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Sample records for coulomb-nuclear interference measurements

  1. Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements of hexadecapole deformations in 168Yb and 178,180Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.; Mississippi Coll., Clinton; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Coulomb-nuclear interference studies of 168 Yb and 178,180 Hf have been carried out with alpha particles from the Pittsburgh tandem. From coupled channel fits to the data at 18 MeV for 168 Yb and 19.5 MeV for 178,180 Hf, β 4 c values of -0.030(20), -0.166(18), and -0.180(6) were obtained, respectively. These data agree with the positive M 04 value from sub-Coulomb studies of 168 Yb but with the large negative M 04 values from sub-Coulomb studies of 178,180 Hf. (author)

  2. Analyzing-power measurements of Coulomb-nuclear interference with the polarized-proton and -antiproton beams at 185 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, N; Onel, Y [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (USA). Dept. of Physics; Carey, D; Coleman, R; Cossairt, J D; Read, A L [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Corcoran, M D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Nessi, M; Nguyen, C; Phillips, G C; Roberts, J B; White, J L [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Bonner Nuclear Labs.; Derevschikov, A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Nurushev, S B; Solovyanov, V L; Vasiliev, A N [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Serpukhov (USSR); Gazzaly, M M [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA). Dept. of Physics; Grosnick, D P; Hill, D; Laghai, M; Lopiano, D; Ohashi, Y; Shima, T; Spinka, H; Stanek, R W; Underwood, D G; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Imai, K; Makino, S; Masaike, A; Miyake, K; Nagamine, T; Takeutchi, F; Tamura, N; Yoshida, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Kuroda, K; Michalowicz, A [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Lab. de P; E-581/704 Collaboration

    1989-10-12

    The analyzing power A{sub N} of proton-proton, proton-hydrocarbon, and antiproton-hydrocarbon scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 185 GeV/c Fermilab polarized-proton and -antiproton beams. The results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions within statistical uncertainties. (orig.).

  3. Analyzing power measurement of pp elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region with the 200-GeV/c polarized-proton beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Bonner, B.E.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Bravar, A.; Giacomich, R.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; van Rossum, L.; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Laghai, M.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Shima, T.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Iwatani, K.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Salvato, G.; Takashima, R.

    1993-01-01

    The analyzing power A N of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5x10 -3 to 5.0x10 -2 (GeV/c) 2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed

  4. Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements of 168Yb, 176Hf, 178Hf, and 180Hf and lifetime measurements in 186Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Alpha scattering measurements were performed at center-of-mass energies near the Coulomb barrier. These energies allow for nuclear as well as pure Coulomb forces to play a significant role in the excitation process. The interference of these two forces is very sensitive to the sign of the E4 ground-state moment, whereas pure Coulomb excitation is not. Systematics of the E4 moments of the rare earth mass region indicate a transition in the magnitude and sign of the reduced matrix element of the M(E4) operator between 0 + and 4 + states from small and positive to large and negative between Yb and W. Previous Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements show that this reduced matrix element for 180 Hf is large and negative. The present results agree with that conclusion. It is also shown that the above reduced matrix element for 178 Hf, like that of 180 Hf, is large and negative. The small and positive moment (matrix element) for 168 Yb is seen to be consistent with the experimental data. No conclusions are drawn for the E4 moment in 176 Hf. The measurement of nuclear lifetimes shorter than 500 ps requires the use of plastic scintilltor detectors. These detectors, however have very poor energy resolution. A system is described that uses plastic scintillators with a magnetic lens spectrometer for energy selection. The system was used to measure the lifetime of the 522-keV 0 + sate in 186 Hf. A data analysis method using higher-order distribution moments is also presented

  5. Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Ukita, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on 104,106,108,110 Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12 0 ≤θ lab ≤64 0 . A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = δ LC /δ LN , the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of (δ LN ) 2 were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For 104 Pd, and preliminary for 108 Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for 106 Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for 110 Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)

  6. Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2004-09-15

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on {sup 104,106,108,110}Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12{sup 0} {<=}{theta}{sub lab} {<=}64{sup 0}. A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = {delta}{sub LC}/{delta}{sub LN}, the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of ({delta}{sub LN}){sup 2} were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For {sup 104}Pd, and preliminary for {sup 108}Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for {sup 106}Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for {sup 110}Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)

  7. Coulomb-nuclear interference in the inelastic scattering of 6Li on 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X X; Rodrigues, M R D; Borello-Lewin, T; Rodrigues, C L; Benevides, L R B; Duarte, J L M; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L B; Ukita, G M

    2015-01-01

    Angular distribution for the inelastic scattering of 28 MeV 6 Li on 76 Ge was measured using the Sao Paulo PelletronEngeSplit-pole Spectrograph facility. The coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) analysis was applied to the first quadrupole state transition. The values of C L = δ C L /δ N L , the ratio of charge to isoscalardeformation lengths, and of (δ N L 0 2 were extracted through the comparison of experimental and DWBA-DOMP predicted cross section. The ratio of reduced charge to isoscalartransition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C L and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. The value of C 2 = 1.10(2) obtained indicate a slight predominance of the protons relative to the neutrons for 76 Ge. (paper)

  8. The Coulomb-nuclear force interference in the system 32S + 60Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannhaeuser, G.

    1980-01-01

    For the reaction 60 Ni( 32 S, 32 S*) 60 Ni* using particle-γ-coincidences the excitation functions of 32 S(2 + 1 ) and 60 Ni(2 + 1 ) for projectile energies of 70-100 MeV as well as with Si single counters the angular distribution of the elastically and inelastically scattered 32 S ions for incident energies of 90, 95, and 100 MeV were measured. A comparison of the measurements with the results of different computer codes led to following results: 1.) At the determination of the static quadrupole moment Q 2 of 32 S using the reorientation effect the influence of the nuclear force can be neglected for projectile energies Esub(P) 32 S the value Q 2 = -0.18 +- 0.04 eb was found. (Hereby destructive interference with the virtual excitation of the 2 + 2 -state is assumed). 3.) For projectile energies Esub(P) >= 72 MeV at which the excitation by nuclear forces was small against the Coulomb excitation, an evaluation of the excitation function of 32 S(2 + 1 ) by the semiclassical code NCL, which regards the influence of the nuclear interaction approximatively, yielded values for the static quadrupole moment, which agree within the measurement errors with the above value. 4.) For the quantitative analysis of the measured angular distributions a quantum mechanical CC-code was required. 5.) Using the semiclassical CC-code NCL an illustrative and detailed interpretation of the excitation functions of 32 S(2 + 1 ) and 60 Ni(2 + 1 ) could be given. 6.) The code NCL allows the study of the influence of the Coulomb-nuclear force interference on the temporal behaviour of the excitation process. 7.) Using the code NCL the angular distribution of the decay γ quanta for a fixed particle-scattering angle theta approx. 0 in dependence on the incident energy was calculated. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy dependence of the Coulomb-nuclear interference at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The analyzing power of the elastic proton-proton scattering at small momentum transfers and the effect of the Coulomb-nuclear interference are examined on the basis of the available experimental data at p L from 6 up to 200 GeV/c taking account of a phenomenological analysis at p L =6 GeV/c and of the dynamic high energy spin model. The structure of the spin-dependent elastic scattering amplitude at small momentum transfers is obtained. The predictions for the analyzing power at RHIC energies are made

  10. Examination of the Coulomb-nuclear interference in inelastic scattering of 6Li in 76Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of 28,0 MeV 6 Li on 76 Ge in the excitation of the 2 + 1 state, has been studied with the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference (CNI) analysis. The data were measured at the Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at LAFN-IFUSP. A solid-state position sensitive silicon detector (PSD) (500μm thickness and 47 × 8 mm 2 area) was used to measure the data at the spectrometer focal plane. Digital pulse processing (DPP) was implemented in the acquisition system. Twenty-six spectra were measured at carefully chosen scattering angles in the range of 10 deg ≤ θ Lab ≤ 55 deg to obtain an angular distribution. The analysis was performed with the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) and applied for the nuclear transition potential, the Deformed Optical Potential Model (DOMP), under well-established global optical parameters. The fit of the predicted cross sections to the experimental data through χ 2 minimization, using the iterative method of Gauss, allowed for the extraction of the correlated parameters, δ N 2 , the mass deformation length, and C 2 = Ν C 2 /δ N 2 , the ratio between charge and mass deformation lengths. The correlated parameters obtained in the present work were C 2 = 1,101 (20) and δ N 2 = 1,08(21)fm. Statistical tests, through a Monte Carlo simulation of 5000 new data sets, validated the method employed in the correlated parameters fit. The methodology applied for the CNI analysis allowed the extraction of ratio B(EL)/B(ISL), which is proportional to the square of C 2 , with a good precision due to the scale uncertainties cancellation of the absolute cross sections. The values of B(IS2) and of the ratios B(E2)/B(IS2) obtained in the present work have not been reported before and allow the study of the evolution of the collectivity throughout the even-A germanium chain together with former results obtained for the 70 , 72 , 74 Ge isotopes. The results along the chain indicate that although the protons relative to the neutrons

  11. Effect of the moment-of-inertia variation on Coulomb-nuclear interference in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Inopin, E.V.; Chekanov, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of moment-of-inertia (MI) variation on probabilities of the Coulomb excitation of nucleus rotational states (RS) is investigated. The calculation is performed in the generalized quasiclassical approximation. Cillisions with an aimed parameter equal to 0 and recording of scattered ion at angles close to 180 deg were considered. Effect of MI dependence on angular momentum (AM) on the RS Coulomb excitation probability in the 86 Kr+ 238 U process at 400 MeV 86 Kr has been studied. For small AMs (I < 10), when the MI variation can be neglected, the Coulomb-nuclear interference leads to a marked shift of RS excitation probability maxima. However, with increasing transferred AM the convergence of probabilities conditioned with mutual compensation of phases shift related to the MI variation and Coulomb-nucleus interference, is noted. It is also noted that correct parameters of deformed nuclei extracted from experiments on the Coulomb excitation of high-spin states can be obtained only during simultaneous accountancy of both the Coulomb-nuclear interference and the MI variation of excited nuclei

  12. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z. [University of West Bohemia, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Avati, V. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berardi, V.; Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D' Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Csoergo, T. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); KRF University College, Gyoengyoes (Hungary); Deile, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Doubek, M.; Vacek, V. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Kaspar, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Lami, S.; Scribano, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10{sup -4} to 0.2 GeV{sup 2}. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ{sub tot} = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z.; Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Quinto, M.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N.; Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E.; Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F.; Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C.; Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R.; Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J.; Lami, S.; Scribano, A.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Minafra, N.; Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10"-"4 to 0.2 GeV"2. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ_t_o_t = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of Elastic pp Scattering at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region – Determination of the $\\rho$ Parameter and the Total Cross-Section

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069260; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Broulím, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Campanella, C.E.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Paločko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Procházka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, $|t|$, from $6\\times10^{-4}$ GeV$^2$ to 0.2 GeV$^2$. Near the lower end of the $t$-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the $\\rho$-pa...

  15. Measurement of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude by means of the Coulomb-nuclear interference in πsup(+-)p and Ksup(+-)p elastic scattering at incident momenta below 3 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillon, P.; Bricman, C.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Jenni, P.; Perreau, J.M.; Tripp, R.D.; Ypsilantis, T.; Declais, Y.; Seguinot, J.

    1975-01-01

    The differential cross sections for π + p elastic scattering at 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/c, for π - p at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 GeV/c, for K + p at 1.2, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/c and for K - p at 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.6 GeV/c have been measured with an overall accuracy of the order of 1 to 2 per cent in a counter experiment over the angular region corresponding to momentum transfers t between 0.0005 and 0.10 GeV 2 . Making use of the interference effects between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction, a determination has been done of the magnitude and sign of the real part of the scattering amplitude near t = 0. The πp real parts are compared to the values predicted by the dispersion relations and found to agree quite well. The Ksup(+-)p real parts have been used in a dispersion relation to derive the value of the KNA coupling constant. Two possible values of this coupling constant are found, both much larger than those commonly accepted. One of them agrees well with the value predicted by the SU(3) and SU(6) symmetry schemes. (Author)

  16. Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) results of the collective quadrupolar excitations in odd and even Ru isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N.; Ukita, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the odd 99,101 Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in 100,102,104 Ru. Angular distributions for the 99,101 Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of Jπ = 5=2 + , 7=2 + and 9=2 + . Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of (δ L N ) 2 and of the ratio C = δ L C /δ L N were obtained. (author)

  17. Coulomb-nuclear interference with 6Li: Isospin character of the 21+ excitation in 70,72,74Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.D.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Ukita, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ratios of B(E2) to B(IS2), that is, of the reduced quadrupole transition probabilities related, respectively, to charge and mass were extracted through Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) for the excitation of the 2 1 + states in 70,72,74 Ge, with a relative accuracy of less than 4%. For this purpose, the CNI angular distributions associated with the inelastic scattering of 28-MeV incident 6 Li ions accelerated by the Sao Paulo Pelletron, and momentum analyzed by the Enge magnetic spectrograph were interpreted within the DWBA-DOMP approach (distorted wave approximation for the scattering process and deformed optical model for the structure representation) with global 6 Li optical parameters. The present CNI results demonstrate an abrupt change in the B(E2)/B(IS2) ratio for 74 Ge: although for 70,72 Ge, values of the order of 1.0 or slightly higher were obtained, this ratio is 0.66 (7) for 74 Ge. The heavier Ge isotope is thus one of the few nuclei that, so far, have been shown to present clear mixed symmetry components in their ground-state band

  18. Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) results of the collective quadrupolar excitations in odd and even Ru isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2004-09-15

    The study of the odd {sup 99,101}Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in {sup 100,102,104}Ru. Angular distributions for the {sup 99,101}Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of J{pi} = 5=2{sup +}, 7=2{sup +} and 9=2{sup +}. Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of ({delta}{sup L}{sub N}){sup 2} and of the ratio C = {delta}{sub L}{sup C} /{delta}{sub L}{sup N} were obtained. (author)

  19. Elastic pp scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region and low energy behaviour of p-barp scattering partial amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Markushin, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the low energy elastic p-barp scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region and on the shift and width of the 1s level of p-barp-atom are analysed. The partial wave amplitudes for l=0.1 are extracted. The p-wave amplitude is in fair agreement with the atomic data for the 2p state and exhibits some energy structure. It is shown that the real-to-imaginary ratio of the p-barp forward elastic-scattering amplitude becomes negative in an energy interval just near p-barp-threshold

  20. Tests of a Coulomb-nuclear polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauletta, G.; University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712)

    1989-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a polarimeter for the high energy polarized proton and antiproton beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The polarimeter was designed to make use of a small but well-known analyzing power in the region of Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) in order to obtain an absolute measurement of the polarization. Feasibility was established in the course of a brief running period at the end of the last fixed-target period at FNAL and potential for considerable improvement was revealed. Beam-time was insufficient to measure polarization accurately but the data obtained bears out design expectations for the beam-line and confirms polarization-tagging techniques to within uncertainties

  1. Examination of the Coulomb-nuclear interference in inelastic scattering of {sup 6}Li in {sup 76}Ge; Exame da interferencia Coulombiana-Nuclear no espalhamento inelastico de {sup 6}Li em {sup 76}Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-01

    The inelastic scattering of 28,0 MeV {sup 6}Li on {sup 76}Ge in the excitation of the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state, has been studied with the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference (CNI) analysis. The data were measured at the Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility at LAFN-IFUSP. A solid-state position sensitive silicon detector (PSD) (500μm thickness and 47 × 8 mm{sup 2} area) was used to measure the data at the spectrometer focal plane. Digital pulse processing (DPP) was implemented in the acquisition system. Twenty-six spectra were measured at carefully chosen scattering angles in the range of 10 deg ≤ θ{sub Lab} ≤ 55 deg to obtain an angular distribution. The analysis was performed with the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) and applied for the nuclear transition potential, the Deformed Optical Potential Model (DOMP), under well-established global optical parameters. The fit of the predicted cross sections to the experimental data through χ{sup 2} minimization, using the iterative method of Gauss, allowed for the extraction of the correlated parameters, δ{sup N}{sub 2}, the mass deformation length, and C{sub 2} = Ν{sup C}{sub 2}/δ{sup N}{sub 2}, the ratio between charge and mass deformation lengths. The correlated parameters obtained in the present work were C{sub 2} = 1,101 (20) and δ{sup N}{sub 2} = 1,08(21)fm. Statistical tests, through a Monte Carlo simulation of 5000 new data sets, validated the method employed in the correlated parameters fit. The methodology applied for the CNI analysis allowed the extraction of ratio B(EL)/B(ISL), which is proportional to the square of C{sub 2}, with a good precision due to the scale uncertainties cancellation of the absolute cross sections. The values of B(IS2) and of the ratios B(E2)/B(IS2) obtained in the present work have not been reported before and allow the study of the evolution of the collectivity throughout the even-A germanium chain together with former results obtained for the {sup 70},{sup 72},{sup 74}Ge

  2. Elastic scattering of. pi. /sup -/ mesons on protons in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region at 33-60 GeV/c. [Total and differential cross sections,scattering amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apokin, V D; Vasiliev, A N; Derevshchikov, A A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Mysnik, A I; Nurushev, S B; Saraykin, A I; Siksin, V V; Smirnov, E V [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1976-04-19

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of negative pions on protons, as well as total cross sections have been measured for the incident momentum range from 33 up to 60 GeV/c. The values for four-momentum transfer were within the limits of -(10/sup -3/-8x10/sup -2/) (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The energy dependence of the ratio rho(0) of the real part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude to the imaginary part has been determined from the experimental data. The magnitude rho(0) smoothly increases from (-10.9+-1.2)% at momenta 33.52 GeV/c up to (-1.8+-1.8)% at 59.4 GeV/c. The results obtained are compared with the predictions of theoretical models.

  3. Interference Reduction Selected Measurement Signals of Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Monieta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents problems encountered at the signal processing of mechanical values with electric methods. Depending on the measured quantity, the location of the sensors and the analysis frequency band, they are differently interferences. The article presents the results of applying the analysis of parameters of working and accompanying process marine medium speed reciprocating engines in the time, amplitude, frequency domain and wavelet analysis to select a reasonable method. The applied signal acquisition program allows you to perform some analysis of signals in different areas and the transformation of the data to other programs. The ways of interference reducing at various stages of their occurrence and analysis are presented. [b]Keywords[/b]: electrical signals, domain analysis, measurement interference

  4. Phasor Measurement Unit under Interference Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Martin, Kenneth E.; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    interference condition scenarios. In the first scenario, noise is added to the PMU input signal. The test runs a sweep of Signalto-Noise Ratios (SNR) and the accuracy versus the noise level is obtained. The second scenario injects multiple harmonics with the input to test the influence on accuracy. The last...... scenario focuses on instrument transformer saturation which leads to a modified waveform injected in the PMU. This test goes through different levels of Current Transformer (CT) saturation and analyzes the effect of saturation on the accuracy of PMUs. The test results show PMU measurements will be degraded...

  5. Stroop interference and reverse Stroop interference as potential measures of cognitive ability during exposure to stress

    OpenAIRE

    景山, 望; 箱田, 裕司; Kageyama, Nozomu; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference are one of the easiest and most powerful effects to demonstrate in a classroom. Therefore, they have been studied not only through basic research in the laboratory but also through applied research in extreme environments. First, we reviewed studies tha investigated Stroop interference and reverse-Stroop interference as hallmark measures of selective at attention and conflict resolution. Second, we reviewed studies that examined the effects ...

  6. Interference pattern period measurement at picometer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiansong; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Minkang; Lu, Yancong

    2016-10-01

    To produce large scale gratings by Scanning Beam Interference Lithography (SBIL), a light spot containing grating pattern is generated by two beams interfering, and a scanning stage is used to drive the substrate moving under the light spot. In order to locate the stage at the proper exposure positions, the period of the Interference pattern must be measured accurately. We developed a set of process to obtain the period value of two interfering beams at picometer level. The process includes data acquisition and data analysis. The data is received from a photodiode and a laser interferometer with sub-nanometer resolution. Data analysis differs from conventional analyzing methods like counting wave peaks or using Fourier transform to get the signal period, after a preprocess of filtering and envelope removing, the mean square error is calculated between the received signal and ideal sinusoid waves to find the best-fit frequency, thus an accuracy period value is acquired, this method has a low sensitivity to amplitude noise and a high resolution of frequency. With 405nm laser beams interfering, a pattern period value around 562nm is acquired by employing this process, fitting diagram of the result shows the accuracy of the period value reaches picometer level, which is much higher than the results of conventional methods.

  7. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  8. A Novel Attitude Measurement Algorithm in Magnetic Interference Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of using Magnetic Angular Rate Gravity (MARG sensor for the current multi-sensor based pedestrian navigation algorithm magnetometers is susceptible to the external magnetic interference. The result of attitude is affected by many factors, like the low-precision MEMS gyro drift and large body linear acceleration measurements. In this paper, we propose anti-jamming algorithm which is based on four elements of Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF. To reduce carrier linear acceleration and local magnetic field that impact on attitude measurement, the adaptive covariance matrix structure is considered. Moreover, the heading angle correction threshold method is used in magnetic field compensation and interference environment. Based on the experimental results, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm suppresses the influence of the external magnetic interference on heading angle, as well as improving the accuracy of system attitude measurement.

  9. Measurement of the refraction Index of air using Interference refractometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, P.H.J.; Wilkening, G.; Reinboth, F.; Downs, M.J.; Birch, K.P.; Spronck, J.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons have been carried out between interference refractometers built in different countries. Individual measurements of the refractive index of air have been made using air from the same sample volume. Direct comparison of refractometers was realized by coupling the instruments to the same

  10. Radiotomography Based on Monostatic Interference Measurements with Controlled Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of three-dimensional tomography based on radioholography measurements with the reference signal transmitted by the transmitter in the near zone and the receiver near zone. We solve the problem of repairing the object signal phase due to the reference signal in the near field in a wide frequency band and the consideration of analytical signals. Here are presented results of experimental studies on application of a tunable YIG (yttrium iron garnet oscillator in the frequency range from 6.5 to 10.7 GHz for radio tomography of metal objects in air. Holographic principle is applied on the basis of measuring of the interference field amplitude by the detector diode. The interference occurs with the direct wave and waves scattered by the object. To restore the radio images the method of aperture synthesis and extraction of quadrature components at all frequencies sensing are applied. Experimental study on test object shows resolution about 15 mm.

  11. Process for the interference measurement of an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryngdahl, O.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for the interference measurement of an object and has the task of indicating its phase-related properties with as high a resolution as possible. For this purpose a hologram is drawn of the object to be measured, with which an interference grating is produced. The holograph splits the coherent light coming from a laser into two part rays, in a well known way; one of these rays passes through the object and then together with the other one falls on the indicating element. There both parts of the ray are reunited, where the angle of unification s of this arrangement is about 45 0 . After the hologram has been developed, it is placed in the interferometer. A parallel ray of coherent light passes through the hologram and produces two pictures, one orthoscopic and one pseudoscopic. These two pictures are combined, so that an interference pattern is created, which reproduces the phase variations of the object, with twice the resolution, as the angle between the two rays is twice as large as the unification angle s. Further processes are given which can multiply the angle and therefore the resolution by four and by six times. (ORU) [de

  12. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received Si...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage.......In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received...... Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...

  13. Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.

  14. Measurement technology of RF interference current in high current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihua; Li, Jianxuan; Zhang, Xiangming; Zhang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Current probe is a detection method commonly used in electromagnetic compatibility. With the development of power electronics technology, the power level of power conversion devices is constantly increasing, and the power current of the electric energy conversion device in the electromagnetic launch system can reach 10kA. Current probe conventionally used in EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) detection cannot meet the test requirements on high current system due to the magnetic saturation problem. The conventional high current sensor is also not suitable for the RF (Radio Frequency) interference current measurement in high current power device due to the high noise level in the output of active amplifier. In this paper, a passive flexible current probe based on Rogowski coil and matching resistance is proposed that can withstand high current and has low noise level, to solve the measurement problems of interference current in high current power converter. And both differential mode and common mode current detection can be easily carried out with the proposed probe because of the probe's flexible structure.

  15. DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Lev; Unlü, M Selim; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Cantor, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    The conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the surface of a microarray may significantly affect the efficiency of hybridization. Although a number of methods have been applied to determine the structure of the DNA layer, they are not very sensitive to variations in the shape of DNA molecules. Here we describe the application of an interferometric technique called spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy to the precise measurement of the average location of a fluorescent label in a DNA layer relative to the surface and thus determine specific information on the conformation of the surface-bound DNA molecules. Using spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy, we have estimated the shape of coiled single-stranded DNA, the average tilt of double-stranded DNA of different lengths, and the amount of hybridization. The data provide important proofs of concept for the capabilities of novel optical surface analytical methods of the molecular disposition of DNA on surfaces. The determination of DNA conformations on surfaces and hybridization behavior provide information required to move DNA interfacial applications forward and thus impact emerging clinical and biotechnological fields.

  16. FAGE measurements of tropospheric HO with measurements and model of interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, T. M.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; Chan, C. Y.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Ambient HO measurements by low-pressure laser-excited fluorescence with chemical modulation, and supporting ozone and water-vapor data, are presented for periods in May and August 1987. The observed peak daytime ambient HO concentrations are in the range (2.5 to 8) x 10 exp 6 molecules/cu cm and show small negative offsets due to photochemical interference. Direct measurements of the interference at fixed (O3) give the dependence on ambient (H2O) and on the modulating reagent (isobutane). At ambient (O3) = 30 ppb and 10 torr H2O, with excitation and detection at a total pressure of 4 torr, the net interference is equal to (HO) = -1.3 x 10 exp 6 molecules/cu cm. Production of HO by the reaction of isobutane with O(1D) accounts for the negative interference. Quenching of HO fluorescence by the modulating reagent contributes a smaller positive term to the interference; kinetic measurements of the quenching rate coefficient are reported. The experimental interference results are compared with a detailed kinetic model of HO production, excitation, relaxation, and detection; reasonable agreement is found.

  17. Elastic cross-section and luminosity measurement in Atlas at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthymiopoulos, I. [Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, AB Dept., Geneve (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Recently the Atlas experiment was complemented with a set of ultra-small-angle detectors located in 'Roman Pot' inserts at 240 m on either side of the interaction point, aiming at the absolute determination of the LHC luminosity by measuring the elastic scattering rate at the Coulomb Nuclear Interference region. Details of the proposed measurement the detector construction and the expected performance as well as the challenges involved are discussed here. Our aim is to determine the luminosity within a 2% error and give a competitive measurement on other parameters like the {rho}-parameter, the total cross-section and the nuclear slope.

  18. Abrasion of 6 dentifrices measured by vertical scanning interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Chappard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The abrasion of dentifrices is well recognized to eliminate the dental plaque. The aims of this study were to characterize the abrasive powders of 6 dentifrices (3 toothpastes and 3 toothpowders) and to measure the abrasion on a test surface by Vertical Scanning Interference microscopy (VSI). Bright field and polarization microscopy were used to identify the abrasive particles on the crude dentifrices and after prolonged washes. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis characterized the shape and nature of the particles. Standardized and polished blocks of poly(methylmethacrylate) were brushed with a commercial electric toothbrush with the dentifrices. VSI quantified the mean roughness (Ra) and illustrated in 3D the abraded areas. Toothpastes induced a limited abrasion. Toothpowders induced a significantly higher roughness linked to the size of the abrasive particles. One powder (Gencix® produced a high abrasion when used with a standard testing weight. However, the powder is based on pumice particles covered by a plant homogenate that readily dissolves in water. When used in the same volume, or after dispersion in water, Ra was markedly reduced. Light and electron microscopy characterize the abrasive particles and VSI is a new tool allowing the analysis of large surface of abraded materials.

  19. Coulomb interference and bending slope in hadron-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Flavio I.; Ferreira, Erasmo

    1994-01-01

    With the purpose of testing the results of QCD calculations on the structure of the forward elastic scattering cross-section, we analyse the coulombic-nuclear interference occurring at small values of the momentum transfer. We emphasize the influence of the hadronic structures on the determination of the Coulomb phase and consequently on the t-dependence of the strong interaction slope parameter. (author)

  20. The measurement of interplanetary scintillations in conditions of strong radio interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffett-Smith, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of interplanetary scintillations (IPS) are often severely limited by interference from man-made transmissions within the receiver pass-band. A new method of measuring IPS is described which can give useful data even in conditions of bad interference. (author)

  1. Measurements, characteristics, and origin of new electromagnetic interference on magnetocardiographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hong-Fang; Cai Wen-Yan; Wei Yu-Ke; Liu Zheng-Hao; Wang Qian; Wang Yue; Dai Yuan-Dong; Ma Ping

    2012-01-01

    In order to eliminate the influence of the large-amplitude magnetic field noise that has complicated magnetocardiographic studies since October 2009, we have performed high-accuracy measurement of the environmental magnetic field noise in the vicinity of Beijing Subway Line 4 using a three-component height T c radio frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). By analysing the spatial form and other characteristics of the time and the frequency domains and by calculating the circumferential magnetic field distribution based on a duel-end feeding system model, we reach the following conclusions: (i) the main source of magnetic field noise is the magnetic field generated by the subway trains, and (ii) the magnetic field interference results mainly from the imbalance between traction current and return rail current that is caused by the leakage current. (general)

  2. Measures of extents of laterality for high-frequency ``transposed'' stimuli under conditions of binaural interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2005-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to determine whether across-frequency binaural interference would occur if ITD-based extents of laterality were measured using high-frequency transposed stimuli as targets. The results of an earlier study [L. R. Bernstein and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3062-3069 (2004)], which focused on threshold-ITDs, rather than extents of laterality, suggested that high-frequency transposed stimuli might be ``immune'' to binaural interference effects resulting from the addition of a spectrally remote, low-frequency interferer. In contrast to the earlier findings, the data from this study indicate that high-frequency transposed targets are susceptible to binaural interference. Nevertheless, high-frequency transposed targets, even when presented along with an interferer, yielded greater extents of ITD-based laterality than did high-frequency Gaussian noise targets presented in isolation. That is, the ``enhanced potency'' of ITDs conveyed by transposed stimuli persisted, even in the presence of a low-frequency interferer. Predictions made using an extension of the model of Heller and Trahiotis [L. M. Heller and C. Trahiotis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3632-3637 (1996)] accounted well for across-frequency binaural interference obtained with conventional Gaussian noise targets but, in all but one case, overpredicted the amounts of interference found with the transposed targets.

  3. Ozone from fireworks: Chemical processes or measurement interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zhengning; Wang, Jiaping; Xie, Yuning; Qi, Ximeng; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Ding, Aijun

    2018-08-15

    Fireworks have been identified as one ozone source by photolyzing NO 2 or O 2 and are believed to potentially be important for the nighttime ozone during firework events. In this study, we conducted both lab and field experiments to test two types of fireworks with low and high energy with the goal to distinguish whether the visible ozone signal during firework displays is real. The results suggest that previous understanding of the ozone formation mechanism during fireworks is misunderstood. Ultraviolet ray (UV)-based ozone monitors are interfered by aerosols and some specific VOCs. High-energy fireworks emit high concentrations of particular matters and low VOCs that the artificial ozone can be easily removed by an aerosol filter. Low-energy fireworks emit large amounts of VOCs mostly from the combustion of the cardboard from fireworks that largely interferes with the ozone monitor. Benzene and phenol might be major contributors to the artificial ozone signal. We further checked the nighttime ozone concentration in Jinan and Beijing, China, during Chinese New Year, a period with intense fireworks. A signal of 3-8ppbv ozone was detected and positively correlated to NO and SO 2 , suggesting a considerable influence of these chemicals in interfering with ambient ozone monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois , Arnaud

    2004-01-01

    International audience; We show by analytical and numerical calculations that the phase change on reflection that occurs in interference microscopy is almost independent of the numerical aperture of the objective. The shift of the microscope interferogram response due to the phase change on reflection, however, increases with the numerical aperture. Measurements of the interferogram shift are made with a Linnik interference microscope equipped with various numerical-aperture objectives and ar...

  5. Measurements of a potential interference with laser-induced fluorescence measurements of ambient OH from the ozonolysis of biogenic alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickly, Pamela; Stevens, Philip S.

    2018-01-01

    Reactions of the hydroxyl radical (OH) play a central role in the chemistry of the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration can provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric oxidation. Several recent studies have shown large discrepancies between measured and modeled OH concentrations in forested areas impacted by emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), where modeled concentrations were significantly lower than measurements. A potential reason for some of these discrepancies involves interferences associated with the measurement of OH using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion (LIF-FAGE) technique in these environments. In this study, a turbulent flow reactor operating at atmospheric pressure was coupled to a LIF-FAGE cell and the OH signal produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, ocimene, isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) was measured. To distinguish between OH produced from the ozonolysis reactions and any OH artifact produced inside the LIF-FAGE cell, an external chemical scrubbing technique was used, allowing for the direct measurement of any interference. An interference under high ozone (between 2 × 1013 and 10 × 1013 cm-3) and BVOC concentrations (between approximately 0.1 × 1012 and 40 × 1012 cm-3) was observed that was not laser generated and was independent of the ozonolysis reaction time. For the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene, the observed interference accounted for approximately 40 % of the total OH signal, while for the ozonolysis of ocimene the observed interference accounted for approximately 70 % of the total OH signal. Addition of acetic acid to the reactor eliminated the interference, suggesting that the source of the interference in these experiments involved the decomposition of stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) inside the FAGE detection cell. Extrapolation of these measurements to ambient concentrations suggests that these interferences

  6. THE MEASUREMENT ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN THE REVERSE TRACTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Serdiuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The original automated method of measurement of electrical noise in the return electric-traction network is proposed. It is realized on the base of car-laboratory “Automatics, telemechanics and communication”. The mathematic model of return electric-traction network is developed to scientific bases of automated measurement. It allows us obtaining the mathematic expressions for change of voltage and current harmonics in the rail net and taking into account the inhomogeneity of lines for the following analytic determination of a source of electric noise.

  7. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source–detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source–detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. (paper)

  8. Infrared temperature measurement and interference analysis of magnesium alloys in hybrid laser-TIG welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R.-S.; Liu, L.-M.; Song, G.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared (IR) temperature measurement, as a convenient, non-contact method for making temperature field measurements, has been widely used in the fields of welding, but the problem of interference from radiant reflection is a complicating factor in applying IR temperature sensing to welding. The object of this research is to make a deep understand about the formation of interference, explore a new method to eliminate the interfering radiation during laser-TIG hybrid welding of magnesium alloys and to obtain the distribution of temperature field accurately. The experimental results showed that the interferences caused by radiant specular reflection of arc light, ceramic nozzle, electrode and laser nozzle were transferred out of welding seam while the IR thermography system was placed perpendicularly to welding seam. And the welding temperature distribution captured by IR termography system which had been calibrated by thermocouple was reliable by using this method in hybrid laser-TIG welding process of AZ31B magnesium alloy

  9. Distributed strain measurement using modal interference in a birefringent optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dilip; Sengupta, S; Ghorai, S K

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method based on modal interference in a birefringent optical fiber for distributed strain measurement. A frequency-modulated optical signal from a laser diode was launched in a birefringent fiber whose 'V' number was set in the range 2.405–3.831. The beat signal produced due to the interference of two lower order modes LP 01 and LP 11 was detected in a photodetector. The change in propagation constants between two modes under loading conditions leads to a phase variation of interference signal. The amplitude of the beat frequency was measured in the frequency domain by varying the modulating frequency, and it provides the measurand distribution along the beam. Results for strain distribution of a simply supported beam (51.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 0.6 cm) for an applied load of 250–1500 g are presented

  10. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  11. Interference analysis for UAV connectivity over LTE using aerial radio measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we use empirical measurements in live rural LTE networks to assess the impact of uplink and downlink radio interference on the UAV radio connectivity performance. Further, we provide a baseline analysis on the potential of interference mitigation schemes, needed to provide a reliable radio...... for these services is that the radio communication link must reliably cover a wide(er) area, when compared to the visual-line-of-sight range radio links currently used. Standardized cellular systems such as Long Term Evolution UMTS (LTE), are an obvious candidate to provide the radio communication link to UAVs...

  12. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S.; Williams, Leah R.; Lewis, David K.; Magoon, Gregory R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Kaminsky, Michael L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jayne, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ), measurements must be fast (real time), scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time). Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA) air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC) sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ): [CO] = 231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84-1706 ppb), [NO] = 6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0-209 ppb), [NO2] = 11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0-71 ppb), and [O3] = 23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0-99 ppb). Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR), we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature = 23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity = 50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8-79.9 %) can be effectively modeled for the Alphasense CO-B4, NO-B4, NO2-B43F, and Ox-B421 sensors, yielding (5 min average) root

  13. Interferences in photolytic NO2 measurements: explanation for an apparent missing oxidant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of NO2 at low concentrations (tens of ppts is non-trivial. A variety of techniques exist, with the conversion of NO2 into NO followed by chemiluminescent detection of NO being prevalent. Historically this conversion has used a catalytic approach (molybdenum; however, this has been plagued with interferences. More recently, photolytic conversion based on UV-LED irradiation of a reaction cell has been used. Although this appears to be robust there have been a range of observations in low-NOx environments which have measured higher NO2 concentrations than might be expected from steady-state analysis of simultaneously measured NO, O3, jNO2, etc. A range of explanations exist in the literature, most of which focus on an unknown and unmeasured “compound X” that is able to convert NO to NO2 selectively. Here we explore in the laboratory the interference on the photolytic NO2 measurements from the thermal decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN within the photolysis cell. We find that approximately 5 % of the PAN decomposes within the instrument, providing a potentially significant interference. We parameterize the decomposition in terms of the temperature of the light source, the ambient temperature, and a mixing timescale ( ∼ 0.4 s for our instrument and expand the parametric analysis to other atmospheric compounds that decompose readily to NO2 (HO2NO2, N2O5, CH3O2NO2, IONO2, BrONO2, higher PANs. We apply these parameters to the output of a global atmospheric model (GEOS-Chem to investigate the global impact of this interference on (1 the NO2 measurements and (2 the NO2 : NO ratio, i.e. the Leighton relationship. We find that there are significant interferences in cold regions with low NOx concentrations such as the Antarctic, the remote Southern Hemisphere, and the upper troposphere. Although this interference is likely instrument-specific, the thermal decomposition to NO2 within the instrument's photolysis

  14. Anterior temporal artery tap to identify systemic interference using short-separation NIRS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Mehak; Jindal, Utkarsh; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    that are also affected by tDCS. An approach may be to use short optode separations to measure systemic hemodynamic fluctuations occurring in the superficial layers which can then be used as regressors to remove the systemic contamination. Here, we demonstrate that temporal artery tap may be used to better...... of neural activity is possible with a measure of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In principal accordance, NIRS can capture the hemodynamic response to tDCS but the challenge remains in removing the systemic interference occurring in the superficial layers of the head...... identify systemic interference using this short-separation NIRS. Moreover, NIRS-EEG joint-imaging during anodal tDCS was used to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz-11.25 Hz. We found that percent...

