarenergie: - Solarenergie und Photovoltaic; - Solarzellenmodule in Selbstbau; - Selbstversorgung mit Solarstrom; - Solar-Pumpen und -Motoren; - Lueften und Kuehlung mit Solarstrom; - Heizen mit Solarstrom; - Gartenbeleuchtung mit Solarstrom. (orig.)

  18. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  19. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  20. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  1. Spectral light management for solar energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Cameron

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inherent broadband nature of the solar radiation, combined with the narrow spectral sensitivity range of direct solar to electricity devices, there is a massive opportunity to manipulate the solar spectrum to increase the functionality and efficiency of solar energy conversion devices. Spectral splitting or manipulation facilitates the efficient combination of both high-temperature solar thermal systems, which can absorb over the entire solar spectrum to create heat, and photovoltaic cells, which only convert a range of wavelengths to electricity. It has only recently been possible, with the development of nanofabrication techniques, to integrate micro- and nano-photonic structures as spectrum splitters/manipulators into solar energy conversion devices. In this paper, we summarize the recent developments in beam splitting techniques, and highlight some relevant applications including combined PV-thermal collectors and efficient algae production, and suggest paths for future development in this field.

  2. Spectral light management for solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Cameron; Mojiri, Ahmad; Rosengarten, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Due to the inherent broadband nature of the solar radiation, combined with the narrow spectral sensitivity range of direct solar to electricity devices, there is a massive opportunity to manipulate the solar spectrum to increase the functionality and efficiency of solar energy conversion devices. Spectral splitting or manipulation facilitates the efficient combination of both high-temperature solar thermal systems, which can absorb over the entire solar spectrum to create heat, and photovoltaic cells, which only convert a range of wavelengths to electricity. It has only recently been possible, with the development of nanofabrication techniques, to integrate micro- and nano-photonic structures as spectrum splitters/manipulators into solar energy conversion devices. In this paper, we summarize the recent developments in beam splitting techniques, and highlight some relevant applications including combined PV-thermal collectors and efficient algae production, and suggest paths for future development in this field.

  3. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  4. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  5. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  6. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has... concerning the securities of Kentucky USA Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  7. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  8. Energy collection efficiency of holographic planar solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose M; Zhang, Deming; Myer, Brian; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2010-02-10

    We analyze the energy collection properties of holographic planar concentrator systems. The effects of solar variation on daily and annual energy collection are evaluated. Hologram diffraction efficiency, polarization, crosstalk in cascaded elements, and constraints imposed by the radiance theorem, as well as solar illumination characteristics, are considered. A planar holographic solar concentrator configuration is designed and modeled to maximize energy collection efficiency during the course of a year without the need for tracking. Results indicated that nearly 50% of the available energy illuminating hologram areas can be collected by photovoltaic cells without the need of tracking.

  9. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bob; Mayotte, Jenna; Cochran, Jacquie

    Schools today are hosting the solar energy systems that will become commonplace tomorrow in public buildings, homes, and businesses. This publication serves as a guide to how schools are using solar energy, listing scores of schools currently using the sun for lighting, heating, and cooling as well as highlights of innovative programs to expand…

  10. Luminescent solar concentrators and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells for solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholin, Veronica

    Increasing energy demand and the parallel increase of greenhouse gas emissions are challenging researchers to find new and cleaner energy sources. Solar energy harvesting is arguably the most promising candidate for replacing fossil-fuel power generation. Photovoltaics are the most direct way of collecting solar energy; cost continues to hinder large-scale implementation of photovoltaics, however. Therefore, alternative technologies that will allow the extraction of solar power, while maintaining the overall costs of fabrication, installation, collection, and distribution low, must be explored. This thesis focuses on the fabrication and testing of two types of devices that step up to this challenge: the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) and all-inorganic nanoparticle solar cells. In these devices I make use of novel materials, semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles, both of which have lower costs than the crystalline materials used in the fabrication of traditional photovoltaics. Furthermore, the cost of manufacturing LSCs and the nanoparticle solar cells is lower than the manufacturing cost of traditional optics-based concentrators and crystalline solar cells. An LSC is essentially a slab of luminescent material that acts as a planar light pipe. The LSC absorbs incoming photons and channels fluoresced photons toward appropriately located solar cells, which perform the photovoltaic conversion. By covering large areas with relatively inexpensive fluorescing organic dyes or semiconducting polymers, the area of solar cell needed is greatly reduced. Because semiconducting polymers and quantum dots may have small absorption/emission band overlaps, tunable absorption, and longer lifetimes, they are good candidates for LSC fabrication, promising improvement with respect to laser dyes traditionally used to fabricate LSCs. Here the efficiency of LSCs consisting of liquid solutions of semiconducting polymers encased in glass was measured and compared to the

  11. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  12. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW)...

  13. GLOBAL IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY, CASE STUDY - GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Caralicea Marculescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is a socially and politically defined category of energy sources. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 3% and are growing rapidly. This paper seeks is aimed at presenting the impact solar energy could have on a world level given the finitude, reachability and ever increasing prices of fossil fuels. As a case study we will present the solar energy industry in Germany emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages this form of energy has in this country and worldwide.

  14. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, JC

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  15. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  16. Summary report of technical discussion, NASA-ERDA solar energy proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the reduced energy requirements and cooling loads of solar collectors is assessed. Energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption have been implemented. It is indicated that solar chemical dehumidification was more efficient than solar absorption.

  17. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  18. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  19. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated...

  20. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  1. A presentation of solar irradiation data suitable for solar energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougeay, R. L.; Brazel, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Temporal global solar radiation patterns are discussed for two climatically U.S. stations (Phoenix, Arizona and Geneseo, New York). A concept of the solar utilization season is developed along with methodology to assess the frequency of periods of consecutive days when solar irradiation values do not attain specified threshold values. This analysis is considered more appropriate in applications of solar energy than the common use of means and assumed Gaussian data properties that can be obtained from several compilations and summaries of national solar irradiation data.

  2. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commercial buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particularly to the supplemental supply of process heat of all kinds. The realization of that potential will depend, however, on the identification of the most suitable applications and locations for industrial solar energy and the continued improvement in cost, durability, and reliability of solar equipment. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications is surveyed, including a description of current costs and operating histories. Because the current status is unsatisfactory in view of the goals established by President Carter for solar industrial energy, the most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar IPH are outlined. The effect of government tax policy will be of little impact until technical efficiency and cost effectiveness are significantly improved.

  3. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  4. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  5. Application of Solar Energy to Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Nash J; J, Harstad A

    1976-11-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/ Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  6. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  7. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to chemical analysis, techniques such as impedance spectroscopy (Nyquist and Bode plots), cyclic voltammetry and I-V measurements by means of a PC-interfaced solar simulator are used to determine the stability of the cells. Further work includes research...

