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Sample records for coulomb gauge qcd

  1. Leading order QCD in Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Coulomb gauge QCD in the first order formalism can be written in terms of a ghost-free, nonlocal action that ensures total color charge conservation via Gauss' law. Making an Ansatz whereby the nonlocal term (the Coulomb kernel) is replaced by its expectation value, the resulting Dyson-Schwinger equations can be derived. With a leading order truncation, these equations reduce to the gap equations for the static gluon and quark propagators obtained from a quasi-particle approximation to the canonical Hamiltonian approach. Moreover a connection to the heavy quark limit can be established, allowing an intuitive explanation for the charge constraint and infrared divergences.

  2. Overlap Quark Propagator in Coulomb Gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Schröck, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The chirally symmetric Overlap quark propagator is explored in Coulomb gauge. This gauge is well suited for studying the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, since confinement can be attributed to the infrared divergent Lorentz-vector dressing function. Using quenched gauge field configurations on a $20^4$ lattice, the quark propagator dressing functions are evaluated, the dynamical quark mass is extracted and the chiral limit of these quantities is discussed. By removing the low-lying modes of the Dirac operator, chiral symmetry is artificially restored. Its effect on the dressing functions is discussed.

  3. Revised variational approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnari, Davide R; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vastag, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The variational approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge is revisited. By assuming the non-Abelian Coulomb potential to be given by the sum of its infrared and ultraviolet parts, i.e.~by a linearly rising potential and an ordinary Coulomb potential, and by using a Slater determinant ansatz for the quark wave functional, which contains the coupling of the quarks and the gluons with two different Dirac structures, we obtain variational equations for the kernels of the fermionic vacuum wave functional, which are free of ultraviolet divergences. Thereby, a Gaussian type wave functional is assumed for the gluonic part of the vacuum. By using the results of the pure Yang--Mills sector for the gluon propagator as input, we solve the equations for the fermionic kernels numerically and calculate the quark condensate and the effective quark mass in leading order. Assuming a value of $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{C}} = 2.5 \\sigma$ for the Coulomb string tension (where $\\sigma$ is the usual Wilsonian string tension) the phenomenological valu...

  4. Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge at zero and finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector a vacuum wave functional is used which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. For the chiral and deconfinement phase transition pseudo-critical temperatures of 170MeV and 198 MeV, respectively, are obtained.

  5. Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge at zero and finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H; Campagnari, D; Ebadati, E; Heffner, J; Quandt, M; Vastag, P; Vogt, H

    2016-01-01

    I report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector a vacuum wave functional is used which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. For the chiral and deconfinement phase transition pseudo-critical temperatures of 170 MeV and 198 MeV, respectively, are obtained.

  6. Study of the $ar{D}$N Interaction in a QCD Coulomb Gauge Quark Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcarra V.E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the $ar{D}$N interaction at low energies with a quark model inspired in the QCD Hamiltonian in Coulomb gauge. The model Hamiltonian incorporates a confining Coulomb potential extracted from a self-consistent quasiparticle method for the gluon degrees of freedom, and transverse-gluon hyperfine interaction consistent with a finite gluon propagator in the infrared. Initially a constituent-quark mass function is obtained by solving a gap equation and baryon and meson bound-states are obtained in Fock space using a variational calculation. Next, having obtained the constituent-quark masses and the hadron waves functions, an effective meson-nucleon interaction is derived from a quark-interchange mechanism. This leads to a short range mesonbaryon interaction and to describe long-distance physics vector- and scalar-meson exchanges described by effective Lagrangians are incorporated. The derived effective $ar{D}$N potential is used in a Lippmann-Schwinger equation to obtain phase shifts. The results are compared with a recent similar calculation using the nonrelativistic quark model.

  7. Coulomb, Landau and Maximally Abelian Gauge Fixing in Lattice QCD with Multi-GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Schröck, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A lattice gauge theory framework for simulations on graphic processing units (GPUs) using NVIDIA's CUDA is presented. The code comprises template classes that take care of an optimal data pattern to ensure coalesced reading from device memory to achieve maximum performance. In this work we concentrate on applications for lattice gauge fixing in 3+1 dimensional SU(3) lattice gauge field theories. We employ the overrelaxation, stochastic relaxation and simulated annealing algorithms which are perfectly suited to be accelerated by highly parallel architectures like GPUs. The applications support the Coulomb, Landau and maximally Abelian gauges. Moreover, we explore the evolution of the numerical accuracy of the SU(3) valued degrees of freedom over the runtime of the algorithms in single (SP) and double precision (DP). Therefrom we draw conclusions on the reliability of SP and DP simulations and suggest a mixed precision scheme that performs the critical parts of the algorithm in full DP while retaining 80-90% of...

  8. Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Quandt, M; Chimchinda, S; Reinhardt, H

    2008-01-01

    The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0--propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0-propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.

  9. Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, M.; Burgio, G.; Chimchinda, S.; Reinhardt, H.

    The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0 -propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0 -propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.

  10. Gauge-invariant quark and gluon fields in QCD: dynamics, topology, and the Gribov ambiguity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Kurt E-mail: khaller@uconnvm.uconn.edu

    2002-04-01

    We review the implementation, in a temporal-gauge formulation of QCD, of the non-Abelian Gauss's law and the construction of gauge-invariant gauge and matter fields. We then express the QCD Hamiltonian in terms of these gauge-invariant operator-valued fields, and discuss the relation of this Hamiltonian and the gauge-invariant fields to the corresponding quantities in a Coulomb gauge formulation of QCD. We argue that a representation of QCD in terms of gauge-invariant quantities could be particularly useful for understanding low-energy phenomenology. We present the results of an investigation into the topological properties of the gauge-invariant fields, and show that there are Gribov copies of these gauge-invariant gauge fields, which are constructed in the temporal gauge, even though the conditions that give rise to Gribov copies do not obtain for the gauge-dependent temporal-gauge fields.

  11. Signatures of confinement in Landau gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowski, J M; Nedelko, S; Von Schmekal, L

    2005-01-01

    We summarise an analysis of the infrared regime of Landau gauge QCD by means of a flow equation approach. The infrared behaviour of gluon and ghost propagators is evaluated. The results provide further evidence for the Kugo-Ojima confinement scenario. We also discuss their relation to results obtained with other functional methods as well as the lattice.

  12. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  13. Coulomb gauge model for hidden charm tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Mo, L. Q.; Wang, Ping; Cotanch, Stephen R.

    2013-08-01

    The spectrum of tetraquark states with hidden charm is studied within an effective Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian approach. Of the four independent color schemes, two are investigated, the (qcbar)1(cqbar)1 singlet-singlet (molecule) and the (qc)3(qbarcbar)3 triplet-triplet (diquark), for selected JPC states using a variational method. The predicted masses of triplet-triplet tetraquarks are roughly a GeV heavier than the singlet-singlet states. There is also an interesting flavor dependence with (qqbar)1 (ccbar1) states about half a GeV lighter than (qcbar)1(qbarc)1. The lightest 1++ and 1-- predictions are in agreement with the observed X (3872) and Y (4008) masses suggesting they are molecules with ωJ / ψ and ηhc, rather than D*Dbar* and DDbar, type structure, respectively. Similarly, the lightest isovector 1++ molecule, having a ρJ / ψ flavor composition, has mass near the recently observed charged Zc (3900) value. These flavor configurations are consistent with observed X, Y and Zc decays to ππJ / ψ.

  14. Many-Body Coulomb Gauge Exotic and Charmed Hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, F J; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing a QCD Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian with linear confinement specified by lattice, we report a relativistic many-body calculation for the light exotic and charmed hybrid mesons. The Hamiltonian successfully describes both quark and gluon sectors, with vacuum and quasiparticle properties generated by a BCS transformation and more elaborate TDA and RPA diagonalizations for the meson ($q\\bar{q}$) and glueball ($gg$) masses. Hybrids entail a computationally intense relativistic three quasiparticle ($q\\bar{q}g$) calculation with the 9 dimensional Hamiltonian matrix elements evaluated variationally by Monte Carlo techniques. Our new TDA spectrum for the nonexotic $1^{--}$ charmed ($c\\bar{c}$ and $c\\bar{c}g$) system provides an explanation for the overpopulation of the observed $J/\\psi$ states. For the important $1^{-+}$ light exotic channel we obtain hybrid masses above 2 $GeV$, in broad agreement with lattice and flux tube models, indicating that the recently observed resonances at 1.4 and 1.6 $GeV$ are of di...