  15. Measurement of the modification and interference rate of urinary albumin detected by size-exclusion HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, Lajos; Molnár, Gergő Attila; Wagner, Zoltán; Szijártó, István; Mérei, Ákos; Wittmann, István; Böddi, Katalin; Szabó, Zoltán; Matus, Zoltán; Kőszegi, Tamás; Nagy, Géza

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of the excretion of urinary albumin (albuminuria) is an important and well-established method to assess clinical outcomes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been introduced to measure albuminuria. Using this method, it was found that commonly used immunological methods do not measure a fraction of urinary albumin. Some authors presumed that the reason of immuno-unreactivity is the modification of urinary albumin; some others presumed that the difference is merely because of interference. In order to decide this question, we established an HPLC method equipped with tandem UV and fluorescent detection to assess the changes in the detectability of albumin with the rate of modification. For this measurement, differently modified forms of albumin were used. Urine samples of diabetic patients were also measured to find a potential connection between the modification rate and clinical parameters. Secondly, we have established a reversed phase HPLC method to assess the interference rate. We conclude that albumin modification does not affect immunoreactivity. The modification rate of urinary albumin in diabetic patients showed a correlation with renal function. The interference rate of the albumin peak was found to be 12.7% on average, which does not explain the difference between the two methods

  16. Measurement Technique in Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Study for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Nor Hazmin Sabri; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zamri Zainal Abidin; Asyaari Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will review our method in making measurements of radio frequency interference (RFI) in order to investigate the sereneness of interference in selected radio interference in Malaysia and Thailand. The selected site are University of Malaya (UM), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Ubon (UB) and Chiang Mai (CM). The major RFI affecting radio astronomical windows below 1 GHz are electronic equipment system specifically radio navigation between 73.1 MHz and 75.2 MHz, radio broadcasting (151 MHz, 151.8 MHz and 152 MHz), aeronautical navigation (245.5 MHz, 248.7 MHz and 249 MHz and also fixed mobile at 605 MHz, 608.3 MHz, 612.2 MHz, 613.3 MHz. It is obviously showed that all sites within this region are free from interference between 320MHz and 330 MHz and is the best specific region to be considered for solar burst monitoring. We also investigate the effect of RFI on discovery of solar burst. (author)

  17. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Cross

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ, measurements must be fast (real time, scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time. Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ: [CO]  =  231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84–1706 ppb, [NO]  =  6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0–209 ppb, [NO2]  =  11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0–71 ppb, and [O3]  =  23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0–99 ppb. Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR, we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature  =  23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity  =  50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8–79.9

  18. Technical Note: Quantification of interferences of wet chemical HONO LOPAP measurements under simulated polar conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleffmann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present pilot study, an optimized LOPAP instrument (LOng Path Absorption Photometer for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO in the atmosphere (DL 0.2 pptV was tested at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch at 3580 m altitude in the Swiss Alps under conditions comparable to polar regions. HONO concentrations in the range <0.5–50 pptV with an average of 7.5 pptV were observed at the Jungfraujoch. The diurnal profiles obtained exhibited clear maxima at noon and minima with very low concentration during the night supporting the proposed photochemical production of HONO. In good agreement with recent measurements at the South Pole, it was demonstrated, that interferences of chemical HONO instruments can significantly influence the measurements and lead to considerable overestimations, especially for low pollution level. Accordingly, the active correction of interferences is of paramount importance for the determination of reliable HONO data.

  19. Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools based on two-beam interference theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingying; Wang Xiangzhao; Wang Fan

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of image quality caused by aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools is a serious problem in optical lithography. We propose what we believe to be a novel technique for measuring aberrations of projection optics based on two-beam interference theory. By utilizing the partial coherent imaging theory, a novel model that accurately characterizes the relative image displacement of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern induced by aberrations is derived. Both even and odd aberrations are extracted independently from the relative image displacements of the printed patterns by two-beam interference imaging of the zeroth and positive first orders. The simulation results show that by using this technique we can measure the aberrations present in the lithographic tool with higher accuracy

  20. Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools based on two-beam interference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingying; Wang, Xiangzhao; Wang, Fan

    2006-11-10

    The degradation of image quality caused by aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools is a serious problem in optical lithography. We propose what we believe to be a novel technique for measuring aberrations of projection optics based on two-beam interference theory. By utilizing the partial coherent imaging theory, a novel model that accurately characterizes the relative image displacement of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern induced by aberrations is derived. Both even and odd aberrations are extracted independently from the relative image displacements of the printed patterns by two-beam interference imaging of the zeroth and positive first orders. The simulation results show that by using this technique we can measure the aberrations present in the lithographic tool with higher accuracy.

  1. Interference of Lithium in Measuring Magnesium by Complexometry: Discussions of the Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is usually a large concentration of magnesium in the brine of salt lakes and as a consequence it is difficult to measure Mg2+ accurately with the complexometric titration by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA because of the large levels of Li+ also coexisting in brine samples. In this study, a relationship between the relative error related to the number of drops of the indicator and the NMR spectra of anhydrous ethanol and n-butanol, with or without LiCl, was analyzed and compared. It was then possible to suggest a mechanism to explain the interference of Li+ when measuring Mg2+ and to control the interference in the alcohol mixture because Li+ can then complex with the alcohols and mainly form a complex with n-butanol.

  2. High-throughput measurement of recombination rates and genetic interference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffoux, Xavier; Bourge, Mickael; Dumas, Fabrice; Martin, Olivier C; Falque, Matthieu

    2018-06-01

    Allelic recombination owing to meiotic crossovers is a major driver of genome evolution, as well as a key player for the selection of high-performing genotypes in economically important species. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and low-cost method to measure recombination rates and crossover patterning (including interference) in large populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombination and interference were analysed by flow cytometry, which allows time-consuming steps such as tetrad microdissection or spore growth to be avoided. Moreover, our method can also be used to compare recombination in wild-type vs. mutant individuals or in different environmental conditions, even if the changes in recombination rates are small. Furthermore, meiotic mutants often present recombination and/or pairing defects affecting spore viability but our method does not involve growth steps and thus avoids filtering out non-viable spores. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Height measurement of transparent objects by adopting differential interference contrast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sheng-Kang; Liu, Ting-Kun; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the differential interference contrast (DIC) approach originally used for image enhancement to increase the contrast between a transparent object and the background is adopted for the dimension measurement of transparent structures. With the phase difference image retrieved using the DIC technique, the phase map of the examined object can be approximated by integrating the phase difference. The need of integration accuracy is much higher for measurement than for image enhancement. In this study, a modified Fourier phase integration is proposed to reduce the effects of noise on surface profile reconstruction. The simulation results show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the effects of noise. Experimental results are also conducted to study the feasibility of using the transmitted DIC with the proposed integration method for transparent object measurement. The results show that the height of a transparent structure measured using the DIC method is quite close to those measured using an atomic force microscope, while those measured using the white-light interference method result in a much larger measurement than all others.

  4. Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides

  5. Quantum interference measurement of spin interactions in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Vincent; Zhang, Yao; Soghomonian, Victoria; Heremans, Jean J.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum interference is used to measure the spin interactions between an InAs surface electron system and the iron center in the biomolecule hemin in nanometer proximity in a bio-organic/semiconductor device structure. The interference quantifies the influence of hemin on the spin decoherence properties of the surface electrons. The decoherence times of the electrons serve to characterize the biomolecule, in an electronic complement to the use of spin decoherence times in magnetic resonance. Hemin, prototypical for the heme group in hemoglobin, is used to demonstrate the method, as a representative biomolecule where the spin state of a metal ion affects biological functions. The electronic determination of spin decoherence properties relies on the quantum correction of antilocalization, a result of quantum interference in the electron system. Spin-flip scattering is found to increase with temperature due to hemin, signifying a spin exchange between the iron center and the electrons, thus implying interactions between a biomolecule and a solid-state system in the hemin/InAs hybrid structure. The results also indicate the feasibility of artificial bioinspired materials using tunable carrier systems to mediate interactions between biological entities.

  6. Mixed Messages: Measuring Conformance and Non-Interference in TypeScript (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jack; Morris, J. Garrett; Wadler, Philip; Zalewski, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    In the paper Mixed Messages: Measuring Conformance and Non-Interference in TypeScript we present our experiences of evaluating gradual typing using our tool TypeScript TPD. The tool, based on the polymorphic blame calculus, monitors JavaScript libraries and TypeScript clients against the corresponding TypeScript definition. Our experiments yield two conclusions. First, TypeScript definitions are prone to error. Second, there are serious technical concerns with the use of the JavaScript proxy ...

  7. Impact of Endogenous and Exogenous Interferences on Clinical Chemistry Parameters Measured on Blood Gas Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before

  8. Detecting interferences with iOS applications to measure speed of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Traditional experiments measuring the speed of sound consist of studying harmonics by changing the length of a glass tube closed at one end. In these experiments, the sound source and observer are outside of the tube. In this paper, we propose the modification of this old experiment by studying destructive interference in a pipe using a headset, iPhone and iPad. The iPhone is used as an emitter with signal generator application and the iPad is used as the receiver with a spectrogram application. Two experiments are carried out for measures: the emitter inside of the tube with the receiver outside, and vice versa. We conclude that it is even possible to adequately and easily measure the speed of sound using a cup or a can of coke with the method described in this paper.

  9. A High-Speed Optical Diagnostic that uses Interference Filters to Measure Doppler Shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Cates, C.; Mauel, M.; Maurer, D.; Navratil, G.; Shilov, M.

    2004-01-01

    A high-speed, non-invasive velocity diagnostic has been developed for measuring plasma rotation. The Doppler shift is determined by employing two detectors that view line emission from the identical volume of plasma. Each detector views through an interference filter having a passband that varies linearly with wavelength. One detector views the plasma through a filter whose passband has a negative slope and the second detector views through one with a positive slope. Because each channel views the same volume of plasma, the ratio of the amplitudes is not sensitive to variations in plasma emission. With suitable knowledge of the filter characteristics and the relative gain, the Doppler shift is readily obtained in real time from the ratio of two channels without needing a low throughput spectrometer. The systematic errors--arising from temperature drifts, stability, and frequency response of the detectors and amplifiers, interference filter linearity, and ability to thoroughly homogenize the light from the fiber bundle--can be characterized well enough to obtain velocity data with + or - 1 km/sec with a time resolution of 0.3 msec

  10. Improvement on vibration measurement performance of laser self-mixing interference by using a pre-feedback mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Qianghua; Wang, Yanghong; Luo, Huifu; Wu, Huan; Ma, Binwu

    2018-06-01

    In the laser self-mixing interference vibration measurement system, the self mixing interference signal is usually weak so that it can be hardly distinguished from the environmental noise. In order to solve this problem, we present a self-mixing interference optical path with a pre-feedback mirror, a pre-feedback mirror is added between the object and the collimator lens, corresponding feedback light enters into the inner cavity of the laser and the interference by the pre-feedback mirror occurs. The pre-feedback system is established after that. The self-mixing interference theoretical model with a pre-feedback based on the F-P model is derived. The theoretical analysis shows that the amplitude of the intensity of the interference signal can be improved by 2-4 times. The influence factors of system are also discussed. The experiment results show that the amplitude of the signal is greatly improved, which agrees with the theoretical analysis.

  11. Measuring the Interference at an RFID Tag: Where Does It Have an Impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider reader collisions in an RFID system, especially how interference impacts the ability of a passive UHF tag to respond. We propose two innovative applications for using interference: 1) Blocking a tag response, and 2) cooperative reading of a tag. In order to investigate...

  12. Measurement of interferences associated with the detection of the hydroperoxy radical in the atmosphere using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Michelle M.; Dusanter, Sebastien; Stevens, Philip S.

    2018-01-01

    One technique used to measure concentrations of the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the atmosphere involves chemically converting it to OH by addition of NO and subsequent detection of OH. However, some organic peroxy radicals (RO2) can also be rapidly converted to HO2 (and subsequently OH) in the presence of NO, interfering with measurements of ambient HO2 radical concentrations. This interference must be characterized for each instrument to determine to what extent various RO2 radicals interfere with measurements of HO2 and to assess the impact of this interference on past measurements. The efficiency of RO2-to-HO2 conversion for the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion (IU-FAGE) instrument was measured for a variety of RO2 radicals. Known quantities of OH and HO2 radicals were produced from the photolysis of water vapor at 184.9 nm, and RO2 radicals were produced by the reaction of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with OH. The conversion efficiency of RO2 radicals to HO2 was measured when NO was added to the sampling cell for conditions employed during several previous field campaigns. For these conditions, approximately 80 % of alkene-derived RO2 radicals and 20 % of alkane-derived RO2 radicals were converted to HO2. Based on these measurements, interferences from various RO2 radicals contributed to approximately 35 % of the measured HO2 signal during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) 2006 campaign (MCMA-2006), where the measured VOCs consisted of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated species. However, this interference can contribute more significantly to the measured HO2 signal in forested environments dominated by unsaturated biogenic emissions such as isoprene.

  13. Caustics and Caustic-Interference in Measurements of Contact Angle and Flow Visualization Through Laser Shadowgraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Neng-Li

    2002-01-01

    As one of the basic elements of the shadowgraphy optical system, the image of the far field from the droplet implicates plentiful information on the droplet profile. An analysis of caustics by wave theory shows that a droplet with a cylindrically symmetric Gaussian-hill-type profile produces a circular directional caustic in far field, which arises from the singularities (inflection line on the surface). The sessile liquid droplets, which profiles are restricted by surface tension, usually have a 'protruding foot' where the surface inflects. Simple geometrical optics indicates that the circular caustic stemming from the surface inflection at the protruding-foot takes the shape of the outmost ring on the image of the far field. It is the diameter of the outmost ring that is used as one of the key parameters in the measurements of contact angle through the laser shadowgraphic method. Different surface characteristics of the droplets produce different type of caustics, and therefore, the shape of the caustics can be used to determine the surface property of the sessile droplets. The present paper describes the measurement method of contact angIe using the circular caustics and the estimation of the protruding-foot height through the caustic interference.

  14. Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; Gaillard, Vinciane; Cleeremans, Axel; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Statistical learning can be used to extract the words from continuous speech. Gómez, Bion, and Mehler (Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 212-223, 2011) proposed an online measure of statistical learning: They superimposed auditory clicks on a continuous artificial speech stream made up of a random succession of trisyllabic nonwords. Participants were instructed to detect these clicks, which could be located either within or between words. The results showed that, over the length of exposure, reaction times (RTs) increased more for within-word than for between-word clicks. This result has been accounted for by means of statistical learning of the between-word boundaries. However, even though statistical learning occurs without an intention to learn, it nevertheless requires attentional resources. Therefore, this process could be affected by a concurrent task such as click detection. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which the click detection task indeed reflects successful statistical learning. Our results suggest that the emergence of RT differences between within- and between-word click detection is neither systematic nor related to the successful segmentation of the artificial language. Therefore, instead of being an online measure of learning, the click detection task seems to interfere with the extraction of statistical regularities.

  15. Minimal interference beam size/profile measurement techniques applicable to the Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W.; Dutt, S.; Kauffmann, S.; Lebedev, V.; Maschke, A.; Mokhov, N.; Richardson, R.; Tsyganov, E.; Zinchenko, A.

    1993-05-01

    The imaging of synchrotron radiation (SR) has been suggested as a technique for providing a continuous, non-interfering monitor of the beam profile in the Collider rings at the Superconducting Super Collider. A closer examination has raised questions concerning the applicability of SR imaging in this case because of the diffraction broadening of the image, the requirements for axial space and location in the lattice, and the complexity of the system. We have surveyed the known, alternative, minimal interference techniques for measuring beam size and have evaluated them for possible Collider usage. We conclude that of the approaches that appear feasible, all require at least some development for our usage and that the development of an electron beam probe offers the best promise. We recommend that flying wires be used for cross-checking and calibrating the electron beam probe diagnostic and for luminosity measurements when the highest accuracy is required, but flying wires should not be used as the primary diagnostic because of their limited lifetime

  16. Displacement, distance, and shape measurements of fast-rotating rough objects by two mutually tilted interference fringe systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Philipp; Kuschmierz, Robert; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen W

    2013-05-01

    The precise distance measurement of fast-moving rough surfaces is important in several applications such as lathe monitoring. A nonincremental interferometer based on two mutually tilted interference fringe systems has been realized for this task. The distance is coded in the phase difference between the generated interference signals corresponding to the fringe systems. Large tilting angles between the interference fringe systems are necessary for a high sensitivity. However, due to the speckle effect at rough surfaces, different envelopes and phase jumps of the interference signals occur. At large tilting angles, these signals become dissimilar, resulting in a small correlation coefficient and a high measurement uncertainty. Based on a matching of illumination and receiving optics, the correlation coefficient and the phase difference estimation have been improved significantly. For axial displacement measurements of recurring rough surfaces, laterally moving with velocities of 5 m/s, an uncertainty of 110 nm has been attained. For nonrecurring surfaces, a distance measurement uncertainty of 830 nm has been achieved. Incorporating the additionally measured lateral velocity and the rotational speed, the two-dimensional shape of rotating objects results. Since the measurement uncertainty of the displacement, distance, and shape is nearly independent of the lateral surface velocity, this technique is predestined for fast-rotating objects, such as crankshafts, camshafts, vacuum pump shafts, or turning parts of lathes.

  17. 133Xe and 135Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.; Lo Sasso, T.; Lei, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fission product 133 Xe and 135 Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of 133 Xe and 135 Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies. (author)

  18. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of graphene diaphragm using optical fiber Fabry–Perot interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Qianwen; Peng, Xiaobin; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-01-01

    Application of the Fabry–Perot (FP) interference method for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a graphene diaphragm is investigated in this paper. A miniature extrinsic FP interferometric (EFPI) sensor was fabricated by using an approximate 8-layer graphene diaphragm. The extremely thin diaphragm was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with an inner diameter of 125 μ m, and van der Waals interactions between the graphene diaphragm and its substrate created a low finesse FP interferometer with a cavity length of 36.13 μ m. Double reference FP cavities using two cleaved optical fibers as reflectors were also constructed to differentially cancel the thermal expansion effects of the trapped gas and adhesive material. A temperature test demonstrated an approximate cavity length change of 166.1 nm °C −1 caused by film thermal expansion in the range of 20–60 °C. Then along with the established thermal deformation model of the suspended circular diaphragm, the calculated CTE ranging from  −9.98  ×  10 −6 K −1 to  −2.09  ×  10 −6 K −1 conformed well to the previously measured results. The proposed method would be applicable in other types of elastic materials as the sensitive diaphragm of an EFPI sensor over a wide temperature range. (paper)

  19. /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe interference with in vivo low-energy measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N; Lo Sasso, T; Lei, W [New York Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1980-03-01

    Fission product /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe are released to the atmosphere during normal reactor operation. With increasing numbers of nuclear power stations there will be an increase in the ambient level of these isotopes. They do not present an appreciable long-term health hazard because of their inert nature and relatively short half-lives. However, their presence in the air of a whole-body counter may interfere significantly with in vivo low-energy photon counting procedures by contributing to the background count-rate in the energy region below 300 keV. This applies particularly to lung and whole-body measurements with dual thin crystal NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for actinide nuclides. It is important, therefore, that gamma spectroscopists should be aware of the possible presence of /sup 133/Xe and /sup 135/Xe in the air of their whole-body counting facilities, particularly if these are near to reactors and do not have traps for removal of inert gases from their air supplies.

  20. Human beta-glucuronidase. Measurement of its activity in gallbladder bile devoid of intrinsic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Ho, K J

    1988-04-01

    Our purpose is to develop a standard method for preparing the bile for beta-glucuronidase determination by removal of bile acids and conjugated bilirubin which interfere with its activity. The bile acids and conjugated bilirubin in their purified solutions and in the diluted gallbladder biles could be extracted completely with cholestyramine in powder form or tetrahexylammonium chloride (THAC) in chloroform or ethyl acetate. The enzyme was, however, partially precipitated with cholestyramine and denatured by chloroform but not by ethyl acetate. A standard procedure, therefore, includes extraction of the diluted gallbladder bile with THAC in ethyl acetate, followed by determination of the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the enzyme by a kinetic method employing phenolphthalein glucuronide as the substrate. The average Vmax of beta-glucuronidase in the 20 normal gallbladder biles was 165 +/- 86 nmol/min/ml (mean +/- SD), a 23.5-fold increase over the activity before extraction. The measured activity represented the true activity of the enzyme in the bile for recovery of activity of the enzyme added to the bile was practically complete.

  1. Thyroglobulin (Tg) recovery testing with quantitative Tg antibody measurement for determining interference in serum Tg assays in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, ACM; Links, TP; Wilde, J; Sluiter, WJ; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van den Ouweland, JMW

    Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are complicated by interference from Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs) or heterophilic antibodies (HAMAs). We used a new automated immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA) with Tg recovery (TgR) on the Nichols Advantage (R) platform to reassess the clinical utility of

  2. LoRa Scalability: A Simulation Model Based on Interference Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetmir Haxhibeqiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available LoRa is a long-range, low power, low bit rate and single-hop wireless communication technology. It is intended to be used in Internet of Things (IoT applications involving battery-powered devices with low throughput requirements. A LoRaWAN network consists of multiple end nodes that communicate with one or more gateways. These gateways act like a transparent bridge towards a common network server. The amount of end devices and their throughput requirements will have an impact on the performance of the LoRaWAN network. This study investigates the scalability in terms of the number of end devices per gateway of single-gateway LoRaWAN deployments. First, we determine the intra-technology interference behavior with two physical end nodes, by checking the impact of an interfering node on a transmitting node. Measurements show that even under concurrent transmission, one of the packets can be received under certain conditions. Based on these measurements, we create a simulation model for assessing the scalability of a single gateway LoRaWAN network. We show that when the number of nodes increases up to 1000 per gateway, the losses will be up to 32%. In such a case, pure Aloha will have around 90% losses. However, when the duty cycle of the application layer becomes lower than the allowed radio duty cycle of 1%, losses will be even lower. We also show network scalability simulation results for some IoT use cases based on real data.

  3. LoRa Scalability: A Simulation Model Based on Interference Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhibeqiri, Jetmir; Van den Abeele, Floris; Moerman, Ingrid; Hoebeke, Jeroen

    2017-05-23

    LoRa is a long-range, low power, low bit rate and single-hop wireless communication technology. It is intended to be used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications involving battery-powered devices with low throughput requirements. A LoRaWAN network consists of multiple end nodes that communicate with one or more gateways. These gateways act like a transparent bridge towards a common network server. The amount of end devices and their throughput requirements will have an impact on the performance of the LoRaWAN network. This study investigates the scalability in terms of the number of end devices per gateway of single-gateway LoRaWAN deployments. First, we determine the intra-technology interference behavior with two physical end nodes, by checking the impact of an interfering node on a transmitting node. Measurements show that even under concurrent transmission, one of the packets can be received under certain conditions. Based on these measurements, we create a simulation model for assessing the scalability of a single gateway LoRaWAN network. We show that when the number of nodes increases up to 1000 per gateway, the losses will be up to 32%. In such a case, pure Aloha will have around 90% losses. However, when the duty cycle of the application layer becomes lower than the allowed radio duty cycle of 1%, losses will be even lower. We also show network scalability simulation results for some IoT use cases based on real data.

  4. Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Interference Measurement of UMTS and GSM/EDGE Systems in 900 MHz Radio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with inter-system and intra-system interference measurements of 2.5G and 3G mobile communication systems. The both systems UMTS and GSM/EDGE are assumed to operate in a common radio band of 900 MHz. The main system parameters are briefly introduced as well as the measurement scenario. Several simulations and key measurements were performed. Important results are described and commented along with a graphical representation, namely bit error ratio (BER dependence on carrier to noise ratio (CNR in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, the measurement of adjacent channel interference ratio of each system, the coexistence of both systems in same band and the impact of a carrier offset on BER.

  5. Method for acquiring pressure measurements in presence of plasma-induced interference for supersonic flow control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran; Clemens, Noel T; Raja, Laxminarayan L

    2011-01-01

    The operation of pulsed-plasma actuators for flow control is often associated with the presence of charged species in the flow and severe electromagnetic interference with external circuitry. These effects can lead to time-resolved transducer pressure measurements that are contaminated with electromagnetic interference effects or even transducer damage due to the interaction with charged species. A new technique is developed that enables high-bandwidth pressure measurements to be made in the presence of such rapidly switched plasma actuators. The technique is applied for the specific configuration of a pulsed-plasma jet actuator (spark jet) that is used to control the unsteadiness of a shock wave/boundary layer interaction generated by a compression ramp in a Mach 3 flow. The critical component of the technique involves using a pulsed-ground electrode to drain the charged species from the plasma jet before they reach the pressure transducer. The pulsed-ground electrode was shown to drain charged species into the pulsed ground prior to interacting with the transducer, which made it possible to make measurements without damaging the transducer. The resulting signals were still contaminated by electromagnetic interference spikes and so a data-processing technique was used to remove the artifacts and recover a largely uncontaminated power spectrum. The signal processing scheme used interpolation schemes previously developed for laser Doppler velocimetry applications. The data-processing procedure is demonstrated with a benchmark case in which the electromagnetic interference was isolated from the pulsed-plasma jet actuation effect. It is shown that the data-processing procedure removed the contamination from the electromagnetic interference at all frequencies but for the pulsing frequency and its higher harmonics

  6. Processing bias in anxious subjects and repressors, measured by emotional Stroop interference and attentional allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J.F.; de Ruiter, C.; Kindt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Hypothesized that repressors (Ss high in defensiveness with low trait anxiety) would show cognitive avoidance of threatening information in an attention deployment task, but an attentional bias for the same information in an emotional interference task, while Ss high in anxiety would show a

  7. Geometric phase in a split-beam experiment measured with coupled neutron interference loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.; Ioffe, A.

    1996-01-01

    A geometric phase factor is derived for a split-beam experiment as an example of cyclic evolutions. The geometric phase is given by one half of the solid angle independent of the spin of the beam. We observe this geometric phase with a two-loop neutron interferometer, where a reference beam can be added to the beam from one interference loop. All the experimental results show complete agreement with our theoretical treatment. (author)

  8. Ascorbic acid interference in the measurement of serum biochemical parameters: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Flávia; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the negative interference of ascorbic acid in serum biochemical tests in relation to the dose of vitamin C intake and to the time of blood collection. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) consumed daily doses of vitamin C (0.25-4.0 g) for 1 week and serum parameters were assayed prior to the experiment and on the eighth day of consumption. Blood samples were collected 4, 12 and 24 h after vitamin C intake. Serum levels of ascorbic acid increased significantly after vitamin C ingestion inhibiting urate and total bilirubin tests 4 and 12 h after intake (P cholesterol tests. Addition of ascorbic acid to serum inhibited the urate test to a similar extent to that observed after vitamin C intake. However, after ingesting vitamin C, the interference for the bilirubin test was greater than that of the in vitro interference. Commonly taken doses of supplementary vitamin C interfered negatively with the serum urate test based on the Trinder method, and with bilirubin metabolism.

  9. Measurement and analysis of time-domain characteristics of corona-generated radio interference from a single positive corona source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuebao; Li, Dayong; Chen, Bo; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Li, Yinfei

    2018-04-01

    The corona-generated electromagnetic interference commonly known as radio interference (RI) has become a limiting factor for the design of high voltage direct current transmission lines. In this paper, a time-domain measurement system is developed to measure the time-domain characteristics of corona-generated RI from a single corona source under a positive corona source. In the experiments, the corona current pulses are synchronously measured through coupling capacitors. The one-to-one relationship between the corona current pulse and measured RI voltage pulse is observed. The statistical characteristics of pulse parameters are analyzed, and the correlations between the corona current pulse and RI voltage pulse in the time-domain and frequency-domain are analyzed. Depending on the measured corona current pulses, the time-domain waveform of corona-generated RI is calculated on the basis of the propagation model of corona current on the conductor, the dipolar model for electric field calculation, and the antenna model for inducing voltage calculation. The well matched results between measured and simulated waveforms of RI voltage can show the validity of the measurement and calculation method presented in this paper, which also further show the close correlation between corona current and corona-generated RI.

  10. Dose {sup 131}I radioactivity interfere with thyroglobulin measurement in patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy with recombinant human TSH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun; Bang, Ji In; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high 131I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of 131I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of 131I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients’ sera were sampled 2 days after 131I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after 131I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the 131I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using 125I did not show interference from 131I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  11. Real-time micro-vibration multi-spot synchronous measurement within a region based on heterodyne interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ma; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Hao, Hongliang; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Real-time micro-vibration measurement is widely used in engineering applications. It is very difficult for traditional optical detection methods to achieve real-time need in a relatively high frequency and multi-spot synchronous measurement of a region at the same time,especially at the nanoscale. Based on the method of heterodyne interference, an experimental system of real-time measurement of micro - vibration is constructed to satisfy the demand in engineering applications. The vibration response signal is measured by combing optical heterodyne interferometry and a high-speed CMOS-DVR image acquisition system. Then, by extracting and processing multiple pixels at the same time, four digital demodulation technique are implemented to simultaneously acquire the vibrating velocity of the target from the recorded sequences of images. Different kinds of demodulation algorithms are analyzed and the results show that these four demodulation algorithms are suitable for different interference signals. Both autocorrelation algorithm and cross-correlation algorithm meet the needs of real-time measurements. The autocorrelation algorithm demodulates the frequency more accurately, while the cross-correlation algorithm is more accurate in solving the amplitude.

  12. Use of a heated graphite scrubber as a means of reducing interferences in UV-absorbance measurements of atmospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solid-phase scrubber for use in conventional ozone (O3 photometers was investigated as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species and water vapor. It was found that when heated to 100–130 °C, a tubular graphite scrubber efficiently removed up to 500 ppb ozone and ozone monitors using the heated graphite scrubber were found to be less susceptible to interferences from water vapor, mercury vapor, and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs compared to conventional metal oxide scrubbers. Ambient measurements from a graphite scrubber-equipped photometer and a co-located Federal equivalent method (FEM ozone analyzer showed excellent agreement over 38 days of measurements and indicated no loss in the scrubber's ability to remove ozone when operated at 130 °C. The use of a heated graphite scrubber was found to reduce the interference from mercury vapor to ≤ 3 % of that obtained using a packed-bed Hopcalite scrubber. For a series of substituted aromatic compounds (ranging in volatility and absorption cross section at 253.7 nm, the graphite scrubber was observed to consistently exhibit reduced levels of interference, typically by factors of 2.5 to 20 less than with Hopcalite. Conventional solid-phase scrubbers also exhibited complex VOC adsorption and desorption characteristics that were dependent upon the relative humidity (RH, volatility of the VOC, and the available surface area of the scrubber. This complex behavior involving humidity is avoided by use of a heated graphite scrubber. These results suggest that heated graphite scrubbers could be substituted in most ozone photometers as a means of reducing interferences from other UV-absorbing species found in the atmosphere. This could be particularly important in ozone monitoring for compliance with the United States (U.S. Clean Air Act or for use in VOC-rich environments such as in smog chambers and monitoring indoor air quality.

  13. Analysis of task-evoked systemic interference in fNIRS measurements: insights from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Sinem B; Yücel, Meryem A; Akın, Ata

    2014-02-15

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising method for monitoring cerebral hemodynamics with a wide range of clinical applications. fNIRS signals are contaminated with systemic physiological interferences from both the brain and superficial tissues, resulting in a poor estimation of the task related neuronal activation. In this study, we use the anatomical resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to extract scalp and brain vascular signals separately and construct an optically weighted spatial average of the fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal for characterizing the scalp signal contribution to fNIRS measurements. We introduce an extended superficial signal regression (ESSR) method for canceling physiology-based systemic interference where the effects of cerebral and superficial systemic interference are treated separately. We apply and validate our method on the optically weighted BOLD signals, which are obtained by projecting the fMRI image onto optical measurement space by use of the optical forward problem. The performance of ESSR method in removing physiological artifacts is compared to i) a global signal regression (GSR) method and ii) a superficial signal regression (SSR) method. The retrieved signals from each method are compared with the neural signals that represent the 'ground truth' brain activation cleaned from cerebral systemic fluctuations. We report significant improvements in the recovery of task induced neural activation with the ESSR method when compared to the other two methods as reflected in the Pearson R(2) coefficient and mean square error (MSE) metrics (two tailed paired t-tests, pnoise (CNR) improvement (60%). Our findings suggest that, during a cognitive task i) superficial scalp signal contribution to fNIRS signals varies significantly among different regions on the forehead and ii) using an average scalp measurement together with a local measure of superficial hemodynamics better accounts

  14. Interference Measurements in the European 868 MHz ISM Band with Focus on LoRa and SigFox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Vejlgaard, Benny; Kovács, István

    2017-01-01

    In this measurement study the signal activity and power levels are measured in the European Industrial, Scientific, and Medical band 863-870 MHz in the city of Aalborg, Denmark. The target is to determine if there is any interference, which may impact deployment of Internet of Things devices....... The focus is on the Low Power Wide Area technologies LoRa and SigFox. The measurements show that there is a 22-33 % probability of interfering signals above -105 dBm within the mandatory LoRa and SigFox 868.0-868.6 MHz band in a shopping area and a business park in downtown Aalborg, which thus limits...... the potential coverage and capacity of LoRa and SigFox. However, the probability of interference is less than 3 % in the three other measurement locations in Aalborg. Finally, a hospital and an industrial area are shown to experience high activity in the RFID subband 865-868 MHz, while the wireless audio band...

  15. Reduction of beta-interference in gamma-spectrometric measurements of neutron-irradiated geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmann, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    The analytical technique for INAA, when applied to geological materials, is improved by introducing an electromagnetic field between sample and detector. This field lowers the bremsstrahlung background intensity in the gamma-spectrum by reducing the number of beta-particles reaching the detector. Thus precision, accuracy and lower detection limit are improved. The technique was used on alkalisyenite and on meteoritic material, rocks containing high quantities of sodium and iron, respectively. After neutron irradiation, the induced nuclides sup(24)Na and sup(59)Fe are responsible for high bremsstrahlung interference, which under normal analyitical conditions would mask any x-ray or gamma-ray peaks of interest. The technique is easily applied to multielement analysis of geological and biological materials. It can be combined with sophisticated spectrum-treating techniques such as spectrum stripping and spectrum smoothing, or coincidence-anticoincidence circuits. (author)

  16. Teager-Kaiser Energy and Higher-Order Operators in White-Light Interference Microscopy for Surface Shape Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In white-light interference microscopy, measurement of surface shape generally requires peak extraction of the fringe function envelope. In this paper the Teager-Kaiser energy and higher-order energy operators are proposed for efficient extraction of the fringe envelope. These energy operators are compared in terms of precision, robustness to noise, and subsampling. Flexible energy operators, depending on order and lag parameters, can be obtained. Results show that smoothing and interpolation of envelope approximation using spline model performs better than Gaussian-based approach.

  17. Measurement of dew droplets in initial deposition at dew point by using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru; Hoshino, Mitsuo

    2002-09-01

    In order to measure the total mass per unit area of dew droplets deposited on a metal plate in the dew-point hygrometer, the shape of a dew droplet deposited on a copper plate was measured accurately by using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an usual interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fiber cable was introduced to depress speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the copper plate surface with 0.1 μm in average roughness was measured with an accuracy of +/-3nm. The mass of a dew droplet could be calculated numerically from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of dew droplets deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity were obtained under a gentle wind. The total mass was the order of 10-5 g/cm2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity was ranged from 2x10-6 to 6x10-5 g/cm2.min.

  18. A study of the interference of cesium and phosphate in the low power inductively coupled radiofrequency argon plasma using spatially resolved emission and absorption measurements, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on interferences in the radio frequency inductively coupled atmospheric argon plasma (ICP) is reviewed. Even for the most extensively investigated interferences of aluminum, phosphate and alkali elements on calcium, the studies are mostly descriptive. Inter-pretation of these data is impeded by conflicting results, the absence of thermal equilibrium and the lack of radially resolved observations. The present study of a low-power ICP $ KW) utilizes the Abel inversion technique for emission and absorption measurements of atom and ion lines to clarify the mechanism of interferences on calcium and magnesium due to phosphate and cesium. Under conditions of large carrier gas flow (4.5 l/min) the pronounced interferences are the result of three combined effects: volatilization interference, a change in excitation temperature and a shift in the ionization equilibrium. At lower carrier gas flow (1.4 l/min) the interferences are markedly reduced but still due to the same three effects. The relative preponderance of a particular type of interference depends upon the height of observation and upon the particular combination of analyte and interferent considered

  19. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors.

  20. Measurement of filling factor 5/2 quasiparticle interference with observation of charge e/4 and e/2 period oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, R L; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2009-06-02

    A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors nu = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at nu = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 nu and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations.