  8. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  9. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  10. Annual review of solar energy. Period of review: 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    A general review of national solar energy programs is provided. An executive summary and a brief history of the Federal solar energy program are presented. The issues and implications of the National Energy Plan that relate to solar energy development ae discussed. An overview is provided of the present Federal solar energy program, including the activities of several Federal agencies outside the Department of Energy. Some of the non-Federal solar energy programs ae reviewed, including international programs in which the U.S. has some role, programs of state and local governments, college and university programs, the work of private industry, and individual and small scale activities. A synposis of the major categories of solar technology is provided. Each chapter discusses a particular technology area and includes a basic technological description; a summary of the goals and activities of the Federal R and D program for the technology; significant events and development of the past year; and a brief overview of problems, uncertainties, and dissenting views. Three appendices include a synopsis of major energy events of 1977; a glossary of technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms, and a table of conversion factors. (MHR)

  11. TO THE QUESTION OF THE ESTIMATION OF THE SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uskov A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that today, the one of the promising areas to effectively address issues of energy saving is applying renewable energy sources. Despite the fact that the current solar PV stations have the main drawback associated with the high cost, the prospects of their application in autonomous systems of electrosupply are evident when they are used in combined (hybrid systems. In such systems, other types of renewable and traditional sources of electricity, which, in addition, produce heat, might be used as well. We have disclosed the prospects of the solar industry; also, for solar energy assessment we examined analytical expressions allowing defining the energy derived from solar radiation for specific surfaces. The calculations start with obtaining statistical data obtained at meteorological stations which keeps records of the intensity of the total (direct plus diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface, and the intensity of direct solar radiation. The article presents features of the calculation taking into account the climatic and territorial conditions, on the example of the Krasnodar region. Considered calculation procedure is the first stage of designing solar power plants. Further, we determine the total capacity of electricity consumers, as well as the quality requirements for electricity, including continuity of supply, and then we get to the construction of the block diagram of the electricity supply. In this scheme, we must provide primary and backup power sources. We select the main equipment of solar power plant (solar panels, inverters and storage batteries

  12. Environmental factors influence for pho-voltaic solar energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy, thus it is critical that we understand design solar production efficiencies and how they are modified by local environmental factors. A small change in efficiency can have dramatic economic consequences. While the current optimized designs for efficiency of the solar arrays largely ignore environmental factors and focus on the PV panel temperature. In this research, the influence of these microclimatological variables on solar energy productivity was investigated with an in-field study at the Rabbit Hills solar arrays near Oregon State University. The acquired data included temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, and energy output. A nondimensionalized approach was used to synthesize the data. The preliminary results confirm that the efficiency of the solar array is directly affected by the environmental temperature (expected). However, the efficiency is more impacted by the wind speed which suggests that there is an optimal panel elevation, economically. Other factors such as relative humidity play smaller roles on the solar panel efficiency.

  13. Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wermager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from an undergraduate research project concerning the energy efficiency, consumption, and generation of a 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2 solar house. The results were compared to a home of similar size and layout, built using traditional construction methods. The solar house was modeled after the Chameleon House: Missouri University of Science and Technology’s 2013 entry in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The efficiency of the design was analyzed using Energy-10 Version 1.8 software. For this comparison, a fictional American couple was created and a breakdown of their energy-use habits was recorded to accurately depict the magnitude of energy consumption. A 71% energy savings was forecasted using the Energy-10 software through the incorporation of various energy-conserving strategies in the home’s design. In addition, if a 9.1 kW photovoltaic array is also installed on a home of this size, it is possible to fully offset the energy consumption of the home. The forecasted energy usage and production detailed in this report shall be used for analyzing the integrity of the design of the Chameleon House as well as future solar houses constructed by the Missouri S&T Solar House Team.

  14. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  15. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  16. Solar Energy Based Automated Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Lodhi A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains {&} scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system. In this project we use solar energy which is used to operate the irrigation pump. The circuit comprises of sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amp are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensors and when sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet condition. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD

  17. Seguidor Solar, optimizando el aprovechamiento de la energía solar ; Solar tracker, optimizing ofimprovementof the solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Machado Toranzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó el diseño e implementación de un dispositivo encargado de obtener las coordenadas del Sol en cualquier momento del día, es decir, un seguidor solar a dos ejes por punto luminoso. Este seguidor consta de dos bloques principales: la tarjeta controladora y la parte mecánica. Su diseño se basó en el uso de fotorresistencias, microcontroladores y motores de pasos, el mismo posee altas prestaciones y bajo costo. El prototipo construido es utilizado en las investigaciones de aprovechamiento de la energía solar que se realizan en el Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicadas (GERA de la Universidad de Oriente, particularmente en los paneles fotovoltaicos y los calentadores de agua. Se realizó una prueba experimental en los laboratorios y en el polígono de dicho grupo y se comprobó que el seguidor solar funciona adecuadamente, cumpliendo con las expectativas deseadas.The design and implementation of a device for obtaining the coordinates of the sun at any time during the day, it means, a solar tracker of type two axis by luminous point is developed in this paper. This tracker consists of two main blocks: the controller board and the mechanical part. The design is based on the use of photoresistences, microcontrollers and stepper motors. The prototype is used on investigations about solar energy developed at the GERA (Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicada of Universidad de Oriente, particularly in photovoltaic panels and water heaters. An experimental test was conducted in the laboratories and at the site of the group and it was found that the solar tracker is functioning properly, meeting the desired expectations.

  18. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  19. Energy management using solar and fuel cell based appliances in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Emission reduction, green house emissions, renewable sources, solar ... Literature review is on of the important aspects of research (Hina et al., 2007) It .... Incorporating some other form of energy which is a sustainable source.

  20. dynamic modeling of natural convection solar energy collectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    terms for the plates' temperatures showed the transient contribution to be very ... conversion of solar energy is so low. (about 1 ... ovens, and low temperature and industrial ..... White, G.K. Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics.

  1. Conductive metal oxide film for solar energy control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, H.E.

    1980-05-20

    An electroconductive film comprising the oxides of cobalt and nickel in a spinel structure having the formula nico2o4 and having high absorption in the luminous and infrared portions of the solar energy spectrum is disclosed.

  2. Solar Power Augmented Electrolysis Module for Energy Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Regenerative fuel cell systems often include a dedicated electrolysis module with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels packaged as a subsystem of the larger energy storage...

  3. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  4. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  5. Renewable energy: Better luminescent solar panels in prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debije, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Devices known as luminescent solar concentrators could find use as renewable-energy generators, but have so far been plagued by a major light-reabsorption effect. A new study offers a promising route to tackling this problem.

  6. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  7. Increased use of solar energy in commercial buildings by integrating energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Nina

    2016-01-01

    From a comparison of available thermal energy storage (TES) technologies it can be concluded that the most mature and suitable storage methods for modern commercial buildings in Sweden are storage tanks, either for heat or cold energy, and underground storage solutions such as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES), aquifer storage and energy piles. In this study an integrated solar energy storage system for heating purpose has been designed with BTES, hot water storage tank(s) and solar ther...

  8. Solar energy in buildings; L'energie solaire dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the presentations given at the first French national meetings of solar energy for the development of solar systems in buildings. The meeting was organized over two days. The first day comprises 4 workshops about: urbanism and planning, cultural acceptability of solar energy in buildings (the OPAC 38 housing association, point of view on an energy information point, the Freiburg (Germany) solar region and marketing examples), technical integration to the structure (Clipsol solutions), and economical criteria (compared impacts of R and D public photovoltaic programs (USA, Japan, Germany, France, Italy), financing of rehabilitation projects, global approach of solar photovoltaic energy, technical solutions and strategy of products development, why and how to make an economical analysis of solar energy applications in the building industry). The second day comprises a plenary session and a round table: global status of solar energy development in Europe, status of French programs, renewable energies in Europe, the experience of Alsace region (Eastern France), the success of German solar markets, and the tools for the launching of solar energy. Two syntheses for these two days of meetings complete the document. (J.S.)