  15. Gribov horizon and Gribov copies effect in lattice Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Burgio, Giuseppe; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vogt, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    Following a recent proposal by Cooper and Zwanziger we investigate via lattice simulations the effect on the Coulomb gauge propagators and on the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement mechanism of selecting the Gribov copy with the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov operator, i.e. the one closest to the Gribov horizon. Although such choice of gauge drives the ghost propagator towards the prediction of continuum calculations, we find that it actually overshoots the goal. With increasing computer time, we observe that Gribov copies with arbitrarily small eigenvalues can be found. For such a method to work one would therefore need further restrictions on the gauge condition to isolate the physically relevant copies, since e.g. the Coulomb potential $V_C$ defined through the Faddeev-Popov operator becomes otherwise physically meaningless. Interestingly, the Coulomb potential alternatively defined through temporal link correlators is only marginally affected by the smallness of the eigenvalues.

  16. Integrating over the Coulomb branch in N=2 gauge theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Marcos; Moore, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    We review the relation of certain integrals over the Coulomb phase of $d=4$, N=2 SO(3) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with Donaldson-Witten theory. We describe a new way to write an important contact term in the theory and show how the integrals generalize to higher rank gauge groups.

  17. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, John H.

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  18. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb branch

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, John H

    2014-01-01

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ with $N$ units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the $U(1)$ factor of ${\\cal N} =4$ $U(N+1)$ super Yang--Mills theory, spontaneously broken to $U(N) \\times U(1)$ by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a `highly effective action' (HEA). We construct an $SL(2,Z)$ multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that it reproduces the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a `soliton bubble', which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  19. Infrared behaviour and fixed points in Landau gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowski, J M; Nedelko, S N; Von Smekal, L; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Litim, Daniel F.; Nedelko, Sergei; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the infrared behaviour of gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD by means of an exact renormalisation group equation. We explain how, in general, the infrared momentum structure of Green functions can be extracted within this approach. An optimisation procedure is devised to remove residual regulator dependences. In Landau gauge QCD this framework is used to determine the infrared leading terms of the propagators. The results support the Kugo-Ojima confinement scenario. Possible extensions are discussed.

  20. Infrared Behavior and Fixed Points in Landau-Gauge QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Litim, Daniel F.; Nedelko, Sergei; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators in Landau-gauge QCD by means of an exact renormalization group equation. We explain how, in general, the infrared momentum structure of Green functions can be extracted within this approach. An optimization procedure is devised to remove residual regulator dependences. In Landau-gauge QCD this framework is used to determine the infrared leading terms of the propagators. The results support the Kugo-Ojima confinement scenario. Possible extensions are discussed.

  1. QCD axion from a higher dimensional gauge field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2004-03-12

    We point out that a QCD axion solving the strong CP problem can arise naturally from a parity-odd gauge field in five-dimensional (5D) orbifold field theory. The required axion coupling to the QCD anomaly comes from the 5D Chern-Simons coupling, and all other unwanted U(1)PQ breaking axion couplings can be avoided naturally by the 5D gauge symmetry and locality. If the fifth dimension is warped, the resulting axion scale is suppressed by a small warp factor compared to the Planck scale, thereby the model can generate naturally an intermediate axion scale fa = 10(10)-10(12) GeV.

  2. Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Liu, Hong; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2014-06-01

    1. Opening remarks; 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer; 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature; 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality; 5. A duality toolbox; 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma; 7. From hydrodynamics for far-from-equilibrium dynamics; 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma; 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma; 10. Concluding remarks and outlook; Appendixes; References; Index.

  3. Mass divergence power counting for QCD in the Feynman gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, R.

    1986-03-01

    We present a mass divergence power counting technique for QCD in the Feyman gauge. For the process ..gamma..sup(*)->qanti q, we find the leading regions of integration and show that single diagrams are at worst logarithmically divergent. Using the Weyl representation facilitates the ..gamma.. matrix manipulations necessary for power counting and adds much physical insight. (orig.).

  4. Landau gauge gluon vertices from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Anthony G; Silva, Paulo J

    2016-01-01

    In lattice QCD the computation of one-particle irreducible (1PI) Green's functions with a large number (> 2) of legs is a challenging task. Besides tuning the lattice spacing and volume to reduce finite size effects, the problems associated with the estimation of higher order moments via Monte Carlo methods and the extraction of 1PI from complete Green's functions are limitations of the method. Herein, we address these problems revisiting the calculation of the three gluon 1PI Green's function.

  5. Coulomb branches for rank 2 gauge groups in 3d N=4 gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay

    2016-01-01

    The Coulomb branch of 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theories is the space of bare and dressed BPS monopole operators. We utilise the conformal dimension to define a fan which, upon intersection with the weight lattice of a GNO-dual group, gives rise to a collection of semi-groups. It turns out that the unique Hilbert bases of these semi-groups are a sufficient, finite set of monopole operators which generate the entire chiral ring. Moreover, the knowledge of the properties of the minimal generators is enough to compute the Hilbert series explicitly. The techniques of this paper allow an efficient evaluation of the Hilbert series for general rank gauge groups. As an application, we provide various examples for all rank two gauge groups to demonstrate the novel interpretation.

  6. Coulomb branches for rank 2 gauge groups in 3dN=4 gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sperling, Marcus [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-08-02

    The Coulomb branch of 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theories is the space of bare and dressed BPS monopole operators. We utilise the conformal dimension to define a fan which, upon intersection with the weight lattice of a GNO-dual group, gives rise to a collection of semi-groups. It turns out that the unique Hilbert bases of these semi-groups are a sufficient, finite set of monopole operators which generate the entire chiral ring. Moreover, the knowledge of the properties of the minimal generators is enough to compute the Hilbert series explicitly. The techniques of this paper allow an efficient evaluation of the Hilbert series for general rank gauge groups. As an application, we provide various examples for all rank two gauge groups to demonstrate the novel interpretation.

  7. The QCD Abacus A New Formulation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R C

    1998-01-01

    A quantum Hamiltonian is constructed for SU(3) lattice QCD entirely from color triplet Fermions --- the standard quarks and a new Fermionic ``constituent'' of the gluon we call ``rishons''. The quarks are represented by Dirac spinors on each site and the gauge fields by rishon-antirishon bilinears on each link which together with the local gauge transforms are the generators of an SU(6) algebra. The effective Lagrangian for the path integral lives in $R^4 \\times S^1$ Euclidean space with a compact ``fifth time'' of circumference ($\\beta$) and non-Abelian charge ($e^2$) both of which carry dimensions of length. For large $\\beta$, it is conjectured that continuum QCD is reached and that the dimensionless ratio $g^2 = e^2/\\beta$ becomes the QCD gauge coupling. The quarks are introduced as Kaplan chiral Fermions at either end of the finite slab in fifth time. This talk will emphasize the gauge and algebraic structure of the rishon or link Fermions and the special properties that may lead to fast discrete dynamics...

  8. The vacuum structure of N=2 super-QCD with classical gauge groups

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; Argyres, Philip C; Shapere, Alfred D

    1995-01-01

    We determine the vacuum structure of N=2 supersymmetric QCD with fundamental quarks for gauge groups SO(n) and Sp(2n), extending prior results for SU(n). The solutions are all given in terms of families of hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces of genus equal to the rank of the gauge group. In the scale invariant cases, the solutions all have exact S-dualities which act on the couplings by subgroups of PSL(2,Z) and on the masses by outer automorphisms of the flavor symmetry. They are shown to reproduce the complete pattern of symmetry breaking on the Coulomb branch and predict the correct weak--coupling monodromies. Simple breakings with squark vevs provide further consistency checks involving strong--coupling physics.