  1. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, "How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?" was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and sensitivity

  2. Measurement Equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pain Interference Short Form Items: Application to Ethnically Diverse Cancer and Palliative Care Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Cook, Karon F.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Ramirez, Mildred; Reid, M. Carrington; Siu, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the response burden of standardized pain measures is desirable, particularly for individuals who are frail or live with chronic illness, e.g., those suffering from cancer and those in palliative care. The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) project addressed this issue with the provision of computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and short form measures that can be used clinically and in research. Although there has been substantial evaluation of PROMIS item banks, little is known about the performance of PROMIS short forms, particularly in ethnically diverse groups. Reviewed in this article are findings related to the differential item functioning (DIF) and reliability of the PROMIS pain interference short forms across diverse sociodemographic groups. Methods DIF hypotheses were generated for the PROMIS short form pain interference items. Initial analyses tested item response theory (IRT) model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence. Dimensionality was evaluated using factor analytic methods; local dependence (LD) was tested using IRT-based LD indices. Wald tests were used to examine group differences in IRT parameters, and to test DIF hypotheses. A second DIF-detection method used in sensitivity analyses was based on ordinal logistic regression with a latent IRT-derived conditioning variable. Magnitude and impact of DIF were investigated, and reliability and item and scale information statistics were estimated. Results The reliability of the short form item set was excellent. However, there were a few items with high local dependency, which affected the estimation of the final discrimination parameters. As a result, the item, “How much did pain interfere with enjoyment of social activities?” was excluded in the DIF analyses for all subgroup comparisons. No items were hypothesized to show DIF for race and ethnicity; however, five items showed DIF after adjustment for multiple comparisons in both primary and

  3. Semiconductor Quantum Electron Wave Transport, Diffraction, and Interference: Analysis, Device, and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gregory Newell

    Semiconductor device dimensions are rapidly approaching a fundamental limit where drift-diffusion equations and the depletion approximation are no longer valid. In this regime, quantum effects can dominate device response. To increase further device density and speed, new devices must be designed that use these phenomena to positive advantage. In addition, quantum effects provide opportunities for a new class of devices which can perform functions previously unattainable with "conventional" semiconductor devices. This thesis has described research in the analysis of electron wave effects in semiconductors and the development of methods for the design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum devices based on these effects. First, an exact set of quantitative analogies are presented which allow the use of well understood optical design and analysis tools for the development of electron wave semiconductor devices. Motivated by these analogies, methods are presented for modeling electron wave grating diffraction using both an exact rigorous coupled-wave analysis and approximate analyses which are useful for grating design. Example electron wave grating switch and multiplexer designs are presented. In analogy to thin-film optics, the design and analysis of electron wave Fabry-Perot interference filters are also discussed. An innovative technique has been developed for testing these (and other) electron wave structures using Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). This technique uses a liquid-helium temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform spectroscopy of the electron transmittance as a function of electron energy. Experimental results show that BEEM can resolve even weak quantum effects, such as the reflectivity of a single interface between materials. Finally, methods are discussed for incorporating asymmetric electron wave Fabry-Perot filters into optoelectronic devices. Theoretical and experimental results show that such structures could

  4. Direct method for measuring and witnessing quantum entanglement of arbitrary two-qubit states through Hong-Ou-Mandel interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel

    2017-02-01

    We describe a direct method for experimental determination of the negativity of an arbitrary two-qubit state with 11 measurements performed on multiple copies of the two-qubit system. Our method is based on the experimentally accessible sequences of singlet projections performed on up to four qubit pairs. In particular, our method permits the application of the Peres-Horodecki separability criterion to an arbitrary two-qubit state. We explicitly demonstrate that measuring entanglement in terms of negativity requires three measurements more than detecting two-qubit entanglement. The reported minimal set of interferometric measurements provides a complete description of bipartite quantum entanglement in terms of two-photon interference. This set is smaller than the set of 15 measurements needed to perform a complete quantum state tomography of an arbitrary two-qubit system. Finally, we demonstrate that the set of nine Makhlin's invariants needed to express the negativity can be measured by performing 13 multicopy projections. We demonstrate both that these invariants are a useful theoretical concept for designing specialized quantum interferometers and that their direct measurement within the framework of linear optics does not require performing complete quantum state tomography.

  5. PROJECT SEE-THRU FLAME INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENTS, TITAN IIIC LAUNCH TEST 8275/2250

    Science.gov (United States)

    A final report of flame attenuation, as well as flame noise measurements made at AFETR on Titan IIIC, Test 8275/2250, April 28, 1967 is presented...report are results of alkali-metal impurity measurements on the zero-stage, on the separation-rocket and the stage-I propellants; data on the effect of

  6. Pressure, flow and hydraulic interference measurements in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurmerinta, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Komulainen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of these studies is to characterize the fracture network and groundwater flow properties in a volume of rock, which is representative of the rock close to deposition holes. As a part of the studies hydraulic tests and flow measurements were applied in two drillholes in hydraulically poorly conductive bedrock. This report presents the principles of the methods as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 between May 9, 2010 and June 9, 2011. The aim of the measurements was to obtain pressure in the closed drillholes, to detect water yielding fractures by flow measurements, to obtain transmissivity with overpressure and drawdown tests and to study hydraulic interference between the drillholes by cross-hole hydraulic tests. The PFL DIFF probe was used to detect flow within single fractures in the drillhole. Transmissive water yielding fractures were found at depths 17.9 m, 16.9 m and 16.4 m in ONK-PP262 and at depths 19.8 m and 19.5 m in ONK-PP274. The cross-hole hydraulic tests included three basic phases. Flow was measured in one drillhole when the other drillhole was open, closed or overpressurized. The cross-hole hydraulic tests were carried out to both directions in the two drillholes. (orig.)

  7. Spatial correlation in matter-wave interference as a measure of decoherence, dephasing, and entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zilin; Beierle, Peter; Batelaan, Herman

    2018-04-01

    The loss of contrast in double-slit electron diffraction due to dephasing and decoherence processes is studied. It is shown that the spatial intensity correlation function of diffraction patterns can be used to distinguish between dephasing and decoherence. This establishes a measure of time reversibility that does not require the determination of coherence terms of the density matrix, while von Neumann entropy, another measure of time reversibility, does require coherence terms. This technique is exciting in view of the need to understand and control the detrimental experimental effect of contrast loss and for fundamental studies on the transition from the classical to the quantum regime.

  8. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  9. Measuring pain phenomena after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Pain Interference and Pain Behavior assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew L; Kisala, Pamela A; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Tulsky, David S

    2018-05-01

    To develop modern patient-reported outcome measures that assess pain interference and pain behavior after spinal cord injury (SCI). Grounded-theory based qualitative item development; large-scale item calibration field-testing; confirmatory factor analyses; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric. Five SCI Model Systems centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. N/A. Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Pain Interference item bank, SCI-QOL Pain Interference short form, and SCI-QOL Pain Behavior scale. Seven hundred fifty-seven individuals with traumatic SCI completed 58 items addressing various aspects of pain. Items were then separated by whether they assessed pain interference or pain behavior, and poorly functioning items were removed. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that each set of items was unidimensional, and item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the items. Ultimately, 7 items (4 from PROMIS) comprised the Pain Behavior scale and 25 items (18 from PROMIS) comprised the Pain Interference item bank. Ten of these 25 items were selected to form the Pain Interference short form. The SCI-QOL Pain Interference item bank and the SCI-QOL Pain Behavior scale demonstrated robust psychometric properties. The Pain Interference item bank is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications, and scores are transformed to the PROMIS metric.

  10. Circuit Design and Implementation of Micro-Displacement Measurement System of Laser Self-Mixing Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we put forward the basic structure of a micro-displacement measuring system based on the basic theory of laser feedback, and designed a hardware circuit of the system, including the LD driver and modulation circuit, photoelectric signal amplifier and filter circuit, which meet the requirements of the follow-up experimental study by theoretical analysis and Multisim simulation to the circuit.

  11. Direct measurement of the biphoton Wigner function through two-photon interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, T.; Eckstein, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Khoury, A. Z.; Ducci, S.; Keller, A.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) experiment was a benchmark in quantum optics, evidencing the non–classical nature of photon pairs, later generalized to quantum systems with either bosonic or fermionic statistics. We show that a simple modification in the well-known and widely used HOM experiment provides the direct measurement of the Wigner function. We apply our results to one of the most reliable quantum systems, consisting of biphotons generated by parametric down conversion. A consequence of our results is that a negative value of the Wigner function is a sufficient condition for non-gaussian entanglement between two photons. In the general case, the Wigner function provides all the required information to infer entanglement using well known necessary and sufficient criteria. The present work offers a new vision of the HOM experiment that further develops its possibilities to realize fundamental tests of quantum mechanics using simple optical set-ups. PMID:24346262

  12. Cross-Layer Measurement on an IEEE 802.11g Wireless Network Supporting MPEG-2 Video Streaming Applications in the Presence of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.

  13. Influence of growing measures on weed interference and water status in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Milena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing modern hybrids in narrow plant spacing together with nitrogen and herbicide application gives an advantage to maize crops over weeds. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen form, maize row spacing and herbicide treatment on weed and maize biomass and water usage, as well as maize yield. The investigation was conducted at the Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje, Belgrade during 2014-2016. A field experiment was set up as a split-split-plot block design with four replications. The maize hybrid ZP388 was planted, and a standard and a slow-release form of urea were applied. For each N source, maize was grown at two row spacings: narrow of 50 cm, and standard of 70 cm, while weed control treatments included: C - without herbicide application, T - application of a pre-emergence mix of herbicides. Sowing was done in the second decade of April, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Six weeks after herbicide application, the fresh biomass of weeds uprooted from 1 m2 and aboveground biomass of ten crop plants per plot were measured together with dry matter after drying in a laboratory oven. Water content (% in weed and maize plants was calculated as a relation between fresh and dry biomass. Maize yield was measured at the end of each growing season and calculated with 14% of moisture. All data were processed by ANOVA. The fresh and dry biomass of weeds were significantly (P>0.05 higher in untreated control than in the treated variant, while differences in water content were not significant between the two treatments. Row spacing and urea form did not cause significant differences in weed parameters. Related to this, maize fresh and dry biomass, as well as water content, were higher in herbicide-treated variants than in control but differences were insignificant. Maize biomass was somewhat higher in 50 cm rows and after application of the slow-release urea fertilizer. Yield was higher from 70 cm rows and after application of

  14. High temperature superconductor micro-superconducting-quantum-interference-device magnetometer for magnetization measurement of a microscale magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Keiji; Mori, Hatsumi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ishimoto, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Takayoshi; Kuriki, Shinya; Hozumi, Toshiya; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a high temperature superconductor (HTS) micrometer-sized dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer for high field and high temperature operation. It was fabricated from YBa2Cu3O7-delta of 92 nm in thickness with photolithography techniques to have a hole of 4x9 microm2 and 2 microm wide grain boundary Josephson junctions. Combined with a three dimensional magnetic field coil system, the modulation patterns of critical current Ic were observed for three different field directions. They were successfully used to measure the magnetic properties of a molecular ferrimagnetic microcrystal (23x17x13 microm3), [Mn2(H2O)2(CH3COO)][W(CN)8]2H2O. The magnetization curve was obtained in magnetic field up to 0.12 T between 30 and 70 K. This is the first to measure the anisotropy of hysteresis curve in the field above 0.1 T with an accuracy of 10(-12) J T(-1) (10(-9) emu) with a HTS micro-SQUID magnetometer.

  15. A novel and quick method to avoid H2O2 interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na2SO3 reduction and O2 oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature. In this st......Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement has been a big problem in the application of the Fenton process. However, there is no simple and effective method available to address this problem, although several methods have been reported in the literature...... to be effective in the matrix of Fenton treating real landfill leachate. Meanwhile, the procedure for this method in other applications was proposed in detail. To the best of our knowledge, this newly developed method is the most simple and effective way to avoid H2O2 interference on COD analysis....

  16. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J.H. Hunsaker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct a modern performance evaluation of a digital refractometer for TP measurement. Design and methods: Performance evaluation of a MISCO Palm Abbe™ digital refractometer was conducted through device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, and reference interval verification. Comparison assays included a manual refractometer and an automated biuret assay. Results: Carryover risk was eliminated using a demineralized distilled water (ddH2O wash step. Precision studies demonstrated overall imprecision of 2.2% CV (low TP pool and 0.5% CV (high TP pool. Accuracy studies demonstrated correlation to both manual refractometry and the biuret method. An overall positive bias (+5.0% was observed versus the biuret method. On average, outlier specimens had an increased triglyceride concentration. Linearity was verified using mixed dilutions of: a low and high concentration patient pools, or b albumin-spiked ddH2O and high concentration patient pool. Decreased recovery was observed using ddH2O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL. Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified. Conclusions: Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses. Keywords: Refractometry, Digital refractometry, Total protein, Biuret, Serum protein electrophoresis, Monoclonal

  17. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Joshua J H; Wyness, Sara P; Snow, Taylor M; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP) in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct a modern performance evaluation of a digital refractometer for TP measurement. Performance evaluation of a MISCO Palm Abbe™ digital refractometer was conducted through device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, and reference interval verification. Comparison assays included a manual refractometer and an automated biuret assay. Carryover risk was eliminated using a demineralized distilled water (ddH 2 O) wash step. Precision studies demonstrated overall imprecision of 2.2% CV (low TP pool) and 0.5% CV (high TP pool). Accuracy studies demonstrated correlation to both manual refractometry and the biuret method. An overall positive bias (+5.0%) was observed versus the biuret method. On average, outlier specimens had an increased triglyceride concentration. Linearity was verified using mixed dilutions of: a) low and high concentration patient pools, or b) albumin-spiked ddH 2 O and high concentration patient pool. Decreased recovery was observed using ddH 2 O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL) and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL). Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified. Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses.

  18. Fiber optic adaptation of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN for in-line measurements in PUREX process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.; Kraemer, K.; Koenig, W.

    1990-02-01

    The multicomponent version of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN was adapted by radiation resistant quartz glass optical fibers to in-line flow cells in the aqueous and organic bypass stream of an uranium laboratory extraction column. A combined photometric/electrolytical conductivity measurement allows this modified process instrument to be used as uranium/plutonium in-line monitor in radioactive process streams. By applying a high performance 100 W quartz halogen lamp and suitable light focussing optics the light intensity, attenuated by coupling losses, could be increased to the desired level even when 1000 μm-single strand fibers (2x18 m) were used to transmit the light. In a series of calibration experiments the U(VI)- and U(IV)-extinction coefficients were determined as a function of nitric acid molarity (for U(VI) also in TBP/kerosene). Furthermore the validity of Lambert-Beer's law was examined for both oxidation states at different optical path lengths and nitric acid/electrolytical conductivity calibration functions between 0-100 g/l U(VI) and 0-4 mol/l HNO 3 were set up. (orig./EF) [de

  19. Investigation of the dual-gauge principle for eliminating measurement interference in nuclear density and moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.L.

    1974-07-01

    The development of mathematical models for an application of the dual-gauge principle to surface neutron moisture content gauges were made under an Agency co-ordinated research programme. The response of a detector (such as a BF 3 proportional counter) to low-energy neutrons is dependent on the hydrogen present in the sample in the form of water. Other factors which affect the gauge response are sample density, composition (particularly with regard to the presence of strong thermal neutron absorbers), and bound hydrogen content. In this work mathematical models for epicadmium and bare BF 3 detector response have been developed for surface neutron moisture content gauges. These models are based on epithermal and thermal line and area flux models obtained from Diffusion Theory and Transport Theory, where flux as a function of radial distance, r, from the source is phi(r), line flux ∫ phi (r) dr, and area flux is ∫ phi (r)rdr. All models have been checked by calculation and comparison to experimental results except for the Transport Theory thermal flux models. The computer calculations were made on an IBM 370/165 system. In addition, the dual-gauge principle was applied and demonstrated as a means of minimizing the composition measurement interference

  20. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 50 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions. In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , they will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|-region, |t| 2 , they plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin states Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied. The relation of pp elastic scattering to the beam polarization measurement at RHIC is also discussed

  1. Measurable position-sensitive wide-angle interference effects of single photons radiated by a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor Varro

    2014-01-01

    Single-photon wide-angle interference phenomena have been studied theoretically for glass-diamond-oil (air) layered structures. As a single optical radiator, one NV-center has been assumed close to the upper surface of a diamond plate, and it was represented by a Hertzian dipole of arbitrary orientation. It has been shown that the far-field interference pattern (of 3/5 or 100% visibility) is sensitive to the vertical position of the NV-center, to that extent that ∼2 nm difference in distance from the upper surface of the diamond results in ∼0.01 degree shift of the pattern, which should be a measurable effect. (author)

  2. Binaural Interference: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Silman, Shlomo; Silverman, Carol; Emmer, Michele

    2017-04-01

    The reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference with speech recognition has been debated for two decades. Research has taken one of two avenues; group studies or case reports. In group studies, a sample of the elderly population is tested on speech recognition under three conditions; binaural, monaural right and monaural left. The aim is to determine the percent of the sample in which the expected outcome (binaural score-better-than-either-monaural score) is reversed (i.e., one of the monaural scores is better than the binaural score). This outcome has been commonly used to define binaural interference. The object of group studies is to answer the "how many" question, what is the prevalence of binaural interference in the sample. In case reports the binaural interference conclusion suggested by the speech recognition tests is not accepted until it has been corroborated by other independent diagnostic audiological measures. The aim is to attempt to determine the basis for the findings, to answer the "why" question. This article is at once tutorial, editorial and a case report. We argue that it is time to accept the reality of the phenomenon of binaural interference, to eschew group statistical approaches in search of an answer to the "how many" question, and to focus on individual case reports in search of an answer to the "why" question. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. PMID:25908597

  4. SEATCA Tobacco Industry Interference Index: a tool for measuring implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Dorotheo, E Ulysses

    2016-05-01

    To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Evaluation of DGT techniques for measuring inorganic uranium species in natural waters: Interferences, deployment time and speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Geraldine S.C. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Mills, Graham A. [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Teasdale, Peter R. [Environmental Futures Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Burnett, Jonathan L.; Amos, Sean [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Fones, Gary R., E-mail: gary.fones@port.ac.uk [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire, PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-20

    Graphical abstract: In situ field deployment of DGT devices - manganese dioxide ( Black-Small-Square ) best suited for sea water monitoring (a) up to 7 days and Metsorb ( Black-Small-Square ) best suited for fresh water monitoring (b) of inorganic uranium species up to 7 days. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbents Chelex-100, Metsorb and MnO{sub 2} were investigated for use with DGT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All three adsorbents performed well in low ionic strength solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnO{sub 2} resin was found to be the most suitable for marine deployments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DGT is able to measure isotopic ratios of U down to concentrations of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DGT underestimated U concentrations by at least 50% if the DBL was not taken into account. - Abstract: Three adsorbents (Chelex-100, manganese dioxide [MnO{sub 2}] and Metsorb), used as binding layers with the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique, were evaluated for the measurement of inorganic uranium species in synthetic and natural waters. Uranium (U) was found to be quantitatively accumulated in solution (10-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}) by all three adsorbents (uptake efficiencies of 80-99%) with elution efficiencies of 80% (Chelex-100), 84% (MnO{sub 2}) and 83% (Metsorb). Consistent uptake occurred over pH (5-9), with only MnO{sub 2} affected by pH < 5, and ionic strength (0.001-1 mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3}) ranges typical of natural waters, including seawater. DGT validation experiments (5 days) gave linear mass uptake over time (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.97) for all three adsorbents in low ionic strength solution (0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}). Validation experiments in artificial sea water gave linear mass uptake for Metsorb (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.9954) up to 12 h and MnO{sub 2} (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.9259) up to 24 h. Chelex-100 demonstrated no linear mass uptake in artificial sea water after 8 h. Possible interferences were investigated with

  6. Performance comparison of weighted sum-minimum mean square error and virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithms in simulated and measured channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    A comparison in data achievement between two well-known algorithms with simulated and real measured data is presented. The algorithms maximise the data rate in cooperative base stations (BS) multiple-input-single-output scenario. Weighted sum-minimum mean square error algorithm could be used...... in multiple-input-multiple-output scenarios, but it has lower performance than virtual signal-to-interference plus noise ratio algorithm in theory and practice. A real measurement environment consisting of two BS and two users have been studied to evaluate the simulation results....

  7. Measurement of the dynamic behavior of thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels and their phase transition temperatures measured using reflectometric interference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fuminori [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshikatsu, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@twmu.ac.jp, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan); Ninomiya, Hidetaka [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Kanazawa, Hideko [Keio University, Faculty of Pharmacy (Japan); Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.

  8. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  9. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1995-01-01

    The author is describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 60 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions .In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , we will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|, |t| ≤ 1.5 (GeV/c) 2 , we plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin stated Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied

  10. Difference flow measurements and hydraulic interference test in ONKALO at Olkiluoto drillholes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Pekkanen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17 between October 12 and December 29, 2010. The aim of the measurements was to detect water conducting fractures and hydraulic interference between pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17. The flow rate into a 0.5 m long test section was measured using 0.1 m point intervals. The flowing fractures in both pilot holes were obtained between 50 m - 80 m. For hydraulic interference test one drillhole was closed with packers to increase its pressure. Flow response to the increased pressure was measured in the other drillhole. The flow guide of the PFL DIFF probe encloses an electrode for single point resistance measurement, which was carried out with 0.01 m point intervals during the automatic flow measurements. The flow measurement and the single point resistance measurement were used to locate flowing fractures and evaluate their transmissivity. Electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature of water were registered during automatic flow logging. The conductivity values are temperature corrected to 25 deg C. The distance between the drillholes is about 14 m. Flow response in fractures of open ONK-PH16 could be detected when pressure was changed in ONK-PH17. (orig.)

  11. The measurement of tiny dew droplets at the initial deposition stage and dew point using a phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeaki, Matsumoto

    2003-12-01

    The shape of a dew droplet deposited on the mirror surface of a copper plate was measured accurately using an interference microscope that employed a phase-shift technique. The microscope was constructed by adding a piezoelectric transducer to an interference microscope. A simple method that uses a conventional speaker horn and an optical fibre cable was used to depress any speckle noise. The shape of a dew droplet deposited at dew point on the plate surface with average roughness of 0.1 µm was measured with an accuracy of ± 3 nm. The mass of a tiny dew droplet could be determined from the volume of its shape and was of the order of 10-9 g. The total mass of a dew droplet deposited per unit area and the deposition velocity under a gentle wind were also obtained in a similar way. The total mass was of the order of 10-5 g cm-2 at the beginning of deposition and the deposition velocity ranged from 1 × 10-5 to 6 × 10-5 g cm-2 min-1 at room temperature.

  12. PROMIS Pain Interference and Physical Function Scores Correlate With the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Devon C; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E

    2017-11-01

    Traditional patient-reported outcome instruments like the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) quantify patient disability but often are limited by responder burden and incomplete questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) overcomes such obstacles through computer-adaptive technology and can capture outcome data from various domains including physical and psychosocial function. Prior work has compared the FAAM with PROMIS physical function; however, there is little evidence comparing the association between foot and ankle-specific tools like the FAAM with more general outcomes measures of PROMIS pain interference and depression in foot and ankle conditions. (1) We asked whether there was a relationship between FAAM Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores with PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and depression in patients with hallux valgus. (2) Additionally, we asked if we could identify specific factors that are associated with variance in FAAM and PROMIS physical function scores in patients with hallux valgus. Eighty-five new patients with either a primary or secondary diagnosis of hallux valgus based on clinic billing codes from July 2015 to February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Patients completed FAAM ADL paper-based surveys and electronic PROMIS questionnaires for physical function, pain interference, and depression from new patient visits at a single time. Spearman rho correlations were performed between FAAM ADL and PROMIS scores. Analyses then were used to identify differences in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function measures based on demographic variables. Stepwise linear regressions then determined which demographic and/or outcome variable(s) accounted for the variance in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function scores. FAAM scores correlated strongly with PROMIS physical function (r = 0.70, p hallux valgus. PROMIS tools allow for more-efficient data collection across multiple domains and, moving

  13. Differential cross section measurements of the π-p elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region between 30 and 140 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ille, B.

    1979-01-01

    The differential cross section of elastic π - -p scattering in the Coulomb interference region from 30 GeV to 140 GeV has been measured at the CERN SPS using in conjunction an ionization chamber recoil spectrometer and a forward multiwire proportional chamber-magnet spectrometer. The phase of the π - -p forward hadronic amplitude was found to go four negative value (at 30 GeV) to positive value (at 140 GeV), passing through zero at about 60 GeV. The logarithmic slope at small /t/ (/t/ approximately 0.03 (GeV/c) 2 ) has also been measured and was found to be higher by about 3 (GeV/c) -2 than the values determined at higher /t/ (/t/ = 0.2 (GeV/c) 2 ) [fr

  14. Quadrupole effects in core and valence photoelectron emission from crystalline germanium measured via a spatially modulated x-ray interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.J.; Woicik, J.C.; Pianetta, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Cooper, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Near a crystal x-ray Bragg reflection, the incident and reflected x-ray beams that travel with opposite wave vectors create an x-ray standing-wave (XSW) interference field. The quadrupole (and higher order nondipole) contributions to the photoelectron emission matrix element differ for these two beams due to their different wave vectors. By monitoring the angle-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of photon energy near the (11-1) Bragg back-reflection condition of crystalline Ge, we measure the contribution of nondipole effects to Ge 3p, Ge 3d, and Ge valence-band (4s and 4p) XSW photoelectron emission. Significant changes due to nondipole emission are measured in both the apparent amplitude and phase of the Ge structure factor relative to the true Ge atomic distribution, and compared to theory

  15. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of strain, temperature and refractive index based on multimode interference, fiber tapering and fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Osório, Jonas H; Aristilde, Stenio; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B; Bilro, Lúcia; Nogueira, Rogerio N

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of an optical fiber sensor capable of simultaneously measuring strain, temperature and refractive index. The sensor is based on the combination of two fiber Bragg gratings written in a standard single-mode fiber, one in an untapered region and another in a tapered region, spliced to a no-core fiber. The possibility of simultaneously measuring three parameters relies on the different sensitivity responses of each part of the sensor. The results have shown the possibility of measuring three parameters simultaneously with a resolution of 3.77 με , 1.36 °C and 5  ×  10 −4 , respectively for strain, temperature and refractive index. On top of the multiparameter ability, the simple production and combination of all the parts involved on this optical-fiber-based sensor is an attractive feature for several sensing applications. (paper)

  17. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  18. A comparison of delayed self-heterodyne interference measurement of laser linewidth using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagasabey, Albert; Michie, Andrew; Canning, John; Holdsworth, John; Fleming, Simon; Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Aslund, Mattias L

    2011-01-01

    Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI) with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are w(L) (MZI) = (1.6 ± 0.2) kHz and w(L) (MI) = (1.4 ± 0.1) kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  19. A Comparison of Delayed Self-Heterodyne Interference Measurement of Laser Linewidth Using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fleming

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Linewidth measurements of a distributed feedback (DFB fibre laser are made using delayed self heterodyne interferometry (DHSI with both Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometer configurations. Voigt fitting is used to extract and compare the Lorentzian and Gaussian linewidths and associated sources of noise. The respective measurements are wL (MZI = (1.6 ± 0.2 kHz and wL (MI = (1.4 ± 0.1 kHz. The Michelson with Faraday rotator mirrors gives a slightly narrower linewidth with significantly reduced error. This is explained by the unscrambling of polarisation drift using the Faraday rotator mirrors, confirmed by comparing with non-rotating standard gold coated fibre end mirrors.

  20. [Ambient air interference in oxygen intake measurements in liquid incubating media with the use of open polarographic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniaev, M V; Voronchikhina, L I

    2007-01-01

    A model of oxygen intake by aerobic bio-objects in liquid incubating media was applied to investigate the influence air-media interface area on accuracy of measuring the oxygen intake and error value. It was shown that intrusion of air oxygen increases the relative error to 24% in open polarographic cells and to 13% in cells with a reduced interface area. Results of modeling passive media oxygenation laid a basis for proposing a method to reduce relative error by 66% for open cells and by 15% for cells with a reduced interface area.

  1. Surface flatness measurement of quasi-parallel plates employing three-beam interference with strong reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    A big challenge for standard interferogram analysis methods such as Temporal Phase Shifting or Fourier Transform is a parasitic set of fringes which might occur in the analyzed fringe pattern intensity distribution. It is encountered, for example, when transparent glass plates with quasi-parallel surfaces are tested in Fizeau or Twyman-Green interferometers. Besides the beams reflected from the plate front surface and the interferometer reference the beam reflected from the plate rear surface also plays important role; its amplitude is comparable with the amplitude of other beams. In result we face three families of fringes of high contrast which cannot be easily separated. Earlier we proposed a competitive solution for flatness measurements which relies on eliminating one of those fringe sets from the three-beam interferogram and separating two remaining ones with the use of 2D Continuous Wavelet Transform. In this work we cover the case when the intensity of the reference beam is significantly higher than the intensities of two object beams. The main advantage of differentiating beam intensities is the change in contrast of individual fringe families. Processing of such three-beam interferograms is modified but also takes advantage of 2D CWT. We show how to implement this method in Twyman-Green and Fizeau setups and compare this processing path and measurement procedures with previously proposed solutions.

  2. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-01-01

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  3. Detection and elimination of the electromagnetic interferences in the neutron flux measurement circuit, Source Range; Deteccion y eliminacion de interferencias electromagneticas en el circuito de medicion de flujo neutronico, rango de fuente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. M.; Esguivillas, L.; Valle, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    This paper compiles an experience in Asco I Nuclear Power Plant about electromagnetic interferences associated to the neutron flux measurement system, Source Range Asco I NPP. The circuit affected is the proportional detector (BF3) located outside the reactor vessel to measure the neutron leakage in shutdown and in start-up.

  4. Correction for the 17O interference in δ(13C) measurements when analyzing CO2 with stable isotope mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Brand, Willi A.; Assonov, Sergey S.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of δ(13C) determined on CO2 with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) must be corrected for the amount of 17O in the CO2. For data consistency, this must be done using identical methods by different laboratories. This report aims at unifying data treatment for CO2 IRMS by proposing (i) a unified set of numerical values, and (ii) a unified correction algorithm, based on a simple, linear approximation formula. Because the oxygen of natural CO2 is derived mostly from the global water pool, it is recommended that a value of 0.528 be employed for the factor λ, which relates differences in 17O and 18O abundances. With the currently accepted N(13C)/N(12C) of 0.011 180(28) in VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) reevaluation of data yields a value of 0.000 393(1) for the oxygen isotope ratio N(17O)/N(16O) of the evolved CO2. The ratio of these quantities, a ratio of isotope ratios, is essential for the 17O abundance correction: [N(17O)/N(16O)]/[N(13C)/N(12C)] = 0.035 16(8). The equation [δ(13C) ≈ 45δVPDB-CO2 + 2 17R/13R (45δVPDB-CO2 – λ46δVPDB-CO2)] closely approximates δ(13C) values with less than 0.010 ‰ deviation for normal oxygen-bearing materials and no more than 0.026 ‰ in extreme cases. Other materials containing oxygen of non-mass-dependent isotope composition require a more specific data treatment. A similar linear approximation is also suggested for δ(18O). The linear approximations are easy to implement in a data spreadsheet, and also help in generating a simplified uncertainty budget.

  5. Development of optical interference-type micro accelerometer for subsurface microseismic measurement; Micromachining ni yoru chika danseiha keisoku no tame no hikari kanshogata kasokudo sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, K; Niitsuma, H; Esashi, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Manufacture is under way of an optical interference-type micro accelerometer making use of the micromachining technology and an optical fiber measuring system for detecting microseismic waves in the ground. The sensor is required to be capable of detecting acceleration 0.1-1gal in amplitude, to be flat in amplitude characteristic in a frequency range of 10Hz-several kHz, to be ensured of straight phase characteristics to enable the measurement of transient phenomena, to be low in cross sensitivity, and to be high in resistance to water, pressure, and heat. The sensor is constructed in the following way. In the process for treating silicon, anisotropic etching is performed for the formation of a gap between the fiber end face and oscillator, boron is diffused, a stopper is formed, and then the silicon is subjected to penetrating etching. In the process for the optical fiber section, an optical fiber is inserted into a glass tube and fixed by an adhesive agent, and then the glass tube end face is polished, this together with the fiber end. Indium-tin oxide is sputtered onto the glass tube end. Finally, the sensor is assembled. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Substation electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felic, G.; Shihab, S.

    1997-01-01

    The electric and magnetic transients in high voltage substations were studied. The electric field measurements were carried out in a 66 kV switchyard of a 500/220/66 kV substation in Melbourne, Australia. The measured waveforms make up a database to be used for reference in the testing of substation control and protection equipment. The objective of this study was to characterize the radiated interference caused by the operation of disconnect switches and circuit breakers. Disconnect switch transients can be a serious hazard for substations because the slow moving contacts during opening and closing can result in arcing events of several seconds duration. Circuit breaker transients were considered to be less hazardous. Transient magnetic fields of at least several tens of A/m can occur during the energization of the capacitor bank. Substation electronic equipment should be tested and protected against the coupling of these transients in order to avoid breakdowns. 5 refs., 4 figs

  7. Laser reflector with an interference coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'pyan, O D; Semenov, A A; Yakovlev, P P

    1998-01-01

    An analysis was made of the reflectivity of interference coatings intended for the use in optical pumping of solid-state lasers. Ruby and Nd 3+ :YAG lasers were used as models in comparative pumping efficiency measurements, carried out employing reflectors with interference and silver coatings. Estimates of the service life of reflectors with interference coatings were obtained. The power of a thermo-optical lens was reduced by the use of such coatings in cw lasers. (laser system components)

  8. AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN PRIMARY RAINBOW TROUT HEPATOCYTES INTERFERES WITH MEASUREMENT OF OXIDATIVE ACTIVITY VIA THE EXOGENOUS PROBE, DCF, BUT PROVIDES INTRINSIC MEASURE OF CELLULAR OXIDATIVE STATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compound 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluoroscein diacetate is a probe commonly used to detect oxidative activity in live cells. Studies were undertaken to measure reactive oxygen species generated in freshly isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to a variety of redox cycling c...

  9. Sensitive measurement of serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after removing interference with immunoaffinity extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Kosewick, Justin; He, Xiang; Kozak, Marta; Wang, Sihe

    2011-05-15

    Vitamin D plays important roles in bone health and a variety of other pathophysiological conditions. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is the active form of vitamin D. Quantification of serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is useful for evaluation of several diseases including chronic renal failure, hypoparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, and rickets. Measurement of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is very challenging due to its low circulating concentration and presence of interfering substances in serum. In this report, a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for quantifying serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is described. Lithium adducts of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were formed prior to mass spectrometry analysis to improve ionization efficiency. We tested a number of different sample preparation procedures and found that immunoaffinity extraction was the method of choice because it completely removed isobaric interferences and matrix effects present in patient serum. Extraction efficiency, expressed as absolute recovery, was greater than 60% in both patient serum and charcoal-stripped serum. This method was linear from 3.4 to 206.2 pg/mL for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 3.9 to 212.6 pg/mL for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(2) with an accuracy of 89.8-98.4% and 97.5-115.7%, respectively. Inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients of variance (CVs) for both analytes at two different concentration levels ranged from 2.5-7.0%. Comparison with a radioimmunoassay for measuring total 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration using 40 patient samples showed a Deming regression slope of 0.751, a y-intercept of 0.84 pg/mL, an r value of 0.7909, and a mean percentage difference of -27.1%. Comparison with a reference LC/MS/MS method (n = 20) showed a Deming regression slope of 1.020, a y-intercept of 1.32 pg/mL, an r value of 0.9797, and a mean percentage difference of -2.9%. In conclusion, usage of immunoaffinity extraction enabled a sensitive LC/MS/MS method for

  10. Dark Matter Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We study different patterns of interference in WIMP-nuclei elastic scattering that can accommodate the DAMA and CoGeNT experiments via an isospin violating ratio $f_n/f_p=-0.71$. We study interference between the following pairs of mediators: Z and Z', Z' and Higgs, and two Higgs fields. We show ...

  11. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part III. Mandibular rotations induced by a rigid interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, N M; Christensen, L V

    1995-10-01

    A rigid intercuspal interference (minimum mean height of 0.24 mm) was placed on either the right or left mandibular second premolar and first molar of 12 subjects. During brisk and forceful biting on the interference, rotational electrognathography measured maximum torque of the right and left mandibular condyles in the frontal and horizontal planes of orientation. All subjects showed frontal plan upward rotation (mean of 0.7 degrees) of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. In 33% of the subjects there was no horizontal plane backward rotation. In 58% of the subjects there was horizontal plane backward rotation (mean of 0.5 degrees) of the mandibular condyle ipsilateral to the interference, and in one subject (8%) there was backward horizontal plane rotation (0.1 degree) of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. It was inferred that the masseter muscle, ipsilateral to the interference, generated negative work in order to decelerate frontal plane 'unseating' of the mandibular condyle ipsilateral to the interference. It was inferred that the masseter muscle, contralateral to the interference, produced positive work in order to accelerate frontal plane 'seating' of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. Finally, it was speculated that the impact forces of frontal plane 'seating' of the mandibular condyle, contralateral to the interference, might lead to 'vacuum sticking' of the temporomandibular joint disc because of the formation of negative hydrostatic pressures.

  12. Assessment of life interference in anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapee, Ronald; Thastum, Mikael; Chavira, Denise

    associated with mental disorders arguably the key issue of relevance to both sufferers and therapists. Yet among both childhood and adult disorders the primary focus in terms of assessment and treatment is on symptoms, with far less attention paid to the impact of these symptoms on the sufferer's life....... This imbalance has particularly characterised research on child anxiety where few studies have examined either the impact of anxiety disorders on children's lives or the effects of treatments on life interference. To some extent this lack of attention has come from a lack of well developed measures to assess...... life interference derived from symptoms of anxiety. Broader and more general life interference measures tend to have minimal relevance for children with anxiety disorders. The current paper will describe two measures of life interference that have been developed at the Centre for Emotional Health...

  13. Probing muscle myosin motor action: x-ray (m3 and m6) interference measurements report motor domain not lever arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Carlo; Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W; Squire, John M

    2009-07-10

    The key question in understanding how force and movement are produced in muscle concerns the nature of the cyclic interaction of myosin molecules with actin filaments. The lever arm of the globular head of each myosin molecule is thought in some way to swing axially on the actin-attached motor domain, thus propelling the actin filament past the myosin filament. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of vertebrate muscle, especially those involving the analysis of interference effects between myosin head arrays in the two halves of the thick filaments, have been claimed to prove that the lever arm moves at the same time as the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in response to muscle length or force steps. It was suggested that the sliding of myosin and actin filaments, the level of force produced and the lever arm angle are all directly coupled and that other models of lever arm movement will not fit the X-ray data. Here, we show that, in addition to interference across the A-band, which must be occurring, the observed meridional M3 and M6 X-ray intensity changes can all be explained very well by the changing diffraction effects during filament sliding caused by heads stereospecifically attached to actin moving axially relative to a population of detached or non-stereospecifically attached heads that remain fixed in position relative to the myosin filament backbone. Crucially, and contrary to previous interpretations, the X-ray interference results provide little direct information about the position of the myosin head lever arm; they are, in fact, reporting relative motor domain movements. The implications of the new interpretation are briefly assessed.

  14. Separation of contributions from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process in measurements on a hydrogen target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.

    2009-09-01

    Hard exclusive leptoproduction of real photons from an unpolarized proton target is studied in an effort to elucidate generalized parton distributions. The data accumulated during the years 1996-2005 with the HERMES spectrometer are analyzed to yield asymmetries with respect to the combined dependence of the cross section on beam helicity and charge, thereby revealing previously unseparated contributions from deeply virtual Compton scattering and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. The integrated luminosity is sufficient to show correlated dependences on two kinematic variables, and provides the most precise determination of the dependence on only the beam charge. (orig.)