  9. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Grupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  10. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  11. Electrical energy balance contest in Solar Decathlon Europe 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Solar Decathlon Europe (SDE) is an international multidisciplinary competition in which 20 universityteams build and operate energy-efficient solar-powered houses. The aim of SDE is not only scientificbut also educational and divulgative, making visitors to understand the problems presented by realengineering applications and architecture. From a research perspective, the energy data gathered dur-ing the competition constitutes a very promising information for the analysis and understanding o...

  12. Collection and concentration of solar energy using Fresnel type lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of collecting solar energy using a Fresnel type lens was measured for two different collectors. A flow collector utilizes the temperature difference and heat capacity in water measurements to determine the amount of absorbed energy retained from sun rays passing through the Fresnel lens. A static collector is a hollow copper box filled with vegetable heating oil for absorption of focused solar radiation.

  13. Quality-assurance needs and goals in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G. E.

    1980-07-01

    A discussion of the status of quality assurance activities in solar energy conversion technologies and of the needs for further efforts in this area is presented. The importance of reliability and quality assurance activities to various end users is briefly discussed. Some details of such activities in wind, active heating and cooling, and photovoltaic technologies are given. Suggestions for an inegrated reliability, quality assurance program are presented and their importance to the growth of solar energy application is discussed.

  14. Solar gravitational energy and luminosity variations

    CERN Document Server

    Fazel, Z; Lefebvre, S; Ajabshirizadeh, A; Pireaux, S; 10.1016/j.newst.2007.05.003

    2009-01-01

    Due to non-homogeneous mass distribution and non-uniform velocity rate inside the Sun, the solar outer shape is distorted in latitude. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of a temporal change in this figure on the luminosity. To do so, we use the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of luminosity. Considering that most of the authors have explained the largest part of the TSI modulation with magnetic network (spots and faculae) but not the whole, we could set constraints on radius and effective temperature variations (dR, dT). However computations show that the amplitude of solar irradiance modulation is very sensitive to photospheric temperature variations. In order to understand discrepancies between our best fit and recent observations of Livingston et al. (2005), showing no effective surface temperature variation during the solar cycle, we investigated small effective temperature variation in irradiance modeling. We emphasized a phase-shift (correlated or anticorrelated radius and irradianc...

  15. Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.

    1980-04-01

    Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

  16. Passive and Hybrid Solar Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The background and scope of the program is presented in general terms. The Program Plan is summarized describing how individual projects are categorized into mission-oriented tasks according to market sector categories. The individual projects funded by DOE are presented as follows: residential buildings, commercial buildings, solar products, solar cities and towns, and agricultural buildings. A summary list of projects by institution (contractors) and indexed by market application area is included. (MHR)

  17. Multilayer reflective coating for solar energy concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Perla; Almanza, Rafael [Inst. de Ingenieria, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Cruz-Manjarrez, Hector [Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The central objective of this work is determine the optimal parameters for the preparation of compound mirrors of first surface of high reflectance by the magnetron sputtering method that will have a direct application in parabolic trough solar concentrators to use in a hybrid solar-geothermal Geothermal Plant at Cerro Prieto, located to the South-eastern of Mexicali City at the Northwest of Mexico. (orig.)

  18. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release.

  19. Lanthanum hexaboride for solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Elisa; Mercatelli, Luca; Meucci, Marco; Zoli, Luca; Sciti, Diletta

    2017-04-06

    We investigate the optical properties of LaB6 - based materials, as possible candidates for solid absorbers in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems. Bulk LaB6 materials were thermally consolidated by hot pressing starting from commercial powders. To assess the solar absorbance and spectral selectivity properties, room-temperature hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, considering different compositions, porosities and surface roughnesses. Thermal emittance at around 1100 K has been measured. Experimental results showed that LaB6 can have a solar absorbance comparable to that of the most advanced solar absorber material in actual plants such as Silicon Carbide, with a higher spectral selectivity. Moreover, LaB6 has also the appealing characteristics to be a thermionic material, so that it could act at the same time both as direct high-temperature solar absorber and as electron source, significantly reducing system complexity in future concentrating solar thermionic systems and bringing a real innovation in this field.

  20. Transparent heat mirrors for solar-energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J C; Bachner, F J

    1976-04-01

    Transparent heat-mirror films, which transmit solar radiation but reflect ir thermal radiation, have potentially important applications in solar/thermal/electric conversion, solar heating, solar photovoltaic conversion, and window insulation. We have used rf sputtering to prepare two types of films: TiO(2)/Ag/TiO(2) and Sn-doped In(2)O(3). To characterize the properties of heat-mirror films for solar-energy collection, we define the parameters alpha(eff), the effective solar absorptivity, and epsilon(eff), the effective ir emissivity. For our Sn-doped In(2)O(3) films, alpha(eff)/epsilon(eff) is comparable to the values of alpha/epsilon reported for the leading selective absorbers. Even higher values of alpha(eff)/epsilon(eff) are obtained for the TiO(2)/Ag/TiO(2) films.

  1. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  2. Spatial Modelling of Solar energy Potential in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Omondi Oloo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the readily available renewable energy resources in the developing countries within the tropical region. Kenya is one of the countries which receive an average of approximately 6.5 sunshine hours in a single day throughout the year. However, there is slow adoption of solar energy resources in the country due to limited information on the spatial variability solar energy potential. This study aims at assessing the potential of photovoltaic solar energy in Kenya. The factors that influence incident solar radiation which were considered in this task included atmospheric transmissivity and topography. The influence of atmospheric transmissivity was factored in by modelling monthly transmissivity factors from a combination of cloud cover, diffuse ratios and the effect of altitude. The contribution of topography was included by applying hemispherical viewshed analysis to determine the amount of incident global radiation on the surface based on the orientation of the terrain. GIS concepts were used to integrate the spatial datasets from different themes. The results showed that, about 70% of the land area in Kenya has the potential of receiving approximately 5kWh/m2/day throughout the year. In outline, this work successfully assessed the spatio-temporal variability in the characteristics of solar energy potential in Kenya and can be used as a basis for policy support in the country.

  3. Solar energy for district heating and group centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlman, E.; Zinko, H.; Hultmark, G.; Isakson, P.; Karlsson, B.; Margen, P.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the technique and the state of the art concerning solar energy in a district heating system by the turn of the year 1983/84. The market potential and the cost accounting and the development are discussed. An estimate of the energy production of solar collector systems is presented. 11 different pilot and demonstration plants for solar district heating are described, particularly the plants at Tumba, Knivsta, Studsvik, Torvalla, Ingelstad and Lyckebo. The experience and the general trend is expressed as a change towards large units and a reduction of cost. Continued research and development is recommended.