  9. Gauge Invariance of Resummation Schemes The QCD Partition Function

    CERN Document Server

    Achhammer, M; Leupold, S; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Achhammer, Marc; Heinz, Ulrich; Leupold, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    1996-01-01

    We pick up a method originally developed by Cheng and Tsai for vacuum perturbation theory which allows to test the consistency of different sets of Feynman rules on a purely diagrammatic level, making explicit loop calculations superfluous. We generalize it to perturbative calculations in thermal field theory and we show that it can be adapted to check the gauge invariance of physical quantities calculated in improved perturbation schemes. Specifically, we extend this diagrammatic technique to a simple resummation scheme in imaginary time perturbation theory. As an application, we check up to O(g^4) in general covariant gauge the gauge invariance of the result for the QCD partition function which was recently obtained in Feynman gauge.

  10. A Non-Perturbative Gauge-Invariant QCD: Ideal vs. Realistic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    A basic distinction, long overlooked, between the conventional, "idealistic" formulation of QCD, and a more "realistic" formulation is brought into focus by a rigorous, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of exact Fradkin representations for the Green's functional $\\mathbf{G}_{c}(x,y|A)$ and the vacuum functional $\\mathbf{L}[A]$. The quanta of all (Abelian) quantized fields may be expected to obey standard quantum-mechanical measurement properties, perfect position dependence at the cost of unknown momenta, and vice-versa, but this is impossible for quarks since they always appear asymptotically in bound states, and their transverse position or momenta can never, in principle, be exactly measured. Violation of this principle produces an absurdity in the exact evaluation of each and every QCD amplitude. We here suggest a phenomenological change in the basic QCD Lagrangian, such that a limitation of transverse precision is automatical...

  11. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuchter, C.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  12. Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, both experimental and theoretical advances have brought the need for strong coupling techniques in the analysis of deconfined QCD matter and heavy ion collisions to the forefront. As a consequence, a fruitful interplay has developed between analyses of strongly-coupled non-abelian plasmas via the gauge/string duality (also referred to as the AdS/CFT correspondence) and the phenomenology of heavy ion collisions. We review some of the main insights gained from this interplay to date. To establish a common language, we start with an introduction to heavy ion phenomenology and finite-temperature QCD, and a corresponding introduction to important concepts and techniques in the gauge/string duality. These introductory sections are written for nonspecialists, with the goal of bringing readers ranging from beginning graduate students to experienced practitioners of either QCD or gauge/string duality to the point that they understand enough about both fields that they can then appreciate their in...

  13. Confinement in Polyakov gauge and the QCD phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Marc Florian

    2009-10-14

    We investigate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the framework of the functional renormalisation group (fRG). Thereby describing the phase transition from the phase with confined quarks into the quark-gluon-plasma phase. We focus on a physical gauge in which the mechanism driving the phase transition is discernible. We find results compatible with lattice QCD data, as well as with functional methods applied in different gauges. The phase transition is of the expected order and we computed critical exponents. Extensions of the model are discussed. When investigating the QCD phase diagram, we compute the effects of dynamical quarks at finite density on the running of the gauge coupling. Additionally, we calculate how these affect the deconfinement phase transition, also, dynamical quarks allow for the inclusion of a finite chemical potential. Concluding the investigation of the phase diagram, we establish a relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, which is tied to the dynamical generation of hadron masses. In the investigations, we often encounter scale dependent fields. We investigate a footing on which these can be dealt with in a uniform way. (orig.)

  14. Implication of Exact SUSY Gauge Couplings for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa; Shuryak, E V

    1999-01-01

    The phase structure of SUSY gauge theories can be very different from their nonsupersymmetric counterparts. Nonetheless, there is interesting information which might be gleaned from detailed investigation of these theories. In particular, we study the precise meaning of the strong interaction scale and also ask whether the study of supersymmetric theories can shed light on the apparent discrepancy between the perturbative scale $\\Lambda_{QCD}$ and the ``chiral lagrangian'' scale $\\Lambda_\\chi$. We show that in N=1 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, ``naive dimensional analysis'' seems to work well, with evolved physical coupling becomes of order $4 \\pi$. We turn to N=2 theories to understand better the effect of instantons in accounting for the QCD discrepancy between scales. In N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) the instanton corrections are known to all orders from the Seiberg-Witten solution and give rise to a finite scale ratio between the scale at which the perturbatively evolved and ``nonperturbatively evolved'' c...

  15. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kodera, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine $\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$.

  16. Hamiltonian Approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H

    2008-01-01

    We study the Hamiltonian approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, considering both the pure Coulomb gauge and the gauge where in addition the remaining constant gauge field is restricted to the Cartan algebra. We evaluate the corresponding Faddeev-Popov determinants, resolve Gauss' law and derive the Hamiltonians, which differ in both gauges due to additional zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel in the pure Coulomb gauge. By Gauss' law the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel constrain the physical wave functionals to zero colour charge states. We solve the Schroedinger equation in the pure Coulomb gauge and determine the vacuum wave functional. The gluon and ghost propagators and the static colour Coulomb potential are calculated in the first Gribov region as well as in the fundamental modular region, and Gribov copy effects are studied. We explicitly demonstrate that the Dyson-Schwinger equations do not specify the Gribov region while the propagators and vertices do depend on the ...

  17. QCD in terms of gauge-invariant dynamical variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pavel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    For a complete description of the physical properties of low-energy QCD, it might be advantageous to first reformulate QCD in terms of gauge-invariant dynamical variables, before applying any approximation schemes. Using a canonical transformation of the dynamical variables, which Abelianises the non-Abelian Gauss-law constraints to be implemented, such a reformulation can be achieved for QCD. The exact implementation of the Gauss laws reduces the colored spin-1 gluons and spin-1/2 quarks to unconstrained colorless spin-0, spin-1, spin-2 and spin-3 glueball fields and colorless Rarita-Schwinger fields respectively. The obtained physical Hamiltonian can then be rewritten into a form, which separates the rotational from the scalar degrees of freedom, and admits a systematic strong-coupling expansion in powers of lambda=g^{-2/3}, equivalent to an expansion in the number of spatial derivatives. The leading-order term in this expansion corresponds to non-interacting hybrid-glueballs, whose low-lying masses can be ...

  18. Coulomb solutions from improper pseudo-unitary free gauge field operator translations

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental problems of quantum field theory related to the representation problem of canonical commutation relations are discussed within a gauge field version of a van Hove-type model. The Coulomb field generated by a static charge distribution is described as a formal superposition of time-like pseudo-photons in Fock space with a Krein structure. In this context, a generalization of operator gauge transformations is introduced to generate coherent states of abelian gauge fields interacting with a charged background.

  19. General intrinsic theory of general large $N_{c}$ QCD, SU(3) QCD, SU(2) hadron-dynamics and U(1) QED gauge field theories in general field theory and progress towards solving the nucleon spin crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, C; Zhou, B H

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives general intrinsic theory of general large $N_{c}$ QCD, SU(3) QCD, SU(2) hadron-dynamics and U(1) QED gauge field theories in general field theory and progress towards solving the nucleon spin crisis, i.e., presents general large $N_{c}$ QCD's inner structures, gauge invariant angular momenta and new corresponding Coulomb theorem in quark-gluon field interaction systems based on general field theory, and naturally deduces the gauge invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of quark and gauge fields with $SU(N_{c})$ gauge symmetry by Noether theorem in general field theory. In the general large $N_{c}$ QCD, we discover not only the general covariant transverse and parallel conditions ( namely, non-Abelian divergence and curl ), but also that this general system has good intrinsic symmetry characteristics. Specially, this paper's generally decomposing gauge potential theory presents a new technique, it should play a votal role in future physics research. Therefore, this paper breakth...