  15. Case report: When measured free T4 and free T3 may be misleading. Interference with free thyroid hormones measurements on Roche® and Siemens® platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Krzysztof C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 59-year old female patient presented with apathy and 6 kg weight gain. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH>100 μIU/ml. L-thyroxine (L-T4 was started and titrated up to 75 μg, once daily, with clinical improvement. Other investigations revealed very high titres of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies. After three months, there was a fall in TSH to 12.74 μIU/ml, however, with unexpectedly high free T4 (FT4 - 6.8 ng/ml and free T3 (FT3 - 6.7 pg/ml concentrations [reference range (rr: 0.8-1.9 ng/ml and 1.5-4.1 pg/ml (Siemens®, respectively]. At this stage L-T4 was stopped, and this was followed by a rapid increase in TSH (to 77.76 μIU/ml and some decrease in FT4 and FT3, however FT4 concentration remained elevated (2.1 ng/ml. Following this, L-T4 was restarted. On admission to our Department, she was clinically euthyroid on L-T4, 88 μg, once daily. Investigations on Roche® platform confirmed mildly elevated TSH - 5.14 (rr: 0.27-4.2 μIU/ml with high FT4 [4.59 (rr: 0.93-1.7 ng/ml] and FT3 [4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4 pg/ml] concentrations. Other tests revealed hypoechogenic ultrasound pattern typical for Hashimoto thyroiditis. There was no discrepancy in calculated TSH value following TSH dilution (101% recovery. Concentrations of FT4 and FT3 were assessed on the day of discontinuation of L-T4 and after four days by the means of Abbott® Architect I 1000SR platform. These revealed FT4 and FT3 concentrations within the reference range [e.g., FT4 - 1.08 ng/ml (rr: 0.7-1.48] vs 4.59 ng/ml (rr: 0.93-1.7, Roche®, FT3 - 3.70 pg/ml (rr: 1.71-3.71 vs 4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4, Roche®], confirming assay interference. Concentrations of ferritin and SHBG were normal. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of possible assay interference, including the measurements of FT4 and FT3 in the differential diagnosis of abnormal results of thyroid function tests that do not fit the patient clinical

  16. Interference and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Causal inference with interference is a rapidly growing area. The literature has begun to relax the "no-interference" assumption that the treatment received by one individual does not affect the outcomes of other individuals. In this paper we briefly review the literature on causal inference in the presence of interference when treatments have been randomized. We then consider settings in which causal effects in the presence of interference are not identified, either because randomization alone does not suffice for identification, or because treatment is not randomized and there may be unmeasured confounders of the treatment-outcome relationship. We develop sensitivity analysis techniques for these settings. We describe several sensitivity analysis techniques for the infectiousness effect which, in a vaccine trial, captures the effect of the vaccine of one person on protecting a second person from infection even if the first is infected. We also develop two sensitivity analysis techniques for causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding which generalize analogous techniques when interference is absent. These two techniques for unmeasured confounding are compared and contrasted.

  17. Individuals with knee impairments identify items in need of clarification in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain interference and physical function item banks - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Andrew D; Dodds, Nathan E; Yu, Lan; Pilkonis, Paul A; Irrgang, James J

    2016-05-11

    The content and wording of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference item banks have not been qualitatively assessed by individuals with knee joint impairments. The purpose of this investigation was to identify items in the PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference Item Banks that are irrelevant, unclear, or otherwise difficult to respond to for individuals with impairment of the knee and to suggest modifications based on cognitive interviews. Twenty-nine individuals with knee joint impairments qualitatively assessed items in the Pain Interference and Physical Function Item Banks in a mixed-methods cognitive interview. Field notes were analyzed to identify themes and frequency counts were calculated to identify items not relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments. Issues with clarity were identified in 23 items in the Physical Function Item Bank, resulting in the creation of 43 new or modified items, typically changing words within the item to be clearer. Interpretation issues included whether or not the knee joint played a significant role in overall health and age/gender differences in items. One quarter of the original items (31 of 124) in the Physical Function Item Bank were identified as irrelevant to the knee joint. All 41 items in the Pain Interference Item Bank were identified as clear, although individuals without significant pain substituted other symptoms which interfered with their life. The Physical Function Item Bank would benefit from additional items that are relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments and, by extension, to other lower extremity impairments. Several issues in clarity were identified that are likely to be present in other patient cohorts as well.

  18. RHIC PC CNI POLARIMETER:STATUS AND PERFORMANCE from THE FIRST COLLIDER RUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JINNOUCHI, O.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; BLAND, L.C.; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; CADMAN, R.; DESHPANDE, A.D.; HAWAN, S.; FIELDS, D.E.; HUANG, H.; HUGHES, V.; IGO, G.; IMAI, K.; KANAVETS, V.P.; KIRYLUK, J.; KURITA, K.; LI, Z.; LOZOWSKI, W.; MACKAY, W.W.; MAKDISI, Y.; OGAWA, A.; RESCIA, S.; ROSER, T.; SAITO, N.; SPINKA, H.; SURROW, B.; SVIRIDA, D.N.; TOJO, J.; UNDERWOOD, D.; WOOD, J.

    2002-01-01

    Polarimeters using the proton carbon elastic scattering process in Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region were installed in two RHIC rings. Polarization measurements were successfully carried out with the high energy polarized proton beams for the first polarized pp collision run. The physics principles, performance, and polarization measurements are presented

  19. RHIC pC CNI Polarimeter: Status and Performance from the First Collider Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, O.; Tojo, J.; Alekseev, I.G.; Kanavets, V.P.; Svirida, D.N.; Bland, L.C.; Bravar, A.; Huang, H.; Li, Z.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Ogawa, A.; Rescia, S.; Roser, T.; Surrow, B.; Bunce, G.; Cadman, R.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.; Deshpande, A.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters using the proton carbon elastic scattering process in Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region were installed in two RHIC rings. Polarization measurements were successfully carried out with the high energy polarized proton beams for the first polarized pp collision run. The physics principles, performance, and polarization measurements are presented

  20. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  1. Interference in immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Interfering factors are evident in both limited reagent (radioimmunoassay) and excess reagent (immunometric assay) technologies and should be suspected whenever there is a discrepancy between analytical results and clinical findings in the investigation of particular diseases. The overall effect of interference in immunoassay is analytical bias in result, either positive or negative of variable magnitude. The interference maybe caused by a wide spectrum of factors from poor sample collection and handling to physiological factors e.g. lipaemia, heparin treatment, binding protein abnormalities, autoimmunity and drug treatments. The range of interfering factors is extensive and difficult to discuss effectively in a short review

  2. Interference and protection of electromagnetic pulse to digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Jiao Hongling; He Shanhong; Pan Chao; Feng Deren; Che Wenquan; Xiong Ying

    2013-01-01

    The effective electromagnetic pulse protection is studied in this paper, first the interference of electromagnetic pulse simulator path is analyzed, including the digital signal processor (DSP) and the discharge circuit of coupling interference and net electricity coupling interference. Using the structure optimization design, the hardware block reinforcement measurement and the setting of open software trap, and the watchdog anti-jamming measures, the interference test is completed such as the central processor core voltage of DSP, input/output (I/O) ports of DSP and the display screen. The experimental results show that the combination of hardware and software protection reinforcement technology is effective, and the interference pulse amplitude of DSP board I/O port and the kernel work voltage are reduced, and the interference duration is reduced from 2 μs to 400 ns. The interference pulse is effectively restrained. (authors)

  3. Laser Interference Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hennessy, Theodore C.

    In this chapter we explain how submicron gratings can be prepared by Laser Interference Lithography (LIL). In this maskless lithography technique, the standing wave pattern that exists at the intersection of two coherent laser beams is used to expose a photosensitive layer. We show how to build the

  4. Kvantová interference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2003), s. 99-103 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : interference * quantum cryptography * quantum computing * quantum teleportation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  5. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part IV. Mandibular rotations induced by a pliable interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L V; Rassouli, N M

    1995-11-01

    In 12 subjects, a pliable, yet unbreakable, intercuspal interference (aluminum shim onlay splint; uniform height of 0.25 mm) was placed between either the right or left maxillary and mandibular second premolars and first molars. During brief and forceful biting (dynamic chewing stroke of about 20 kg force) the interference emulated a semisoft food bolus, and at the end of biting (subsequent static clenching stroke of about 20 kg force) it emulated a rigid metal interference. During dynamic/static biting, rotational electrognathography measured maximum frontal and horizontal plane torque of the right and left mandibular condyles. Eleven subjects (92%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (mean of 1.0 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference, and one subject (8%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (0.4 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. Two subjects (17%) showed no horizontal plane rotation; seven subjects (58%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.4 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference; and three subjects (25%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.3 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. It is suggested that, in the presence of an occlusal interference, mastication may have both short- and long-term detrimental effects.

  6. Codebook-based interference alignment for uplink MIMO interference channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a codebook-based interference alignment (IA) scheme in the constant multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) interference channel especially for the uplink scenario. In our proposed scheme, we assume cooperation among base

  7. New two-port multimode interference reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-mode interference reflectors (MIRs) are versatile components. Two new MIR designs with a fixed 50/50 reflection to transmission ratio are introduced. Measurements on these new devices and on devices similar to those in [1] are presented and compared to the design values. Measured losses are

  8. Measurement of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude in K/sup + -/p elastic scattering at 10. 4 and 14 GeV/c. [Differential cross sections, interference, coulomb and nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Leith, D W.G.S.; Richard, F; Schacht, P; Walden, P; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-10

    The differential cross section for K/sup + -/p elastic scattering has been measured in the very low t region (0.003interference effect observed between the Coulomb and the nuclear interaction has been used to determine ..cap alpha.., the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude. At 10.4 GeV/c the authors measure ..cap alpha..(K/sup +/p)=-0.21+-0.06 and ..cap alpha..(K/sup -/p)=0.08+-0.04, and at 14 GeV/c, ..cap alpha..(K/sup +/p)=-0.13+-0.03 and ..cap alpha..(K/sup -/p)=0.00+-0.04 in agreement with the predictions of dispersion theory calculations.

  9. Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption to Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.; Hoke, Eric T.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately measuring internal quantum efficiency requires knowledge of absorption in the active layer of a solar cell. The experimentally accessible total absorption includes significant contributions from the electrodes and other nonactive layers. We suggest a straightforward method for calculating the active layer contribution that minimizes error by subtracting optically-modeled electrode absorption from experimentally measured total absorption. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Accounting for Interference, Scattering, and Electrode Absorption to Make Accurate Internal Quantum Efficiency Measurements in Organic and Other Thin Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2010-05-31

    Accurately measuring internal quantum efficiency requires knowledge of absorption in the active layer of a solar cell. The experimentally accessible total absorption includes significant contributions from the electrodes and other nonactive layers. We suggest a straightforward method for calculating the active layer contribution that minimizes error by subtracting optically-modeled electrode absorption from experimentally measured total absorption. (Figure Presented) © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The intention interference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Kantner, Justin; Dixon, Roger A; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Intentions have been shown to be more accessible (e.g., more quickly and accurately recalled) compared to other sorts of to-be-remembered information; a result termed an intention superiority effect (Goschke & Kuhl, 1993). In the current study, we demonstrate an intention interference effect (IIE) in which color-naming performance in a Stroop task was slower for words belonging to an intention that participants had to remember to carry out (Do-the-Task condition) versus an intention that did not have to be executed (Ignore-the-Task condition). In previous work (e.g., Cohen et al., 2005), having a prospective intention in mind was confounded with carrying a memory load. In Experiment 1, we added a digit-retention task to control for effects of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, we eliminated the memory confound in a new way, by comparing intention-related and control words within each trial. Results from both Experiments 1 and 2 revealed an IIE suggesting that interference is very specific to the intention, not just to a memory load.

  12. Beamforming design with proactive interference cancelation in MISO interference channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tian, Yafei; Yang, Chenyang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we design coordinated beamforming at base stations (BSs) to facilitate interference cancelation at users in interference networks, where each BS is equipped with multiple antennas and each user is with a single antenna. By assuming that each user can select the best decoding strategy to mitigate the interference, either canceling the interference after decoding when it is strong or treating it as noise when it is weak, we optimize the beamforming vectors that maximize the sum rate for the networks under different interference scenarios and find the solutions of beamforming with closed-form expressions. The inherent design principles are then analyzed, and the performance gain over passive interference cancelation is demonstrated through simulations in heterogeneous cellular networks.

  13. Transient human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) interference in CA 125 measurements during monitoring of ovarian cancer patients treated with murine monoclonal antibody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, A.L.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Olthaar, A.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) on serial CA 125 measurements in serum of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer following single intraperitoneal (IP) therapy with Yttrium-90-labeled human milk fat globule 1 murine monoclonal antibody ((90)Y-muHMFG1) as

  14. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  15. Information flow due to controlled interference in entangled systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We point out that controlled quantum interference corresponds to measurement in an incomplete basis and implies a nonlocal transfer of classical information. A test of whether such a generalized measurement is permissible in quantum theory is presented.

  16. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  17. Measurement of microenvironmental ozone concentrations in Durham, North Carolina, using a 2B Technologies 205 Federal Equivalent Method monitor and an interference-free 2B Technologies 211 monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Capel, Jim; Ollison, Will

    2014-03-01

    During August and September of 2012, researchers conducted a microenvironmental (ME) monitoring study in Durham, North Carolina, using two 2B Technologies O3 monitors: a dual-beam model 205 Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) 254 nm photometer and a newly developed model 211 interference-free dual-beam photometer. The two monitors were mounted in a wheeled, fan-cooled suitcase together with a battery, a disposable N2O cartridge for the model 211 monitor and filtered sample lines. A scripted technician made paired O3 measurements in a variety of MEs within 2 miles of a fixed-site FEM O3 photometer at the Durham National GuardArmory. The ratio of the 211 to Armory O3 concentrations tended to be lowest (0.8) for 104 outdoor MEs. The mean values of the ratio for in-vehicle MEs tended to fall between 0.2 and 0.7--the mean for all 27 in-car tests was 0.3. The ratio values for indoor MEs tended to be higher when the enclosure was well ventilated. The outdoor ratios tended to be lower when the measurement was made downwind of nearby roadways, likely due to exhaust NO. The in-vehicle ratios tended to be larger with windows open than closed; the smallest occurred with closed windows, active air conditioning, and vent recirculation. The 205 - 211 measurement differences were generally small, with 94% of the 176 sample differences below 5 ppb. Five differences were above 10 ppb with the largest values (173.9 and 63.6 ppb) occurring inside a violin repair shop. Roadway proximity tended to increase the differences for outdoor locations. The largest in-vehicle difference (6 ppb) occurred at a convenience store service station. As addressed in regulatory models, such differences may reduce estimated population O3 exposure by 30-50% in indoor and in-vehicle MEs where individuals spend more than 80% of their time. Computer models used to estimate exposures of human populations-such as the Air Pollution Exposure Model (APEX) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-can be

  18. Electromagnetic interference in electrical systems of motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubiński, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic ignition system affects the electronic equipment of the vehicle by electric and magnetic fields. The measurement of radio electromagnetic interference originating from the ignition system affecting the audiovisual test bench was carried out with a variable speed of the ignition system. The paper presents measurements of radio electromagnetic interference in automobiles. In order to determine the level of electromagnetic interference, the audiovisual test bench was equipped with a set of meters for power consumption and assessment of the level of electromagnetic interference. Measurements of the electromagnetic interference level within the audiovisual system were performed on an experimental test bench consisting of the ignition system, starting system and charging system with an alternator and regulator.

  19. Functional and geometrical interference and interdependency between the right and left ventricle in cor pulmonale: an experimental study on simultaneous measurement of biventricular geometry of acute right ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Onodera, S; Imamoto, T; Obara, A; Tanazawa, S; Takashio, T; Morimoto, H; Inoue, H

    1989-10-01

    To clarify the effects of right ventricular (RV) pressure overload on functional and geometrical interference and interdependency between the right and left ventricle, both ventricular internal diameters were measured by the microcrystal technique during lycopodium induced pulmonary embolization in the dog. By repeated embolization, RV systolic pressure was increased progressively until it reached a peak value of about 60-70 mmHg, then it began to fall. At the same time, the hemodynamics deteriorated progressively resulting in death. During the experiment, gradual leftward displacement of the interventricular septum (IVS) without any change in left ventricular (LV) free wall geometry was observed. In pulmonary embolic shock, which showed a fall in LV pressure to about 60 mmHg and cardiac output to about 40% of control, the leftward displacement of IVS became marked, and the cooperative movement of IVS to LV contraction disappeared. The IVS position during acute RV pressure overload was able to account for the transseptal pressure gradient. The importance of IVS position and motion in cardiac function during acute RV pressure overload was stressed. Furthermore, to establish the theoretical treatment in acute cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ligation of the descending aorta (AoL) or norepinephrine ("N") or isoproterenol ("I") administration were examined in a canine pulmonary embolic shock model. AoL or "N" improved the deteriorated hemodynamics with restoration of biventricular geometry. However, "I" did not restore the biventricular geometry despite the transiently improved hemodynamics, and the experimental animals were unable to survive. These results suggest the importance of the maintainance of systemic pressure for the restoration of failed RV function. Further integrated studies are required to understand biventricular interference and interdependency.

  20. The Stroop Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Interference Control in AD/HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mourik, Rosa; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in AD/HD as measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task…

  1. 47 CFR 18.115 - Elimination and investigation of harmful interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interference. (a) The operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful interference to radio services shall promptly take appropriate measures to correct the problem. (b) If the operator of ISM equipment is notified...

  2. Young's double-slit interference with two-color biphotons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jian; Wu, Shuang; Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jun; Wang, Kaige

    2017-12-12

    In classical optics, Young's double-slit experiment with colored coherent light gives rise to individual interference fringes for each light frequency, referring to single-photon interference. However, two-photon double-slit interference has been widely studied only for wavelength-degenerate biphoton, known as subwavelength quantum lithography. In this work, we report double-slit interference experiments with two-color biphoton. Different from the degenerate case, the experimental results depend on the measurement methods. From a two-axis coincidence measurement pattern we can extract complete interference information about two colors. The conceptual model provides an intuitional picture of the in-phase and out-of-phase photon correlations and a complete quantum understanding about the which-path information of two colored photons.

  3. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined age-related change in proactive interference from previously learned material. The meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that proactive interference decreased with age. The cross-sectional study found that third through sixth graders' and college students' recall was accurate on Trial 1, but became less so over Trials 2…

  4. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  5. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  6. Communications in interference limited networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book offers means to handle interference as a central problem of operating wireless networks. It investigates centralized and decentralized methods to avoid and handle interference as well as approaches that resolve interference constructively. The latter type of approach tries to solve the joint detection and estimation problem of several data streams that share a common medium. In fact, an exciting insight into the operation of networks is that it may be beneficial, in terms of an overall throughput, to actively create and manage interference. Thus, when handled properly, "mixing" of data in networks becomes a useful tool of operation rather than the nuisance as which it has been treated traditionally. With the development of mobile, robust, ubiquitous, reliable and instantaneous communication being a driving and enabling factor of an information centric economy, the understanding, mitigation and exploitation of interference in networks must be seen as a centrally important task.

  7. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  8. Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb

    2015-01-01

    Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143

  9. Nanoscale surface characterization using laser interference microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Pavel S.; Skrynnik, Andrey A.; Melnik, Yury A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoscale surface characterization is one of the most significant parts of modern materials development and application. The modern microscopes are expensive and complicated tools, and its use for industrial tasks is limited due to laborious sample preparation, measurement procedures, and low operation speed. The laser modulation interference microscopy method (MIM) for real-time quantitative and qualitative analysis of glass, metals, ceramics, and various coatings has a spatial resolution of 0.1 nm for vertical and up to 100 nm for lateral. It is proposed as an alternative to traditional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. It is demonstrated that in the cases of roughness metrology for super smooth (Ra >1 nm) surfaces the application of a laser interference microscopy techniques is more optimal than conventional SEM and AFM. The comparison of semiconductor test structure for lateral dimensions measurements obtained with SEM and AFM and white light interferometer also demonstrates the advantages of MIM technique.

  10. Interference of two photons in parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.; Hong, C.K.; Ou, Z.Y.; Mandel, L.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical treatment is given of the process in which the two photons produced simultaneously in the parametric frequency splitting of light are allowed to interfere. It is shown that, while there is no interference in the usual sense involving quantities that are of the second order in the field, fourth-order interference effects are present. These may be revealed by measuring the joint probability of detecting two photons at two points x,x' in the interference plane with photoelectric detectors as a function of the separation x-x'. The probability exhibits a cosine modulation with x-x', with visibility that can approach 100%, even though the integration time in the experiment may greatly exceed the reciprocal bandwidth of the photons. The interference effect has a nonclassical origin and implies a violation of local realism in the highly correlated two-photon state

  11. Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-04-28

    The characterizing of attosecond pulses has great importance for the investigation of ultrafast phenomena. Here, we proposed a novel and efficient scheme for measuring attosecond XUV pulses, which is based on laser-dressed XUV photoionization. The ultrashort attosecond gating of photoionization leads to an interference structure in the photoelectron spectrum. Then the duration of the attosecond XUV pulse can be retrieved directly from the photoelectron spectrum with a rather high resolution.

  12. Attosecond interference control of XUV photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Lu Peixiang; Lan Pengfei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2008-01-01

    The characterizing of attosecond pulses has great importance for the investigation of ultrafast phenomena. Here, we proposed a novel and efficient scheme for measuring attosecond XUV pulses, which is based on laser-dressed XUV photoionization. The ultrashort attosecond gating of photoionization leads to an interference structure in the photoelectron spectrum. Then the duration of the attosecond XUV pulse can be retrieved directly from the photoelectron spectrum with a rather high resolution

  13. Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference management using direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Keywords: DSSS, LTE network; Wi-Fi network; SINR; interference management and interference power.

  14. Optical interference with noncoherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagi, Yoav; Firstenberg, Ofer; Fisher, Amnon; Ron, Amiram

    2003-01-01

    We examine a typical two-source optical interference apparatus consisting of two cavities, a beam splitter, and two detectors. We show that field-field interference occurs even when the cavities are not initially in coherent states but rather in other nonclassical states. However, we find that the visibility of the second-order interference, that is, the expectation values of the detectors' readings, changes from 100%, when the cavities are prepared in coherent states, to zero visibility when they are initially in single Fock states. We calculate the fourth-order interference, and for the latter case find that it corresponds to a case where the currents oscillate with 100% visibility, but with a random phase for every experiment. Finally, we suggest an experimental realization of the apparatus with nonclassical sources

  15. Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.

  16. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  17. The Stroop revisited: a meta-analysis of interference control in AD/HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in

  18. Quasiparticle Interference Studies of Quantum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Nurit; Reiner, Jonathan; Kumar-Nayak, Abhay; Morali, Noam; Batabyal, Rajib; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim

    2018-06-03

    Exotic electronic states are realized in novel quantum materials. This field is revolutionized by the topological classification of materials. Such compounds necessarily host unique states on their boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of these surface states have provided a wealth of spectroscopic characterization, with the successful cooperation of ab initio calculations. The method of quasiparticle interference imaging proves to be particularly useful for probing the dispersion relation of the surface bands. Herein, how a variety of additional fundamental electronic properties can be probed via this method is reviewed. It is demonstrated how quasiparticle interference measurements entail mesoscopic size quantization and the electronic phase coherence in semiconducting nanowires; helical spin protection and energy-momentum fluctuations in a topological insulator; and the structure of the Bloch wave function and the relative insusceptibility of topological electronic states to surface potential in a topological Weyl semimetal. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Interference and Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Marc H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. The measurement of very small distances and sizes, and the concept of models are discussed in the introduction. The optics of slits is dealt with in chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents the optics of holes.…

  1. Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul J; Allen, Mark S; Jones, Marc V

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between emotions, cognitive interference, concentration disruption and performance in youth sport. In study 1, 150 youth sport athletes (Mage = 13.13 years, s = 1.79) completed measures of emotion, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption for their most recently completed competition. In Study 2, 46 female rhythmic gymnasts (Mage = 10.30 years, s = 1.74) completed measures of emotion immediately before competition, and measures of cognitive interference and concentration disruption immediately after competition. Study 1 showed that anxiety and dejection were associated with more interfering thoughts and greater disruptions in concentration, whereas the effects of anger and happiness on interfering thoughts differed relative to the age of participants. Specifically, anger was associated with more interfering thoughts only in younger athletes and happiness was associated with fewer interfering thoughts only in older athletes. Study 2 showed that emotions experienced before competition were not strongly associated with cognitive interference or concentration disruption, but athletes reporting more thoughts of escape in competition were less successful in the competition as measured by objective performance scores. These findings demonstrate that emotions are important for cognitive interference and concentration disruption, and provide some initial evidence that cognitive interference is important for performance in youth sport.

  2. Resistance to interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, G.; Thoma, P.; Eisfelder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and rules planned to form part of a future guideline to be issued by the EC are also taken into account in this guide. The guide presents recommendations for testing methods which are independent of the amount of the variables used for testing. Limiting values of variables are, however, given. The guide is applicable to all electronic measuring equipment commercially available for business, authorities, traffic regulation, and the medical professions. (DG) [de

  3. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... was disrupted by subsequent learning of a precision tracking task with the same agonist muscle group, but not by learning involving antagonist muscles or by voluntary agonist contractions that did not require learning. If the competing task was learned with the same agonist muscle group 4 hours following...

  4. Entanglement detection from interference fringes in atom-photon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nemoto, Kae; Miniatura, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A measurement scheme of atomic qubits pinned at given positions is studied by analyzing the interference pattern obtained when they emit photons spontaneously. In the case of two qubits, a well-known relation is revisited in which the interference visibility is equal to the concurrence of the state in the infinite spatial separation limit of the qubits. By taking into account the superradiant and subradiant effects, it is shown that a state tomography is possible when the qubit spatial separation is comparable to the wavelength of the atomic transition. In the case of three qubits, the relations between various entanglement measures and the interference visibility are studied, where the visibility is defined from the two-qubit case. A qualitative correspondence among these entanglement relations is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the interference visibility is directly related to the maximal bipartite negativity.

  5. WEED INTERFERENCE IN EGGPLANT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ JUNIOR PEREIRA MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth interferes with the growth eggplants and crop yields. To control weeds, the main weed species must be identified in crop growing areas and during weed control periods, as weed species might vary in relation to management practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main weed species and determine the periods of weed interference in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli when grown under certain cultural practices, including plant staking and sprout thinning. The experiment was carried out in 2014 using a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 periods of (1 increasing weed control and (2 increasing coexistence of eggplant with weeds from the first day of transplanting (0-14, 0-28, 0-42, 0-56, 0-70, 0-84, 0-98, 0-112, 0-126, 0-140, and up do day 154. Eggplant staking and sprout thinning were performed 42 days after transplanting (DAT. Weed identification and crop yield assessments were performed to determine the Period Before Interference (PBI, Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP, and the Critical Period of Interference Prevention (CPIP. The major weeds found in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli were Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea, and Cyperus rotundus. Coexistence between the weed community and the eggplant throughout the entire crop production cycle reduced eggplant fruit yield by 78%. The PBI was 29 DAT and the TPIP was 48 DAT, resulting in 19 days of CPIP.

  6. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Readout of the atomtronic quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Tan, Joel; Theng, Mark; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Amico, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in ring shaped lattices interrupted by a weak link and pierced by an effective magnetic flux defines the atomic counterpart of the superconducting quantum interference device: the atomtronic quantum interference device (AQUID). In this paper, we report on the detection of current states in the system through a self-heterodyne protocol. Following the original proposal of the NIST and Paris groups, the ring-condensate many-body wave function interferes with a reference condensate expanding from the center of the ring. We focus on the rf AQUID which realizes effective qubit dynamics. Both the Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics are studied. For the Bose-Hubbard dynamics, we demonstrate that the self-heterodyne protocol can be applied, but higher-order correlations in the evolution of the interfering condensates are measured to readout of the current states of the system. We study how states with macroscopic quantum coherence can be told apart analyzing the noise in the time of flight of the ring condensate.

  8. Interference in ballistic motor learning - is motor interference really sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards. We hypothesised that interference requires the same circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects...

  9. 'Quantum interference with slits' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his calculation as if no approximations are employed. We show that he implicitly makes the same approximations found in classical treatments of interference and that no new physics has been introduced. At the same time, some of the quantum mechanical arguments Marcella gives are, at best, misleading.

  10. Parton showers with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations.

  11. Parton showers with quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations

  12. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  13. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  14. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  15. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Impact of Self-Interference on the Performance of Joint Partial RAKE Receiver and Adaptive Modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of self-interference on the performance of a joint partial RAKE (PRAKE) receiver and adaptive modulation over both independent and identically distributed and independent but non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels. To better observe the impact of self-interference, our approach starts from considering the signal to interference plus noise ratio. Specifically, we accurately analyze the outage probability, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate as performance measures in the presence of self-interference. Several numerical and simulation results are selected to present the performance of the joint PRAKE receiver and adaptive modulation subject to self-interference.

  17. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  18. Cell-phone interference with pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy; Bruch, Philip M; Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Raman, Natarajan V; Enke, Charles A

    2005-01-01

    Accurate reporting of personal dose is required by regulation for hospital personnel that work with radioactive material. Pocket dosimeters are commonly used for monitoring this personal dose. We show that operating a cell phone in the vicinity of a pocket dosimeter can introduce large and erroneous readings of the dosimeter. This note reports a systematic study of this electromagnetic interference. We found that simple practical measures are enough to mitigate this problem, such as increasing the distance between the cell phone and the dosimeter or shielding the dosimeter, while maintaining its sensitivity to ionizing radiation, by placing it inside a common anti-static bag. (note)

  19. Cell-phone interference with pocket dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy; Bruch, Philip M; Ayyangar, Komanduri M; Raman, Natarajan V; Enke, Charles A [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 987521 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7521 (United States)

    2005-05-07

    Accurate reporting of personal dose is required by regulation for hospital personnel that work with radioactive material. Pocket dosimeters are commonly used for monitoring this personal dose. We show that operating a cell phone in the vicinity of a pocket dosimeter can introduce large and erroneous readings of the dosimeter. This note reports a systematic study of this electromagnetic interference. We found that simple practical measures are enough to mitigate this problem, such as increasing the distance between the cell phone and the dosimeter or shielding the dosimeter, while maintaining its sensitivity to ionizing radiation, by placing it inside a common anti-static bag. (note)

  20. Medical applications of superconducting quantum interference devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Gen

    2011-01-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are applied to clinical areas and basic medical science fields because of their potential for measuring a minute magnetic signal from the human body. Magnetoencephalography, one of their applications, is used for the functional mapping of the brain cortex before surgery and the localization of focus of epilepsy. Recently, their applications to the early-stage detection of dementia and the localization of brain ischemia are suggested. Another application of SQUIDs is magnetospinography, which detects the conduction block in spinal cord signal propagation. (author)

  1. Quantum interference experiments with complex organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenberger, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Matter-wave interference with complex particles is a thriving field in experimental quantum physics. The quest for testing the quantum superposition principle with highly complex molecules has motivated the development of the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI). This interferometer has enabled quantum interference with large organic molecules in an unprecedented mass regime. In this doctoral thesis I describe quantum superposition experiments which we were able to successfully realize with molecules of masses beyond 10 000 amu and consisting of more than 800 atoms. The typical de Broglie wavelengths of all particles in this thesis are in the order of 0.3-5 pm. This is significantly smaller than any molecular extension (nanometers) or the delocalization length in our interferometer (hundreds of nanometers). Many vibrational and rotational states are populated since the molecules are thermally highly excited (300-1000 K). And yet, high-contrast quantum interference patterns could be observed. The visibility and position of these matter-wave interference patterns is highly sensitive to external perturbations. This sensitivity has opened the path to extensive studies of the influence of internal molecular properties on the coherence of their associated matter waves. In addition, it enables a new approach to quantum-assisted metrology. Quantum interference imprints a high-contrast nano-structured density pattern onto the molecular beam which allows us to resolve tiny shifts and dephasing of the molecular beam. I describe how KDTL interferometry can be used to investigate a number of different molecular properties. We have studied vibrationally-induced conformational changes of floppy molecules and permanent electric dipole moments using matter-wave deflectometry in an external electric field. We have developed a new method for optical absorption spectroscopy which uses the recoil of the molecules upon absorption of individual photons. This allows us to

  2. High energy physics at the University of Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCliment, E.R.; Mallik, U.; Newsom, C.R.; Onel, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts were devoted to three tasks: a study of electron proton physics with ZEUS at HERA (the ZEUS detector, the J/ψ search, future upgrades), fixed-target experiments at Fermilab (Coulomb-nuclear interference measurement, inclusive Λ measurements, hyperon radiative decay, charmed baryon studies at CERN and at Fermilab--detector status), and R ampersand D related to Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) detector development with the GEM collaboration

  3. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Ribot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT. In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  4. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2006-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. C...

  5. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  6. 47 CFR 18.117 - Report of interference investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on investigations and corrective measures taken pursuant to § 18.115 of this part shall be filed with the EIC of the local FCC office within 30 days of notification of harmful interference. The final... corrective measures or to complete the investigation. The request for extension of time shall be accompanied...

  7. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  8. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-10-01

    The performance of a generalized single-stream transmit beamforming scheme employing receive co-channel interference -steering algorithms in slowly varying and flat fading channels is analyzed. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information (CSI) for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels is considered. Both dominant interference cancelation and adaptive arbitrary interference cancelation algorithms for closely spaced receive antennas are used. The impact of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact formulas for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and best transmit channel selection schemes can be deduced as limiting cases. The results presented herein can be used to obtain quantitative measure for various performance metrics, and in addition to investigate the performance-complexity tradeoff for different multiple-antenna system models. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Image hiding using optical interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Weining

    2010-09-01

    Optical image encryption technology has attracted a lot of attentions due to its large capacitance and fast speed. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are used as encryption keys to encode the images into white noise distribution. Therefore, this kind of methods requires interference technology to record complex amplitude and is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods which employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks are proposed, the hiding process is carried out within a computer using iterative algorithm. But the iterative algorithms are time consumed. All method mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, a new optical image hiding method based on optical interference is proposed. The coherence lights which pass through two phase masks are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are design analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the novelty of the new proposed methods. This method can be expanded for double images hiding.

  10. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  11. Carbon nanostructure composite for electromagnetic interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-30

    based composite materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. With more and more electronic gadgets being used at different frequencies, there is a need for shielding them from one another to avoid interference.

  12. Quantum eraser for three-slit interference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveed Ahmad Shah

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Abstract. It is well known that in a two-slit interference experiment, if the information, on which of the two paths the particle followed, is stored in a quantum path detector, the interference is destroyed. However, in a set-up where this path information is 'erased', the interference can reappear. Such a set-up is ...

  13. An accumulator model of semantic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik

    To explain latency effects in picture-word interference tasks, cognitive models need to account for both interference and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) effects. As opposed to most models of picture-word interference, which model the time course during the task in a ballistic manner, the RACE model

  14. 47 CFR 27.1221 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 27.1221 Section 27... Technical Standards § 27.1221 Interference protection. (a) Interference protection will be afforded to BRS... height benchmark (hbm). (c) Protection for Receiving Antennas not Exceeding the Height Benchmark. Absent...

  15. Interference Control, Working Memory Capacity, and Cognitive Abilities: A Latent Variable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether various indices of interference control were related to one another and to other cognitive abilities. It was found that the interference control measures were weakly correlated and could form a single factor that was related to overall memory performance on the tasks as well as to measures of working memory…

  16. Codebook-based interference alignment for uplink MIMO interference channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a codebook-based interference alignment (IA) scheme in the constant multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) interference channel especially for the uplink scenario. In our proposed scheme, we assume cooperation among base stations (BSs) through reliable backhaul links so that global channel knowledge is available for all BSs, which enables BS to compute the transmit precoder and inform its quantized index to the associated user via limited rate feedback link.We present an upper bound on the rate loss of the proposed scheme and derive the scaling law of the feedback load tomaintain a constant rate loss relative to IA with perfect channel knowledge. Considering the impact of overhead due to training, cooperation, and feedback, we address the effective degrees of freedom (DOF) of the proposed scheme and derive the maximization of the effective DOF. From simulation results, we verify our analysis on the scaling law to preserve the multiplexing gain and confirm that the proposed scheme is more effective than the conventional IA scheme in terms of the effective DOF. © 2014 KICS.

  17. Interference of medical contrast media on laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Daves, Massimo; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Quantum Interference and Coherence Theory and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, this book assembles in a single volume accounts of many phenomena involving quantum interference in optical fields and atomic systems. It provides detailed theoretical treatments and experimental analyses of such phenomena as quantum erasure, quantum lithography, multi-atom entanglement, quantum beats, control of decoherence, phase control of quantum interference, coherent population trapping, electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, lasing without inversion, subluminal and superluminal light propagation, storage of photons, quantum interference in phase space, interference and diffraction of cold atoms, and interference between Bose-Einstein condensates. This book fills a gap in the literature and will be useful to both experimentalists and theoreticians.

  19. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  20. Interference of ascorbic acid with chemical analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing H; Irwin, William C; Fesser, Jennifer; Massey, K Lorne

    2005-11-01

    Ascorbic acid can interfere with methodologies involving redox reactions, while comprehensive studies on main chemistry analysers have not been reported. We therefore attempted to determine the interference of ascorbic acid with analytes on the Beckman Synchron LX20. Various concentrations of ascorbic acid were added to serum, and the serum analytes were measured on the LX20. With a serum ascorbic acid concentration of 12.0 mmol/L, the values for sodium, potassium, calcium and creatinine increased by 43%, 58%, 103% and 26%, respectively (Pascorbic acid concentration of 12.0 mmol/L, the values for chloride, total bilirubin and uric acid decreased by 33%, 62% and 83%, respectively (Pcholesterol, triglyceride, ammonia and lactate. There was no definite influence of ascorbic acid on analytical values for total CO(2), urea, glucose, phosphate, total protein, albumin, amylase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total iron, unbound iron-binding capacity or magnesium. Ascorbic acid causes a false increase in sodium, potassium, calcium and creatinine results and a false decrease in chloride, total bilirubin, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, ammonia and lactate results.

  1. Embracing interference in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gollakota, Shyamnath

    2014-01-01

    The wireless medium is a shared resource. If nearby devices transmit at thesame time, their signals interfere, resulting in a collision. In traditionalnetworks, collisions cause the loss of the transmitted information. For thisreason, wireless networks have been designed with the assumption thatinterference is intrinsically harmful and must be avoided.This book, a revised version of the author's award-winning Ph.D.dissertation, takes an alternate approach: Instead of viewing interferenceas an inherently counterproductive phenomenon that should to be avoided, wedesign practical systems that tra

  2. Interference Mitigation in Cognitive Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Alvarez Roig, Victor

    2010-01-01

    , management and optimization can be prohibitive. Instead, self-optimization of an uncoordinated deployment should be considered. Cognitive Radio enabled femtocells are considered to be a promising solution to enable self-optimizing femtocells to effectively manage the inter-cell interference, especially...... in densely deployed femto scenarios. In this paper, two key elements of cognitive femtocells are combined: a power control algorithm and a fully distributed dynamic spectrum allocation method. The resulting solution was evaluated through system-level simulations and compared to the separate algorithms...