  4. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  5. Adjudication accessibility of the solar energy with GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Rybár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Constantly increase prise of oil and natural gas at the world market, increase consumption of electric power forces people to look for new energy sources. Concentration to renewable energy is an attention of specialist and non-professional public. The solar energy is one of the renewable energy. A lot of different factors influence as possibilities using the solar energy. For adjudication possibilities using solar energy is needed to know and calculate quantity accessibility of radiation and its energy for potential locality. This calculation is determined by geographic location, critical time, climatic and meteorological conditions, and position study plain. GIS tools can be very useful for this calculation. Created digital terrain model of Košice fold is used for the adjudication accessibility solar energy. The basic attribute of digital terrain model is used, such as possibilities deduce more parameters like slope and aspect. Basic location parameter of adjudication plain by determine accessibility of the solar radiation is a slope β and an azimuth plain normale An.

  6. Thermal utilisation of solar energy: Croatian National Energy Program SUNEN, 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard; Jedrisko, Claudia [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Hrastnik, Branimir [Energy Inst. `Hrvoje Pozar`, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, thermal use of solar energy as well as prospects and problems of its utilisation in Croatia have been given. The National Solar Energy Program, SUNEN, has been established to stimulate the usage of solar energy. The main goals of the program are the assessment of technical and economically viable solar potential in order to define real objectives and tasks to provide use of exploitable indigenous clean and renewable energy potential. The Program addresses benefits, the most promising solar applications and solar potential. Much attention has been given to identification of obstacles and barriers in the process of solar technology dissemination. SUNEN is an initiative to increase solar energy use and to become more compatible with the present renewable energy sources policy in EU and Mediterranean countries. The program proposes twelve different types of thermal solar energy systems, which could be multiplied up to 28 000 installations until the year 2010 with annual heat recovery of approximately 1,5 TWh (5,4 PJ). (Author)

  7. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  8. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael; Carlini, E. Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Holttinen, Hannele; Menemenlis, Nickie; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Smith, J. Charles; Soder, Lennart; Sorensen, Poul; Altiparmakis, Argyrios; Yasuda, Yoh; Miller, John

    2016-11-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases. This paper reviews international experience with curtailment of wind and solar energy on bulk power systems in recent years, with a focus on eleven countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. It examines levels of curtailment, the causes of curtailment, curtailment methods and use of market-based dispatch, as well as operational, institutional, and other changes that are being made to reduce renewable energy curtailment.

  9. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  10. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  12. Solar energy information and education project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, M.

    1985-09-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute conducted a vigorous information and education program Fiscal Year 73. NNSEI conducted workshops, educational fiestas, and seminars. Media packets were distributed to all New Mexico media entities while NNSEI's radio programs were distributed to many stations. Many callers received valuable unbiased information from the SUN DIAL LINE, a tollfree energy information line. Teachers received the ''Solar Energy Educator'' newsletter. Computer assisted analysis of space heating needs, passive solar homes, and active solar hot water systems was performed by the Information and Educated project staff for builders, designers, and architects. This report summarizes NNSEI's Fiscal Year 73 Information and Education project activities. It includes detailed description of project costs and concise recommendations for similar programs.

  13. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Weihs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l. during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

  14. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J. E.; Gehring, J. E.; Laube, W.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of contrails on global short-wave radiation (sum of direct and downward diffuse solar radiation) and on solar energy gain was investigated. The study was performed during days with high contrail persistence and focused on situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish-eye camera, diffuse and direct short-wave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (1540 m a.s.l.) with a time resolution of 1 min over a period of 1 year. The results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. An analysis of contrail persistence and the influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may be critical under specific circumstances.

  15. Photocatalytic Water Disinfection with Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichel, C.; Fernandez-Ibanez, P.; Blanco, J.; Malato, S.

    2006-07-01

    Drinking water disinfection is the final treatment phase before supplying drinking water to customers. Actually, the most widely employed disinfecting method is the chlorination. Even though it has high efficiency and long residual effects, chlorine presents the drawback of the high potential to produce chloro-organic compounds, which are hazardous. In order to find a safe method to disinfect drinking water, a number of so-called {sup n}ew technologies{sup a}re being developed by researchers from the entire world. Among these emerging technologies, the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation is becoming more and more important, mainly for applications in isolated and arid areas of developing countries. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation via TiO2, when the semiconductor is suspended or immersed in water and irradiated with near UV (?<385 nm), OH radicals are generated by the reaction of holes and electrons respectively with electron donor and acceptor molecules. The OH radical is highly toxic towards microorganisms and very reactive in the oxidation of organic substances. Therefore, a solar photocatalytic treatment can be a disinfecting method but at the same time a process to degrade organic matter. This contribution demonstrates the feasibility of using the photocatalytical processes to inactivate microorganisms present in water for potential applications in drinking water disinfection for solar systems. This work shows the main results on solar photocatalytic disinfection with solar photo-reactors, using the solar radiation and TiO2 as a photocatalyst. (Author)

  16. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  17. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  18. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  19. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  20. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  1. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  2. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...... to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  3. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  4. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Mustamin [Department of Architecture, Khairun University, Ternate (Indonesia); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Yoshino, Jun; Yasuda, Takashi [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with observation results. Monthly average values of solar radiation are sufficiently good during March–September. Electrical energy generated by photovoltaic cells is almost proportional to the solar radiation amount. Effects of clouds on solar radiation can be removed by monthly averaging. The balance between supply and demand of electricity can be estimated using a standard curve obtained from the temporal average. When the amount of solar radiation every hour with average of more than 100 km radius area does not yield the standard curve, we can estimate the system of storage and auxiliary power necessary based on the evaluated results of imbalance between supply and demand.

  5. The silicon solar satellite power system - A net energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, B.; Naughton, J. P.

    The physical aspects and net energy balance of a Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) are examined. The feasibility of operating with or without laser annealing for the cells, possible variations in the total system costs, the projected worth of the energy, and the R&D costs are explored. The energy needed to mine, refine, fabricate, manufacture, launch, and maintain the SSPS materials and structures are included in the energy analysis, and cost-to-energy ratio of energy used to energy produced graphs are provided for the cases of the use or non-use of laser annealing for radiation protection for the solar cells. The resulting energy ratios indicate that the reference SSPS compares unfavorably with coal or nuclear earth-based plants, although further research is necessary to determine what level of technology is actually required for construction of the SSPS.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation energy arrangement. [coatings for solar energy absorption and infrared reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkis, R. R.; Vehrencamp, J. E. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A solar energy collector and infrared energy reflector is described which comprises a vacuum deposited layer of aluminum of approximately 200 to 400 Angstroms thick on one side of a substrate. An adherent layer of titanium with a thickness of between 800 and 1000 Angstroms is vacuum deposited on the aluminum substrate and is substantially opaque to solar energy and substantially transparent to infrared energy.

  7. 75 FR 66078 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Staff Assessment for the Solar Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Reserve LLC Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA (DOE/ EIS-0439) and Possible California Desert... environmental analysis document for the proposed Rice Solar Energy Project (Project), in Riverside County... Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) has applied to Western to interconnect the proposed Project to...