  20. Direct evidence for a Coulombic phase in monopole-suppressed SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, Michael, E-mail: grady@fredonia.edu

    2013-11-21

    Further evidence is presented for the existence of a non-confining phase at weak coupling in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Using Monte Carlo simulations with the standard Wilson action, gauge-invariant SO(3)–Z2 monopoles, which are strong-coupling lattice artifacts, have been seen to undergo a percolation transition exactly at the phase transition previously seen using Coulomb gauge methods, with an infinite lattice critical point near β=3.2. The theory with both Z2 vortices and monopoles and SO(3)–Z2 monopoles eliminated is simulated in the strong-coupling (β=0) limit on lattices up to 60{sup 4}. Here, as in the high-β phase of the Wilson-action theory, finite size scaling shows it spontaneously breaks the remnant symmetry left over after Coulomb gauge fixing. Such a symmetry breaking precludes the potential from having a linear term. The monopole restriction appears to prevent the transition to a confining phase at any β. Direct measurement of the instantaneous Coulomb potential shows a Coulombic form with moderately running coupling possibly approaching an infrared fixed point of α∼1.4. The Coulomb potential is measured to 50 lattice spacings and 2 fm. A short-distance fit to the 2-loop perturbative potential is used to set the scale. High precision at such long distances is made possible through the use of open boundary conditions, which was previously found to cut random and systematic errors of the Coulomb gauge fixing procedure dramatically. The Coulomb potential agrees with the gauge-invariant interquark potential measured with smeared Wilson loops on periodic lattices as far as the latter can be practically measured with similar statistics data.

  1. Direct evidence for a Coulombic phase in monopole-suppressed SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Further evidence is presented for the existence of a non-confining phase at weak coupling in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Using Monte Carlo simulations with the standard Wilson action, gauge-invariant SO(3)-Z2 monopoles, which are strong-coupling lattice artifacts, have been seen to undergo a percolation transition exactly at the phase transition previously seen using Coulomb gauge methods, with an infinite lattice critical point near β=3.2. The theory with both Z2 vortices and monopoles and SO(3)-Z2 monopoles eliminated is simulated in the strong-coupling (β=0) limit on lattices up to 604. Here, as in the high-β phase of the Wilson-action theory, finite size scaling shows it spontaneously breaks the remnant symmetry left over after Coulomb gauge fixing. Such a symmetry breaking precludes the potential from having a linear term. The monopole restriction appears to prevent the transition to a confining phase at any β. Direct measurement of the instantaneous Coulomb potential shows a Coulombic form with moderately running coupling possibly approaching an infrared fixed point of α˜1.4. The Coulomb potential is measured to 50 lattice spacings and 2 fm. A short-distance fit to the 2-loop perturbative potential is used to set the scale. High precision at such long distances is made possible through the use of open boundary conditions, which was previously found to cut random and systematic errors of the Coulomb gauge fixing procedure dramatically. The Coulomb potential agrees with the gauge-invariant interquark potential measured with smeared Wilson loops on periodic lattices as far as the latter can be practically measured with similar statistics data.

  2. Gluonic three-point correlations in pure Landau gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Adrian; Mitter, Mario; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first self-consistent solution of the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) for the three-gluon vertex. Based on earlier results for the propagators which match data from lattice Monte-Carlo simulations, we obtain results for the three gluon vertex that are in very good agreement with available lattice data likewise. Feeding these results back into the propagator DSEs leads to some changes especially in the gluon propagator. These changes allow us to assess previously used models for the three-gluon vertex and to systematically estimate the influence of neglected two-loop diagrams with four-gluon interactions. In the final step, a full iterative solution to the coupled DSEs of pure Landau gauge QCD without quarks is then obtained for the first time in an extended truncation which now dynamically includes the complete set of three-point vertex functions.

  3. Application of finite field-dependent BRS transformations to problems of the Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, S D

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the Coulomb propagator in the formalism developed recently in which we construct the Coulomb gauge path-integral by correlating it with the well-defined Lorentz gauge path-integrals through a finite field-dependent BRS transformation. We discover several features of the Coulomb gauge from it. We find that the singular Coulomb gauge HAS to be treated as the gauge parameter lambda --> 0 limit. We further find that the propagator so obtained has good high energy behavior (k_0^{-2}) for lambda and epsilon nonzero. We further find that the behavior of the propagator so obtained is sensitive to the order of limits k_0 -->infinity, lambda -->0 and epsilon --> 0; so that these have to be handled carefully in a higher loop calculation. We show that we can arrive at the result of Cheng and Tsai for the ambiguous two loop Feynman integrals without the need for an extra ad hoc regularization and within the path integral formulation.

  4. Coulomb and Landau Gauge Fixing in GPUs using CUDA and MILC

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present the GPU implementation of the overrelaxation and steepest descent method with Fourier acceleration methods for Laudau and Coulomb gauge fixing using CUDA for SU(N) with N>2. A multi-GPU implementation of the overrelaxation method is also presented using MPI and CUDA. The GPU performance was measured on BlueWaters and compared against the gauge fixing of the CPU MILC code.

  5. Cherkis bow varieties and Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    We show that Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of affine type $A$ are Cherkis bow varieties, which have been introduced as ADHM type description of moduli space of instantons on the Taub-NUT space equivariant under a cyclic group action.

  6. Long range order in gauge theories. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Evan

    2012-01-01

    We study a number of different ingredients, related to long range order observed in lattice QCD simulations, using a simple "deformed QCD" model. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which however has all the relevant crucial elements allowing us to study difficult and nontrivial questions which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Essentially, we want to understand the physics of long range order in form of coherent low dimensional vacuum configurations observed in Monte Carlo lattice simulations.

  7. Modified Coulomb and Lorenz gauges in the modeling of low- frequency electromagnetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Tiukhtina, A. A.; Lavrova, S. R.

    2016-11-01

    The boundary value problem for the quasistationary magnetic approximation of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations in inhomogeneous media is studied. The considered problem is reduced to the variational problem of determining vector magnetic and scalar electric potentials. The special gauges are discussed, that generalize the Coulomb and Lorenz gauges and allow to formulate the problems of the independent definitions of the vector magnetic potential. The correctness of the problems are established under general conditions on the coefficients. The relation between solutions of the problems with different gauges is studied. The equivalence of the problems for potentials to the original boundary value problem is proved.

  8. SUSY-QCD corrections to stop annihilation into electroweak final states including Coulomb enhancement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, J.; Herrmann, B.; Klasen, M.; Kovařík, K.; Meinecke, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present the full O (αs) supersymmetric QCD corrections for stop-antistop annihilation into electroweak final states within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We also incorporate Coulomb corrections due to gluon exchange between the incoming stops. Numerical results for the annihilation cross sections and the predicted neutralino relic density are presented. We show that the impact of the radiative corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of the parameter space can become larger than the current experimental uncertainty, shifting the relic bands within the considered regions of the parameter space by up to a few tens of GeV.

  9. SUSY-QCD corrections to stop annihilation into electroweak final states including Coulomb enhancement effects

    CERN Document Server

    Harz, J; Klasen, M; Kovařík, K; Meinecke, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the full $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s)$ supersymmetric QCD corrections for stop-anti-stop annihilation into electroweak final states within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We also incorporate Coulomb corrections due to gluon exchange between the incoming stops. Numerical results for the annihilation cross sections and the predicted neutralino relic density are presented. We show that the impact of the radiative corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of the parameter space can become larger than the current experimental uncertainty, shifting the relic bands within the considered regions of the parameter space by up to a few tens of GeV.

  10. Towards a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ gauge theories, II

    CERN Document Server

    Braverman, Alexander; Nakajima, Hiraku

    2016-01-01

    Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G_c$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold with an $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$-action, possibly with singularities. We give a mathematical definition of the Coulomb branch as an affine algebraic variety with $\\mathbb C^\\times$-action when $\\mathbf M$ is of a form $\\mathbf N\\oplus\\mathbf N^*$, as the second step of the proposal given in arXiv:1503.03676.

  11. Dimension two condensates in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory in the Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Guimaraes, M S; Sorella, S P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dimension two condensate $$ within the Gribov-Zwanziger approach to Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Coulomb gauge, in both 3 and 4 dimensions. An explicit calculation shows that, at the first order, the condensate $$ is plagued by a non-integrable IR divergence in 3D, while in 4D it exhibits a logarithmic UV divergence, being proportional to the Gribov parameter $\\gamma^2$. These results indicate that in 3D the transverse spatial Coulomb gluon two-point correlation function exhibits a scaling behaviour, in agreement with Gribov's expression. In 4D, however, they suggest that, next to the scaling behaviour, a decoupling solution might emerge too.