  3. Facilitation and interference in naming: A consequence of the same learning process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie W; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2017-08-01

    Our success with naming depends on what we have named previously, a phenomenon thought to reflect learning processes. Repeatedly producing the same name facilitates language production (i.e., repetition priming), whereas producing semantically related names hinders subsequent performance (i.e., semantic interference). Semantic interference is found whether naming categorically related items once (continuous naming) or multiple times (blocked cyclic naming). A computational model suggests that the same learning mechanism responsible for facilitation in repetition creates semantic interference in categorical naming (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010). Accordingly, we tested the predictions that variability in semantic interference is correlated across categorical naming tasks and is caused by learning, as measured by two repetition priming tasks (picture-picture repetition priming, Exp. 1; definition-picture repetition priming, Exp. 2, e.g., Wheeldon & Monsell, 1992). In Experiment 1 (77 subjects) semantic interference and repetition priming effects were robust, but the results revealed no relationship between semantic interference effects across contexts. Critically, learning (picture-picture repetition priming) did not predict semantic interference effects in either task. We replicated these results in Experiment 2 (81 subjects), finding no relationship between semantic interference effects across tasks or between semantic interference effects and learning (definition-picture repetition priming). We conclude that the changes underlying facilitatory and interfering effects inherent to lexical access are the result of distinct learning processes where multiple mechanisms contribute to semantic interference in naming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A nitrate sensitive planar optode; performance and interferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed nitrate sensitive planar optode. It exhibits a linear response to nitrate from 1 to 50 mM at pH 8.0, a fast response time below 10 s and a good lifetime, allowing for fast two dimensional nitrate measurements over long periods of time. Interference from nitrite...

  5. Release from Proactive Interference with Positive and Negative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richaro; King, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Using the release from proactive interference (RPI) task, college students (n = 40) received 4 trials comprised of 3-word triads of either positive (P) or negative (N) words. Word-triad recall served as the dependent measure, and results revealed typical buildup of PI (i.e., no significant group X trial interaction across Trials 1-3). Significant…

  6. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part V. Mandibular rotations versus hemimandibular translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L V; Rassouli, N M

    1995-12-01

    Frontal plane mandibular rotations and corresponding hemimandibular translations were studied in vitro by using direct observations of a human cadaver mandible and in vivo by using the indirect observations of rotational electrognathography. A comparison between the two methods showed that rotational electrognathography erred in measuring the clinically relevant hemimandibular translations resulting from mandibular rotations having a unilateral molar point (simulated occlusal interference) as the pivot of frontal plane torque. In vitro frontal plane rotations about a unilateral mandibular molar tooth (simulated occlusal interference) suggested that the resulting hemimandibular upward translations of the lateral portion of the mandibular condyle, contralateral to the molar tooth, would cause considerable compressive loading of the temporomandibular joint disc.

  7. Quantum interference in laser spectroscopy of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Pedro; Loureiro, Ulisses; Safari, Laleh; Fratini, Filippo; Indelicato, Paul; Stöhlker, Thomas; Santos, José Paulo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum interference induced shifts between energetically close states in highly charged ions, with the energy structure being observed by laser spectroscopy. In this work, we focus on hyperfine states of lithiumlike heavy-Z isotopes and quantify how much quantum interference changes the observed transition frequencies. The process of photon excitation and subsequent photon decay for the transition 2 s →2 p →2 s is implemented with fully relativistic and full-multipole frameworks, which are relevant for such relativistic atomic systems. We consider the isotopes 79+207Pb and 80+209Bi due to experimental interest, as well as other examples of isotopes with lower Z , namely 56+141Pr and 64+165Ho. We conclude that quantum interference can induce shifts up to 11% of the linewidth in the measurable resonances of the considered isotopes, if interference between resonances is neglected. The inclusion of relativity decreases the cross section by 35%, mainly due to the complete retardation form of the electric dipole multipole. However, the contribution of the next higher multipoles (e.g., magnetic quadrupole) to the cross section is negligible. This makes the contribution of relativity and higher-order multipoles to the quantum interference induced shifts a minor effect, even for heavy-Z elements.

  8. [Influences of balancing-side interference on jaw function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K

    1991-03-01

    The influences of experimental balancing-side interference on the jaw function were investigated on 6 subjects. A specially designed onlay was fabricated for the lower second molar, which acted as an artificial balancing-side interference in the lateral mandibular position. The subjects were asked to do maximum clenching, lateral gliding and gum chewing with and without the device. Electromyographic activity of the masseter and the anterior and posterior temporal muscles were measured and the related mandibular movement was simultaneously recorded during these tasks. Introduction of the experimental interference caused alteration in the muscle activity as follows: 1. When the subjects exerted maximum clenching efforts in the lateral mandibular position, the ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased, while that of the masseter muscle remained unchanged. 2. There was a tendency for the activity in the working-side posterior temporal muscle to increase during gliding from intercuspation. The ratio of the temporal muscle activity on the working-side to the balancing-side decreased during gliding into intercuspation. 3. Prolongation of the occlusal phase associated with the increase of the muscle activity was observed during gum chewing on the side opposite to the interference. It was suggested that the balancing-side interference might provoke a specific muscle activity in the temporal muscles during parafunctional clenching or grinding.

  9. Dynamic visual noise interferes with storage in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Graham M; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Whittaker, Annalise

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that dynamic visual noise (DVN) does not interfere with memory for random matrices. This has led to suggestions that (a) visual working memory is distinct from imagery, and (b) visual working memory is not a gateway between sensory input and long-term storage. A comparison of the interference effects of DVN with memory for matrices and colored textures shows that DVN can interfere with visual working memory, probably at a level of visual detail not easily supported by long-term memory structures or the recoding of the visual pattern elements. The results support a gateway model of visuospatial working memory and raise questions about the most appropriate ways to measure and model the different levels of representation of information that can be held in visual working memory.

  10. Interference Cancellation for Hollow-Core Fiber Reference Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seppä, Jeremias; Merimaa, Mikko; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy of gases in hollow-core fiber (HCF)-based cells can be used for realizing new compact, robust, and portable frequency standards. In this paper, methods for cancelling interferences resulting from the optical connections between standard fiber and HCF...... and other factors such as varying coupling to HCF modes are investigated. Laser power modulation with simultaneous detection of ac and dc signal is used to separate saturated absorption from interferences. In addition, a technique of two piezoelectric stack actuators stretching the fiber at different...... locations is described. The presented experimental results demonstrate that 99% interference attenuation is readily attainable with the techniques. Frequency comb-referenced measurement of saturated acetylene absorption features near 1.54 μm, with fiber length and power modulation, is presented...

  11. Diffractive interference optical analyzer (DiOPTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Prasad, Vishnu; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates a method for high-resolution refractometric measurements using, what we have termed as, a Diffractive Interference Optical Analyzer (DiOpter). The setup consists of a laser, polarizer, a transparent diffraction grating and Si-photodetectors. The sensor is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk refractive index changes. In these setups, the differential read-out of the diffracted orders suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6x10-7 RIU was achieved in glass. This work focuses on devices with integrated sample well, made on low-cost PDMS. As the detection methodology is experimentally straightforward, it can be used across a wide array of applications, ranging from detecting changes in surface adsorbates via binding reactions to estimating refractive index (and hence concentration) variations in bulk samples. An exciting prospect of this technique is the potential integration of this device to smartphones using a simple interface based on transmission mode configuration. In a transmission configuration, we were able to achieve an LoD of 4x10-4 RIU which is sufficient to explore several applications in food quality testing and related fields. We are envisioning the future of this platform as a personal handheld optical analyzer for applications ranging from environmental sensing to healthcare and quality testing of food products.

  12. Coping with Radio Frequency Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The radio spectrum is a finite resource, on which humanity makes many demands. And pressure on it is ever increasing with the development of new technology and ideas for radio services. After all, we all benefit from wifi and cell phones. Radio astronomers have a small percentage of the spectrum allocated to them at octave intervals in the metre-centimetre bands, and at important frequencies, such as that of the 21cm line of HI. Signals from other services, as well as from our own poorly-engineered equipment, sometimes contaminate our bands: these signals constitute RFI. These may totally obliterate the astronomical signal, or, in the case of CLOUDSAT, may be capable of completely destroying a receiver, which introduces us to the new possibility of 'destructive interference'. A geo-stationary satellite can block access to a piece of sky from one site. Good equipment design eliminates self-inflicted interference, while physical separation often provides adequate practical mitigation at many frequencies. However, new observatories end up being located in the West Australian desert or Antarctica. In future they may be on the back side of the Moon. But there is no Earth-bound protection via physical separation against satellite signals. Some mitigation can be achieved by frequent data dumps and the excision of RFI, or by real-time detection and blanking of the receiver, or by more sophisticated algoriths. Astronomers of necessity aim to achieve mitigation via coordination, at the local level, and by participating in spectrum management at the national and international levels. This involves them spending a lot of time in Geneva at the International Telegraphic Union protecting their access to spectrum, and access to clean spectrum from the L3 point and the far side of the Moon.

  13. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  14. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.; Bock, S.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  15. Proactive Interference in Human Predictive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Leyre; Ortega, Nuria; Matute, Helena

    2002-01-01

    The impairment in responding to a secondly trained association because of the prior training of another (i.e., proactive interference) is a well-established effect in human and animal research, and it has been demonstrated in many paradigms. However, learning theories have been concerned with proactive interference only when the competing stimuli have been presented in compound at some moment of the training phase. In this experiment we investigated the possibility of proactive interference b...

  16. Interference Effects on the Recall of Pictures, Printed Words, and Spoken Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Bruning, Roger H.

    1982-01-01

    Nouns were presented in triads as pictures, printed words, or spoken words and followed by various types of interference. Measures of short- and long-term memory were obtained. In short-term memory, pictorial superiority occurred with acoustic, and visual and acoustic, but not visual interference. Long-term memory showed superior recall for…

  17. Imaging of surface plasmon polariton interference using phase-sensitive scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the surface plasmon polariton interference, generated via a ‘buried’ gold grating, and imaged using a phase-sensitive Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope (PSTM). The phase-resolved PSTM measurement unravels the complex surface plasmon polariton interference fields at the gold-air

  18. Low-Speed Model Support Interference - Elements of an Expert System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsten, B.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel support interference is one of the constraints affecting the quality of wind tunnel measurements. Several methods to determine the interference are experimental- empirical- and numerical methods. Experimental methods are often time consuming and costly. This also holds for empirical

  19. Near-field imaging of interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.

    1999-01-01

    It is generally accepted that measurement of of the contrast of the intensity interference pattern formed by two counterpropagating evanescent waves can be used to characterize the resolving power of a collection near-field microscope. We argue that, if the light collected by a fiber probe propag...... be equal to the contrast of the interference pattern....

  20. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  1. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  2. Chlorinated Cyanurates: Method Interferences and Application Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate method interferences, residual stability, regulated DBP formation, and a water chemistry model associated with the use of Dichlor & Trichlor in drinking water.

  3. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    -dynamic discontinuities, the intensities corresponding to the transition from regular to irregular interference were described. Numerical calculations of the shock-wave structure transformation in the conditions of hysteresis were performed. The results were compared with the experiments carried out by hydraulic analogy method. Practical significance. Results of the work complement well the theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities interference and can be used at designing of perspective images of supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  4. Neural mechanisms of interference control in working memory: effects of interference expectancy and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Burgess

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical aspect of executive control is the ability to limit the adverse effects of interference. Previous studies have shown activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex after the onset of interference, suggesting that interference may be resolved in a reactive manner. However, we suggest that interference control may also operate in a proactive manner to prevent effects of interference. The current study investigated the temporal dynamics of interference control by varying two factors - interference expectancy and fluid intelligence (gF - that could influence whether interference control operates proactively versus reactively.A modified version of the recent negatives task was utilized. Interference expectancy was manipulated across task blocks by changing the proportion of recent negative (interference trials versus recent positive (facilitation trials. Furthermore, we explored whether gF affected the tendency to utilize specific interference control mechanisms. When interference expectancy was low, activity in lateral prefrontal cortex replicated prior results showing a reactive control pattern (i.e., interference-sensitivity during probe period. In contrast, when interference expectancy was high, bilateral prefrontal cortex activation was more indicative of proactive control mechanisms (interference-related effects prior to the probe period. Additional results suggested that the proactive control pattern was more evident in high gF individuals, whereas the reactive control pattern was more evident in low gF individuals.The results suggest the presence of two neural mechanisms of interference control, with the differential expression of these mechanisms modulated by both experimental (e.g., expectancy effects and individual difference (e.g., gF factors.

  5. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  6. The Nature and Diagnosis of Interference Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Norman

    1966-01-01

    The recognition of the systematic nature of the interference of the mother tongue when learning a second language is among the most significant advances in linguistics for the teaching and learning of foreign languages. The work of Weinreich showed that interference between language systems--the absorption of loan words, calques, and phonological,…

  7. Interferences in place attachment: implications for wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Sharpe; Alan W. Ewert

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on place attachment has tended to focus on attachment formation, with relatively little attention given to factors that disrupt or interfere with formed place attachments. Interferences to attachments are a worthy research area for two reasons: 1) The factors of place attachment are often more salient when being disrupted, and 2) place attachment...

  8. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  9. 47 CFR 24.237 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 24.237 Section 24.237... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.237 Interference protection. (a) All licensees are required to coordinate their... protection criterion shall be such that the interfering signal will not produce more than 1.0 dB degradation...

  10. Optimal interference code based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Chen, Qian; Hu, Xiaobo; Cao, Ercong; Qian, Weixian; Gu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of pseudo-random code, by the case of m sequence. Depending on the description of coding theory, we introduce the jamming methods. We simulate the interference effect or probability model by the means of MATLAB to consolidate. In accordance with the length of decoding time the adversary spends, we find out the optimal formula and optimal coefficients based on machine learning, then we get the new optimal interference code. First, when it comes to the phase of recognition, this study judges the effect of interference by the way of simulating the length of time over the decoding period of laser seeker. Then, we use laser active deception jamming simulate interference process in the tracking phase in the next block. In this study we choose the method of laser active deception jamming. In order to improve the performance of the interference, this paper simulates the model by MATLAB software. We find out the least number of pulse intervals which must be received, then we can make the conclusion that the precise interval number of the laser pointer for m sequence encoding. In order to find the shortest space, we make the choice of the greatest common divisor method. Then, combining with the coding regularity that has been found before, we restore pulse interval of pseudo-random code, which has been already received. Finally, we can control the time period of laser interference, get the optimal interference code, and also increase the probability of interference as well.

  11. Electron quantum interferences and universal conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, A.; Pichard, J.L.

    1988-05-01

    Quantum interferences yield corrections to the classical ohmic behaviour predicted by Boltzmann theory in electronic transport: for instance the well-known ''weak localization'' effects. Furthermore, very recently, quantum interference effects have been proved to be responsible for statistically different phenomena, associated with Universal Conductance Fluctuations and observed on very small devices [fr

  12. Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2004-01-01

    A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each

  13. STRUCTURE FORMATION PRINCIPLES OF INTERFERENCE BEAM SPLITTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of interference beam splitters construction, formed by symmetric cells of dielectric layers is considered. The methodology of short-wave and long-wave interference beam splitters formation is given. The impact analysis of symmetric cells number and their structure on output parameters is considered.

  14. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Bacterial Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2015-10-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common. In healthy women, asymptomatic bacteriuria increases with age, from women age 80 years, but is uncommon in men until after age 50 years. Individuals with underlying genitourinary abnormalities, including indwelling devices, may also have a high frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria, irrespective of age or gender. The prevalence is very high in residents of long-term-care facilities, from 25% to 50% of women and 15% to 40% of men. Escherichia coli is the most frequent organism isolated, but a wide variety of other organisms may occur. Bacteriuria may be transient or persist for a prolonged period. Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria identified in early pregnancy and who are untreated have a risk of pyelonephritis later in pregnancy of 20% to 30%. Bacteremia is frequent in bacteriuric subjects following mucosal trauma with bleeding, with 5% to 10% of patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock. These two groups with clear evidence of negative outcomes should be screened for bacteriuria and appropriately treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in other populations is benign and screening and treatment are not indicated. Antimicrobial treatment has no benefits but is associated with negative outcomes including reinfection with antimicrobial resistant organisms and a short-term increased frequency of symptomatic infection post-treatment. The observation of increased symptomatic infection post-treatment, however, has led to active investigation of bacterial interference as a strategy to prevent symptomatic episodes in selected high risk patients.

  15. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  16. Laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhao Yan; Jin Guofan

    2008-01-01

    Fibre sensors exhibit a number of advantages over other sensors such as high sensitivity, electric insulation, corrosion resistance, interference rejection and so on. And laser self-mixing interference can accurately detect the phase difference of feedback light. In this paper, a novel laser self-mixing interference fibre sensor that combines the advantages of fibre sensors with those of laser self-mixing interference is presented. Experimental configurations are set up to study the relationship between laser power output and phase of laser feedback light when the fibre trembles or when the fibre is stretched or pressed. The theoretical analysis of pressure sensors based on laser self-mixing interference is indicated to accord with the experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Collision-induced destructive quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sun Zhenrong; Zhang Shi'an; Ding Liang'en; Wang Zugeng

    2005-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on the collision-induced destructive quantum interference of two-colour two-photon transitions in an open rhomb-type five-level system with a widely separated doublet by the density matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced decay rates, the ratio of the transition dipole moments and the energy separation of the doublet on the interference are analysed. It is shown that a narrow dip appears in the excitation spectrum due to the collision-induced destructive interference, and that the narrow interference dip still exists even when the collision broadening is comparable to the energy separation of the doublet. The physical origin of the collision-induced destructive quantum interference is analysed in the dressed-atom picture

  18. Interferência do ácido ascórbico nas determinações de parâmetros bioquímicos séricos: estudos in vivo e in vitro Ascorbic acid interference on the measurement of serum biochemical parameters: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Martinello

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O ácido ascórbico, quando presente em amostras biológicas, pode interferir nos ensaios laboratoriais que utilizam reações de oxidorredução. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer o grau de interferência do ácido ascórbico nas determinações bioquímicas séricas em relação à dose de vitamina C, ingerida e ao tempo de coleta das amostras e comparar com o efeito interferente in vitro. MÉTODOS: Voluntários saudáveis (n = 18 consumiram doses crescentes e sucessivas de 0,25 a 4g/dia de vitamina C durante uma semana cada dose. As determinações bioquímicas de ácido úrico, bilirrubina, colesterol total, glicose e triglicerídeos foram realizadas antes e 4, 12 e 24 horas após a última ingestão de cada dose. No estudo in vitro, concentrações crescentes de ácido ascórbico foram adicionadas ao soro humano e os analitos foram determinados até 24 horas após a adição. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Os níveis séricos de ácido ascórbico aumentaram significativamente após a ingestão da vitamina C, provocando inibição nas determinações de ácido úrico e bilirrubina total 4, 12 e 24 horas após a ingestão (p BACKGROUND: Ascorbic acid, when present in biological samples, can produce a negative interference in several biochemical tests that use redox indicator systems. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the ascorbic acid interference on serum biochemical tests in relation to the dose of vitamin C ingested and to the time of blood collection, and compared these results with in vitro interference. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n =18 consumed increasing and successive doses of vitamin C (0.25 to 4g/day for one week. Biochemical analytes were measured before and after each dose consumption. Serum samples were obtained 4, 12 and 24 h after vitamin C ingestion. Ascorbic acid was added in vitro to the human serum and the biochemical analytes were assayed up to 24 h after addition. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Serum ascorbic acid increased significantly

  19. Fundamental studies of interferences in ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, L.K

    2000-11-01

    Methods of temperature measurement by mass spectrometry have been critically reviewed. It was concluded that the most appropriate method depended critically on the availability of fundamental data, hence a database of fundamental spectroscopic constants, for diatomic ions which cause interferences in ICP-MS, was compiled. The equilibration temperature, calculated using the different methods and using various diatomic ions as the thermometric probes, was between c.a. 400 - 10,000 K in the central channel, and between c.a. 600 - 16,000 K when the plasma was moved 1.8 mm off-centre. The wide range in temperature reflected the range of temperature measurement methods and uncertainty in the fundamental data. Optical studies using a fibre optic connected to a monochromator were performed in order to investigate the presence of interferences both in the plasma and the interface region of the ICP-MS, and the influence of a shielded torch on these interferences. It was possible to determine the presence of some species in the plasma, such as the strongly bound metal oxides, however, no species other than OH were detected in the interface region of the ICP-MS. The OH rotational temperature within the interface region of the ICP-MS was calculated to be between 2,000 - 4,000 K. The effect of sampling depth, operating power, radial position and solvent loading, with and without the shielded torch, on the dissociation temperature of a variety of polyatomic interferences was investigated. These calculated temperatures were then used to elucidate the site of formation for different polyatomic interferences. Results confirmed that strongly bound ions such as MO{sup +} were formed in the plasma, whereas weakly bound ions such as ArO{sup +} were formed in the interface region due to gross deviation of the calculated temperatures from those expected for a system in thermal equilibrium. (author)

  20. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part II. Masseteric EMG responses to an intercuspal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L V; Rassouli, N M

    1995-07-01

    In 12 subjects, a rigid unilateral intercuspal interference (minimum mean height of 0.24 mm) was placed on either the right or left mandibular second premolar and first molar (sagittal physiological equilibrium point of the hemimandibular dental arch). During brisk and forceful clenching on the interference, bipolar surface electromyograms were obtained from the right and left masseter muscles. On the side opposite the interference, myoelectric clenching activity was significantly reduced. Correlation analyses showed that the interference elicited a non-linear (complex) co-ordination of the amplitude, but not the duration, of bilateral masseteric clenching activity, i.e. frequently there was significant motor facilitation on the side of the interference, and significant motor inhibition on the side opposite the interference. Theoretical considerations predicted that brief clenching on the interference would easily lead to frontal plane rotatory motions of the mandible which, indeed, occurred clinically.

  1. Intraindividual Coupling of Daily Stressors and Cognitive Interference in Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline; Sliwinski, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The current study examined emotional and cognitive reactions to daily stress. We examined the psychometric properties of a short cognitive interference measure and how cognitive interference was associated with measures of daily stress and negative affect (NA) between persons and within persons over time. Methods. A sample of 87 older adults (Mage = 83, range = 70–97, 28% male) completed measures of daily stress, cognitive interference, and NA on 6 days within a 14-day period. Results. The measure yielded a single-factor solution with good reliability both between and within persons. At the between-person level, NA accounted for the effects of daily stress on individual differences in cognitive interference. At the within-person level, NA and daily stress were unique predictors of cognitive interference. Furthermore, the within-person effect of daily stress on cognitive interference decreased significantly with age. Discussion. These results support theoretical work regarding associations among stress, NA, and cognitive interference, both across persons and within persons over time. PMID:21743045

  2. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy with an optimized nonlinear absorption cross interference correction algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.

  3. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  4. The developmental pattern of stimulus and response interference in a color-object Stroop task: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongen Ellen MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that Stroop interference is stronger in children than in adults. However, in a standard Stroop paradigm, stimulus interference and response interference are confounded. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether interference at the stimulus level and the response level are subject to distinct maturational patterns across childhood. Three groups of children (6–7 year-olds, 8–9 year-olds, and 10–12 year-olds and a group of adults performed a manual Color-Object Stroop designed to disentangle stimulus interference and response interference. This was accomplished by comparing three trial types. In congruent (C trials there was no interference. In stimulus incongruent (SI trials there was only stimulus interference. In response incongruent (RI trials there was stimulus interference and response interference. Stimulus interference and response interference were measured by a comparison of SI with C, and RI with SI trials, respectively. Event-related potentials (ERPs were measured to study the temporal dynamics of these processes of interference. Results There was no behavioral evidence for stimulus interference in any of the groups, but in 6–7 year-old children ERPs in the SI condition in comparison with the C condition showed an occipital P1-reduction (80–140 ms and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a negative component followed by an amplitude reduction of a positive component (400–560 ms. For response interference, all groups showed a comparable reaction time (RT delay, but children made more errors than adults. ERPs in the RI condition in comparison with the SI condition showed an amplitude reduction of a positive component over lateral parietal (-occipital sites in 10–12 year-olds and adults (300–540 ms, and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a positive component in all age groups (680–960 ms. The size of the enhancement correlated positively

  5. 40 CFR 1065.362 - Non-stoichiometric raw exhaust FID O2 interference verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-stoichiometric mode of combustion (e.g., compression-ignition, lean-burn), verify the amount of FID O2 interference upon initial installation and after major maintenance. (b) Measurement principles. Changes in O2...

  6. A C-Band Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Detection and Mitigation Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can render microwave radiometer measurements useless. We propose a method and an architecture that can be used to identify sources...

  7. Neurogenesis-mediated forgetting minimizes proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Jonathan R; Silva Mera, Rudy; Köhler, Stefan; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2016-02-26

    Established memories may interfere with the encoding of new memories, particularly when existing and new memories overlap in content. By manipulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis, here we show that neurogenesis regulates this form of proactive interference. Increasing hippocampal neurogenesis weakens existing memories and, in doing so, facilitates the encoding of new, conflicting (but not non-conflicting) information in mice. Conversely, decreasing neurogenesis stabilizes existing memories, and impedes the encoding of new, conflicting information. These results suggest that reduced proactive interference is an adaptive benefit of neurogenesis-induced forgetting.

  8. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  9. Flow measurements and hydraulic interference tests at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The measurements described in this report are part of the infiltration experiment carried out at Olkiluoto. The emphasis of these measurements is on obtaining more detailed data on hydraulically significant fractures in the infiltration experiment area. The selected fractures or sections were pumped in turn and flow responses were observed in the other holes by the PFL DIFF-tool. The flow measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69 on the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2013 and July 2013. Two different flowmeters were used for the measurements. Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in the drillholes. PFL DIFF flow logging was conducted in all the drillholes mentioned above. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse flow method (PFL TRANS) was used to determine groundwater flow direction and flow rate across a drillhole. The transverse flow method was used in drillholes OL-KR14 and OL-PP69. PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS measurements had been carried out earlier in drillholes OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69. The most recent measurements were conducted in 2011. Those measurements were carried out when drillhole OL-KR14 was pumped at packed-off section 13 m - 18 m. Both PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS flowmeters include an electrode for measuring single point resistance (SPR). The device has a high depth resolution and the results were used for depth synchronisation between consecutive DIFF and TRANS measurements. (orig.)

  10. Acoustic transparency and opacity using Fano Interferences in Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Khelif, A.

    2015-08-04

    We investigate both experimentally and theoretically how to generate the acoustical analogue of the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. This phenomenon arises from Fano resonances originating from constructive and destructive interferences of a narrow discrete resonance with a broad spectral line or continuum. Measurements were realized on a double-cavity structure by using a Kundt’s Tube. Transmission properties reveal an asymmetric lineshape of the transmission that leads to acoustic transparency.

  11. Semantic interference in picture naming during dual-task performance does not vary with reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Roete, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Previous dual-task studies examining the locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming have obtained diverging results. In these studies, participants manually responded to tones and named pictures while ignoring distractor words (picture-word interference, PWI) with varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between tone and PWI stimulus. Whereas some studies observed no semantic interference at short SOAs, other studies observed effects of similar magnitude at short and long SOAs. The absence of semantic interference in some studies may perhaps be due to better reading skill of participants in these than in the other studies. According to such a reading-ability account, participants' reading skill should be predictive of the magnitude of their interference effect at short SOAs. To test this account, we conducted a dual-task study with tone discrimination and PWI tasks and measured participants' reading ability. The semantic interference effect was of similar magnitude at both short and long SOAs. Participants' reading ability was predictive of their naming speed but not of their semantic interference effect, contrary to the reading ability account. We conclude that the magnitude of semantic interference in picture naming during dual-task performance does not depend on reading skill.

  12. Impact of ageing on problem size and proactive interference in arithmetic facts solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeau, Kim; De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Gevers, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Arithmetic facts (AFs) are required when solving problems such as "3 × 4" and refer to calculations for which the correct answer is retrieved from memory. Currently, two important effects that modulate the performance in AFs have been highlighted: the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect. The aim of this study is to investigate possible age-related changes of the problem size effect and the proactive interference effect in AF solving. To this end, the performance of young and older adults was compared in a multiplication production task. Furthermore, an independent measure of proactive interference was assessed to further define the architecture underlying this effect in multiplication solving. The results indicate that both young and older adults were sensitive to the effects of interference and of the problem size. That is, both interference and problem size affected performance negatively: the time needed to solve a multiplication problem increases as the level of interference and the size of the problem increase. Regarding the effect of ageing, the problem size effect remains constant with age, indicating a preserved AF network in older adults. Interestingly, sensitivity to proactive interference in multiplication solving was less pronounced in older than in younger adults suggesting that part of the proactive interference has been overcome with age.

  13. Effects of pelvic rotation and needle angle on pubic arch interference during transperineal prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincher, Sandra A.; Kim, Robert Y.; Ezekiel, Mark P.; Zinsli, Tom; Fiveash, John B.; Raben, David A.; Bueschen, Anton J.; Urban, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Pubic arch interference due to an enlarged prostate gland or a narrow pubic arch is often a limiting factor in adequate prostate coverage during transperineal brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of both pelvic rotation and needle angles on pubic arch interference using CT-based 3-D information. Methods and Materials: Seven patients had CT imaging in both supine and lithotomy positions and 3-D treatment planning was performed with three needle angles (20 downward, 0, 20 upward). The pubic arch interference was then measured and comparisons were made for each needle trajectory and pelvic position. Results: Increasing pelvic rotation from supine to lithotomy position shows less pubic arch interference. Directing the needle tip upward shows less pubic arch interference in both supine and lithotomy positions when compared to needle tips directed downward. Conclusions: Both pelvic position and needle angles are important factors influencing pubic arch interference. Preplanning CT-based 3-D information may assist for individualized treatment planning in patients with a significant bony interference, thus avoiding pubic arch interference during implantation

  14. Detection device for control rod interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Noboru.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the mechanical interference or friction between a control rod and a channel box automatically, simply and rapidly. Constitution: A signal from a gate circuit and a signal from a comparison mechanism are inputted into an AND circuit if a control rod has not been displaced by a predetermined distance within a prescribed time Δt after the output of an insertion or withdrawal signal for the control rod, by which a control-rod-interference signal is outputted from the AND circuit. Accordingly, the interference between the control rod and the channel box can be detected automatically, easily and rapidly. Furthermore, by properly adjusting the prescribed time Δt set by the gate circuit, the degree of the interference can also be detected, whereby the safety and the reliability of the reactor can be improved significantly. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Interference-exact radiative transfer equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Haÿrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Maxwell's equations with stochastic or quantum optical source terms accounting for the quantum nature of light. We show that both the nonlocal wave and local particle features associated with interference and emission of propagating fields in stratified geometries can be fully captured by local damping...... and scattering coefficients derived from the recently introduced quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) framework. In addition to describing the nonlocal optical interference processes as local directionally resolved effects, this allows reformulating the well known and widely used radiative transfer...... equation (RTE) as a physically transparent interference-exact model that extends the useful range of computationally efficient and quantum optically accurate interference-aware optical models from simple structures to full optical devices....

  16. Cognitive interference management in heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Marabissi, Dania

    2015-01-01

    This brief investigates the role of interference management in Heterogeneous Networks (Het Nets), focusing on cognitive approaches and the use of beamforming. Key concepts of Het Nets are introduced and different deployment strategies are examined, such as sharing the same frequency band of the macro cells or using new high frequency bands. Particular attention is devoted to co-channel deployment and to the problem of interference management, addressing various strategies that can be adopted to handle the interference between the cells. In addition, the brief explores cognitive small cells which are able to avoid or limit interference by using suitable beamforming and resource allocation schemes. The suggested solutions are supported by numerical results in terms of performance evaluations and comparisons.

  17. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage

  18. Interference Coordination for Dense Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Jørgensen, Niels T.K.

    2015-01-01

    and dense deployment in Tokyo are compared. Evolution to DenseNets offers new opportunities for further development of downlink interference cooperation techniques. Various mechanisms in LTE and LTE-Advanced are revisited. Some techniques try to anticipate the future in a proactive way, whereas others......The promise of ubiquitous and super-fast connectivity for the upcoming years will be in large part fulfilled by the addition of base stations and spectral aggregation. The resulting very dense networks (DenseNets) will face a number of technical challenges. Among others, the interference emerges...... as an old acquaintance with new significance. As a matter of fact, the interference conditions and the role of aggressor and victim depend to a large extent on the density and the scenario. To illustrate this, downlink interference statistics for different 3GPP simulation scenarios and a more irregular...

  19. Release From Proactive Interference with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Linda F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This demonstration of release from proactive interference with young children confirms the suggestion that the technique is appropriate for the study of developmental changes in the encoding of information. (Authors/CB)

  20. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  1. Resolving Business Process Interference via Dynamic Reconfiguration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Nick R. T. P.; Bulanov, Pavel; Wortmann, Hans; Lazovik, Alexander; Maglio, PP; Weske, M; Yang, J; Fantinato, M

    2010-01-01

    For business processes supported by service-oriented information systems, concurrent execution of business processes still may yield undesired business outcomes as a result of process interference. For instance, concurrent processes may partially depend on a semantically identical process variable,

  2. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  3. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: iruiz@inaoep.mx, E-mail: mbasurto@uaem.mx, E-mail: delta_dirac@hotmail.com, E-mail: daniel_may_arrioja@hotmail.com [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  4. Spectral interferences in atomic absorption spectrometry, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1979-01-01

    Spectral interferences were observed in trace element analysis of concentrated solutions by atomic absorption spectrometry. Molecular absorption and emission spectra for strontium chloride and nitrate, barium chloride and nitrate containing 12 mg/ml of metal ion in airacetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 700 nm. The absorption and emission spectra of SrO were centered near 364.6 nm. The absorption spectra of SrOH around 606.0, 671.0 and 682.0 nm were very strong. And, emission spectrum of BaOH in the wavelength range from 480 to 550 nm was stronger. But, the absorption of this band spectrum was very weak. In the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm, some unknown bands of absorption were observed for strontium and barium. Absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were observed in the argon-hydrogen flame. Also, in the carbon tube atomizer, the absorption spectra of SrCl and BaCl were detected clearly in the wavelength range from 185 to 400 nm. (author)

  5. Fading and interference mitigation in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Panic, Stefan; Anastasov, Jelena; Spalevic, Petar

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of various wireless communication system services has created the need to analyze the possibility of their performance improvement. Introducing the basic principles of digital communications performance analysis and its mathematical formalization, Fading and Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communications will help you stay up to date with recent developments in the performance analysis of space diversity reception over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference.The book presents a unified method for computing the performance of digital communication sys

  6. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  7. Cross-limb interference during motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Lauber

    Full Text Available It is well known that following skill learning, improvements in motor performance may transfer to the untrained contralateral limb. It is also well known that retention of a newly learned task A can be degraded when learning a competing task B that takes place directly after learning A. Here we investigate if this interference effect can also be observed in the limb contralateral to the trained one. Therefore, five different groups practiced a ballistic finger flexion task followed by an interfering visuomotor accuracy task with the same limb. Performance in the ballistic task was tested before the training, after the training and in an immediate retention test after the practice of the interference task for both the trained and the untrained hand. After training, subjects showed not only significant learning and interference effects for the trained limb but also for the contralateral untrained limb. Importantly, the interference effect in the untrained limb was dependent on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. These behavioural results of the untrained limb were accompanied by training specific changes in corticospinal excitability, which increased for the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand following ballistic training and decreased during accuracy training of the ipsilateral hand. The results demonstrate that contralateral interference effects may occur, and that interference depends on the level of skill acquisition in the interfering motor task. This finding might be particularly relevant for rehabilitation.

  8. Interference in the processing of adjunct control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eParker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the memory operations used in language comprehension has revealed a selective profile of interference effects during memory retrieval. Dependencies such as subject-verb agreement show strong facilitatory interference effects from structurally inappropriate but feature-matching distractors, leading to illusions of grammaticality (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Pearlmutter, Garnsey, & Bock, 1999; Wagers, Lau, & Phillips, 2009. In contrast, dependencies involving reflexive anaphors are generally immune to interference effects (Dillon et al., 2013; Sturt, 2003; Xiang, Dillon, & Phillips, 2009. This contrast has led to the proposal that all anaphors that are subject to structural constraints are immune to facilitatory interference. Here we use an animacy manipulation to examine whether adjunct control dependencies, which involve an interpreted anaphoric relation between a null subject and its licensor, are also immune to facilitatory interference effects. Our results show reliable facilitatory interference in the processing of adjunct control dependencies, which challenges the generalization that anaphoric dependencies as a class are immune to such effects. To account for the contrast between adjunct control and reflexive dependencies, we suggest that variability within anaphora could reflect either an inherent primacy of animacy cues in retrieval processes, or differential degrees of match between potential licensors and the retrieval probe.

  9. Investigation of Interference Models for RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reader-to-reader collision in an RFID system is a challenging problem for communications technology. In order to model the interference between RFID readers, different interference models have been proposed, mainly based on two approaches: single and additive interference. The former only considers the interference from one reader within a certain range, whereas the latter takes into account the sum of all of the simultaneous interferences in order to emulate a more realistic behavior. Although the difference between the two approaches has been theoretically analyzed in previous research, their effects on the estimated performance of the reader-to-reader anti-collision protocols have not yet been investigated. In this paper, the influence of the interference model on the anti-collision protocols is studied by simulating a representative state-of-the-art protocol. The results presented in this paper highlight that the use of additive models, although more computationally intensive, is mandatory to improve the performance of anti-collision protocols.

  10. Understanding quantum interference in general nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give a new understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of general nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-(inter)action of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-action is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schroedinger current and Dirac current, respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to the fermion magnetic moment, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and nonperturbative self-actions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all. And by comparison with the special formalism of Schroedinger current, the coupling strength of self-action in the limit is found to be ∞. In the perturbative case, the interference from self-action turns out to be the same as that from the standard approach of quantum theory. Then comparing the corresponding coefficients quantitatively we conclude that the coupling strength of self-action in this case falls in the interval [0, 1].