  8. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  9. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  10. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  11. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  12. On the properties of energy transfer in solar wind turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Marino, Raffaele; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Wicks, Robert; Nigro, Giuseppina

    2017-04-01

    Spacecraft observations have shown that the solar wind plasma is heated during its expansion in the heliosphere. The necessary energy is made available at small scales by a turbulent cascade, although the nature of the heating processes is still debated. Because of the intermittent nature of turbulence, the small-scale energy is inhomogeneously distributed in space, resulting for example in the formation of highly localized current sheets and eddies. In order to understand the small-scale plasma processes occurring in the solar wind, the global and local properties of such energy distribution must be known. Here we study such properties using a proxy derived from the Von Karman-Howart relation for magnetohydrodynamics. The statistical properties of the energy transfer rate in the fluid range of scales are studied in detail using WIND spacecraft plasma and magnetic field measurements and discussed in the framework of the multifractal turbulent cascade. Dependence of the energy dissipation proxy on the solar wind conditions (speed, type, solar activity...) is analysed, and its evolution during solar wind expansion in the heliosphere is described using Helios II and Ulysses measurements. A comparison with other proxies, such as the PVI, is performed. Finally, the local singularity properties of the energy dissipation proxy are conditionally compared to the corresponding particle velocity distributions. This allows the identification of specific plasma features occurring near turbulent dissipation events, and could be used as enhanced mode trigger in future space missions.

  13. DAPHNE: Energy Generation and storage, using Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argelagós Palau, Ana Maria; Savio Bradford, Brandon

    Space travel is still in it's adolescent stages. Having embarked beyond the limit of our atmosphere for a mere 50 years, it is easy to imagine how much is yet to be discovered, in other solar systems and our own. One of the main factors that slow us down is the need for Energy. Long distance space travel requires a lot of energy, both for propulsion and operations alike. The principle of solar sails shows that the momentum of solar energy can be used beneficially, as can be seen in NASA's Sun-Jammer project. So, why not generate energy from this system? The DAPHNE system will utilize the simple principle of wind mills that is used here on Earth; using the force created by Solar wind to rotate an axle that in turn, generates energy. And this mill can be used to recharge spacecraft that need to fly further than it's own initial energy system will allow. Another benefit to developing this system is the fact that it is an alternative to nuclear energy generation for space, that a lot of modern research is being done on. The DAPHNE system can be considered a solution to long term propellant storage in space for interplanetary and interstellar travel. This paper proposes the design of an energy recharge technology, we called DAPHNE, which will utilize Nanotechnology, using solar sails to generate and store energy for future long-distance space craft to dock with, recharge and continue on their journey/mission. Examples of spacecraft in development that might benefit from a recharging station are the LISA Pathfinder, terrestrial exploration missions and eventually, the long interstellar missions that will be launched in the distant future. Thereby, allowing mankind to push the boundaries of our solar system and accelerate our ability to know what's out there. This technology would help the future generations of Space researchers move further than we can.

  14. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  15. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  16. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  17. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  18. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  19. Single/Dual-Polarized Infrared Rectenna for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zainud-Deen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Single and dual linearly-polarized receiving mode nanoantennas are designed for solar energy harvesting at 28.3 THz. The infrared rectennas are used to harvest the solar energy and converting it to electrical energy.  The proposed infrared rectenna is a thin dipole made of gold and printed on a silicon dioxide substrate. Different shapes of the dipole arms have been investigated for maximum collected energy. The two poles of the dipole have been determined in a rectangular, circular and rhombus shapes. The rectenna dipole is used to concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a small localized area at the inner tips of the gap between the dipole arms. The dimensions of the different dipole shapes are optimized for maximum near electric field intensity at a frequency of 28.3 THz. A Metal Insulator Metal (MIM diode is incorporated with the nanoantenna dipole to rectify the received energy. The receiving efficiency of the solar energy collector with integrated MIM diode has been investigated. A dual-polarized, four arms, rhombus shaped nanoantenna dipole for solar energy harvesting has been designed and optimized for 28.3 THz applications.

  20. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  1. Solar Energy Experiments for High School and College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Thomas W.; And Others

    This publication contains eighteen experiments and eight classroom activities. The experiments are of varying difficulty and cover the important aspects of solar energy utilization. Each experiment is self-contained, with its own introduction and background information. Energy measurements are emphasized and techniques for collector efficiency…

  2. Thermal Recycling of Waelz Oxide Using Concentrated Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouganatos, N.; Matter, R.; Wieckert, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.; Gamroth, M.; Steinfeld, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dominating Zn recycling process is the so-called Waelz process. Waelz oxide (WOX), containing 55-65% Zn in oxidic form, is mainly derived from electric arc furnace dust produced during recycling of galvanized steel. After its wash treatment to separate off chlorides, WOX is used as feedstock along with ZnS concentrates for the electrolytic production of high-grade zinc. Novel and environmentally cleaner routes for the purification of WOX and the production of Zn are investigated using concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The solar-driven clinkering of WOX and its carbothermal reduction were experimentally demonstrated using a 10 kWth packed-bed solar reactor. Solar clinkering at above 1265°C reduced the amount of impurities below 0.1 wt.%. Solar carbothermal reduction using biocharcoal as reducing agent in the 1170-1320°C range yielded 90 wt.% Zn.

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Solaron Akron, Akron, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Akron, Ohio is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions. The analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results show that only in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where insolation is 1828 Btu/sq ft/day and the conventional energy cost is high, is this solar energy system marginally profitable.

  4. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  5. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  6. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  7. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  8. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  9. Thinnest two-dimensional nanomaterial-graphene for solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun Hang; Wang, Hui; Hu, Bo

    2010-07-19

    Graphene is a rapidly rising star in materials science. This two-dimensional material exhibits unique properties, such as low resistance, excellent optical transmittance, and high mechanical and chemical stabilities. These exceptional advantages possess great promise for its potential applications in photovoltaic devices. In this Review, we present the status of graphene research for solar energy with emphasis on solar cells. Firstly, the preparation and properties of graphene are described. Secondly, applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes and counter electrodes are presented. Thirdly, graphene-based electron- (or hole) accepting materials for solar energy conversion are evaluated. Fourthly, the promoting effect of graphene on photovoltaic devices and the photocatalytic property of graphene-semiconductor composites are discussed. Finally, the challenges to increase the power conversion efficiency of graphene-based solar cells are explored.

  10. Design requirements for interfaces in solar energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. L.

    1982-04-01

    Candidate materials for improving the durability and economics of solar energy conversion systems (SECS) are reviewed. A 30-yr lifetime is regarded as necessary for solar collector and concentrator materials in order to offset the high initial costs of SECS in parabolic dish, heliostat, parabolic trough, flat plate collector, OTEC, solar cell, and wind turbine configurations. The materials are required to transfer a maximum amount of intercepted energy without degrading from exposure to UV radiation, wind, water, dust, and temperature cycling. Glass and mirrored surfaces for reflecting or refracting optical subsystems are currently made from soda-lime, boro- and aluminosilicate, and must resist chemicals, abrasion, and permeability, and have good strength, flexibility, coefficient of expansion, and Young's modulus. Additional concerns are present in photochemical, solar cell, and in substrata components and systems.