  12. Direct evidence for a Coulombic phase in monopole-suppressed SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Further evidence is presented for the existence of a non-confining phase at weak coupling in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Using Monte Carlo simulations with the standard Wilson action, gauge-invariant SO(3)-Z2 monopoles, which are strong-coupling lattice artifacts, have been seen to undergo a percolation transition exactly at the phase transition previously seen using Coulomb-gauge methods, with an infinite lattice critical point near $\\beta = 3.2$. The theory with both Z2 vortices and monopoles and SO(3)-Z2 monopoles eliminated is simulated in the strong coupling ($\\beta = 0$) limit on lattices up to $60^4$. Here, as in the high-$\\beta$ phase of the Wilson action theory, finite size scaling shows it spontaneously breaks the remnant symmetry left over after Coulomb gauge fixing. Such a symmetry breaking precludes the potential from having a linear term. The monopole restriction appears to prevent the transition to a confining phase at any $\\beta$. Direct measurement of the instantaneous Coulomb potential shows...

  13. Gauge cooling in complex Langevin for lattice QCD with heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Erhard, E-mail: ehs@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), München (Germany); Sexty, Dénes, E-mail: d.sexty@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu, E-mail: I.O.Stamatescu@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    We employ a new method, “gauge cooling”, to stabilize complex Langevin simulations of QCD with heavy quarks. The results are checked against results obtained with reweighting; we find agreement within the estimated errors, except for strong gauge coupling in the confinement region. The method allows us to go to previously unaccessible high densities.

  14. Towards a mathematical definition of Coulomb branches of $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ gauge theories, I

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    2015-01-01

    Consider the $3$-dimensional $\\mathcal N=4$ supersymmetric gauge theory associated with a compact Lie group $G$ and its quaternionic representation $\\mathbf M$. Physicists study its Coulomb branch, which is a noncompact hyper-K\\"ahler manifold, such as instanton moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^4$, $SU(2)$-monopole moduli spaces on $\\mathbb R^3$, etc. In this paper and its sequel, we propose a mathematical definition of the coordinate ring of the Coulomb branch, using the vanishing cycle cohomology group of a certain moduli space for a gauged $\\sigma$-model on the $2$-sphere associated with $(G,\\mathbf M)$. In this first part, we check that the cohomology group has the correct graded dimensions expected from the monopole formula proposed by Cremonesi, Hanany and Zaffaroni arXiv:1309.2657. A ring structure (on the cohomology of a modified moduli space) will be introduced in the sequel of this paper.

  15. Twenty-first Century Lattice Gauge Theory: Results from the QCD Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) reduces the strong interactions, in all their variety, to an elegant nonabelian gauge theory. It clearly and elegantly explains hadrons at short distances, which has led to its universal acceptance. Since its advent, however, many of its long-distance, emergent properties have been believed to be true, without having been demonstrated to be true. This paper reviews a variety of results in this regime that have been established with lattice gauge theory, directly from the QCD Lagrangian. This body of work sheds light on the origin of hadron masses, its interplay with dynamical symmetry breaking, as well as on other intriguing features such as the phase structure of QCD. In addition, nonperturbative QCD is quantitatively important to many aspects of particle physics (especially the quark flavor sector), nuclear physics, and astrophysics. This review also surveys some of the most interesting connections to those subjects.

  16. Gauge-invariant nonlocal quark condensates in QCD a new interpretation of the lattice results

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, E

    2000-01-01

    We study the asymptotic short-distance behaviour as well as the asymptotic large-distance behaviour of the gauge-invariant quark-antiquark nonlocal condensates in QCD. A comparison of some analytical results with the available lattice data is performed.

  17. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H. B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Höllwieser, R.; Janik, M. A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J. W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Von Hippel, G. M.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex sys

  18. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Nezza, P. Di; Fodor, Z.; Tormo, X. Garcia i; Höllwieser, R.; Kalwait, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; Hippel, G. M. von; Zakharov, V. I .

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex sys

  19. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, N.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Alford, M.G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T.D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J.L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H.W.; Llanes-Estrada, F.J.; Meyer, H.B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W.M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Hollwieser, R.; Janik, M.A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J.W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C.A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N.G.; von Hippel, G.M.; Zakharov, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.

  20. QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Eidelman, S. [SB RAS, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Foka, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gardner, S. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Kronfeld, A.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Alford, M.G.; Schwenzer, K. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St Louis, MO (United States); Alkofer, R. [University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Butenschoen, M. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria); Cohen, T.D. [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Erdmenger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Fabbietti, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Faber, M.; Hoellwieser, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Goity, J.L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Ketzer, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lin, H.W. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Llanes-Estrada, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain); Meyer, H.B.; Wittig, H.; Hippel, G.M. von [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Pakhlov, P.; Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Pallante, E.; Papadodimas, K. [University of Groningen, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Groningen (Netherlands); Sazdjian, H. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Schmitt, A. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Vuorinen, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Arnold, P. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Christakoglou, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Nezza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Frascati (Italy); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal University, Wuppertal (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Janik, M.A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Kalweit, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Keane, D. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Kiritsis, E. [University of Crete, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, Sorbonne Paris-Cite (France); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mizuk, R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Odyniec, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pich, A. [Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Qiu, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ricciardi, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Salgado, C.A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas y IGFAE, Galicia (ES); Stefanis, N.G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (DE); Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (DE); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (RU); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (RU)

    2014-10-15

    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments. (orig.)

  1. Gauge-symmetric approach to effective lagrangians: The η' meson from QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, P. H.; Nielsen, H. B.; Sollacher, R.

    1994-02-01

    We present a general scheme for extracting effective degrees of freedom from an underlying fundamental lagrangian, through a series of well-defined transformations in the functional integral of the cut-off theory. This is done by introducing collective fields in a gauge-symmetric manner. Through appropriate gauge fixings of this symmetry one can remove long-distance degrees of freedom from the underlying theory, replacing them by the collective fields. Applying this technique to QCD, we set out to extract the long-distance dynamics in the pseudoscalar flavour singlet sector through a gauging (and subsequent gauge fixing) of the U (1) A flavour symmetry which is broken by the anomaly. By this series of exact transformations of a cut-off generating functional for QCD, we arrive at a theory describing the long-distance physics of a pseudoscalar flavour singlet meson coupled to the residual quark-gluon degrees of freedom. As an example we show how to derive a Witten-Veneziano-like relation between the η' mass and the topological susceptibility. The resulting effective lagrangian contains an axial vector field, which shares the relevant features with the Veneziano ghost. This field is responsible for removing the η' degree of freedom from the fundamental QCD lagrangian.

  2. A New Approach to Analytic, Non-Perturbative and Gauge-Invariant QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Sheu, Y -M

    2012-01-01

    Following a previous calculation of quark scattering in eikonal approximation, this paper presents a new, analytic and rigorous approach to the calculation of QCD phenomena. In this formulation a basic distinction between the conventional "idealistic" description of QCD and a more "realistic" description is brought into focus by a non-perturbative, gauge-invariant evaluation of the Schwinger solution for the QCD generating functional in terms of the exact Fradkin representations of the Green's functional and the vacuum functional. Because quarks exist asymptotically only in bound states, their transverse coordinates can never be measured with arbitrary precision; the non-perturbative neglect of this statement leads to obstructions that are easily corrected by invoking in the basic Lagrangian a probability amplitude which describes such transverse imprecision. The second result of this non-perturbative analysis is the appearance of a new and simplifying output called "Effective Locality", in which the interact...

  3. Equal-time two-point correlation functions in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnari, D; Reinhardt, H; Astorga, F; Schleifenbaum, W

    2009-01-01

    We apply a new functional perturbative approach to the calculation of the equal-time two-point correlation functions and the potential between static color charges to one-loop order in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory. The functional approach proceeds through a solution of the Schroedinger equation for the vacuum wave functional to order g^2 and derives the equal-time correlation functions from a functional integral representation via new diagrammatic rules. We show that the results coincide with those obtained from the usual Lagrangian functional integral approach, extract the beta function and determine the anomalous dimensions of the equal-time gluon and ghost two-point functions and the static potential under the assumption of multiplicative renormalizability to all orders.

  4. Coulomb-gauge ghost and gluon propagators in SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Voigt, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Müller-Preussker, M.; Nakamura, A.; Saito, T.; Sternbeck, A.; Toki, H.