  11. Handling of uncertainty due to interference fringe in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy - Performance comparison of interference elimination techniques using glucose-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganović, Anel; Beć, Krzysztof B.; Henn, Raphael; Huck, Christian W.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of D-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions. Moving average smoothing (MAS) and fast Fourier transform filter (FFT filter) were applied to the interference affected FT-NIR spectra in order to eliminate the interference pattern. After data pre-treatment, partial least squares regression (PLSR) models using different NIR regions were constructed using untreated (interference affected) spectra and spectra treated with MAS and FFT filter. The prediction of the independent validation set revealed information about the performance of the utilized interference elimination techniques, as well as the different NIR regions. The results showed that the combination band of water at approx. 5200 cm-1 is of great importance since its performance was superior to the one of the so-called first overtone of water at approx. 6800 cm-1. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that MAS and FFT filter are fast and easy-to-use techniques for the elimination of interference fringes in FT-NIR transmittance spectroscopy.

  12. An Initial Look at Adjacent Band Interference Between Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry and Long-Term Evolution Wireless Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-04

    required analysis, and further testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Adjacent Channel Interference, ACI, LTE -A, LTE , PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG, ARTM CPM, AWS-3, User...Interference, ACI, LTE -A, LTE , PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG, ARTM CPM, AWS-3, User Equipment, UE, Evolved Node B, eNodeB, Resource Blocks INTRODUCTION “On...these questions make necessary an improved understanding of the interferers that can be obtained only by hands-on measurements . This work will

  13. Interference Measurements in IEEE 802.11 Communication Links Due to Different Types of Interference Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Kluwer, Taco; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    The number of wireless devices (smartphones, laptops, sensors) that use the 2.4 GHz ISM band is rapidly increasing. The most common communication system in this band is Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g/n). For that reason coexistence between Wi-Fi and other systems becomes more and more important. In this

  14. Interference-induced angle-independent acoustical transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lehua; Yu, Gaokun; Wang, Ning; Wang, Xinlong; Wang, Guibo

    2014-01-01

    It is revealed that the Fano-like interference leads to the extraordinary acoustic transmission through a slab metamaterial of thickness much smaller than the wavelength, with each unit cell consisting of a Helmholtz resonator and a narrow subwavelength slit. More importantly, both the theoretical analysis and experimental measurement show that the angle-independent acoustical transparency can be realized by grafting a Helmholtz resonator and a quarter-wave resonator to the wall of a narrow subwavelength slit in each unit cell of a slit array. The observed phenomenon results from the interferences between the waves propagating in the slit, those re-radiated by the Helmholtz resonator, and those re-radiated by the quarter-wave resonator. The proposed design may find its applications in designing angle-independent acoustical filters and controlling the phase of the transmitted waves

  15. Exogenous sample contamination. Sources and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Michael P

    2016-12-01

    Clinical laboratory medicine is involved in the vast majority of patient care pathways. It has been estimated that pathology results inform 60-70% of critical patient care decisions. The primary goal of the laboratory is to produce precise and accurate results which reflect the true situation in vivo. It is not surprising that interference occurs in laboratory analysis given the complexity of some of the assays used to perform them. Interference is defined as "the effect of a substance upon any step in the determination of the concentration or catalytic activity of the metabolite". Exogenous interferences are defined as those that derive from outside of the body and are therefore not normally found in a specimen and can cause either a positive or negative bias in analytical results. Interferences in analysis can come from various sources and can be classified as endogenous or exogenous. Exogenous substances could be introduced at any point in the sample journey. The laboratory must take responsibility for the quality of results produced. It has a responsibility to have processes in place to identify and minimise the occurrence and effect contamination and interference. To do this well the laboratory needs to work with clinicians and manufacturers. Failure to identify an erroneous result could have an impact on patient care, patient safety and also on hospital budgets. However it is not always easy to recognise interferences. This review summarises the types and sources of exogenous interference and some steps to minimise the impact they have. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interference lithography for optical devices and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Abigail Therese

    Interference lithography can create large-area, defect-free nanostructures with unique optical properties. In this thesis, interference lithography will be utilized to create photonic crystals for functional devices or coatings. For instance, typical lithographic processing techniques were used to create 1, 2 and 3 dimensional photonic crystals in SU8 photoresist. These structures were in-filled with birefringent liquid crystal to make active devices, and the orientation of the liquid crystal directors within the SU8 matrix was studied. Most of this thesis will be focused on utilizing polymerization induced phase separation as a single-step method for fabrication by interference lithography. For example, layered polymer/nanoparticle composites have been created through the one-step two-beam interference lithographic exposure of a dispersion of 25 and 50 nm silica particles within a photopolymerizable mixture at a wavelength of 532 nm. In the areas of constructive interference, the monomer begins to polymerize via a free-radical process and concurrently the nanoparticles move into the regions of destructive interference. The holographic exposure of the particles within the monomer resin offers a single-step method to anisotropically structure the nanoconstituents within a composite. A one-step holographic exposure was also used to fabricate self-healing coatings that use water from the environment to catalyze polymerization. Polymerization induced phase separation was used to sequester an isocyanate monomer within an acrylate matrix. Due to the periodic modulation of the index of refraction between the monomer and polymer, the coating can reflect a desired wavelength, allowing for tunable coloration. When the coating is scratched, polymerization of the liquid isocyanate is catalyzed by moisture in air; if the indices of the two polymers are matched, the coatings turn transparent after healing. Interference lithography offers a method of creating multifunctional self

  17. Experimental research for γ-ray interference threshold effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Xiang Hui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Mao Congguang; Cheng Jianping; Ni Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The high electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor using optical-fiber to transmit signal can restrain electromagnetic interference. The Compton electrons scattered by γ-ray irradiated from nuclear explosion or nuclear explosion simulator can generate high EMP, γ-ray can penetrate the shielding box and irradiate the integrated circuit directly. The γ-ray irradiation effect includes interference, latch up and burn out, these will make the measurement result unbelievable. In this paper, the experimental method researching the γ-ray irradiation effect of high electromagnetic pulse sensor on Qiangguang-I accelerator is introduced. The γ-ray dose rate interference threshold is 2 x 10 6 Gy/s. (authors)

  18. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric φ-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K S → K L regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric φ-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed

  19. Is the classical law of the addition of probabilities violated in quantum interference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenovic, Dusan; Bozic, Mirjana; Vuskovic, Lepsa

    2002-01-01

    We analyse and compare the positive and negative arguments on whether quantum interference violates the classical law of the addition of probabilities. The analysis takes into account the results of recent interference experiments in neutron, electron and atom optics. Nonclassical behaviour of atoms was found in atomic experiments where the measurements included their time of arrival and space distribution. We determine probabilities of elementary events associated with the nonclassical behaviour of particles in interferometers. We show that the emergence of the interference pattern in the process of accumulation of such elementary events is consistent with the classical law of the addition of probabilities

  20. The effect of experimental stress and experimental occlusal interference on masseteric EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, F D; Bichajian, C; Tira, D E; Lundeen, H C; Mahan, P E; Nicholas, B V

    1989-01-01

    This experiment attempted to study the separate and combined effects of occlusal interference and transient stress on masseteric activity among eight nonclinical human subjects. Before each of two sessions, subjects were fitted with an occlusal interference or an occlusally inert (control) molar clasp. During each session they viewed horrific and idyllic videotapes while masseter EMG was recorded bilaterally. Electrodermal measures validated that the horrific videotapes were stressful. Studies showed that the occlusal variable worked less well. The EMG was elevated contralateral to both clasps and during videotape viewing. The EMG effects from videotape viewing were relatively pronounced without the occlusal interference. Research implications are discussed.

  1. Binaural Interference and the Effects of Age and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2017-01-01

    The existence of binaural interference, defined here as poorer speech recognition with both ears than with the better ear alone, is well documented. Studies have suggested that its prevalence may be higher in the elderly population. However, no study to date has explored binaural interference in groups of younger and older adults in conditions that favor binaural processing (i.e., in spatially separated noise). Also, the effects of hearing loss have not been studied. To examine binaural interference through speech perception tests, in groups of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal hearing for their age, and older adults with hearing loss. A cross-sectional study. Thirty-three participants with symmetric thresholds were recruited from the University of Iowa community. Participants were grouped as follows: younger with normal hearing (18-28 yr, n = 12), older with normal hearing for their age (73-87 yr, n = 9), and older with hearing loss (78-94 yr, n = 12). Prior noise exposure was ruled out. The Connected Speech Test (CST) and Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered to all participants bilaterally, and to each ear separately. Test materials were presented in the sound field with speech at 0° azimuth and the noise at 180°. The Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) was administered to all participants through earphones. Hearing aids were not used during testing. Group results were compared with repeated measures and one-way analysis of variances, as appropriate. Within-subject analyses using pre-established critical differences for each test were also performed. The HINT revealed no effect of condition (individual ear versus bilateral presentation) using group analysis, although within-subject analysis showed that 27% of the participants had binaural interference (18% had binaural advantage). On the CST, there was significant binaural advantage across all groups with group data analysis, as well as for 12% of the participants at each of the two

  2. Epulis and pyogenic granuloma with occlusal interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Witjaksono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In dental clinic of Hospital University Science Malaysia (HUSM, there were cases with Localized Gingival Enlargement (LGE in the oral cavity with occlusal interference. In this study, three cases were observed. They were a 13 - year- old female with fibrous lge around 31 and 32 with occlusal interference in protrusive movement due to X bite, a 15 - year – old female with pyogenic granuloma near 11 & 21 with occlusal interference due to deep bite; and a 24 – year – old female who was eight months in pregnancy with pyogenic granuloma on the 34-35 and severe generalized pregnancy gingivitis with occlusal interference in centric occlusion and lateral movement. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of the first case showed fibrous epulis, whereas the second and third cases disclosed pyogenic granuloma. Chronic trauma of the gingiva due to occlusal interference was assumed to be the cause of those LGE in case 1 and 2, while in case 3 poor oral hygiene and chronic trauma were assumed to be the etiologic factors.

  3. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  4. Neural mechanisms of proactive interference-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G

    2007-12-01

    The ability to mitigate interference from information that was previously relevant, but is no longer relevant, is central to successful cognition. Several studies have implicated left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) as a region tied to this ability, but it is unclear whether this result generalizes across different tasks. In addition, it has been suggested that left anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) also plays a role in proactive interference-resolution although support for this claim has been limited. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of these regions in resolving proactive-interference across two different tasks performed on the same subjects. Results indicate that both left VLPFC and left APFC are involved in the resolution of proactive interference across tasks. However, different functional networks related to each region suggest dissociable roles for the two regions. Additionally, regions of the posterior cingulate gyrus demonstrated unique involvement in facilitation when short- and long-term memory converged. This pattern of results serves to further specify models of proactive interference-resolution.

  5. Iterative Soft Decision Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Employing the Distribution of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerstacker WolfgangH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known receiver strategy for direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA transmission is iterative soft decision interference cancellation. For calculation of soft estimates used for cancellation, the distribution of residual interference is commonly assumed to be Gaussian. In this paper, we analyze matched filter-based iterative soft decision interference cancellation (MF ISDIC when utilizing an approximation of the actual probability density function (pdf of residual interference. In addition, a hybrid scheme is proposed, which reduces computational complexity by considering the strongest residual interferers according to their pdf while the Gaussian assumption is applied to the weak residual interferers. It turns out that the bit error ratio decreases already noticeably when only a small number of residual interferers is regarded according to their pdf. For the considered DS-CDMA transmission the bit error ratio decreases by 80% for high signal-to-noise ratios when modeling all residual interferers but the strongest three to be Gaussian distributed.

  6. Electromagnetic interference of mobile phones with electronic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, W.

    2000-03-01

    Chapter 1:Interference matrix: The objective of Chapter 1 was to give an overview of the implants used at present and their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The evaluation of the available literature provides an estimate of the probability of electronic implants being influenced by various interference sources. A literature search at the AKH (Allgemeines Krankenhaus) in Vienna and at the Technical University of Vienna in the FIZ (Fach-Informations-Zentrum) -Biomedizinische Technik, Medline, Pascal Biomed, CC Search und Embase databases yielded 236 relevant publications. At present 12 different implants are used: pacemaker, defibrillator, cochlear and brain-stem implants, neurostimulators, spinal-cord stimulators, spinal-fusion stimulators, telemetry systems, artificial hearts, drug-delivery systems, neurological pulse generators, visual prosthetics and implantable patient chips. The frequency with which they are used and the EMC on exposure to the various interference sources was summarized. Publications on EMC were found only for the first six implant types and only for 30% of the possible combinations of implant type and interference source. Based on the number of the implants examined, the probability of interference was calculated and summarized in the interference matrix. Chapter 2:Measurements on the phantom: No publication on the electromagnetic compatibility of neurological pulse generators (NPG) could be found. This implant has been used increasingly in the last few years to treat Parkinson's disease. A phantom was built to examine this implant at 900 MHz. The electromagnetic compatibility was measured by exposing the NPG to the fields of ten different 900 MHz GSM mobile phones. Every mobile phone was tested in three different positions relative to the phantom, with four electrode configurations and four stimulation parameters. No interference was found even at a maximum transmit power of 2 watts. Further tests with half-wave dipoles and increased

  7. Detection-dependent six-photon Holland-Burnett state interference

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-Bo Jin; Mikio Fujiwara; Ryosuke Shimizu; Robert J. Collins; Gerald S. Buller; Taro Yamashita; Shigehito Miki; Hirotaka Terai; Masahiro Takeoka; Masahide Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    The NOON state, and its experimental approximation the Holland-Burnett state, have important applications in phase sensing measurement with enhanced sensitivity. However, most of the previous Holland-Burnett state interference (HBSI) experiments only investigated the area of the interference pattern in the region immediately around zero optical path length difference, while the full HBSI pattern over a wide range of optical path length differences has not yet been well explored. In this work,...

  8. Observation of interference between stark and electric quadrupole transitions in LIF from He atoms in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Namba, S.; Furukawa, S.; Oda, T.; James, B.W.; Andruczyk, D.

    2004-01-01

    Interference between Stark-induced dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes was observed in a He hollow cathode plasma with axial magnetic field perpendicular to the sheath electric field E by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Circularly polarized LIF signals were observed in the sheath region. Spatial profile of the degree of polarization P c showed characteristic features of the interference. Using theoretically calculated P c -E relationship, E-profile was successfully obtained form the measure P c . (author)

  9. Interference Calculus A General Framework for Interference Management and Network Utility Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a mathematical framework for modeling and optimizing interference-coupled multiuser systems. At the core of this framework is the concept of general interference functions, which provides a simple means of characterizing interdependencies between users. The entire analysis builds on the two core axioms scale-invariance and monotonicity. The proposed network calculus has its roots in power control theory and wireless communications. It adds theoretical tools for analyzing the typical behavior of interference-coupled networks. In this way it complements existing game-theoretic approaches. The framework should also be viewed in conjunction with optimization theory. There is a fruitful interplay between the theory of interference functions and convex optimization theory. By jointly exploiting the properties of interference functions, it is possible to design algorithms that outperform general-purpose techniques that only exploit convexity. The title “network calculus” refers to the fact tha...

  10. Mitigation of MIMO Co-Channel Interference using robust interference cancellation receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2007-01-01

    (STBC) link may become equivalent to an interfering Spatial Multiplexing (SM) link. Using this knowledge and understanding, we propose an interference cancellation receiver robust to different types of MIMO interferers at cell edge for the Downlink (DL) of cellular systems. The receiver systematically...... performs a multiple symbol processing: this is the appropriate processing when the signal of interest or the signal of interferer is correlated across symbols, which is the case for STBC transmission. We evaluated different link combinations in terms of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR......) statistics and Bit Error Rate (BER) performance in cellular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. We have found that the proposed multiple-symbol linear interference cancellation receiver performs satisfactorily when any kind of single 'logical' stream MIMO scheme is present...

  11. Time and interference: Effects on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Marta; Palladino, Paola

    2016-05-01

    This study tested predictions from the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model with a classical verbal working memory (WM) task, where target and non-target information interfere strongly with each other. Different predictions can be formulated according to the dominant perspectives (TBRS and interference hypothesis) on the role of inhibitory control in WM task performance. Here, we aimed to trace the activation of irrelevant information, examining priming effects in a lexical decision task immediately following WM recall. Results indicate the roles of both time and interference constraints in determining task performance. In particular, the role of time available seemed crucial at the highest WM loads (i.e., 3 and 4 memoranda). These were also associated with a higher activation of no-longer-relevant information but, in this case, independently from time available for processing. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph T F

    2017-12-30

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence. In this paper, I present a risk-sensitive account of competence as a means of grounding rights to non-interference. On a risk-sensitive account of competence individuals demonstrate their competence by exercising three capacities to the extent necessary to meet a threshold determined by the riskiness of the decision. These three capacities are the capacity to (i) acquire knowledge, (ii) use instrumental rationality, and (iii) form and revise a life plan.

  13. Calculation of the Coulomb nuclear energy for the 1fsub(7/2) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, V.A.; Shpikovski, S.

    1980-01-01

    Calculated was the Coulomb energy for nuclei with half-filled 1fsub(7/2) shell i.e. for configurations, where quasiparticle basis can serve as a total basis for precise calculations. Presented are calculation results of vector and tensor components of the Coulomb energy for Ca-Se-Ti-V isobaric pairs, as well as experimental and theoretical values for the Coulomb displacements. To estimate the Coulomb energies used were wave functions of a Hamiltonian taking account of pair and quadrupole interactions. There is good agreement with experimental data. Quasiparticle consideration is useful for calculating matrix elements of half-filled shells and for the cases of such an isospin value, where the technique of genealogical coefficients becomes extremely cumbersome

  14. Two-Loop Self-Energy Correction in a Strong Coulomb Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerokhin, V.A.; Indelicato, P.; Shabaev, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The two-loop self-energy correction to the ground-state energy levels of hydrogen-like ions with nuclear charges Z ≥ 10 is calculated without the Zα expansion, where α is the fine-structure constant. The data obtained are compared with the results of analytical calculations within the Zα expansion; significant disagreement with the analytical results of order α 2 (Zα) 6 has been found. Extrapolation is used to obtain the most accurate value for the two-loop self-energy correction for the 1s state in hydrogen

  15. Variance-reduction technique for Coulomb-nuclear thermalization of energetic fusion products in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, J.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A variance-reduction technique involving use of exponential transform and angular-biasing methods has been developed. Its purpose is to minimize the variance and computer time involved in estimating the mean fusion product (fp) energy deposited in a hot, multi-region plasma under the influence of small-energy transfer Coulomb collisions and large-energy transfer nuclear elastic scattering (NES) events. This technique is applicable to high-temperature D- 3 He, Cat. D and D-T plasmas which have highly energetic fps capable of undergoing NES. A first application of this technique is made to a D- 3 He Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) where the Larmor radius of the 14.7 MeV protons are typically comparable to the plasma radius (plasma radius approx. 2 fp gyroradii) and the optimistic fp confinement (approx. 45% of 14.7 MeV protons) previously predicted is vulnerable to large orbit perturbations induced by NES. In the FRM problem, this variance reduction technique is used to estimate the fractional difference in the average fp energy deposited in the closed-field region, E/sub cf/, with and without NES collisions

  16. Semiclassical model of deuteron dissociation in the Coulomb-Nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.P.; Sidorenko, B.I.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the survival probability of a deuteron which moves in the field of a heavy nucleus. This quantity was calculated within a semiclassical approach to the intrinsic motion within a deuteron and in the framework of an approach which makes use of the imaginary part of the phenomenological deuteron optical potential. A close agreement is obtained between these approaches in a broad range of deuteron energies and orbital momenta

  17. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsinsky Ivan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public access defibrillators (PADs are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed. This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  18. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-01-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients.

  19. Conducted Interference Immunity Characteristics to High-speed Power Line Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masamitsu; Hosoya, Satoshi; Yamagata, Toru; Matsuo, Takashi

    In this paper, we measured the immunity characteristics to the conducted interference wave, from the aspect of PHY rate (physical layer data rate) of PLC (Power Line Communication) system, and compared with simulation results by MATLAB/ Simulink. When the interference signal is impressed to the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal, the PHY rate decrease rapidly below C/I (Carrier / Interference) = 25dB and become nearly zero around C/I = -35dB, and so it turns out that the PLC System with OFDM signal has a good narrowband interference immunity characteristic. In addition, it is revealed that the PHY rate of PLC modem can be calculated by MATLAB/Simulink even when the narrowband interference signal is impressed through the power line. Furthermore, we examined the improving effect of the notch band for the immunity characteristics to the conducted interference wave. As a result, it is revealed that the PHY rate normalized by the maximum value increases by 15∼25% by inserting the notch when impressing the interference signal in the notch band and C/I is improved by 10∼15dB by inserting the notch.

  20. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsinsky, Ivan

    2005-11-26

    Public access defibrillators (PADs) are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed). This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  1. Experimental occlusal interference induces long-term masticatory muscle hyperalgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Xie, Qiu-Fei; Li, Kai; Light, Alan R; Fu, Kai-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    Temporomandibular joint or related masticatory muscle pain represents the most common chronic orofacial pain condition. Patients frequently report this kind of pain after dental alterations in occlusion. However, lack of understanding of the mechanisms of occlusion-related temporomandibular joint and muscle pain prevents treating this problem successfully. To explore the relationship between improper occlusion (occlusal interference) and masticatory muscle pain, we created an occlusal interference animal model by directly bonding a crown to a maxillary molar to raise the masticating surface of the tooth in rats. We raised the occlusal surface to three different heights (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6mm), and for one month we quantitatively measured mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the temporal and masseter muscles on both sides. Results showed a stimulus-response relationship between the height of occlusal interference and muscle hyperalgesia. Removal of the crown 6 days after occlusal interference showed that the removal at this time could not terminate the 1 month duration of mechanical hyperalgesia in the masticatory muscles. Lastly, we systemically administered NMDA antagonist MK801 (0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/kg) to the treated rats and found that MK801 dose dependently attenuated the occlusal interference-induced hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that occlusal interference is directly related to masticatory muscle pain, and that central sensitization mechanisms are involved in the maintenance of the occlusal interference-induced mechanical hyperalgesia.

  2. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  3. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Aaron V; Cain, Matthew S; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT), a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  4. An interference model of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lin, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces an interference model of working memory for information in a continuous similarity space, such as the features of visual objects. The model incorporates the following assumptions: (a) Probability of retrieval is determined by the relative activation of each retrieval candidate at the time of retrieval; (b) activation comes from 3 sources in memory: cue-based retrieval using context cues, context-independent memory for relevant contents, and noise; (c) 1 memory object and its context can be held in the focus of attention, where it is represented with higher precision, and partly shielded against interference. The model was fit to data from 4 continuous-reproduction experiments testing working memory for colors or orientations. The experiments involved variations of set size, kind of context cues, precueing, and retro-cueing of the to-be-tested item. The interference model fit the data better than 2 competing models, the Slot-Averaging model and the Variable-Precision resource model. The interference model also fared well in comparison to several new models incorporating alternative theoretical assumptions. The experiments confirm 3 novel predictions of the interference model: (a) Nontargets intrude in recall to the extent that they are close to the target in context space; (b) similarity between target and nontarget features improves recall, and (c) precueing-but not retro-cueing-the target substantially reduces the set-size effect. The success of the interference model shows that working memory for continuous visual information works according to the same principles as working memory for more discrete (e.g., verbal) contents. Data and model codes are available at https://osf.io/wgqd5/. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Quantum interference in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Hao, XiaoLei; Wang, YanLan; Chen, YongJu; Yu, ShaoGang; Xu, SongPo; Xiao, ZhiLei; Sun, RenPing; Lai, XuanYang; Hu, ShiLin; Liu, MingQing; Shu, Zheng; Wang, XiaoDong; Li, WeiDong; Becker, Wilhelm; Liu, XiaoJun; Chen, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Quantum interference plays an important role in various intense-laser-driven atomic phenomena, e.g., above-threshold ionization and high-order-harmonic generation, and provides a useful tool in ultrafast imaging of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics. However, it has eluded observation in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI), which serves as an ideal prototype to study electron-electron correlation. Thus far, NSDI usually could be well understood from a semiclassical perspective, where all quantum aspects have been ignored after the first electron has tunneled. Here we perform coincidence measurements for NSDI of xenon subject to laser pulses at 2400 nm. It is found that the intensity dependence of the asymmetry parameter between the yields in the second and fourth quadrants and those in the first and third quadrants of the electron-momentum-correlation distributions exhibits a peculiar fast oscillatory structure, which is beyond the scope of the semiclassical picture. Our theoretical analysis indicates that this oscillation can be attributed to interference between the contributions of different excited states in the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization channel. Our work demonstrates the significant role of quantum interference in NSDI and may create an additional pathway towards manipulation and imaging of the ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics in intense laser fields.

  6. Interference in the resonance fluorescence of two incoherently coupled transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, Martin; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2006-01-01

    The fluorescence light emitted by a four-level system in J=1/2 to J=1/2 configuration driven by a monochromatic laser field and in an external magnetic field is studied. We show that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the π transitions shows a signature of spontaneously generated interference effects. The degree of interference in the fluorescence spectrum can be controlled by means of the external magnetic field, provided that the Lande g factors of the excited and the ground state doublet are different. For a suitably chosen magnetic field strength, the relative weight of the Rayleigh line can be completely suppressed, even for low intensities of the coherent driving field. The incoherent fluorescence spectrum emitted on the π transitions exhibits a very narrow peak whose width and weight depend on the magnetic field strength. We demonstrate that the spectrum of resonance fluorescence emitted on the σ transitions shows an indirect signature of interference. A measurement of the relative peak heights in the spectrum from the σ transitions allows us to determine the branching ratio of the spontaneous decay of each excited state into the σ channel

  7. Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)

  8. Study of the Interference Affecting the Performance of the Theremin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Bachiller Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theremin is one of the earliest electronic musical instruments. It is named after the Russian physics Professor Lev S. Termen who invented it in 1919. This musical instrument belongs to a very short list of devices which are played without physical contact between the musician and the instrument. theremin players complain about the interference that any object in a radius of approximately 3 meters produces when playing the theremin, modifying the intonation of the instrument. This is a problem when playing in small scenarios, with other musicians which move around it. With the aim of reducing the degree of interference from nearby obstacles, some metallic isolating bars conforming an antenna array can be placed around the theremin pitch antenna. The paper shows different simulations calculated with the commercial software Ansoft HFSS, a tool which allows three-dimensional full wave electromagnetic field simulation, with radio frequencies, millimeter and micro waves, and experimental measures, both showing a reduction in the effect of the interference.

  9. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE INTERFERENCE IN PLURILINGUAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackett-Jones, A.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with interlingual phenomena that occur in the process of multiple language acquisition in a learning environment. The notions of language interference and transfer put forward by the theories of bilingualism, give useful insights when applied to the modern day educational trends. Language and culture interference is an important aspect to be considered with regard to teaching of plurilingual learners, whose communicative competence is formed on the basis of several linguistic and cultural systems that interact with each other and exert mutual influence.

  10. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  11. Inertial and interference effects in optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, W; Smith, D Y

    2015-01-01

    Interference between free-space and material components of the displacement current plays a key role in determining optical properties. This is illustrated by an analogy between the Lorentz optical model and a-c circuits. Phase shifts in material-polarization currents, which are inertial, relative to the non-inertial vacuum-polarization current cause interference in the total displacement current and, hence, variation in E-M wave propagation. If the displacement-current is reversed, forward propagation is inhibited yielding the semimetallic reflectivity exhibited by intrinsic silicon. Complete cancellation involves material currents offsetting free-space currents to form current-loops that correspond to plasmons. (paper)

  12. Sensorimotor Interference When Reasoning About Described Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kyranidou, Melina-Nicole

    The influence of sensorimotor interference was examined in two experiments that compared pointing with iconic arrows and verbal responding in a task that entailed locating target-objects from imagined perspectives. Participants studied text narratives describing objects at locations around them in a remote environment and then responded to targets from memory. Results revealed only minor differences between the two response modes suggesting that bodily cues do not exert severe detrimental interference on spatial reasoning from imagined perspective when non-immediate described environments are used. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Radio interference and transient field from gas-insulated substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, S.M.; Wong, P.S.; Balma, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-insulated substations (GIS), owing to their compact nature, offer an attractive alternative to conventional substations in areas where space is limited, such as in urban areas. Consequently, it is important to address the issue of environmental conditions within the substation and in the surrounding areas. This paper reports the result of radio interference (RI) and transient field measurements at two GIS in Ontario, Canada. For comparison with RI levels taken at the GIS, RI levels outside two hospitals in the Toronto area were also measured. The transient field study covers electromagnetic interference (EMI) levels generated during switching operations, and includes measurements inside and outside the GIS. Measurements show that RI levels from the GIS were either below background levels, or contributed little to the background. RI levels outside the GIS and the hospitals were similar. Peak transient field values up to 580 V/m were measured inside the station building, and dropped to background values of 10 V/m at about 120 m from the station. The transient field (E) dropped off at a rate of 3/2 power with distance (d) from the air-insulated 115 kV bus, i.e. E ∝ d -1.5

  14. Neural Tuning Functions Underlie Both Generalization and Interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S Howard

    Full Text Available In sports, the role of backswing is considered critical for generating a good shot, even though it plays no direct role in hitting the ball. We recently demonstrated the scientific basis of this phenomenon by showing that immediate past movement affects the learning and recall of motor memories. This effect occurred regardless of whether the past contextual movement was performed actively, passively, or shown visually. In force field studies, it has been shown that motor memories generalize locally and that the level of compensation decays as a function of movement angle away from the trained movement. Here we examine if the contextual effect of past movement exhibits similar patterns of generalization and whether it can explain behavior seen in interference studies. Using a single force-field learning task, the directional tuning curves of both the prior contextual movement and the subsequent force field adaptive movements were measured. The adaptation movement direction showed strong directional tuning, decaying to zero by 90° relative to the training direction. The contextual movement direction exhibited a similar directional tuning, although the effect was always above 60%. We then investigated the directional tuning of the passive contextual movement using interference tasks, where the contextual movements that uniquely specified the force field direction were separated by ±15° or ±45°. Both groups showed a pronounced tuning effect, which could be well explained by the directional tuning functions for single force fields. Our results show that contextual effect of past movement influences predictive force compensation, even when adaptation does not require contextual information. However, when such past movement contextual information is crucial to the task, such as in an interference study, it plays a strong role in motor memory learning and recall. This work demonstrates that similar tuning responses underlie both generalization of

  15. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A–B, A–D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A–B, A–B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A–B, C–D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A–B, A–D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information. PMID:25120241

  16. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A-B, A-D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A-B, A-B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A-B, C-D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A-B, A-D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information.

  17. An accurate interference refractometer based on a permanent vacuum chamber : development and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkens, M.J.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new accurate interference refractometer, without pumping device, has been developed. The refractometer is based on a commercially available laser measurement system and uses a prismatic measuring cell, containing a permanent vacuum chamber. Measurements of the refractive index of air can be

  18. PAIN INTENSITY AND PAIN INTERFERENCE AMONG TRAUMA PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deya Prastika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of trauma has been high and has gained attention worldwide. The energy involved in trauma results in specific tissue damage. Such tissue damage generally leads to pain. The high pain intensity possibly is consequence of trauma due to transfer energy to the body from external force and absorbed in wide area. This pain affected patients’ physical and psychological function, in which well known as pain interference. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the pain intensity and pain interference among trauma patients. Method: A systematic search of electronic databases (CINHAL, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Google scholar was conducted for quantitative and qualitative studies measuring pain intensity and pain interference. The search limited to hospitalized trauma patients in adult age. Results: The search revealed 678 studies. A total of 10 descriptive studies examined pain intensity and pain interference and met inclusion criteria. The pain intensity and pain interference was assessed using Brief Pain Inventory (BPI. Pain intensity of hospitalized trauma patients were moderate to severe. These including 6 studies in orthopedic trauma, one study in musculoskeletal, two in studies in combinational between orthopedic and musculoskeletal, and two studies in burn injury. Moreover, the patients also reported pain was relentless & unbearable. In accordance, data showed that pain interference was moderate to severe from six studies. These studies result in vary of functional interference. However, those studies examined pain interference on sleep, enjoyment of life, mood, relationship with other, walking, general activity, and walking. Conclusion: The evidence from 10 studies included in this review indicates that hospitalized trauma patients perceived moderate to severe pain intensity and pain interference. Further research is needed to better evaluate the pain of hospitalized trauma patients.

  19. Multiple-Antenna Interference Cancellation for WLAN with MAC Interference Avoidance in Open Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Kuzminskiy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multiantenna interference cancellation receiver algorithms for increasing the uplink throughput in WLAN systems such as 802.11 is investigated. The medium access control (MAC in such systems is based on carrier sensing multiple-access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA, which itself is a powerful tool for the mitigation of intrasystem interference. However, due to the spatial dependence of received signal strengths, it is possible for the collision avoidance mechanism to fail, resulting in packet collisions at the receiver and a reduction in system throughput. The CSMA/CA MAC protocol can be complemented in such scenarios by interference cancellation (IC algorithms at the physical (PHY layer. The corresponding gains in throughput are a result of the complex interplay between the PHY and MAC layers. It is shown that semiblind interference cancellation techniques are essential for mitigating the impact of interference bursts, in particular since these are typically asynchronous with respect to the desired signal burst. Semiblind IC algorithms based on second- and higher-order statistics are compared to the conventional no-IC and training-based IC techniques in an open access network (OAN scenario involving home and visiting users. It is found that the semiblind IC algorithms significantly outperform the other techniques due to the bursty and asynchronous nature of the interference caused by the MAC interference avoidance scheme.

  20. Multiple-Antenna Interference Cancellation for WLAN with MAC Interference Avoidance in Open Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminskiy Alexandr M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multiantenna interference cancellation receiver algorithms for increasing the uplink throughput in WLAN systems such as 802.11 is investigated. The medium access control (MAC in such systems is based on carrier sensing multiple-access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA, which itself is a powerful tool for the mitigation of intrasystem interference. However, due to the spatial dependence of received signal strengths, it is possible for the collision avoidance mechanism to fail, resulting in packet collisions at the receiver and a reduction in system throughput. The CSMA/CA MAC protocol can be complemented in such scenarios by interference cancellation (IC algorithms at the physical (PHY layer. The corresponding gains in throughput are a result of the complex interplay between the PHY and MAC layers. It is shown that semiblind interference cancellation techniques are essential for mitigating the impact of interference bursts, in particular since these are typically asynchronous with respect to the desired signal burst. Semiblind IC algorithms based on second- and higher-order statistics are compared to the conventional no-IC and training-based IC techniques in an open access network (OAN scenario involving home and visiting users. It is found that the semiblind IC algorithms significantly outperform the other techniques due to the bursty and asynchronous nature of the interference caused by the MAC interference avoidance scheme.

  1. RNA interference: its use as antiviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, J.; Berkhout, B.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism that has been proposed to function as a defence mechanism of eukaryotic cells against viruses and transposons. RNAi was first observed in plants in the form of a mysterious immune response to viral pathogens. But RNAi is more

  2. Resistance to Interference of Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…

  3. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  4. Stroop interference and disorders of selective attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, A.; LaHeij, W.; Fasotti, L.; Eling, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fourteen patients with a right-hemisphere CVA and 8 patients with a left-hemisphere CVA were examined for selective attention deficits using a variant of the Stroop color-word task: the picture-word interference task. Experiments 1 and 2 first compared the performance of the two patient groups and a

  5. Inhibition of virus replication by RNA interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, P. C. Joost; Cupac, Daniel; Berkhout, Ben

    2003-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism in eukaryotes, which is believed to function as a defence against viruses and transposons. Since its discovery, RNAi has been developed into a widely used technique for generating genetic knock-outs and for studying gene

  6. 47 CFR 74.703 - Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... energy outside its assigned channel. Upon notice by the FCC to the station licensee or operator that such... suspended and not resumed until the interference has been eliminated. However, short test transmissions may... services provided by existing and future commercial or public safety wireless licensees in the 700 MHz...

  7. Cue-Dependent Interference in Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The role of interference as a primary determinant of forgetting in memory has long been accepted, however its role as a contributor to poor comprehension is just beginning to be understood. The current paper reports two studies, in which speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-tracking methodologies were used with the same materials to provide converging…

  8. A model for interference and forgetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Mensink, G.J.M.A

    1988-01-01

    A new model for interference and forgetting is presented. The model is based on the search of associative memory (SAM) theory for retrieval from long-term memory by J. G. Raaijmakers and R. M. Shiffrin, see record 1981-20491-001). It includes a contextual fluctuation process that enables it to

  9. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  10. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Tanner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings.

  11. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... grower preference or by government restrictions to limit the environmental ... risks associated with chemical control and (c) the pro- vision of ... certain model organisms. The first ... reproductive system (Lilley et al., 2005b), sperm (Urwin .... interference of dual oxidase in the plant nematode Meloidogyne.

  12. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  13. Interference analysis of fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration

  14. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  15. The Acceptability of Speech with Radio Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, K.; Hummersone, H.; Mason, R.

    2014-01-01

    A listening test was conducted to investigate the acceptability of audio-on-audio interference for radio programs featuring speech as the target. Twenty-one subjects, including naïve and expert listeners, were presented with 200 randomly assigned pairs of stimuli and asked to report, for each trial...

  16. Polarization modulation in Young's interference experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, Jani

    2008-01-01

    Polarization properties at the observation screen in Young's interference experiment are examined. Several recent results on the modulation of Stokes parameters, including the minimum number of modulated parameters, are reviewed. The theory is then applied to find out the relation between the Stokes parameters at the pinholes and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase at the screen.

  17. Movement Interference in Autism-Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Stanley, J.; Miall, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Movement interference occurs when concurrently observing and executing incompatible actions and is believed to be due to co-activation of conflicting populations of mirror neurons. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons contribute towards the imitation of observed actions. However, the exact neural substrate of imitation may depend on task…

  18. A New Method for Suppressing Periodic Narrowband Interference Based on the Chaotic van der Pol Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao

    The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.

  19. Detection-dependent six-photon Holland-Burnett state interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Fujiwara, Mikio; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Collins, Robert J.; Buller, Gerald S.; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    The NOON state, and its experimental approximation the Holland-Burnett state, have important applications in phase sensing measurement with enhanced sensitivity. However, most of the previous Holland-Burnett state interference (HBSI) experiments only investigated the area of the interference pattern in the region immediately around zero optical path length difference, while the full HBSI pattern over a wide range of optical path length differences has not yet been well explored. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate up to six-photon HBSI and study the properties of the interference patterns over a wide range of optical path length differences. It was found that the shape, the coherence time and the visibility of the interference patterns were strongly dependent on the detection schemes. This work paves the way for applications which are based on the envelope of the HBSI pattern, such as quantum spectroscopy and quantum metrology.