  11. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  12. Solar Atmospheric Magnetic Energy Coupling: Radiative Redistribution Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, N. Brice; Gendre, Bruce; Morris, David C.; Chesny, David

    2016-07-01

    Essential to many outstanding solar and stellar physics problems is elucidating the dynamic magnetic to radiative energy coupling of their atmospheres. Using three years of Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Heliosemic Magnetic Imager data of gross atmospheric feature classes, an investigation of magnetic and radiative energy redistribution is detailed. Self-consistent radiative to temperature distributions, that include magnetic weighting, of each feature class is revealed via utilizing the upper limit of thermodynamic atmospheric conditions provided by Active Region Cores (ARCs). Distinctly interesting is that our radiative energy distributions, though indicative to a linearly coupling with temperature, highlight the manifestation of diffuse ``unorganized" emission at upper transition region -- lower coronal regimes. Results we emphasize as correlating remarkably with emerging evidence for similar dependencies of magnetic energy redistribution efficiency with temperature, i.e., linearly with an embedded diffuse emitting region. We present evidence that our magnetic and radiative energy coupling descriptions are consistent with established universal scaling laws for large solar atmospheric temperature gradients and descriptions to the unresolved emission, as well as their insight to a potential origin of large variability in their previous reports. Finally, our work casts new light on the utility of narrowband observations as ad hoc tools for detailing solar atmospheric thermodynamic profiles, thus, presenting significant provisions to the field of solar and stellar physics, i.e., nature of coronae heating.

  13. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  14. Solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells with semiconductor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskov, Yu. V.

    in recent years the semiconductor/electrolyte interface has been attracting much attention in connection with the search for effective ways of utilizing solar energy. This review systematizes information on photoelectrochemical cells, both for production of hydrogen by water photoelectrolysis and for electric power generation in “liquid-junction solar cells.” Special attention is given to integral characteristics of photoelectrochemical cells. The main difficulties in practical realization of the conversion process and some possible methods of surmounting them are formulated.

  15. Energy retrofit via Social Housing: a proposal from Solar Decathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Solar Decathlon is an annual university challenge where nearly zeroenergy housing prototypes enter in international competition, through a series of ten tests. The contest aims for superior energy performance, high standards of interior comfort, architectural aesthetics, positive electrical balances, industrialisation, and contained costs and feasibility as a marketable proposal. Seven editions of the Solar Decathlon have been held, with a total of 140 competing proposals both realized and pl...

  16. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  17. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  18. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  19. Coherent dynamics in solar energy transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenmayer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the transfer of energy from light to matter. Over a century ago it was established that light consists of packets of energy [1], now known as photons. Not much later the energy levels of matter at the atomic scale were found to be discrete [2]. These phenomena required

  20. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  1. Role of the vapor compression cycle in solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kush, Jr, E A

    1978-01-01

    The vapor compression cycle lends itself to solar energy utilization in two important ways. Its ability to utilize a relatively low temperature heat supply to produce space heating via heat pumps allows the use of solar input to the evaporator to provide potential Coefficients of Performance which are 2 to 3 times higher than present electric driven heat pumps, and the use of relatively inexpensive solar collectors is possible since the collection temperatures can be low grade. Secondly, the compression process of the vapor cycle can be powered by a solar-driven heat engine, typically using a Rankine cycle, for solar cooling purposes. Discriminating coupling of solar with vapor compression allows the well-developed technology and manufacturing capability of the vapor compression industry to be brought into play in the solar field, widening its base and promoting its diversification. The cycle thermodynamics, potential practical hardware, and R and D projects in both of these areas are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Solar Assisted Heat Pump and its characteristics and the heat pump simulator activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  2. Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

    2012-06-27

    Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300 watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere.

  3. Design of Novel Metal Nanostructures for Broadband Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine A. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power holds great potential as an alternative energy source, but current photovoltaic cells have much room for improvement in cost and efficiency. Our objective was to develop metal nanostructures whose surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectra closely match the solar spectrum to enhance light absorption and scattering. We employed the finite-difference time-domain simulation method to evaluate the effect of varying key parameters. A novel nanostructure with SPR absorption matching a region of the solar spectrum (300 to 1500 nm that contains 90% of solar energy was successfully designed. This structure consists of a large gold-silica core-shell structure with smaller gold nanoparticles and nanorods on its surface. Such complex nanostructures are promising for broad and tunable absorption spectra. In addition, we investigated the SPR of silver nanoparticle arrays, which can achieve scattering close to the solar spectrum. We demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of over 30% with optimal nanoparticle radius and periods of 75 nm and 325 nm, respectively. In combination, our studies enable high-efficiency, tunable, and cost-effective enhancement of both light absorption and scattering, which has potential applications in solar energy conversion as well as biomedical imaging.

  4. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  5. Energy and helicity budgets of solar quiet regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tziotziou, K; Georgoulis, M K; Kontogiannis, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of solar quiet regions. Using a novel non-linear force-free method requiring single solar vector magnetograms we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 55 quiet-Sun vector magnetograms. As in a previous work on active regions, we construct here for the first time the (free) energy-(relative) helicity diagram of quiet-Sun regions. We find that quiet-Sun regions have no dominant sense of helicity and show monotonic correlations a) between free magnetic energy/relative helicity and magnetic network area and, consequently, b) between free magnetic energy and helicity. Free magnetic energy budgets of quiet-Sun regions represent a rather continuous extension of respective active-region budgets towards lower values, but the corresponding helicity transition is discontinuous due to the incoherence of the helicity sense contrary to active regions. We further estimate the instantaneous free...

  6. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  7. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  8. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  9. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  10. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  11. 78 FR 28841 - Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Area Power Administration Quartzsite Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0440) AGENCY... Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) to interconnect its proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) to... Field Office (Yuma) Proposed Resource Management Plan Amendment (PRMPA) for Quartzsite Solar...

  12. 76 FR 78916 - Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Area Power Administration Rice Solar Energy Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0439) AGENCY: Western... (Western) received a request from Rice Solar Energy, LLC (RSE) to interconnect its proposed Rice Solar... Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Plan Amendment for Rice Solar Energy...

  13. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Vegas Review Journal and the Moapa Valley Progress and on the following Web site: www.MoapaSolarEnergy... of a solar energy ground lease and agreements entered into by the Tribe with Moapa Solar LLC... caption ``DEIS Comments, Proposed Moapa Solar Energy Center'' on the first page of your written...

  14. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV...) has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... news releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments on the Crescent Dunes Solar...

  15. Solar Radiation Model for Development and Control of Solar Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of solar radiation, which takes into account direct, diffused and reflected components of solar energy, has been presented. Model is associated with geographical coordinates and local time of every day of the year. It is shown that using analytic equations for modelling the direct component, it is possible to adopt it for embedded systems with low computational power and use in solar tracking applications. Reflected and diffused components are especially useful in determining the performance of photovoltaic modules in certain location and surroundings. The statistical method for cloud layer simulation based on local meteorological data is offered. The presented method can’t be used for prediction of weather conditions but it provides patterns of solar radiation in time comparable to those measured with pyranometer. Cloud layer simulation together with total solar radiation model is a useful tool for development and analysis of maximum power point tracking controllers for PV modules.

  16. Solar cells: the bases of photovoltaic energy; Cellules solaires: les bases de l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labouret, A.; Cumunel, P.; Braun, J.P.; Faraggi, B.

    2005-10-15

    This book presents in a theoretical and practical way all the aspects of photovoltaic conversion technology: insolation and solar radiation, solar cells and energy storage, photovoltaic energy uses, and some simple examples of realizations with solar cells and solar panels. (J.S.)

  17. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  18. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  19. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  20. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  1. Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M

    2010-06-01

    Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here.