    2009-06-01

    We study the momentum dependence of the ghost propagator and of the space and time components of the gluon propagator at equal time in pure SU(3) lattice Coulomb-gauge theory carrying out a joint analysis of data collected independently at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka and Humboldt University, Berlin. We focus on the scaling behavior of these propagators at β=5.8,…,6.2 and apply a matching technique to relate the data for the different lattice cutoffs. Thereby, lattice artifacts are found to be rather strong for both instantaneous gluon propagators at a large momentum. As a byproduct we obtain the respective lattice scale dependences a(β) for the transversal gluon and the ghost propagator which indeed run faster with β than two-loop running, but slightly slower than what is known from the Necco-Sommer analysis of the heavy quark potential. The abnormal a(β) dependence as determined from the instantaneous time-time gluon propagator, D44, remains a problem, though. The role of residual gauge-fixing influencing D44 is discussed.

  5. Coulomb-gauge ghost and gluon propagators in SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Y; Ilgenfritz, E -M; Müller-Preussker, M; Nakamura, A; Saitô, T; Sternbeck, A; Toki, H

    2009-01-01

    We study the momentum dependence of the ghost propagator and of the space and time components of the gluon propagator at equal time in pure SU(3) lattice Coulomb gauge theory carrying out a joint analysis of data collected independently at RCNP Osaka and Humboldt University Berlin. We focus on the scaling behavior of these propagators at beta=5.8,...,6.2 and apply a matching technique to relate the data for the different lattice cutoffs. Thereby, lattice artifacts are found to be rather strong for both instantaneous gluon propagators at large momentum. As a byproduct we obtain the respective lattice scale dependences a(beta) for the transversal gluon and the ghost propagator which indeed run faster with beta than two-loop running, but slightly slower than what is known from the Necco-Sommer analysis of the heavy quark potential. The abnormal a(beta) dependence as determined from the instantaneous time-time gluon propagator, D_{44}, remains a problem, though. The role of residual gauge-fixing influencing D_{44...

  6. The infrared behavior of lattice QCD Green's functions. A numerical study of lattice QCD in Landau gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternbeck, A.

    2006-07-18

    Within the framework of lattice QCD we investigate different aspects of QCD in Landau gauge using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we focus on the low momentum behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. The gauge group is SU(3). Different systematic effects on the gluon and ghost propagators are studied. We demonstrate the ghost dressing function to systematically depend on the choice of Gribov copies at low momentum, while the influence on the gluon dressing function is not resolvable. Also the eigenvalue distribution of the Faddeev-Popov operator is sensitive to Gribov copies. We show that the influence of dynamical Wilson fermions on the ghost propagator is negligible at the momenta available to us. On the contrary, fermions affect the gluon propagator at large and intermediate momenta. In addition, we analyze data for both propagators obtained on asymmetric lattices and compare these results with data obtained on symmetric lattices. We compare our data with results from studies of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators. We demonstrate that the infrared behavior of both propagators, as found in this thesis, is consistent with different criteria for confinement. However, the running coupling constant, given as a renormalization-group-invariant combination of the gluon and ghost dressing functions, does not expose a finite infrared fixed point. Rather the data are in favor of an infrared vanishing coupling constant. We also report on a first nonperturbative computation of the SU(3) ghost-gluon-vertex renormalization constant. We present results of an investigation of the spectral properties of the Faddeev-Popov operator. For this we have calculated the low-lying eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. (orig.)

  7. Metastable vacuum decay and θ dependence in gauge theory. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhoonah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a number of different ingredients related to the θ dependence, metastable excited vacuum states and other related subjects using a simplified version of QCD, the so-called “deformed QCD”. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which, however, preserves all the relevant essential elements allowing us to study hard and nontrivial features which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Our main focus in this work is to test the ideas related to the metastable vacuum states (which are known to be present in strongly coupled QCD in large N limit in a theoretically controllable manner using the “deformed QCD” as a toy model. We explicitly show how the metastable states emerge in the system, why their lifetime is large, and why these metastable states must be present in the system for the self-consistency of the entire picture of the QCD vacuum. We also speculate on possible relevance of the metastable vacuum states in explanation of the violation of local P and CP symmetries in heavy ion collisions.

  8. Discussion About the Magnetic Field Dimensionality, Invariant Axis Condition, and Coulomb Gauge to Solve the Grad-Shafranov Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A. Ojeda; Prestes, A.; Laurindo Sousa, A. Nilson

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the relationship between the Coulomb gauge, the existence of an invariant axis, and the dimensionality (2-D or 2frac {1}{2}-D) of the magnetic field in a mathematical-physical formalism that leads us to the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation. In the literature, we found that a 2-D magnetic structure is used as a prerequisite to derive the GS equation from the Vlasov equation. However, other consulted works are based on a 2frac {1}{2}-D (two-and-a-half) magnetic structure as a prerequisite to derive the GS equation from the balance of forces between the pressure gradient and the magnetic force, respectively. We replaced the magnetic vector potential on Ampère's equation and used the Coulomb gauge to obtain a system of three Poisson equations, one for each component. We also used the same procedure explained above, but without the Coulomb gauge. Comparing z-component in both equation systems, we concluded that there are two possible solutions. We suggest using a 2frac {1}{2}-D magnetic field configuration instead of a 2-D, when working with kinetic theory or magnetostatic equilibrium to derive the GS equation. We clarified that there is no relationship between the Coulomb gauge and the magnetic field dimensionality. In this problem, the invariant axis condition is imposed, which means that ěc {nabla }\\cdot ěc {A} is independent of z, i.e., ěc {nabla }\\cdot ěc {A} could have any value in which an invariant axis is a sufficient condition to obtain the GS equation.

  9. Generating SU(Nc) pure gauge lattice QCD configurations on GPUs with CUDA and OpenMP

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The starting point of any lattice QCD computation is the generation of a Markov chain of gauge field configurations. Due to the large number of lattice links and due to the matrix multiplications, generating SU(Nc) lattice QCD configurations is a highly demanding computational task, requiring advanced computer parallel architectures such as clusters of several Central Processing Units (CPUs) or Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). In this paper we present and explore the performance of CUDA codes for NVIDIA GPUs to generate SU(Nc) lattice QCD pure gauge configurations. Our implementation in one GPU uses CUDA and in multiple GPUs uses OpenMP and CUDA. We present optimized CUDA codes SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4). We also show a generic SU(Nc) code for Nc$\\,\\geq 4$ and compare it with the optimized version of SU(4). Our codes are publicly available for free use by the lattice QCD community.

  10. Establishment of the Coulomb law in the layer phase of a pure U(1) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, K

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine the Layer phase of the five dimensional, anisotropic, Abelian gauge model. Our results are to be compared with the ones of the 4D U(1) gauge model in an attempt to verify that four dimensional physics governs the four dimensional layers. The main results are: i) From the analysis of Wilson loops we verified the $\\frac{1}{R}$ behavior, in the layered phase, for the potential between heavy charges. The renormalized fine structure constant in the layer phase is found to be equal to that of 4D Coulomb phase,$\\alpha_{layer}$=$\\alpha_{4D}$. ii) Based on the helicity modulus analysis we show that the layers are in the Coulomb phase while the transverse bulk space is in the confining phase. We also calculated the renormalized coupling $\\beta_{R}$ and found results compatible with those obtained from the Coulomb potential. Finally we calculated the potential in the 5D Coulomb phase and found $\\frac{1}{R^{2}}$ behavior for the static $q \\bar{q}$ potential. From the study of the helicity modul...

  11. Analytic Multi-Regge Theory and the Pomeron in QCD; 2, Gauge Theory Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    White, Alan R

    1993-01-01

    The high-energy Regge behavior of gauge theories is studied via the formalism of Analytic Multi-Regge Theory. Perturbative results for spontaneously-broken theories are first organised into reggeon diagrams. Unbroken gauge theories are studied via a reggeon diagram infra-red analysis of symmetry restoration. Massless fermions play a crucial role and the case of QCD involves the Super-Critical Pomeron as an essential intermediate stage. An introductory review of the build up of transverse momentum diagrams and reggeon diagrams from leading log calculations in gauge theories is presented first. It is then shown that the results closely reproduce the general structure for multi-regge amplitudes derived in Part I of the article, allowing the construction of general reggeon diagrams for spontaneously-broken theories. Next it is argued that, with a transverse-momentum cut-off, unbroken gauge theories can be reached through an infra-red limiting process which successively decouples fundamental representation Higgs f...