  20. Viking telecommunication effects of GEOS satellite interference based on testing at the Madrid deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, F. V.; Kent, S. S.; Galvez, J. L.; Luaces, B. G.; Pasero, G. R.; Urech, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    In support of the ongoing NASA-European Space Agency (ESA) effort to understand and control possible interference between missions, testing was conducted at the Madrid Deep Space Station from July 1975 to February 1976 to characterize the effect on Viking 1975 telecommunication link performance of Geodetic Earth-Orbiting Satellite (GEOS) downlink signals. The prime use of the data was to develop a capability to predict GEOS interference effects for evaluation of Viking 1975 mission impacts and possible temporary GEOS shutdown. Also, the data would serve as a basis for assessment of the GEOS impact on missions other than Viking as well as for more general interference applications. Performances of the reference receiver, telemetry, and planetary ranging were measured in the presence of various types of GEOS-related interference, including an unmodulated GEOS carrier and simulation of the actual spectrum by an ESA-supplied GEOS suitcase model.

  1. Chemical binding effects in resonance - potential interference scattering for harmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwaifi, A.; Summerfield, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The neutron scattering cross section which is the quantity directly measured in experiments is given by the absolute square of the scattering amplitude. For energies near a resonance, this yields three terms: potential, resonant and interference. In this paper we deal with the interference neutron scattering cross section which is written in terms of a three-point correlation function. This function is calculated for the ideal gas and harmonic crystal models. For short collision times, the interference result for harmonic crystals is the same as the ideal gas but it has an effective temperature. This is the same effective temperature as was previously found for absorption and pure resonant processes. Therefore, the interference scattering cross section can be treated in the same way as resonant scattering and absorption are treated using an ideal gas result with the usual effective temperature. (author)

  2. Combined effects of 60Co dose and high frequency interferences on a discrete bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doridant, A.; Raoult, J.; Jarrix, S.; Blain, A.; Dusseau, L.; Hoffmann, P.; Chatry, N.; Calvel, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns bipolar transistors subject to a double aggression: dose irradiation and high-frequency interference. The electromagnetic interference is injected in a contactless way in the near-field zone around the device. Parameters of the interference are power and frequency, the latter largely out of band of operation of the transistors. The output voltage of the transistor exhibits changes, due to rectification and to some extent to current crowding. The importance of the base bias set-up for the type of change occurring in voltage is displayed. After irradiation with a 60 Co source, the voltage output will change under electromagnetic interference but sometimes in an opposite way as initially measured. The impact of the irradiation with respect to electromagnetic susceptibility is highlighted from a physical point of view. Finally preliminary results of simulation for susceptibility prediction are given and a discussion is given on the limits of the transistor model used. (authors)

  3. Hong–Ou–Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua; An Xue-Bi; Wu Juan; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Wang Shuang; Chen Wei; Han Zhen-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. (paper)

  4. Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Marino, Giuseppe; Ginzburg, Pavel; O'Connor, Daniel; Martínez, Alejandro; Wurtz, Gregory A; Zayats, Anatoly V

    2013-04-19

    Wave interference is a fundamental manifestation of the superposition principle with numerous applications. Although in conventional optics, interference occurs between waves undergoing different phase advances during propagation, we show that the vectorial structure of the near field of an emitter is essential for controlling its radiation as it interferes with itself on interaction with a mediating object. We demonstrate that the near-field interference of a circularly polarized dipole results in the unidirectional excitation of guided electromagnetic modes in the near field, with no preferred far-field radiation direction. By mimicking the dipole with a single illuminated slit in a gold film, we measured unidirectional surface-plasmon excitation in a spatially symmetric structure. The surface wave direction is switchable with the polarization.

  5. Three-dimensional characterization of extreme ultraviolet mask blank defects by interference contrast photoemission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingquan; Weber, Nils; Escher, Matthias; Maul, Jochen; Han, Hak-Seung; Merkel, Michael; Wurm, Stefan; Schönhense, Gerd; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2008-09-29

    A photoemission electron microscope based on a new contrast mechanism "interference contrast" is applied to characterize extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defects. Inspection results show that positioning of interference destructive condition (node of standing wave field) on surface of multilayer in the local region of a phase defect is necessary to obtain best visibility of the defect on mask blank. A comparative experiment reveals superiority of the interference contrast photoemission electron microscope (Extreme UV illumination) over a topographic contrast one (UV illumination with Hg discharge lamp) in detecting extreme ultraviolet mask blank phase defects. A depth-resolved detection of a mask blank defect, either by measuring anti-node peak shift in the EUV-PEEM image under varying inspection wavelength condition or by counting interference fringes with a fixed illumination wavelength, is discussed.

  6. Friction coefficient and effective interference at the implant-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Niklas B; Morlock, Michael M; Bishop, Nicholas E

    2015-09-18

    Although the contact pressure increases during implantation of a wedge-shaped implant, friction coefficients tend to be measured under constant contact pressure, as endorsed in standard procedures. Abrasion and plastic deformation of the bone during implantation are rarely reported, although they define the effective interference, by reducing the nominal interference between implant and bone cavity. In this study radial forces were analysed during simulated implantation and explantation of angled porous and polished implant surfaces against trabecular bone specimens, to determine the corresponding friction coefficients. Permanent deformation was also analysed to determine the effective interference after implantation. For the most porous surface tested, the friction coefficient initially increased with increasing normal contact stress during implantation and then decreased at higher contact stresses. For a less porous surface, the friction coefficient increased continually with normal contact stress during implantation but did not reach the peak magnitude measured for the rougher surface. Friction coefficients for the polished surface were independent of normal contact stress and much lower than for the porous surfaces. Friction coefficients were slightly lower for pull-out than for push-in for the porous surfaces but not for the polished surface. The effective interference was as little as 30% of the nominal interference for the porous surfaces. The determined variation in friction coefficient with radial contact force, as well as the loss of interference during implantation will enable a more accurate representation of implant press-fitting for simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of experimental occlusal interference on body posture: an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, I; Gatto, M R; Bartolucci, M L; Bortolotti, F; Alessandri Bonetti, G; Michelotti, A

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between dental occlusion and body posture both among people and in scientific literature. The aim of the present longitudinal study is to investigate the effects of an experimental occlusal interference on body posture by means of a force platform and an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis. An occlusal interference of a 0- to 2-mm-thick glass composite was prepared to disturb the intercuspal position while not creating interference during lateral or protrusive mandibular excursions. Frontal and sagittal kinematic parameters, dynamic gait measurements and superficial electromyographic (SEMG) activity of head and neck muscles were performed on 12 healthy subjects. Measurements were taken 10 days before the application of the occlusal interference, and then immediately before the application, the day after it, and at a distance of 7 and 14 days under four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of this study show that an occlusal interference does not modify significantly over time static and dynamic parameters of body posture under different exteroceptive conditions. It has a minimal influence only on the frontal kinematic parameters related to mandibular position, and it induces a transient increase of the activity of masticatory muscles. In this study, the experimental occlusal interference did not significantly influence the body posture during a 14-day follow-up period. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. First study of the interference between initial and final state radiation at the Z resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The interference between initial and final state radiation in the process \\eemm\\ at $\\sqs \\approx \\MZ$ has been studied by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry as a function of the acoplanarity angle between the final state muons. The interference is expected to be sensitive to the space-time separation of the initial and final state radiation. The measured asymmetry distribution has been compared to theoretical predictions using the \\KORALZ\\ generator, with and without ørdalph\\ interference. The magnitude of the interference between initial and $ \\pm 0.06 $ (syst.) \\GeV} . \\end{center} has been extracted. The interpretation of this result is discussed. There is an additional uncertainty in the estimate of \\GZ\\ from as yet uncalculated higher order interference terms. By assuming a value of \\GZ\\ consistent with the world average, the data were used to estimate the size of these uncalculated corrections. The interference between initial and final state radiation in the process \\eemm\\ at \\sqs \\approx \\MZ h...

  9. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-05-01

    Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tobacco industry interference: A review of three South East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Cho, May Myat; Jirathanapiwat, Worrawan

    2017-09-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 requires governments to protect tobacco control policies from the commercial interest of the tobacco industry (TI). TI interference is the biggest barrier to implementing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper reviews the extent of the TI's interference in tobacco control policy development in three countries, Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia, and the governments' efforts to protect these policies. The paper draws on incidents of TI interference reported in the 2016 Tobacco Industry Interference Index: ASEAN Report on Implementation of the WHO FCTC Article 5.3. Base data were obtained through a questionnaire on twenty most commonly reported incidents of interference from the FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines recommendations. A scoring system was developed. All three countries faced varying levels of TI interference. Thailand, though known for its stringent tobacco control measures, still faced interference while Myanmar remains vulnerable. Indonesia faced the highest industry interference which may explain why it is lagging behind in tobacco control and remains a nonparty to the WHO FCTC. The TI gains access to government officials through offers of technical assistance and its corporate social responsibility activities. Transparency in dealing with the TI is needed in all three countries. Most governments have not set up disclosure procedures when dealing with the TI. Outside the Department/Ministry of Health, other departments remain unaware of Article 5.3, not utilizing its strength to regulate the TI. More concerted effort is needed to implement Article 5.3 to achieve greater success in tobacco control.

  11. Cavity enhanced interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Kiran; Saha, Sudipta; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2018-03-01

    Interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent crystal mediated by a rotator is known to lead to interesting physical effects (Solli et al., 2003). In this paper we show that additional feedback offered by a Fabry-Perot cavity (containing the birefringent crystal and the rotator) can lead to a novel strong interaction regime. Usual signatures of the strong interaction regime like the normal mode splitting and avoided crossings, sensitive to the rotator orientation, are reported. A high finesse cavity is shown to offer an optical setup for measuring small angles. The results are based on direct calculations of the cavity transmissions along with an analysis of its dispersion relation.

  12. The relationship between target quality and interference in sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, Khan; Coleman, Phillip; Mason, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Sound zone systems aim to control sound fields in such a way that multiple listeners can enjoy different audio programs within the same room with minimal acoustic interference. Often, there is a trade-off between the acoustic contrast achieved between the zones and the fidelity of the reproduced...... audio program in the target zone. A listening test was conducted to obtain subjective measures of distraction, target quality, and overall quality of listening experience for ecologically valid programs within a sound zoning system. Sound zones were reproduced using acoustic contrast control, planarity...

  13. Analytical interference by contrast agents in biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otnes, Sigrid; Fogh-Andersen, Niels; Rømsing, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To provide a clinically relevant overview of the analytical interference by contrast agents (CA) in laboratory blood test measurements. Materials and Methods. The effects of five CAs, gadobutrol, gadoterate meglumine, gadoxetate disodium, iodixanol, and iomeprol, were studied on the 29...... most frequently performed biochemical assays. One-day-old plasma, serum, and whole blood were spiked with doses of each agent such that the gadolinium agents and the iodine agents reached concentrations of 0.5mMand 12mg iodine/mL, respectively. Subsequently, 12 assays were reexamined using 1/2 and 1...

  14. Synchrotron radiation interferences between small dipoles at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovet, C.; Burns, A.; Meot, F.; Placidi, M.; Rossa, E.; Vries, J. de

    1997-06-01

    Synchrotron Radiation interferences between small dipoles in the very low (visible) frequency range have been studied at the LEP diagnostic mini-wiggler. Their understanding allowed a substantial brightness gain by adequate layout modifications. The phenomenon is described analytically in terms of time coherence effects. This serves as a basis for further detailed numerical simulations of the experiment by means of stepwise ray-tracing, and allows precise interpretation of the spectral, polarization and intensity measurements collected at LEP. It also provides guidelines for SR diagnostic at injection energy in LHC

  15. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  16. Improper Gaussian Signaling in Interference-Limited Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    information (CSI). Finally, we provide some numerical results that demonstrate the advantages that can be reaped by using IGS to access the spectrum of the FD PUs. Specifically, with the existence of week PU direct channels and/or strong SU interference channels, PGS tends to use less transmit power while IGS uses more power along with increasing the signal impropriety. Part 2 studies the potential employment of IGS in FD cooperative settings with non-negligible residual self-interference (RSI). In this part, IGS is used in an attempt to alleviate the RSI adverse effect in full-duplex relaying (FDR). To this end, we derive a tight upper bound expression for the end-to-end outage probability in terms of the relay signal parameters. We further show that the derived upper bound is either monotonic or unimodal in the relay\\'s circularity coefficient. This result allows for easily locating the global optimal point using known numerical methods. Based on the analysis, IGS allows FDR systems to operate even with high RSI. It is shown that, while the communication totally fails with PGS as the RSI increases, the IGS outage probability approaches a fixed value that depends on the channel statistics and target rate. The obtained results show that IGS can leverage higher relay power budgets than PGS to improve the performance, meanwhile it relieves its RSI impact via tuning the signal impropriety. In part 3, we investigate the potential benefits of adopting IGS in a two-hop alternate relaying (AR) system. Given the known benefits of using IGS in interference-limited networks, we propose to use IGS to relieve the inter-relay interference (IRI) impact on the AR system assuming no CSI is available at the source. In this regard, we assume that the two relays use IGS and the source uses PGS. Then, we optimize the degree of impropriety of the relays signal, measured by the circularity coefficient, to maximize the total achievable rate. Simulation results show that using IGS yields a

  17. Experimental (e, 2e) study of exchange interferences in the resonant Auger decay of Ar induced by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paripás, Béla; Palásthy, Béla; Žitnik, Matjaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The interference of autoionizing resonances with a common final ionic state is measured. •We have developed a method to experimentally verify for the exchange interference effect. •The sum of kinetic energies of the two detected electrons is kept constant. •Mainly the interference effects of [2p 3/2 ]4p and [2p 1/2 ]4p resonances in argon are studied. •The results possibly indicate small exchange interference effects. -- Abstract: Any two autoionizing resonances with a common final ionic state can be made to interfere by an appropriate selection of electron impact energy. To reveal the exchange interference effects a selective detection of electron pairs related to the selected final state is desired. We have performed a constant ionic state (e, 2e) experiment (CIS) isolating the final state by keeping the sum of transmission energies of two independent electron spectrometers constant. In the focus of this work are the exchange interference effects of 2p 3/2 −1 4p and 2p 1/2 −1 4p resonances in argon decaying to the 3p −2 ( 1 D)4p 2 P, 2 D final ionic state with energy E F = 37.3 ± 0.2 eV. We have developed a method to experimentally verify for the exchange interference effect. It is based on a comparison of the CIS spectrum recorded at the critical primary electron energy that activates the interferences, and the constructed, interference-free CIS spectrum that is build up from the CIS spectrum measured at primary electron energy away from the critical value. The results possibly indicate small exchange interference effects that may have been considerably smeared out at present experimental energy resolution

  18. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2016-03-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  19. Dependency-dependent interference: NPI interference, agreement attraction, and global pragmatic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eXiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous psycholinguistics studies have shown that when forming a long distance dependency in online processing, the parser sometimes accepts a sentence even though the required grammatical constraints are only partially met. A mechanistic account of how such errors arise sheds light on both the underlying linguistic representations involved and the processing mechanisms that put such representations together. In the current study, we contrast the NPI (negative polarity items interference effect, as shown by the acceptance of an ungrammatical sentence like The bills that democratic senators have voted for will ever become law, with the well-known phenomenon of agreement attraction (The key to the cabinets are…. On the surface, these two types of errors look alike and thereby can be explained as being driven by the same source: similarity based memory interference. However, we argue that the linguistic representations involved in NPI licensing are substantially different from those of subject-verb agreement, and therefore the interference effects in each domain potentially arise from distinct sources. In particular, we show that NPI interference at least partially arises from pragmatic inferences. In a self-paced reading study with an acceptability judgment task, we showed NPI interference was modulated by participants’ general pragmatic communicative skills, as quantified by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen 2001, especially in offline tasks. Participants with more autistic traits were actually less prone to the NPI interference effect than those with fewer autistic traits. This result contrasted with agreement attraction conditions, which were not influenced by individual pragmatic skill differences. We also show that different NPI licensors have distinct interference profiles. We discuss two kinds of interference effects for NPI licensing: memory-retrieval based and pragmatically triggered.

  20. Interferences of commercial NO2 instruments in the urban atmosphere and in a smog chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleffmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable measurements of atmospheric trace gases are necessary for both, a better understanding of the chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere, and for the validation of model predictions. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a toxic gas and is thus a regulated air pollutant. Besides, it is of major importance for the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and plays a pivotal role in the formation of ozone and acid precipitation. Detection of NO2 is a difficult task since many of the different commercial techniques used are affected by interferences. The chemiluminescence instruments that are used for indirect NO2 detection in monitoring networks and smog chambers use either molybdenum or photolytic converters and are affected by either positive (NOy or negative interferences (radical formation in the photolytic converter. Erroneous conclusions on NO2 can be drawn if these interferences are not taken into consideration. In the present study, NO2 measurements in the urban atmosphere, in a road traffic tunnel and in a smog-chamber using different commercial techniques, i.e. chemiluminescence instruments with molybdenum or photolytic converters, a Luminol based instrument and a new NO2-LOPAP, were compared with spectroscopic techniques, i.e. DOAS and FTIR. Interferences of the different instruments observed during atmospheric measurements were partly characterised in more detail in the smog chamber experiments. Whereas all the commercial instruments showed strong interferences, excellent agreement was obtained between a new NO2-LOPAP instrument and the FTIR technique for the measurements performed in the smog chamber.

  1. The Approximate Capacity Region of the Symmetric $K$-user Gaussian Interference Channel with Strong Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The symmetric K-user interference channel is studied with the goal of characterizing its capacity region in the strong interference regime within a constant gap. The achievable rate region of a scheme combining rate-splitting at the transmitters and interference alignment and successive decoding/computation at the receivers is derived. Next it is shown that this scheme achieves the so-called greedy-max corner points of the capacity region within a constant gap. By combining this result with previous results by Ordentlich et al. on the sum-capacity of the symmetric interference channel, a constant gap characterization of the capacity region for the strong interference regime is obtained. This leads to the first approximate characterization of the capacity region of the symmetric K-user IC. Furthermore, a new scheme that achieves the sum-capacity of the channel in the strong interference regime within a constant gap is also proposed, and the corresponding gap is calculated. The advantage of the new scheme is that it leads to a characterization within a constant gap without leaving an outage set contrary to the scheme by Ordentlich et al..

  2. (Sub-)Optimality of Treating Interference as Noise in the Cellular Uplink With Weak Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil; Chaaban, Anas; Di, Chen; Sezgin, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the simplicity of the scheme of treating interference as noise (TIN), it was shown to be sum-capacity optimal in the Gaussian interference channel (IC) with very-weak (noisy) interference. In this paper, the two-user IC is altered by introducing an additional transmitter that wants to communicate with one of the receivers of the IC. The resulting network thus consists of a point-to-point channel interfering with a multiple access channel (MAC) and is denoted by PIMAC. The sum-capacity of the PIMAC is studied with main focus on the optimality of TIN. It turns out that TIN in its naive variant, where all transmitters are active and both receivers use TIN for decoding, is not the best choice for the PIMAC. In fact, a scheme that combines both time division multiple access and TIN (TDMA-TIN) strictly outperforms the naive-TIN scheme. Furthermore, it is shown that in some regimes, TDMA-TIN achieves the sum-capacity for the deterministic PIMAC and the sum-capacity within a constant gap for the Gaussian PIMAC. In addition, it is shown that, even for very-weak interference, there are some regimes where a combination of interference alignment with power control and TIN at the receiver side outperforms TDMA-TIN. As a consequence, on the one hand, TIN in a cellular uplink is approximately optimal in certain regimes. On the other hand, those regimes cannot be simply described by the strength of interference.

  3. The Approximate Capacity Region of the Symmetric $K$-user Gaussian Interference Channel with Strong Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-03-01

    The symmetric K-user interference channel is studied with the goal of characterizing its capacity region in the strong interference regime within a constant gap. The achievable rate region of a scheme combining rate-splitting at the transmitters and interference alignment and successive decoding/computation at the receivers is derived. Next it is shown that this scheme achieves the so-called greedy-max corner points of the capacity region within a constant gap. By combining this result with previous results by Ordentlich et al. on the sum-capacity of the symmetric interference channel, a constant gap characterization of the capacity region for the strong interference regime is obtained. This leads to the first approximate characterization of the capacity region of the symmetric K-user IC. Furthermore, a new scheme that achieves the sum-capacity of the channel in the strong interference regime within a constant gap is also proposed, and the corresponding gap is calculated. The advantage of the new scheme is that it leads to a characterization within a constant gap without leaving an outage set contrary to the scheme by Ordentlich et al..

  4. (Sub-)Optimality of Treating Interference as Noise in the Cellular Uplink With Weak Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil

    2015-11-09

    Despite the simplicity of the scheme of treating interference as noise (TIN), it was shown to be sum-capacity optimal in the Gaussian interference channel (IC) with very-weak (noisy) interference. In this paper, the two-user IC is altered by introducing an additional transmitter that wants to communicate with one of the receivers of the IC. The resulting network thus consists of a point-to-point channel interfering with a multiple access channel (MAC) and is denoted by PIMAC. The sum-capacity of the PIMAC is studied with main focus on the optimality of TIN. It turns out that TIN in its naive variant, where all transmitters are active and both receivers use TIN for decoding, is not the best choice for the PIMAC. In fact, a scheme that combines both time division multiple access and TIN (TDMA-TIN) strictly outperforms the naive-TIN scheme. Furthermore, it is shown that in some regimes, TDMA-TIN achieves the sum-capacity for the deterministic PIMAC and the sum-capacity within a constant gap for the Gaussian PIMAC. In addition, it is shown that, even for very-weak interference, there are some regimes where a combination of interference alignment with power control and TIN at the receiver side outperforms TDMA-TIN. As a consequence, on the one hand, TIN in a cellular uplink is approximately optimal in certain regimes. On the other hand, those regimes cannot be simply described by the strength of interference.

  5. 47 CFR 25.274 - Procedures to be followed in the event of harmful interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... records shall be made available to an FCC representative on request. (d) Where the suspected source of the... the operations of another earth station shall take reasonable measures to determine whether its... station are the source of the interference, the licensee of that earth station shall take all measures...

  6. Semiconductor laser using multimode interference principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wu, Chonghao

    2018-01-01

    Multimode interference (MMI) structure is introduced in semiconductor laser used in optical communication system to realize higher power and better temperature tolerance. Using beam propagation method (BPM), Multimode interference laser diode (MMI-LD) is designed and fabricated in InGaAsP/InP based material. As a comparison, conventional semiconductor laser using straight single-mode waveguide is also fabricated in the same wafer. With a low injection current (about 230 mA), the output power of the implemented MMI-LD is up to 2.296 mW which is about four times higher than the output power of the conventional semiconductor laser. The implemented MMI-LD exhibits stable output operating at the wavelength of 1.52 μm and better temperature tolerance when the temperature varies from 283.15 K to 293.15 K.

  7. Experimental Characterization of Close-Emitter Interference in an Optical Camera Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Burbano, Patricia; Guerra, Victor; Rabadan, Jose; Rodríguez-Esparragón, Dionisio; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael

    2017-07-04

    Due to the massive insertion of embedded cameras in a wide variety of devices and the generalized use of LED lamps, Optical Camera Communication (OCC) has been proposed as a practical solution for future Internet of Things (IoT) and smart cities applications. Influence of mobility, weather conditions, solar radiation interference, and external light sources over Visible Light Communication (VLC) schemes have been addressed in previous works. Some authors have studied the spatial intersymbol interference from close emitters within an OCC system; however, it has not been characterized or measured in function of the different transmitted wavelengths. In this work, this interference has been experimentally characterized and the Normalized Power Signal to Interference Ratio (NPSIR) for easily determining the interference in other implementations, independently of the selected system devices, has been also proposed. A set of experiments in a darkroom, working with RGB multi-LED transmitters and a general purpose camera, were performed in order to obtain the NPSIR values and to validate the deduced equations for 2D pixel representation of real distances. These parameters were used in the simulation of a wireless sensor network scenario in a small office, where the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication link was calculated. The experiments show that the interference of other close emitters in terms of the distance and the used wavelength can be easily determined with the NPSIR. Finally, the simulation validates the applicability of the deduced equations for scaling the initial results into real scenarios.

  8. Low-complexity co-tier interference reduction scheme in open-access overlaid cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the effect of co-tier interference on the performance of multiuser overlaid cellular networks that share the same available resources. It assumed that each macrocell contains a number of self-configurable and randomly located femtocells that employ the open-access control strategy to reduce the effect of cross-tier interference. It is also assumed that the desired user equipment (UE) can access only one of the available channels, maintains simple decoding circuitry with single receive antenna, and has limited knowledge of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) due to resource limitation. To mitigate the effect of co-tier interference in the absence of the CSI of the desired UE, a low-complexity switched-based scheme for single channel selection based on the predicted interference levels associated with available channels is proposed for the case of over-loaded channels. Through the analysis, new general formulation for the statistics of the resulting instantaneous interference power and some performance measures are presented. The effect of the switching threshold on the efficiency and performance of the proposed scheme is studied. Numerical and simulation results to clarify the usefulness of the proposed scheme in reducing the impact of co-tier interference are also provided. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. On Intercell Interference and Its Cancellation in Cellular Multicarrier CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plass Simon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The handling of intercell interference at the cell border area is a strong demand in future communication systems to guarantee efficient use of the available bandwidth. Therefore, this paper focuses on the application of iterative intercell interference cancellation schemes in cellular multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA systems at the receiver side for the downlink. First, the influence of the interfering base stations to the total intercell interference is investigated. Then, different concepts for intercell interference cancellation are described and investigated for scenarios with several interfering cells. The first approach is based on the use of the hard decision of the demodulator to reconstruct the received signals. This does not require the higher amount of complexity compared to the second approach which is based on the use of the more reliable soft values from the decoding process. Furthermore, the extrinsic information as a reliability measure of this soft iterative cancellation process is investigated in more detail based on the geographical position of the mobile terminal. Both approaches show significant performance gains in the severe cell border area. With the soft intercell interference cancellation scheme, it is possible to reach the single-user bound. Therefore, the intercell interference can be almost eliminated.

  10. Experimental Characterization of Close-Emitter Interference in an Optical Camera Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Burbano, Patricia; Rabadan, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Due to the massive insertion of embedded cameras in a wide variety of devices and the generalized use of LED lamps, Optical Camera Communication (OCC) has been proposed as a practical solution for future Internet of Things (IoT) and smart cities applications. Influence of mobility, weather conditions, solar radiation interference, and external light sources over Visible Light Communication (VLC) schemes have been addressed in previous works. Some authors have studied the spatial intersymbol interference from close emitters within an OCC system; however, it has not been characterized or measured in function of the different transmitted wavelengths. In this work, this interference has been experimentally characterized and the Normalized Power Signal to Interference Ratio (NPSIR) for easily determining the interference in other implementations, independently of the selected system devices, has been also proposed. A set of experiments in a darkroom, working with RGB multi-LED transmitters and a general purpose camera, were performed in order to obtain the NPSIR values and to validate the deduced equations for 2D pixel representation of real distances. These parameters were used in the simulation of a wireless sensor network scenario in a small office, where the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication link was calculated. The experiments show that the interference of other close emitters in terms of the distance and the used wavelength can be easily determined with the NPSIR. Finally, the simulation validates the applicability of the deduced equations for scaling the initial results into real scenarios. PMID:28677613

  11. Heparin interferes with the radioenzymatic and homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for aminoglycosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogstad, D.J.; Granich, G.G.; Murray, P.R.; Pfaller, M.A.; Valdes, R.

    1981-01-01

    Heparin interferes with measurement of aminoglycosides in serum by biological, radioenzymatic, and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay techniques, but not with radioimmunoassay. At concentrations greater than or equal to 10 5 and greater than or equal to 3 X 10 6 USP units/L, respectively, it interferes with the radioenzymatic assay by inhibiting the gentamicin 3-acetyltransferase and kanamycin 6'-acetyltransferase enzymes used in the assay. It interferes with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for gentamicin and tobramycin (at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 5 and greater than or equal to10 4 USP units/L, respectively), but not with the commercially available homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for other drugs. Heparin interference with the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for aminoglycosides requires both the heparin polyanion and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase bound to a cationic aminoglycoside. This interference can be reproduced with dextran sulfate (but not dextran), and does not occur with free enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) alone. Heparin interference with these two assays and at concentrations that may be present in intravenous infusions or in seriously underfilled blood-collection tubes is described

  12. Partial Interference and Its Performance Impact on Wireless Multiple Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau WingCheong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the capacity of wireless multiple access networks, the interference among the wireless links must be accurately modeled. In this paper, we formalize the notion of the partial interference phenomenon observed in many recent wireless measurement studies and establish analytical models with tractable solutions for various types of wireless multiple access networks. In particular, we characterize the stability region of IEEE 802.11 networks under partial interference with two potentially unsaturated links numerically. We also provide a closed-form solution for the stability region of slotted ALOHA networks under partial interference with two potentially unsaturated links and obtain a partial characterization of the boundary of the stability region for the general M-link case. Finally, we derive a closed-form approximated solution for the stability region for general M-link slotted ALOHA system under partial interference effects. Based on our results, we demonstrate that it is important to model the partial interference effects while analyzing wireless multiple access networks. This is because such considerations can result in not only significant quantitative differences in the predicted system capacity but also fundamental qualitative changes in the shape of the stability region of the systems.

  13. Heterogeneous next-generation wireless network interference model-and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2014-04-01

    Next-generation wireless systems facilitating better utilisation of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient and rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate in the radio spectrum of existing primary systems, yet unwanted interference at the primary receivers is unavoidable. In order to design efficient next-generation systems and to minimise the adverse effect of their interference, it is necessary to realise how the resulting interference impacts the performance of the primary systems. In this work, a generalised framework for the interference analysis of such a next-generation system is presented where the nextgeneration transmitters may transmit randomly with different transmit powers. The analysis is built around a model developed for the statistical representation of the interference at the primary receivers, which is then used to evaluate various performance measures of the primary system. Applications of the derived interference model in designing the next-generation network system parameters are also demonstrated. Such approach provides a unified and generalised framework, the use of which allows a wide range of performance metrics can be evaluated. Findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through extensive computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  15. Kaon Interference in the Hadronic Decays of the $Z^{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perevozchikov, V; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solokov, A; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The first measurement of like-sign charged kaon correlations in hadronic decays of the Z$^0$ is presented, based on data collected by the DELPHI detector. The charged kaons are identified by means of ring imaging Cherenkov detectors. A significant enhancement at small values of the four-momentum difference is observed in the ratio of like-sign to unlike-sign KK pairs and in the ratio of like-sign pairs to a simulated reference sample. An update of the measurement of \\ksks~interference is also presented. An enhancement is found in the production of pairs of \\kos of similar momenta, as compared with a simulated reference sample. The measured Bose-Einstein correlation parameters $\\lambda$ and $r$ are similar for charged and neutral kaon pairs. The value of the Bose-Einstein correlation strength $\\lambda$ is consistent with unity.

  16. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joseph T.F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights ...

  17. Angularly resolved electron wave packet interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K; Johnsson, P; Mauritsson, J; Remetter, T; Ruchon, T; Ni, Y; Lepine, F; Kling, M; Khan, J; Schafer, K J; Vrakking, M J J; L'Huillier, A

    2006-01-01

    We study experimentally the ionization of argon atoms by a train of attosecond pulses in the presence of a strong infrared laser field, using a velocity map imaging technique. The recorded momentum distribution strongly depends on the delay between the attosecond pulses and the laser field. We interpret the interference patterns observed for different delays using numerical and analytical calculations within the strong field approximation

  18. Angularly resolved electron wave packet interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varju, K [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Johnsson, P [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mauritsson, J [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Remetter, T [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ruchon, T [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ni, Y [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kling, M [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Khan, J [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schafer, K J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Vrakking, M J J [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-09-28

    We study experimentally the ionization of argon atoms by a train of attosecond pulses in the presence of a strong infrared laser field, using a velocity map imaging technique. The recorded momentum distribution strongly depends on the delay between the attosecond pulses and the laser field. We interpret the interference patterns observed for different delays using numerical and analytical calculations within the strong field approximation.

  19. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  20. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  1. Proactive interference effects on sentence production

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, VICTOR S.; FIRATO, CARLA E.

    2002-01-01

    Proactive interference refers to recall difficulties caused by prior similar memory-related processing. Information-processing approaches to sentence production predict that retrievability affects sentence form: Speakers may word sentences so that material that is difficult to retrieve is spoken later. In this experiment, speakers produced sentence structures that could include an optional that, thereby delaying the mention of a subsequent noun phrase. This subsequent noun phrase was either (...

  2. Event-related potential evidence for separable automatic and controlled retrieval processes in proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Zara M; O'Connor, Richard J; Li, Martin K-H; Simons, Jon S

    2012-05-21

    Interference between competing memories is a major source of retrieval failure, yet, surprisingly little is known about how competitive memory activation arises in the brain. One possibility is that interference during episodic retrieval might be produced by relatively automatic conceptual priming mechanisms that are independent of strategic retrieval processes. Such priming-driven interference might occur when the competing memories have strong pre-existing associations to the retrieval cue. We used ERPs to measure the neural dynamics of retrieval competition, and investigated whether the ERP correlates of interference were affected by varying task demands for selective retrieval. Participants encoded cue words that were presented either two or four times, paired either with the same or different strongly associated words across repetitions. In a subsequent test, participants either selectively recalled each cue's most recent associate, or simply judged how many times a cue had been presented, without requiring selective recall. Interference effects on test performance were only seen in the recall task. In contrast, ERPs during test revealed an early posterior positivity for high interference items that was present in both retrieval tasks. This early ERP effect likely reflects a conceptual priming-related N400 reduction when many associations to a cue were pre-activated. A later parietal positivity resembling the ERP correlate of conscious recollection was found only in the recall task. The results suggest that early effects of proactive interference are relatively automatic and independent of intentional retrieval processes, consistent with suggestions that interference can arise through conceptual priming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  4. Immunizing digital systems against electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Second, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced

  5. A Decentralized Receiver in Gaussian Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Chapman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bounds are developed on the maximum communications rate between a transmitter and a fusion node aided by a cluster of distributed receivers with limited resources for cooperation, all in the presence of an additive Gaussian interferer. The receivers cannot communicate with one another and can only convey processed versions of their observations to the fusion center through a Local Array Network (LAN with limited total throughput. The effectiveness of each bound’s approach for mitigating a strong interferer is assessed over a wide range of channels. It is seen that, if resources are shared effectively, even a simple quantize-and-forward strategy can mitigate an interferer 20 dB stronger than the signal in a diverse range of spatially Ricean channels. Monte-Carlo experiments for the bounds reveal that, while achievable rates are stable when varying the receiver’s observed scattered-path to line-of-sight signal power, the receivers must adapt how they share resources in response to this change. The bounds analyzed are proven to be achievable and are seen to be tight with capacity when LAN resources are either ample or limited.

  6. Optical image hiding based on interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bo

    2009-11-01

    Optical image processing has been paid a lot of attentions recently due to its large capacitance and fast speed. Many image encryption and hiding technologies have been proposed based on the optical technology. In conventional image encryption methods, the random phase masks are usually used as encryption keys to encode the images into random white noise distribution. However, this kind of methods requires interference technology such as holography to record complex amplitude. Furthermore, it is vulnerable to attack techniques. The image hiding methods employ the phase retrieve algorithm to encode the images into two or more phase masks. The hiding process is carried out within a computer and the images are reconstructed optically. But the iterative algorithms need a lot of time to hide the image into the masks. All methods mentioned above are based on the optical diffraction of the phase masks. In this presentation, we will propose a new optical image hiding method based on interference. The coherence lights pass through two phase masks and are combined by a beam splitter. Two beams interfere with each other and the desired image appears at the pre-designed plane. Two phase distribution masks are designed analytically; therefore, the hiding speed can be obviously improved. Simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the validity of the new proposed methods.

  7. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K

    2008-07-23

    Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  8. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  9. Immunizing digital systems against electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria applicable to the immunization of digital systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI). The work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and stems from the safety-related issues that need to be addressed as a result of the application of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. Designers of digital circuits are incorporating increasingly higher clock frequencies and lower logic level voltages, thereby leading to potentially greater susceptibility of spurious interference being misinterpreted as legitimate logic. Development of the technical basis for acceptance criteria to apply to these digital systems centers around establishing good engineering practices to ensure that sufficient levels of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are maintained between the nuclear power plant's electronic and electromechanical systems. First, good EMC design and installation practices are needed to control the emissions from interference sources and thereby their impact on other nearby circuits and systems. Secondly, a test and evaluation program is needed to outline the EMI tests to be performed, the associated test methods to be followed, and adequate test limits to ensure that the circuit or system under test meets the recommended guidelines. Test and evaluation should be followed by periodic maintenance to assess whether the recommended EMI control practices continue to be adhered to as part of the routine operation of the nuclear power plant. By following these steps, the probability of encountering safety-related instrumentation problems associated with EMI will be greatly reduced

  10. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical

  11. Cooperation for Interference Management: A GDoF Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil; Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of cooperation on interference management is investigated by studying an elemental wireless network, the so-called symmetric interference relay channel (IRC), from a generalized degrees of freedom (GDoF) perspective. This is motivated

  12. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact

  13. On full duplex Gaussian relay channels with self-interference

    KAUST Repository

    Behboodi, Arash; Chaaban, Anas; Mathar, Rudolf; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Self interference (SI) in full duplex (FD) systems is the interference caused by the transmission stream on the reception stream. Being one of the main restrictive factors for performance of practical full duplex systems, however, not too much

  14. The Cost of Learning: Interference Effects in Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a three-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases. Both age groups demonstrated interference effects, but only for repeated items. Whereas proactive interference effects were comparable across age groups, retroactive interference reached catastrophic-like levels in children. Additionally, retroactive interference increased in adults when contextual differences between phases were minimized (Experiment 2), and decreased in adults who were more successful at encoding repeated pairs of stimuli during a training phase (Experiment 3). These results are discussed with respect to theories of memory and memory development. PMID:25688907

  15. Release from Proactive Interference: Insufficiency of an Attentional Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin M.

    1975-01-01

    If an attentional cue affects retroactive interference, perhaps a similar mechanism underlies release from proactive interference. This study tested this hypothesis by inserting an attentional cue before the final trial in Wickens' paradigm. (Author/RK)

  16. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary

  17. Continuous Correctness of Business Processes Against Process Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Nick; Bucur, Doina

    2013-01-01

    In distributed business process support environments, process interference from multiple stakeholders may cause erroneous process outcomes. Existing solutions to detect and correct interference at runtime employ formal verification and the automatic generation of intervention processes at runtime.