  2. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  3. Exergetic assessment of transmission-concentrated solar energy systems via optical fi bres for building applications

    OpenAIRE

    ZIDANI, Chafika; BENYOUCEF, Boumédiène; MADINI, Nassima

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibressolar energy transmission and concentration provide a flexible way of handling concentrated solar energy. Solar lighting with Fibre Optic Bundles (FOBs) can be considered a promising option for energy-efficient green buildings. This study deals with ...

  4. Ecological and economical aspects of solar energy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Wiktoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is devastated by the industry and by households, which use fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas for heating water and buildings as well as for generating electricity. One of the ways to limit the degradation of the environment and the usage of natural resources is to use unconventional and renewable resources and to implement energy-saving technologies in construction, industry and households. A dynamic development of systems based on renewable energy sources such as biomass, water, wind, heat from inside the Earth and sunbeams has recently occurred in the whole world. This thesis is related to the purest and the least onerous for environment source of energy which is undoubtedly the energy that comes directly from the solar radiation. In this article the solar energy application is presented, taking into account its impact on the environment and financial costs of developing solar techniques. The installation of alternative energy sources are entitled to grants and credits, which reduces the investment costs. Ecological effects, although immeasurable, are significant and definitely testify in favor of the solar system.

  5. Evaluating Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihang; Udmark, Jonas; Börjesson, Karl; Rodrigues, Rita; Roffey, Anna; Abrahamsson, Maria; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2017-08-10

    Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving toward a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, for so-called molecular solar thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Energy storage by photoconversion of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photothermal couple has been evaluated. The robust nature of this system is determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents. In a nonpolar solvent such as toluene, the DHA/VHF system can be cycled more than 70 times with less than 0.01 % degradation per cycle. Moreover, the [Cu(CH3 CN)4 ]PF6 -catalyzed conversion of VHF into DHA was demonstrated in a flow reactor. The performance of the DHA/VHF couple was also evaluated in prototype photoconversion devices, both in the laboratory by using a flow chip under simulated sunlight and under outdoor conditions by using a parabolic mirror. Device experiments demonstrated a solar energy storage efficiency of up to 0.13 % in the chip device and up to 0.02 % in the parabolic collector. Avenues for future improvements and optimization of the system are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  7. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  8. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  9. Sustainable business models for wind and solar energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichifor Maria Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become a crucial element for the business environment as the need for new energy resources and the degree of climate change are increasing. As developed economies strive towards greater progress, sustainable business models are of the essence in order to maintain a balance between the triple bottom line: people, planet and profit. In recent years, European Union countries have installed important capacities of renewable energy, especially wind and solar energy to achieve this purpose. The objective of this article is to make a comparative study between the current sustainable business models implemented in companies that are active in the wind and solar energy sector in Romania. Both sectors underwent tremendous changes in the last two years due to changing support schemes which have had a significant influence on the mechanism of the renewable energy market, as well as on its development. Using the classical Delphi method, based on questionnaires and interviews with experts in the fields of wind and solar energy, this paper offers an overview of the sustainable business models of wind and solar energy companies, both sectors opting for the alternative of selling electricity to trading companies as a main source of revenue until 2013 and as the main future trend until 2020. Furthermore, the participating wind energy companies noted a pessimistic outlook of future investments due to legal instability that made them to reduce their projects in comparison to PV investments, which are expected to continue. The subject of the article is of interest to scientific literature because sustainable business models in wind and photovoltaic energy have been scarcely researched in previous articles and are essential in understanding the activity of the companies in these two fields of renewable energy.

  10. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  11. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  12. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  13. Economic and Environmental Consequences of Widespread Expansion of Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Gaurav

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the sustainability of an expansion in solar energy subject to resource constraints of Indium. Coal and natural gas are taken as competitors for solar in the energy market. The consumer electronics market also competes with solar PV production because of Indium's use in the manufacturing of LCD screens. A partial equilibrium model is made which determines the rate of extraction of indium, coal and natural gas endogenously. Consumer demand is modeled by the use of cost shares. Generation of electricity and production of LCDs are modeled using Constant Elasticity of Substitution functions. Initial production capacity for both electricity and LCD is considered in the model. The model then endogenously determines the level of investment required. Model simulations are performed to predict the extraction paths and production levels for a timeline of 100 years. A sensitivity analysis is performed to see the reaction of the model to changes in consumer demand and learning rates in solar energy. The response of the model to imposition of various emission caps is also shown. Results of the model show that indium scarcity prevents solar from expanding significantly to a level where it can take over from non-renewable sources of energy. Increased research in solar technologies would not be of much help unless more Indium is available, either by recycling of solar PVs and LCDs or searching for alternate technologies to manufacture LCD screes. Emission caps are able to control excessive usage of fossil fuels and preserve them for a longer time.

  14. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  15. Computational Analysis of Energy Pooling to Harvest Low-Energy Solar Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacount, Michael; Shaheen, Sean; Rumbles, Garry; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Hu, Nan; Ostrowski, Dave; Lusk, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Current photovoltaic energy conversions do not typically utilize low energy sunlight absorption, leaving large sections of the solar spectrum untapped. It is possible, though, to absorb such radiation, generating low-energy excitons, and then pool them to create higher energy excitons, which can result in an increase in efficiency. Calculation of the rates at which such upconversion processes occur requires an accounting of all possible molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) pathways. There are two paths associated with the upconversion. The cooperative mechanism involves a three-body interaction in which low energy excitons are transferred sequentially onto an acceptor molecule. The accretive pathway, requires that an exciton transfer its energy to a second exciton that subsequently transfers its energy to the acceptor molecule. We have computationally modeled both types of molecular QED obtaining rates using a combination of DFT and many-body Green function theory. The simulation platform is exercised by considering upconversion events associated with material composed of a high energy absorbing core of hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and low energy absorbing arms of oligothiophene. In addition, we make estimates for all competing processes in order to judge the relative efficiencies of these two processes.

  16. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  17. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  18. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with the possible different defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in active region NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. It is noticed that the quantity 1/4pi Bn.Bp is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear on the difference between the potential magnetic field (Bp) and non-potential one (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density changes obviously before the powerful solar flares in the active region NOAA 11158, it is consistent with the change of magnetic fields in the lower atmosphere with flares.

  19. Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

  20. Access to solar energy: who owns the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, J.N.

    If solar advocates should litigate for the free attainment of solar access to encourage solar energy, this would impinge directly on other people's property rights. Passage of such legislation would contradict the United States' historical acceptance of the cujus est solum...doctrine. This proprietary franchise recognizes the individual's right to use privately-owned airspace which has been legally acknowledged as separable and conveyable. A legislative attempt to redefine the property rights in the airspace over another's real estate would be a significant break with the United States legal tradition. Such action could constitute an economically inefficient and inequitable taking of property rights and reductions in property values for certain real estate owners. In Virginia, the Virginia Solar Easements Act, the text of which is appended, provides an explicit mechanism to obtain and register solar easements in those cases where the solar user fears a potential shade problem from a neighbor's real estate and where the solar user employs a market based mechanism to insure his receipt of sunlight from across another's property.