  12. Compact Variables and Singular Fields in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F; Lenz, Frieder; Woerlen, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Subject of our investigations is QCD formulated in terms of physical degrees of freedom. Starting from the Faddeev-Popov procedure, the canonical formulation of QCD is derived for static gauges. Particular emphasis is put on obstructions occurring when implementing gauge conditions and on the concomitant emergence of compact variables and singular fields. A detailed analysis of non-perturbative dynamics associated with such exceptional field configurations within Coulomb- and axial gauge is described. We present evidence that compact variables generate confinement-like phenomena in both gauges and point out the deficiencies in achieving a satisfactory non-perturbative treatment concerning all variables. Gauge fixed formulations are shown to constitute also a useful framework for phenomenological studies. Phenomenological insights into the dynamics of Polyakov loops and monopoles in confined and deconfined phases are presented within axial gauge QCD

  13. Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators from two-flavor lattice QCD at T > 0

    CERN Document Server

    Aouane, R; Muller-Preussker, M; Ilgenfritz, E -M; Sternbeck, A

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our unquenched computation of the Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators in lattice QCD at non-zero temperature. The study was aimed at providing input for investigations employing continuum functional methods. We show data which correspond to pion mass values between 300 and 500 MeV and are obtained for a lattice size 32**3 x 12. The longitudinal and transversal components of the gluon propagator turn out to change smoothly through the crossover region, while the ghost propagator exhibits only a very weak temperature dependence. For a pion mass of around 400 MeV and the intermediate temperature value of approx. 240 MeV we compare our results with additional data obtained on a lattice with smaller Euclidean time extent N_t = 8, 10 and find a reasonable scaling behavior.

  14. Kugo-Ojima confinement and QCD Green's functions in covariant gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2003-01-01

    In Landau gauge QCD the Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and its relation to the infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators are reviewed. It is demonstrated that the realization of this confinement criterion (which is closely related to the Gribov-Zwanziger horizon condition) results from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson--Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. The results are in good agreement, also quantitatively, with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fixed point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.915/N_c$. Solutions for the coupled system of Dyson--Schwinger equations for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators are presented. Dynamical generation of quark masses and thus spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry takes place. In the quenched approximation the quark propag...

  15. Infrared Exponents and the Running Coupling of Landau gauge QCD and their Relation to Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2003-01-01

    The infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD is reviewed. The Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and the Gribov-Zwanziger horizon condition result from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. The results are in good agreement with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fix point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.92/N_c$. Two different fits for the scale dependence of the running coupling are given and discussed.

  16. Zero Color Magnetization in QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Zahed, I; Zahed, Ismail; Zwanziger, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We show that all spatial gluon connected correlation functions in SU(N) or SO(N) QCD vanish at finite temperature and zero momentum in lattice Landau or Coulomb gauges, due to the proximity of the Gribov horizon. These observations also apply to QCD with two colors and an even number of flavors at large chemical potential. These nonperturbative results may have consequences on the nature of the thermal magnetic mass and the character of the magnetic color superconductivity.

  17. On the Infrared Exponent for Gluon and Ghost Propagation in Landau Gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, C; Lerche, Christoph; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2002-01-01

    In the covariant description of confinement, one expects the ghost correlations to be infrared enhanced. Assuming ghost dominance, the long-range behavior of gluon and ghost correlations in Landau gauge QCD is determined by one exponent kappa. The gluon propagator is infrared finite (vanishing) for kappa =1/2 (kappa > 1/2) which is still under debate. Here, we study critical exponent and coupling for the infrared conformal behavior from the asymptotic form of the solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations in an ultraviolet finite expansion scheme. The value for kappa is directly related to the ghost-gluon vertex. Assuming that it is regular in the infrared, one obtains kappa = 0.595. This value maximizes the critical coupling alpha_c(kappa), yielding alpha_c^max = (4\\pi/N_c) 0.709 approx. 2.97 for N_c=3. For larger kappa the vertex acquires an infrared singularity in the gluon momentum, smaller ones imply infrared singular ghost legs. Variations in alpha_c remain within 5% from kappa = 0.5 to 0.7. Above this ...

  18. QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Soper, Davison Eugene; Stirling, William James; Tapprogge, Stefan; Alekhin, S I; Aurenche, Patrick; Balázs, C; Ball, R D; Battistoni, G; Berger, E L; Binoth, T; Brock, R L; Casey, D; Corcella, Gennaro; Del Duca, V; Fabbro, A D; de Roeck, A; Ewerz, C; de Florian, D; Fontannaz, M; Frixione, Stefano; Giele, W T; Grazzini, Massimiliano; Guillet, J P; Marlen-Heinrich, G; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Kataev, A L; Kato, K; Keller, S; Klasen, M; Kosower, D A; Kulesza, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Kupco, A; Ilyin, V A; Magnea, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Martin, A D; Mazumdar, K; Miné, P; Moretti, M; van Neerven, W L; Parente, G; Perret-Gallix, D; Pilon, E; Pukhov, A E; Puljak, I; Pumplin, Jon; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Roberts, R G; Salam, Gavin P; Seymour, Michael H; Skachkov, N B; Sidorov, A V; Stenzel, H; Stump, D R; Thorne, R S; Treleani, D; Tung, W K; Vogt, A; Webber, Bryan R; Werlen, M; Zmouchko, S; Mine, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss issues of QCD at the LHC including parton distributions, Monte Carlo event generators, the available next-to-leading order calculations, resummation, photon production, small x physics, double parton scattering, and backgrounds to Higgs production.

  19. Fermions, Mass-Gap and Landau Levels: Gauge invariant Hamiltonian for QCD in D=2+1

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    A gauge-invariant reformulation of QCD in three spacetime dimensions is presented within a Hamiltonian formalism, extending previous work to include fermion fields in the adjoint and fundamental representations. A priori there are several ways to define the gauge-invariant versions of the fermions; a consistent prescription for choosing the fermionic variables is presented. The fermionic contribution to the volume element of the gauge orbit space and the gluonic mass-gap is computed exactly and this contribution is shown to be closely related to the mechanism for induction of Chern-Simons terms by parity-odd fermions. The consistency of the Hamiltonian scheme with known results on index theorems, Landau Levels and renormalization of Chern-Simons level numbers is shown in detail. We also comment on the fermionic contribution to the volume element in relation to issues of confinement and screening.

  20. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method --- an application to finite density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We study full QCD at finite density and low temperature with light quark mass using the complex Langevin method. Since the singular drift problem turns out to be mild on a $4^3 \\times 8$ lattice we use, the gauge cooling is performed only to control the unitarity norm in this exploratory study. We report on our preliminary data obtained from the complex Langevin simulation up to certain Langevin time. While the data are still noisy due to lack of statistics, the onset of the baryon number density seems to occur at larger $\\mu$ than half the pion mass, which is the value for the phase quenched QCD. The validity of our simulation is tested by the recently proposed criterion based on the probability distribution of the drift term.

  1. Monopoles and string tension in SU(2) QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H; Hiroshi Shiba; Tsuneo Suzuki

    1994-01-01

    Monopole and photon contributions to abelian Wilson loops are calculated using Monte-Carlo simulations of SU(2) QCD in the maximally abelian gauge. The string tension is well reproduced only by monopole contributions, whereas photons alone are responsible for the Coulomb coefficient of the abelian static potential.

  2. A generalized dilaton gauge field for the rho meson mass spectrum in the soft-wall AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Petousis, Vlasios

    2012-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy within the frame of the soft-wall AdS/QCD, became one of the most interesting topics of particle physics in the last six years. In this work we attempt a generalized parametric analysis of the background dilaton gauge field. Aim of this work is that using a positive z-depended dilaton gauge field and setting the appropriate parameters on it, we are able to reproduce the full vector meson mass spectrum. Also the correct Regge trajectories can be reproduced without problems with massless modes in the vector sector. To reinforce the results, we compare the proposed parametric model with the experimental data. This comparison, returns in some cases an error less than 1%.