  18. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  19. Study of interferences in the atomic - absorption and emission of barium in nitrous oxide/acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtius, A.J.; Couto, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    The interferences of several ions that are present in oifield water and sea water in the atomic absorption and emission of barium were investigated. It was verified that the interferences of sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium and chloride are the most important. The indirect method for the determination of sulfate by measuring barium by atomic absorption after precipitating barium sulfate with an excess of barium chloride, should not be used for highly salted matrix. To avoid the interferences that are not compensated by an ionization supressor, the measurement of barium by the standard addition method or a previous sulfate separation is recommended. (Author) [pt

  20. Two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odate, Satoru; Wang Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We have observed two-photon quantum interference in a Michelson interferometer. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated two-photon quantum interference patterns, which show the transition from nonsubwavelength interference fringes to the general subwavelength interference. At the same time, a photon bunching effect was also shown by a postselection. The |1, 1> state with a single photon in a mode corresponding to each arm of the interferometer was exclusively postselected by using path difference between two arms

  1. Radio frequency interference noise reduction using a field programmable gate array for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuta, K; Narita, Y; Itozaki, H

    2007-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurement without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is one of the effective methods to reduce environmental noise. Recently, SQUIDs have been used in various applications at high frequencies, such as nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). The NQR frequency from explosives is in the range 0.5-5 MHz. In this case, an NQR sensor is exposed to AM radio frequency interference (RFI). The feasibility of the ANC system for RFI that used digital signal processing was studied. Our investigation showed that this digital ANC system can be applied to SQUID measurements for RFI suppression

  2. Complex Signal Kurtosis and Independent Component Analysis for Wideband Radio Frequency Interference Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Adam; Mohammed, Priscilla; Bradley, Damon; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Wong, Englin; Gholian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Radio-frequency interference (RFI) has negatively implicated scientific measurements across a wide variation passive remote sensing satellites. This has been observed in the L-band radiometers SMOS, Aquarius and more recently, SMAP [1, 2]. RFI has also been observed at higher frequencies such as K band [3]. Improvements in technology have allowed wider bandwidth digital back ends for passive microwave radiometry. A complex signal kurtosis radio frequency interference detector was developed to help identify corrupted measurements [4]. This work explores the use of ICA (Independent Component Analysis) as a blind source separation technique to pre-process radiometric signals for use with the previously developed real and complex signal kurtosis detectors.

  3. Interference of an array of independent Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzibabic, Zoran; Stock, Sabine; Battelier, Baptiste; Bretin, Vincent; Dalibard, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We have observed high-contrast matter wave interference between 30 Bose-Einstein condensates with uncorrelated phases. Interferences were observed after the independent condensates were released from a one-dimensional optical lattice and allowed to overlap. This phenomenon is explained with a simple theoretical model, which generalizes the analysis of the interference of two condensates

  4. Interference contrast in multi-source few photon optics

    OpenAIRE

    Laskowski, Wieslaw; Wiesniak, Marcin; Zukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed; Weinfurter, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Many recent experiments employ several parametric down conversion (PDC) sources to get multiphoton interference. Such interference has applications in quantum information. We study here how effects due to photon statistics, misalignment, and partial distinguishability of the PDC pairs originating from different sources may lower the interference contrast in the multiphoton experiments.

  5. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  6. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha; Zafar, Ammar; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  7. Improved Interference-Free Channel Allocation in Coordinated Multiuser Multi-Antenna Open-Access Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha

    2016-02-16

    This paper investigates low-complexity joint interference avoidance and desired link improvement for single channel allocation in multiuser multi-antenna access points (APs) for open-access small cells. It is considered that an active user is equipped with an atenna array that can be used to suppress interference sources but not to provide spatial diversity. On the other hand, the operation of APs can be coordinated to meet design requirements, and each of which can unconditionally utilize assigned physical channels. Moreover, each AP is equipped with uncorrelated antennas that can be reused simultaneously to serve many active users. The analysis provides new approaches to exploit physical channels, transmit antennas, and APs to mitigate interference, while providing the best possible link gain to an active user through the most suitable interference-free channel. The event of concurrent service requests placed by active users on a specific interference-free channel is discussed for either interference avoidance through identifying unshared channels or desired link improvement via multiuser scheduling. The applicability of the approaches to balance downlink loads is explained, and practical scenarios due to imperfect identification of interference-free channels and/or scheduled user are thoroughly investigated. The developed results are applicable for any statistical and geometric models of the allocated channel to an active user as well as channel conditions of interference users. They can be used to study various performance measures. Numerical and simulation results are presented to explain some outcomes of this work.

  8. Relevance of Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference of two independent Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iazzi, Mauro; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2011-01-01

    Interference of two independently prepared ideal Bose gases is discussed, on the basis of the idea of measurement-induced interference. It is known that, even if the number of atoms in each gas is individually fixed finite and the symmetry of the system is not broken, an interference pattern is observed on each single snapshot. The key role is played by the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, which leads to an oscillating pattern of the cloud of identical atoms. Then, how essential is the Bose-Einstein condensation to the interference? In this work, we describe two ideal Bose gases trapped in two separate three-dimensional harmonic traps at a finite temperature T, using the canonical ensembles (with fixed numbers of atoms). We compute the full statistics of the snapshot profiles of the expanding and overlapping gases released from the traps. We obtain a simple formula valid for finite T, which shows that the average fringe spectrum (average fringe contrast) is given by the purity of each gas. The purity is known to be a good measure of condensation, and the formula clarifies the relevance of the condensation to the interference. The results for T=0, previously known in the literature, can be recovered from our analysis. The fluctuation of the interference spectrum is also studied, and it is shown that the fluctuation is vanishingly small only below the critical temperature T c , meaning that interference pattern is certainly observed on every snapshot below T c . The fact that the number of atoms is fixed in the canonical ensemble is crucial to this vanishing fluctuation.

  9. Continuous infra-red measurement using an interference filter, dosage of H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O mixtures; Doseur continu infra-rouge a filtre interferentiel dosage des melanges H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M; Goujon, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report is described original work leading to the construction of an apparatus for the continuous measurement of the isotopic content of H{sub 2}O - D{sub 2}O mixtures. The measurement is based on an application of the Beer-Lambert law to the {gamma}{sub OH} band of HDO (3400 cm{sup -1}). The conditions of measurement are given. The apparatus is a double-beam device in which the wave length selection is obtained with an interference filter together with a modulator acting as a pass-band filter. The large-surface pneumatic detector using capacity changes has made it possible to obtain a simple optical set-up. Various results are presented. If sufficient precautions are taken to maintain the apparatus and the water at a constant temperature it is possible to carry out measurements with a precision of {+-} 0.002, or else to detect concentration differences of 0.001 per cent in the case of heavy waters containing more than 99.5 per cent of D{sub 2}O. (authors) [French] Dans ce memoire original il est decrit la realisation d'un appareil destine a mesurer en continu la teneur isotopique des melanges H{sub 2}O-D{sub 2}O. La mesure est basee sur l'application de la loi de Beer-Lambert a la bande {gamma}{sub OH} de HDO (3400 cm{sup -1}). Les conditions de mesure sont precisees. L'appareil est un dispositif 'double-faisceau' dans lequel la selection des longueurs d'onde est obtenue par un filtre interferentiel associe a un modulateur travaillant en filtre passe-bande. Le detecteur pneumatique, de grande surface, a variation de capacite, a permis un montage optique simple. Divers resultats sont presentes. En prenant la precaution de maintenir constante la temperature de l'appareil et de l'eau on peut effectuer des mesures a {+-} 0,002 pour cent pres, ou mettre en evidence des ecarts de teneur de 0,001 pour cent pour des eaux lourdes de titre superieur a 99,5 pour cent. (auteurs)

  10. The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor by analyzing the fork interference pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Riqing; Qiu, Liqiang; Hu, Haifeng; Meng, Lu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    The phase interrogation method for optical fiber sensor is proposed based on the fork interference pattern between the orbital angular momentum beam and plane wave. The variation of interference pattern with phase difference between the two light beams is investigated to realize the phase interrogation. By employing principal component analysis method, the features of the interference pattern can be extracted. Moreover, the experimental system is designed to verify the theoretical analysis, as well as feasibility of phase interrogation. In this work, the Mach-Zehnder interferometer was employed to convert the strain applied on sensing fiber to the phase difference between the reference and measuring paths. This interrogation method is also applicable for the measurements of other physical parameters, which can produce the phase delay in optical fiber. The performance of the system can be further improved by employing highlysensitive materials and fiber structures.

  11. Fringe field interference of neighbor magnets in China spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Kang, W.; Wu, X.; Deng, C.D.; Li, S.; Yang, M.; Zhou, J.X.; Liu, Y.Q.; Wu, Y.W.

    2016-01-01

    In CSNS accelerator construction, the field measurement of all RCS magnets have been finished and the magnets have been installed in the tunnel before the end of 2015. The electromagnetic quadrupoles have a large aperture and the core-to-core distance between magnets is rather short in some places. The corrector magnet or the sextupole magnet is closer to one of the quadrupole magnets which caused certain interference. The interference caused by magnetic fringe field has been appeared and it becomes a significant issue in beam dynamics for beam loss control in this high-intensity proton accelerator. We have performed 3D computing simulations to study integral field distributions between the quadrupole and the corrector magnets, and the sextupole and the other quadrupole magnets. The effect of the magnetic fringe field and the interference has been investigated with different distances of the neighbor magnets. The simulation and the field measurement results will be introduced in this paper.

  12. Using an interference spectrum as a short-range absolute rangefinder with fiber and wideband source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Han, Pin

    2018-06-01

    Recently, a new type of displacement instrument using spectral-interference has been found, which utilizes fiber and a wideband light source to produce an interference spectrum. In this work, we develop a method that measures the absolute air-gap distance by taking wavelengths at two interference spectra minima. The experimental results agree with the theoretical calculations. It is also utilized to produce and control the spectral switch, which is much easier than other previous methods using other control mechanisms. A scanning mode of this scheme for stepped surface measurement is suggested, which is verified by a standard thickness gauge test. Our scheme is different to one available on the market that may use a curve-fitting method, and some comparisons are made between our scheme and that one.

  13. Inorganic Salt Interference on CO2+ in Aerodyne AMS and ACSM Organic Aerosol Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Simone M; El Haddad, Imad; Slowik, Jay G; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Jayne, John T; Platt, Stephen M; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Fröhlich, Roman; Vlachou, Athanasia; Klein, Felix; Dommen, Josef; Miljevic, Branka; Jiménez, José L; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H

    2016-10-04

    Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) mass spectra are widely used to quantify organic aerosol (OA) elemental composition, oxidation state, and major environmental sources. The OA CO 2 + fragment is among the most important measurements for such analyses. Here, we show that a non-OA CO 2 + signal can arise from reactions on the particle vaporizer, ion chamber, or both, induced by thermal decomposition products of inorganic salts. In our tests (eight instruments, n = 29), ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) causes a median CO 2 + interference signal of +3.4% relative to nitrate. This interference is highly variable between instruments and with measurement history (percentiles P 10-90 = +0.4 to +10.2%). Other semi-refractory nitrate salts showed 2-10 times enhanced interference compared to that of NH 4 NO 3 , while the ammonium sulfate ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) induced interference was 3-10 times lower. Propagation of the CO 2 + interference to other ions during standard AMS and ACSM data analysis affects the calculated OA mass, mass spectra, molecular oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C), and f 44 . The resulting bias may be trivial for most ambient data sets but can be significant for aerosol with higher inorganic fractions (>50%), e.g., for low ambient temperatures, or laboratory experiments. The large variation between instruments makes it imperative to regularly quantify this effect on individual AMS and ACSM systems.

  14. Low-overhead interference mitigation scheme for collaborative channel assignment in overloaded multiantenna femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a collaborative-based scheme for a transmit antenna channel assignment in overloaded multiantenna femtocells, with the aim of reducing the overhead load. It is assumed that multiple femtocell access points (FAPs) are deployed to sequentially allocate the available resources to scheduled users while reducing the interference experienced by each active user. The FAPs operate concurrently and each of them is allocated an orthogonal channel and employs a transmit array of arbitrary size. The suitable FAP and its associated transmit channel are then identified based on the noncoherently predicted interference power levels on available channels when feedback links are capacity limited. The effect of possible FAP failure or infeasibility to collaborate is characterized for different operating conditions. The applicability of the proposed scheme for specific cases, such as the use of directional antennas in each FAP or shared channels among different FAPs, is also discussed. For arbitrary statistical models of interference power levels on different channels, the average numbers of collaboration requests and examined transmit antenna channels are quantified. Moreover, the statistics of the resulting interference power are derived, which are then used to study various system performance measures. The effect of the interference threshold on the aforementioned measures for processing load and achieved performance is investigated. Numerical and simulations results are presented to support the analytical development and to clarify the tradeoff between the achieved performance enhancement using the proposed scheme and the required processing load for different operating scenarios. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  15. Electromagnetic Interference Assessment of CDMA and GSM Wireless Phones to Aircraft Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, M. Theresa

    2002-01-01

    To address the concern for cellular phone electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft radios, a radiated emission measurement process for CDMA (IS-95) and GSM (ETSI GSM 11.22) wireless handsets was developed. Spurious radiated emissions were efficiently characterized from devices tested in either a semi-anechoic or reverberation chamber, in terms of effective isotropic radiated power. Eight representative handsets (4 GSM, 4 CDMA) were commanded to operate while varying their radio transmitter parameters (power, modulation, etc.). This report provides a detailed description of the measurement process and resulting data, which may subsequently be used by others as a basis of consistent evaluation for cellular/PCS phones, Bluetooth, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11a, FRS/GMRS radios, and other portable transmitters. Aircraft interference path loss (IPL) and navigation radio interference threshold data from numerous reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships were compiled. Using this data, a preliminary risk assessment is provided for CDMA and GSM wireless phone interference to aircraft localizer, Glideslope, VOR, and GPS radio receivers on typical transport airplanes. The report identifies where existing data for device emissions, IPL, and navigation radio interference thresholds needs to be extended for an accurate risk assessment for wireless transmitters in aircraft.

  16. Interference-Based Decode and Forward Scheme Using Relay Nodes in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nishimori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes interference-based decode and forward scheme that utilizes relay stations (RSs. In Long-Term-Evolution (LTE- Advanced, heterogeneous networks in which femto- and picocells are overlaid onto macrocells are extensively discussed. However, interference between macro- and pico(femtocells arises due to their different transmit power levels. Unlike conventional cooperative transmission schemes, the RS decodes interference in the first transmit timing period and forwards it to the user equipment (UE in the second period. Moreover, cooperative transmission can be achieved without stopping the transmission from the base station (BS to UE when forwarding the interference from the RS to the UE by utilizing the fact that signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR between the RS and UE is much greater than that between the BS and UE. The basic performance of the proposed method is shown based on computer simulation. Moreover, the interference temperature and shadowing effect are measured when considering the coexistence between macro- and femtocells, and the performance of the proposed method is verified using measured shadowing effect.

  17. Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Large Oligomeric Chromatin Complexes Using Interference Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Ryan A; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Sedimentation velocity experiments measure the transport of molecules in solution under centrifugal force. Here, we describe a method for monitoring the sedimentation of very large biological molecular assemblies using the interference optical systems of the analytical ultracentrifuge. The mass, partial-specific volume, and shape of macromolecules in solution affect their sedimentation rates as reflected in the sedimentation coefficient. The sedimentation coefficient is obtained by measuring the solute concentration as a function of radial distance during centrifugation. Monitoring the concentration can be accomplished using interference optics, absorbance optics, or the fluorescence detection system, each with inherent advantages. The interference optical system captures data much faster than these other optical systems, allowing for sedimentation velocity analysis of extremely large macromolecular complexes that sediment rapidly at very low rotor speeds. Supramolecular oligomeric complexes produced by self-association of 12-mer chromatin fibers are used to illustrate the advantages of the interference optics. Using interference optics, we show that chromatin fibers self-associate at physiological divalent salt concentrations to form structures that sediment between 10,000 and 350,000S. The method for characterizing chromatin oligomers described in this chapter will be generally useful for characterization of any biological structures that are too large to be studied by the absorbance optical system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-overhead interference mitigation scheme for collaborative channel assignment in overloaded multiantenna femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a collaborative-based scheme for a transmit antenna channel assignment in overloaded multiantenna femtocells, with the aim of reducing the overhead load. It is assumed that multiple femtocell access points (FAPs) are deployed to sequentially allocate the available resources to scheduled users while reducing the interference experienced by each active user. The FAPs operate concurrently and each of them is allocated an orthogonal channel and employs a transmit array of arbitrary size. The suitable FAP and its associated transmit channel are then identified based on the noncoherently predicted interference power levels on available channels when feedback links are capacity limited. The effect of possible FAP failure or infeasibility to collaborate is characterized for different operating conditions. The applicability of the proposed scheme for specific cases, such as the use of directional antennas in each FAP or shared channels among different FAPs, is also discussed. For arbitrary statistical models of interference power levels on different channels, the average numbers of collaboration requests and examined transmit antenna channels are quantified. Moreover, the statistics of the resulting interference power are derived, which are then used to study various system performance measures. The effect of the interference threshold on the aforementioned measures for processing load and achieved performance is investigated. Numerical and simulations results are presented to support the analytical development and to clarify the tradeoff between the achieved performance enhancement using the proposed scheme and the required processing load for different operating scenarios. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  19. Small Unmanned Aircraft Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Ippolito, Corey; Rogers, Christopher; Kerczewski, Robert; Downey, Alan; Matheou, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    With many applications envisioned for small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS), and potentially millions of sUAS expected to be in operation in the future, the electromagnetic interference environment associated with the sUAS is of interest to understanding the potential performance impacts on the sUAS command and control communications link as well as the sUAS payload and payload links. As part of NASAâ€"TM"s UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Project, flight experiments are planned to characterize the RF environment at altitudes up to 400 ft to better understand how UTM command and control links can be expected to perform. The flight experiments will use an RF channel sensing payload attached to an sUAS. In terms of the payload being capable of measuring relatively low level signals at altitude, electromagnetic interference (EMI) emanating from the sUAS vehicle itself could potentially complicate the measurement process. For this reason, NASA was interested in measuring the EMI performance of the sUAS planned for these flight experiments, a DJI model S1000. The S1000 was thus measured in a controlled EMI test chamber at the NASA Ames Research Center. The S1000 is a carbon fiber based platform with eight rotors. As such, the EMI test results represent potential performance of a number of similar sUAS types. sUAS platforms significantly different from the S1000 may also require EMI testing, and the method employed for NASAâ€"TM"s S1000 EMI tests can be applied to other platforms. In this paper we describe the UTM project, the RF channel sensing payload, the EMI testing method and EMI test results for the S1000, and discuss the implications of these results.

  20. Interference from retrieval cues in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Marin, Dario; Del Missier, Fabio; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-11-01

    Existing studies on memory interference in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have provided mixed results and it is unknown whether PD patients have problems in overcoming interference from retrieval cues. We investigated this issue by using a part-list cuing paradigm. In this paradigm, after the study of a list of items, the presentation of some of these items as retrieval cues hinders the recall of the remaining ones. We tested PD patients' (n = 19) and control participants' (n = 16) episodic memory in the presence and absence of part-list cues, using initial-letter probes, and following either weak or strong serial associative encoding of list items. Both PD patients and control participants showed a comparable and significant part-list cuing effect after weak associative encoding (13% vs. 12% decrease in retrieval in part-list cuing vs. no part-list cuing -control- conditions in PD patients and control participants, respectively), denoting a similar effect of cue-driven interference in the two populations when a serial retrieval strategy is hard to develop. However, only PD patients showed a significant part-list cuing effect after strong associative encoding (20% vs. 5% decrease in retrieval in patients and controls, respectively). When encoding promotes the development of an effective serial retrieval strategy, the presentation of part-list cues has a specifically disruptive effect in PD patients. This indicates problems in strategic retrieval, probably related to PD patients' increased tendency to rely on external cues. Findings in control conditions suggest that less effective encoding may have contributed to PD patients' memory performance.

  1. Partitioning mechanisms of predator interference in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Blaine D; Byers, James E

    2006-01-01

    Prey are often consumed by multiple predator species. Predation rates on shared prey species measured in isolation often do not combine additively due to interference or facilitation among the predator species. Furthermore, the strength of predator interactions and resulting prey mortality may change with habitat type. We experimentally examined predation on amphipods in rock and algal habitats by two species of intertidal crabs, Hemigrapsus sanguineus (top predators) and Carcinus maenas (intermediate predators). Algae provided a safer habitat for amphipods when they were exposed to only a single predator species. When both predator species were present, mortality of amphipods was less than additive in both habitats. However, amphipod mortality was reduced more in rock than algal habitat because intermediate predators were less protected in rock habitat and were increasingly targeted by omnivorous top predators. We found that prey mortality in general was reduced by (1) altered foraging behavior of intermediate predators in the presence of top predators, (2) top predators switching to foraging on intermediate predators rather than shared prey, and (3) density reduction of intermediate predators. The relative importance of these three mechanisms was the same in both habitats; however, the magnitude of each was greater in rock habitat. Our study demonstrates that the strength of specific mechanisms of interference between top and intermediate predators can be quantified but cautions that these results may be habitat specific.

  2. Interference of functional monomers with polymerization efficiency of adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabusa, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Momoi, Yasuko; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives is affected by acidic functional monomers as a result of inactivation of the amine co-initiator through an acid-base reaction. During bonding, functional monomers of self-etch adhesives chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Here, we tested in how far the latter interaction of functional monomers with HAp counteracts the expected reduction in DC of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives. The DC of three experimental adhesive formulations, containing either of the two functional monomers [10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) or 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid anhydride (4-META)] or no functional monomer (no-FM; control), was measured with and without HAp powder added to the adhesive formulations. Both the variables 'functional monomer' and 'HAp' were found to be significant, with the functional monomer reducing the DC and HAp counteracting this effect. It is concluded that the functional monomers 10-MDP and 4-META interfere with the polymerization efficiency of adhesives. This interference is less prominent in the presence of HAp, which would clinically correspond to when these two functional monomers of the adhesive simultaneously interact with HAp in tooth tissue. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  3. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  4. Interferences of Silica Nanoparticles in Green Fluorescent Protein Folding Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Géraldine; Devineau, Stéphanie; Aude, Jean Christophe; Boulard, Yves; Pasquier, Hélène; Labarre, Jean; Pin, Serge; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2016-01-12

    We investigated the relationship between unfolded proteins, silica nanoparticles and chaperonin to determine whether unfolded proteins could stick to silica surfaces and how this process could impair heat shock protein activity. The HSP60 catalyzed green fluorescent protein (GFP) folding was used as a model system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics of denatured GFP were measured, showing that denaturation increases GFP affinity for silica surfaces. This affinity is maintained even if the surfaces are covered by a protein corona and allows silica NPs to interfere directly with GFP folding by trapping it in its unstructured state. We determined also the adsorption isotherms of HSP60 and its chaperonin activity once adsorbed, showing that SiO2 NP can interfere also indirectly with protein folding through chaperonin trapping and inhibition. This inhibition is specifically efficient when NPs are covered first with a layer of unfolded proteins. These results highlight for the first time the antichaperonin activity of silica NPs and ask new questions about the toxicity of such misfolded proteins/nanoparticles assembly toward cells.

  5. Ego Depletion Does Not Interfere With Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-01-01

    Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.

  6. Phase-Modulation Laser Interference Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey; Brazhe, Nadezda; Maximov, G. V.

    2008-01-01

    We describe how phase-modulation laser interference microscopy and wavelet analysis can be applied to noninvasive nonstained visualization and study of the structural and dynamical properties of living cells. We show how phase images of erythrocytes can reveal the difference between various...... erythrocyte forms and stages of hemolysis and how phase images of neurons reveal their complex intracellular structure. Temporal variations of the refractive index are analyzed to detect cellular rhythmic activity on different time scales as well as to uncover interactions between the cellular processes....

  7. On interference of cumulative proton production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical picture of the cumulative proton production in hA-collisions by means of diagram analysis with NN interaction described by a non-relativistic NN potential is considered. The contributions of the various mechanisms (spectator, direct and rescattering) for backward hemisphere proton production within the framework of this common approach is calculated. The emphasis is on the comparison of the relative contributions of these mechanisms for various angles, taking into account the interference of these contributions. Comparison with experimental data is also presented. (author)

  8. Interference effects in negative ion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, I.; Morales, A.; de Urquijo, J.; Cisneros, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents recent data on differential cross sections for H - formation from collisions of H + and H 0 with Ar in the energy range 1.0 to 4 keV. Experimental data exhibit a sharp maximum at 0 0 scattering angle as well as an oscillatory structure. The functional form and scaling properties strongly indicate that there is a glory maximum which occurs when the classical deflection function changes over from attractive to repulsive at some finite impact parameter. The oscillations are predicted by the Bessel function and may be said to arise from interference of the contributions from the two branches of the deflection function near to a glory

  9. Interference Coordination for 5G New Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; De Domenico, Antonio; Bazzi, Samer

    2018-01-01

    The arrival of the 5G NR provides a unique opportunity for introducing new inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) mechanisms. The objective is twofold: to better exploit the benefits of ICIC in coherence with the rest of radio resource management (RRM) principles in 5G, and to support new...... results quantify the performance benefits of the different techniques under heterogeneous key performance indicators (KPIs). We also discuss the standardization effort required for having each of these techniques included in the 5G NR specifications....

  10. Using RNA Interference to Study Protein Function

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Carol D.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference can be extremely useful in determining the function of an endogenously-expressed protein in its normal cellular environment. In this chapter, we describe a method that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down mRNA and protein expression in cultured cells so that the effect of a putative regulatory protein on gene expression can be delineated. Methods of assessing the effectiveness of the siRNA procedure using real time quantitative PCR and Western analysis are also in...

  11. Quantum interference effects in nanostructured Au

    CERN Document Server

    Pratumpong, P; Evans, S D; Johnson, S; Howson, M A

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the magnetoresistance and temperature dependence of the resistivity for nanostructured Au produced by chemical means. The magnetoresistance was typical of highly disordered metals exhibiting quantum interference effects. We fitted the data and were able to determine the spin-orbit scattering relaxation time to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s and we found the inelastic scattering time at 10 K to be 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 s. The inelastic scattering rate varied as T sup 3 between 4 and 20 K, which is typical for electron-phonon scattering in disordered metals.

  12. Interference of Multiple Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Yuan, Xiaocong; Lin, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from strongly electromagnetic confinement and enhancement effects, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) hold great promises for tailoring light on micro and nanoscale. By contrast with previous efforts which massively concentrate on localized SPP mode, we investigated the propagating SPPs in this paper. A number of symmetrical gratings on metal surface are employed to excite multiple SPPs. Interestingly, the exotic interfering phenomena have been observed. They show good agreement with free-space interferences and take advantage of precise controllability. These findings will be promising in the applications of optical tweezers and SPP lithography. (paper)

  13. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  14. Interference Coordination for 5G New Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; De Domenico, Antonio; Bazzi, Samer

    2017-01-01

    The arrival of the 5G NR provides a unique opportunity for introducing new inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) mechanisms. The objective is twofold: to better exploit the benefits of ICIC in coherence with the rest of radio resource management (RRM) principles in 5G, and to support new se...... results quantify the performance benefits of the different techniques under heterogeneous key performance indicators (KPIs). We also discuss the standardization effort required for having each of these techniques included in the 5G NR specifications....

  15. Human response to interference with TV picture quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janischewskyj, W.; Harvey, E.B.

    1980-10-01

    Corona on transmission line conductors and spark gaps on loose or defective transmission line hardware can give rise to visual interference to television interference. The extent to which the interference is a concern (i.e., annoying) depends on the intensity of the interference as well as the strength of the television signal and can best be expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the decibel difference between the wanted signal and the unwanted noise (interference). The study documented in this report has assessed, through subjective testing involving over 500 subjects, the interference level, as a function of SNR, of three different sources of interference: wet-weather conductor corona, a large spark gap (5 mm), and a small spark gap (0.8 mm). The results of the study should be particularly useful to the utility industry in assessing the environmental impact of high-voltage transmission lines.

  16. Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying

    2017-10-01

    By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.

  17. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  18. Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test the so-called loss spiral hypothesis claiming that nurses' health problems lead to even higher job demands and more work-home interference over time. While many scholars have thought in terms of the stressor-->work-home interference-->strain model, the validity of a model that includes opposite pathways needs to be tested. A questionnaire was completed twice, with a 1-year time interval by 753 (63.4%) Registered Nurses working in hospitals, 183 (15.4%) working in nursing homes, and 251 (21.1%) working in home care institutions. The first measurement took place between October 2002 and June 2003. Our findings strongly support the idea of cross-lagged, reciprocal relationships between job demands and general health over time. The reciprocal model with work-home interference as an intervening variable (including reciprocal relationships between job demands, work-home interference and general health) showed a good fit to the data, and proved to be superior to both the causality and reversed causation models. The higher nurses' job demands, the higher is their level of work-home interference and the more likely is a general health deterioration over time, in turn giving rise to higher job demands and work-home interference, which may even aggravate the nurses' general health, and so on.

  19. Absence of auditory 'global interference' in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M; Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Rodgers, Jacqui; Young, Allan H; O'Brien, Gregory; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-12-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the cognitive style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One theory, that of weak central coherence, concerns an inability to combine stimulus details into a coherent whole. Here we test this theory in the case of sound patterns, using a new definition of the details (local structure) and the coherent whole (global structure). Thirteen individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome and 15 control participants were administered auditory tests, where they were required to match local pitch direction changes between two auditory sequences. When the other local features of the sequence pairs were altered (the actual pitches and relative time points of pitch direction change), the control participants obtained lower scores compared with when these details were left unchanged. This can be attributed to interference from the global structure, defined as the combination of the local auditory details. In contrast, the participants with ASD did not obtain lower scores in the presence of such mismatches. This was attributed to the absence of interference from an auditory coherent whole. The results are consistent with the presence of abnormal interactions between local and global auditory perception in ASD.

  20. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Interference Energy Spectrum of the Infinite Square Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordecai Waegell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain superposition states of the 1-D infinite square well have transient zeros at locations other than the nodes of the eigenstates that comprise them. It is shown that if an infinite potential barrier is suddenly raised at some or all of these zeros, the well can be split into multiple adjacent infinite square wells without affecting the wavefunction. This effects a change of the energy eigenbasis of the state to a basis that does not commute with the original, and a subsequent measurement of the energy now reveals a completely different spectrum, which we call the interference energy spectrum of the state. This name is appropriate because the same splitting procedure applied at the stationary nodes of any eigenstate does not change the measurable energy of the state. Of particular interest, this procedure can result in measurable energies that are greater than the energy of the highest mode in the original superposition, raising questions about the conservation of energy akin to those that have been raised in the study of superoscillations. An analytic derivation is given for the interference spectrum of a given wavefunction Ψ ( x , t with N known zeros located at points s i = ( x i , t i . Numerical simulations were used to verify that a barrier can be rapidly raised at a zero of the wavefunction without significantly affecting it. The interpretation of this result with respect to the conservation of energy and the energy-time uncertainty relation is discussed, and the idea of alternate energy eigenbases is fleshed out. The question of whether or not a preferred discrete energy spectrum is an inherent feature of a particle’s quantum state is examined.

  2. Elastic and break-up of the 1n-halo 11Be nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The elastic and break-up angular distributions of the 10,11Be+64Zn reactions measured at Ec.m.≈1.4 VC have been analysed within the CCDC and O.M. frameworks. The suppression of the Coulomb-nuclear interference, observed in the 11Be scattering case with respect to the 10Be, has been interpreted as due to a long range absorption owing to the coupling with the break-up (Coulomb and nuclear channels. The presence of 10Be events on the 11Be experiment data have been explained as due mainly to break-up processes.

  3. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  4. Sensitivities and interferences in activation analysis with cyclotron-produced fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esprit, M.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hoste, J.

    1985-01-01

    Fast neutrons are produced by irradiation of a thick beryllium target with deuterons from a cyclotron. The spatial neutron flux distribution was studied. Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the radionuclides produced. Detection limits are tabulated along with the nuclear interferences. (author)

  5. The role of modality : Auditory and visual distractors in Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, Emily M.; Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; Eaves, Sharon D.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Lutfi-Proctor, Danielle A.

    2014-01-01

    As a commonly used measure of selective attention, it is important to understand the factors contributing to interference in the Stroop task. The current research examined distracting stimuli in the auditory and visual modalities to determine whether the use of auditory distractors would create

  6. A chemometric method for correcting FTIR spectra of biomaterials for interference from water in KBr discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    FTIR analysis of solid biomaterials by the familiar KBr disc technique is very often frustrated by water interference in the important protein (amide I) and carbohydrate (hydroxyl) regions of their spectra. A method was therefore devised that overcomes the difficulty and measures FTIR spectra of so...

  7. False Negatives, Canter's Background Interference Procedure, the Trail Making Test, and Epileptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinzey, Ronald K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of correlation studies of 141 adult epileptics' scores on the Background Interference Procedure (BIP) indicated that the BIP often does not agree with abnormal neurological diagnoses but often does agree with psychiatric diagnoses of Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS). Suggests that future BIP validity studies include a behavioral measure of OBS…

  8. Mitigating the impact of high interference levels on energy consumption in wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    signal statistics. The analysis use the excess energy needed with a simple retransmission scheme to maintain a predefined packet error rate as a figure of merit. Based on the analysis results and the example measurement data, a strategy to mitigate the effect of interference utilising the offered figure...

  9. Interference-Aware OFDM Receiver for Channels with Sparse Common Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbu, Oana-Elena; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Badiu, Mihai Alin

    2017-01-01

    We design an algorithm for OFDM receivers operating in co-channel interference conditions, where the serving and interfering transmitters are synchronized in time. The channel estimation problem is formulated as one of sparse signal reconstruction using multiple measurement vectors. The proposed...

  10. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  11. Individual differences in experiencing intrusive memories : The role of the ability to resist proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    This study explored whether a relatively poor ability to resist or inhibit interference from irrelevant information in working memory is associated with experiencing undesirable intrusive memories. Non-selected participants (N = 91) completed a self-report measure of intrusive memories, and carried

  12. Interference Impact on Coverage and Capacity for Low Power Wide Area IoT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlgaard, Benny; Lauridsen, Mads; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and discuss the coverage and capacity of Sigfox and LoRaWAN in a large scale urban environments covering 150 km2 in Northern Denmark. First, the study measures and analyzes interference in the European 868 MHz license free industrial, scientific, and medical band, creating...

  13. Bidirectional Interference between Speech and Nonspeech Tasks in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dallin J.; Dromey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine divided attention over a large age range by looking at the effects of 3 nonspeech tasks on concurrent speech motor performance. The nonspeech tasks were designed to facilitate measurement of bidirectional interference, allowing examination of their sensitivity to speech activity. A cross-sectional…

  14. Interference of the two spin components of the capture state in the (n, [gamma]) reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.M.F. op den; Kopecky, J.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Abrahams, K.; Endt, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of the circularγ-ray polarization for primary transitions in the 39K(n, γ)40K and 57Fe(n, γ)58Fe reactions induced by thermal neutrons give strong evidence for the interference of components in the capture state with different J=values.

  15. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A general model for memory interference in a multiprocessor system with memory hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Badie A.; Standley, Hilda M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of memory interference in a multiprocessor system with a hierarchy of shared buses and memories is addressed. The behavior of the processors is represented by a sequence of memory requests with each followed by a determined amount of processing time. A statistical queuing network model for determining the extent of memory interference in multiprocessor systems with clusters of memory hierarchies is presented. The performance of the system is measured by the expected number of busy memory clusters. The results of the analytic model are compared with simulation results, and the correlation between them is found to be very high.

  17. Interference Effects in the Optical Second Harmonic Generation from Ultrathin Alkali Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2000-01-01

    Interference effects are shown to strongly modulate the transmission second harmonic signal (fundamental wavelength 1067 nm) from rough alkali island films grown on insulating substrates if one varies the angle of incidence. Depending on growth conditions and substrate thickness, the measured...... second harmonic dependencies can be interpreted in terms of interference between frontside and rearside adsorbed islands or by taking into account the morphology of the adsorbed alkali islands. By the use of different polarization combinations of both pump and reflected second harmonic wave we obtain...... accurate values of the ratios of the relevant nonlinear optical coefficients....

  18. Observation of Interference in Charge Exchange Scattering in He2++He+ Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruedener, S.; Melchert, F.; Diemar, K.v.; Pfeiffer, A.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first observation of interference in charge exchange collisions between two ions. Employing the crossed-beams technique in conjunction with signal recovery methods, angular differential cross sections have been measured for charge transfer in He 2+ +He + collisions at barycentric energies between 0.5 and 10.2keV. The oscillatory structure observed is in agreement with quantum calculations and can be interpreted in terms of interference between scattering into gerade and ungerade molecular states, which arise due to the identity of the nuclear charges. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Distributed interference alignment iterative algorithms in symmetric wireless network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jingwen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment is a novel interference alignment way,which is widely noted all of the world.Interference alignment overlaps interference in the same signal space at receiving terminal by precoding so as to thoroughly eliminate the influence of interference impacted on expected signals,thus making the desire user achieve the maximum degree of freedom.In this paper we research three typical algorithms for realizing interference alignment,including minimizing the leakage interference,maximizing Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR and minimizing mean square error(MSE.All of these algorithms utilize the reciprocity of wireless network,and iterate the precoders between original network and the reverse network so as to achieve interference alignment.We use the uplink transmit rate to analyze the performance of these three algorithms.Numerical simulation results show the advantages of these algorithms.which is the foundation for the further study in the future.The feasibility and future of interference alignment are also discussed at last.

  20. Interference between work and nonwork roles: The development of a new South African instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Koekemoer

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to, (1 develop new items for a more comprehensive work−nonwork interference instrument, (2 evaluate the newly developed items to retain those items that accurately capture the different dimensions and (3 eliminate undesirable items from the different subscales in the instrument. Motivation for the study: Although the interaction between work and personal life has received extensive attention in the work−family fields of research, various theoretical, empirical and measurement issues need to be addressed. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the data. Main findings: Initially, 89 items were developed. During the pilot study among mineworkers (n = 245, 41 poor items were eliminated on the basis of descriptive statistics, inter-item correlations, item-total correlations and the qualitative investigation of items highly redundant in terms of wording. Thereafter, the instrument (48 items was administered to 366 support and academic personnel at a tertiary institution. Using Rasch analyses and item correlations, 18 additional items were eliminated, resulting in a 30-item instrument (15 items were retained to measure work-nonwork interference and 15 items to measure nonwork-work interference. Practical/managerial implications: A major theoretical limitation to the measurement of work−family interference relates to the dimensionality and inconsistent measurement of the directionality of interference. Contribution/value-add: With the development of this new instrument, several of the theoretical and measurement limitations voiced by previous researchers have been addressed, providing this instrument with distinct advantages over previous work−family instruments.