  1. High efficiency nanostructured thin film solar cells for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E.; Sood, Ashok K.; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film III-V materials are an attractive candidate material for solar energy harvesting devices capable of supplying portable and mobile power in both terrestrial and space environments. Nanostructured quantum well and quantum dot solar cells are being widely investigated as a means of extending infrared absorption and enhancing photovoltaic device performance. In this paper, we will review recent progress on realizing high-voltage InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells that operate at or near the radiative limit of performance. These high-voltage nanostructured device designs provide a pathway to enhance the performance of existing device technologies, and can also be leveraged for next-generation solar cells.

  2. Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-04

    Summary: Solar energy is abundant and renewable energy: however, extensive conversion of the solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. To achieve the OWS efficiently, the development of efficient photocatalysts is mandatory. The OWS hotocatalysis involves the electrocatalys is for both water reduction and oxidation on the surafce of photocatalysts, which is driven by particular semiconductors that absorb photons to generate excited carriers. Such photocatalysts must be designed to maximize the charge separation efficiency at the catalyst-semiconductor and semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In addition the low-overpotential electrocatalyts towards water redox reactions should be insensitive to the back-reaction of the produced H2 and O2 that produces H2O. In this presentation, some recent progress on the topic of the OWS in our group will be discussed.

  3. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  4. Optimization of a solar cooling system with interior energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, C.; Soutullo, S.; Heras, M.R. [Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency in Buildings Unit, CIEMAT, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system composed by four units with interior energy storage. A full dynamic simulation model that includes the solar collector field, the absorption heat pump system and the building load calculation has been developed. It has been applied to optimize the coupling of a system based on this new technology of solar powered absorption heat pump, to a bioclimatic building recently constructed in the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. The absorption heat pump system considered is composed by four heat pumps that store energy in the form of crystallized salts so that no external storage capacity is required. Each heat pump is composed of two separate barrels that can charge (store energy from the solar field) and discharge (deliver heat or cold to the building) independently. Different configurations of the four units have been analysed taking into account the storage possibilities of the system and its capacity to respond to the building loads. It has been shown how strong the influence of the control strategies in the overall performance is, and the importance of using hourly simulations models when looking for highly efficient buildings. (author)

  5. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  6. SOLAR ENERGY: A NECESSARY INVESTMENT IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    There are problems facing the further development of generating methods based on ... precedence over all other sources of energy systems in Nigeria. This, however, is ..... reliability and low maintenance cost are to her future technological ...

  7. Solar photovoltaic/thermal (hybrid) energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, D. B.

    1981-09-01

    Development of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and residential heat pump systems is reported. Candidate collector and residential heat pump systems were evaluated using the TRNSYS computer program. It is found that combined heat pump and PV array is a promising method for achieving economical solar cooling. Where the cooling load is dominant, exclusively PV collectors rather than PV/T collectors are preferred. Where the heating load is dominant, the thermal component of PV/T collectors makes a significant contribution to heating a residence. PV/T collectors were developed whose combined efficiency approaches the efficiency of a double glazed, exclusively thermal collector. The design and operational problems of air source heat pumps are reviewed. Possible effects of compressor startup transients on PV power system operation are discussed.

  8. National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A; Kramer, K A

    1979-01-01

    The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

  9. Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

  10. Application of Solar energy for sustainable Dairy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiyak Chauhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the time of independence milk production in India was only 17 million tones perannum. Today India has become number one in milk production, producing 127 milliontones per annum with approx. 20% of the total milk production is handled by theorganized sectors. Dairy and food industries are fast growing industries and day-by-daynewer technologies are being introduced to get better quality of foods. Use ofconventional energy is common practice for major processing of milk. At present all mostall dairy operations are performed using grid supply with diesel gen-set as backup. Milkprocurement system has changed in India and now milk is being procured by maintainingcold chain to improve its microbial quality. The village level co-operative societies for milkcollections are provided by bulk milk coolers operating on conventional grid supply ofelectricity and in case of unavailability of electric supply diesel generator sets are providedfor cooling the milk. To overcome the problem of continuous grid supply of electricityand diesel generator sets, solar based refrigeration system for milk cooling at society levelis quiet feasible. Most of the milk processing operations, room conditioning for milkproduct packaging and cold stores for milk & milk products are operating on grid electricsupply. To overcome problem of peak load penalty, the part load can be shared by solarbased vapour absorption system for such operations. The use of solar energy in the dairyis generally found for hot water supply to boiler, hot water generator for processing ofmilk or for CIP cleaning. The field level application of solar based refrigeration system formilk cooling and solar based vapour absorption system for commercial application formilk and milk related cooling operations and for room conditioning for cold stores andpackaging rooms for milk and milk products are minimum. There is an urgent need todevelop commercially viable solar based refrigeration system for such

  11. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-04

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale.

  12. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  13. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  14. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  15. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  16. Biomass Gasifier Energy Cyber-Physical System Design with Coupling of the Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution in China has been quite serious, and biomass is extremely rich in large agricultural country. In the view of current situation, highly efficient solar collectors, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification system is studied. The stability of continuous gas production is analyzed in various weather conditions including windy, calm, sunny and cloudy. Highly efficient solar panels, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification control system is raised. This system overcomes the time variability of the weather conditions to ensure the stability of the continuous gas production under a variety of weather conditions. It has high quality of gas production, strong anti-interference ability and robustness.

  17. Past and future of European solar energy school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Eva; Fiedler, Frank; Bales, Chris [Solar Energy Research Center, SERC, Dalarna Univ. Coll., Borlange (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    The European Solar Engineering School ESES is a one-year master program that started in 1999 at the Solar Energy Research Center SERC, Dalarna University College. It has been growing in popularity over the years, with over 20 students in the current year. Approximately half the students come from Europe, the rest coming from all over the globe. This paper describes the contents and experiences from eight years of running the programme and the adapting the programme to the Bologna process. The majority of the students from ESES have found work in the solar industry, energy industry or taken up PhD positions. An alumni group has been started that actively gives support to past, present and potential future students. (orig.)

  18. Design of nitride semiconductors for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are a promising class of materials for solar energy conversion applications, such as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells. Nitrides can have better solar absorption and electrical transport properties than the more widely studied oxides, as well as the potential for better scalability than other pnictides or chalcogenides. In addition, nitrides are also relatively unexplored compared to other chemistries, so they provide a great opportunity for new materials discovery. This paper reviews the recent advances in the design of novel semiconducting nitrides for solar energy conversion technologies. Both binary and multinary nitrides are discussed, with a range of metal chemistries (Cu3N, ZnSnN2, Sn3N4, etc.) and crystal structures (delafossite, perovskite, spinel, etc.), including a brief overview of wurtzite III-N materials and devices. The current scientific challenges and promising future directions in the field are also highlighted.

  19. Energy retrofit via Social Housing: a proposal from Solar Decathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tonelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar Decathlon is an annual university challenge where nearly zeroenergy housing prototypes enter in international competition, through a series of ten tests. The contest aims for superior energy performance, high standards of interior comfort, architectural aesthetics, positive electrical balances, industrialisation, and contained costs and feasibility as a marketable proposal. Seven editions of the Solar Decathlon have been held, with a total of 140 competing proposals both realized and placed on the market, representing a notable pool of experimental research to be studied and evaluated for applications in social housing. After a consideration of the competition features, the article describes the prototype presented by City College of New York at Solar Decathlon 2011, Washington DC, as a proposal of an energy retrofit suitable for many urban buildings with flat roofs.

  20. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)