  3. Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion, Zwanziger-Gribov horizon condition, and infrared critical exponents in Landau gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2003-01-01

    The Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion and its relation to the infrared behaviour of the gluon and ghost propagators in Landau gauge QCD are reviewed. The realization of this confinement criterion (which in Landau gauge relates to Zwanziger's horizon condition) results from quite general properties of the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. The numerical solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators obtained from a truncated set of Dyson-Schwinger equations provide an explicit example for the anticipated infrared behaviour. These results are in good agreement, also quantitatively, with corresponding lattice data obtained recently. The resulting running coupling approaches a fixed point in the infrared, $\\alpha(0) = 8.9/N_c$. Solutions for the coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark, gluon and ghost propagators are presented. Dynamical generation of quark masses and thus spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is found. In the quenched approximation the quark propagator functions agree well with th...

  4. Comparison of Non-Perturbative, Gauge-Invariant, Realistic QCD with ISR Elastic pp Scattering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Herbert M; Gabellini, Yves; Grandou, Thierry; Sheu, Yeuan Ming

    2016-01-01

    Using previously-described, functional techniques for exact solutions to QCD processes, a simplified version of the amplitudes provides high-quality fits to the ISR data. Qualitative generalizations to initial LHC data are suggested, and are presently under consideration.

  5. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...... fixed point. Remarkably this value is identical to the maximum bound predicted in the nonpertubative regime via the all-orders conjectured beta function for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories.......We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  6. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, H. M.; Tsang, P. H.; Gabellini, Y.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2016-11-01

    A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  7. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Gabellini, Y; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y-M

    2015-01-01

    A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  8. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  9. String Breaking in Four Dimensional Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, A; Thacker, H

    2001-01-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on an Athlon 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse (but O($a^2$) improved) lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R $\\geq$ approximately 1 fm.

  10. Renormalized Effective QCD Hamiltonian Gluonic Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, D G; Szczepaniak, A P; Ji, C R; Cotanch, S R

    1999-01-01

    Extending previous QCD Hamiltonian studies, we present a new renormalization procedure which generates an effective Hamiltonian for the gluon sector. The formulation is in the Coulomb gauge where the QCD Hamiltonian is renormalizable and the Gribov problem can be resolved. We utilize elements of the Glazek and Wilson regularization method but now introduce a continuous cut-off procedure which eliminates non-local counterterms. The effective Hamiltonian is then derived to second order in the strong coupling constant. The resulting renormalized Hamiltonian provides a realistic starting point for approximate many-body calculations of hadronic properties for systems with explicit gluon degrees of freedom.

  11. Adjoint $QCD_{1+1}$ in Light-cone Gauge, Quantized at Equal Time

    CERN Document Server

    Vianello, E

    2004-01-01

    SU(2) gauge theory coupled to massless fermions in the adjoint representation is quantized in light-cone gauge by imposing the equal-time canonical algebra. The theory is defined on a space-time cylinder with "twisted" boundary conditions, periodic for one color component (the diagonal 3- component) and antiperiodic for the other two. The focus of the study is on the non-trivial vacuum structure and the fermion condensate. It is shown that the indefinite-metric quantization of free gauge bosons is not compatible with the residual gauge symmetry of the interacting theory. A suitable quantization of the unphysical modes of the gauge field is necessary in order to guarantee the consistency of the subsidiary condition and allow the quantum representation of the residual gauge symmetry of the classical Lagrangian: the 3-color component of the gauge field must be quantized in a space with an indefinite metric while the other two components require a positive-definite metric. The contribution of the latter to the fr...

  12. The Infrared Behaviour of the Running Coupling in Landau Gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alkofer, R; Von Smekal, L

    2002-01-01

    Approximate solutions for the gluon and ghost propagators as well as the running coupling in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theories are presented. These propagators obtained from the corresponding Dyson-Schwinger equations are in remarkable agreement with those of recent lattice calculations. The resulting running coupling possesses an infrared fixed point, $\\alpha_S(0) = 8.92/N_c$ for all gauge groups SU($N_c$). Above one GeV the running coupling rapidly approaches its perturbative form.

  13. Duality and Other Exotic Gauge Dynamics in Software Broken Supersymmetric QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Peskin, M

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the theory of softly broken supersymmetric QCD. Exotic behavior like spontaneously broken baryon number, massless composite fermions and Seiberg's duality seems to persist also in the presence of (small) soft supersymmetry breaking. We argue that certain, specially tailored, lattice simulations may be able to detect the novel phenomena. Most of the exotic behavior does not survive the decoupling limit of large SUSY breaking parameters.

  14. Heavy Quark Thermalization in Classical Lattice Gauge Theory Lessons for Strongly-Coupled QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko; Philipsen, Owe; Tassler, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Thermalization of a heavy quark near rest is controlled by the correlator of two electric fields along a temporal Wilson line. We address this correlator within real-time, classical lattice Yang-Mills theory, and elaborate on the analogies that exist with the dynamics of hot QCD. In the weak-coupling limit, it can be shown analytically that the dynamics on the two sides are closely related to each other. For intermediate couplings, we carry out non-perturbative simulations within the classical theory, showing that the leading term in the weak-coupling expansion significantly underestimates the heavy quark thermalization rate. Our analytic and numerical results also yield a general understanding concerning the overall shape of the spectral function corresponding to the electric field correlator, which may be helpful in subsequent efforts to reconstruct it from Euclidean lattice Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. On the Landau gauge matter-gluon vertex in scalar QCD in a functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hopfer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Recently the quark-gluon vertex has been investigated in Landau gauge using a combined Dyson-Schwinger and nPI effective action approach. We present here a numerical analysis of a simpler system where the quarks have been replaced by charged scalar fields. We solve the coupled system of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the scalar propagator, the scalar-gluon vertex and the Yang-Mills propagators in a truncation related to earlier studies. The calculations have been performed for scalars both in the fundamental and the adjoint representation. A clear suppression of the Abelian diagram is found in both cases. Thus, within the used truncation the suppression of the Abelian diagram predominantly happens dynamically and is to a high degree independent of the colour structure. The numerical techniques developed here can directly be applied to the fermionic case.

  16. Higher Order QCD predictions for Associated Higgs production with anomalous couplings to gauge bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Mimasu, Ken; Williams, Ciaran

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for the associated production of a Higgs boson at NLO+PS accuracy, including the effect of anomalous interactions between the Higgs and gauge bosons. We present our results in different frameworks, one in which the interaction vertex between the Higgs boson and Standard Model $W$ and $Z$ bosons is parameterized in terms of general Lorentz structures, and one in which Electroweak symmetry breaking is manifestly linear and the resulting operators arise through a six-dimensional effective field theory framework. We present analytic calculations of the Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model contributions, and discuss the phenomenological impact of the higher order pieces. Our results are implemented in the NLO Monte Carlo program MCFM, and interfaced to shower Monte Carlos through the {\\sc Powheg} box framework.

  17. Higher order QCD predictions for associated Higgs production with anomalous couplings to gauge bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Verónica; Williams, Ciaran

    2016-08-01

    We present predictions for the associated production of a Higgs boson at NLO+PS accuracy, including the effect of anomalous interactions between the Higgs and gauge bosons. We present our results in different frameworks, one in which the interaction vertex between the Higgs boson and Standard Model W and Z bosons is parameterized in terms of general Lorentz structures, and one in which Electroweak symmetry breaking is manifestly linear and the resulting operators arise through a six-dimensional effective field theory framework. We present analytic calculations of the Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model contributions, and discuss the phenomenological impact of the higher order pieces. Our results are implemented in the NLO Monte Carlo program MCFM, and interfaced to shower Monte Carlos through the Powheg box framework.

  18. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method --a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a gene...

  19. Gauge cooling for the singular-drift problem in the complex Langevin method — a test in Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keitaro; Nishimura, Jun; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the complex Langevin method has been applied successfully to finite density QCD either in the deconfinement phase or in the heavy dense limit with the aid of a new technique called the gauge cooling. In the confinement phase with light quarks, however, convergence to wrong limits occurs due to the singularity in the drift term caused by small eigenvalues of the Dirac operator including the mass term. We propose that this singular-drift problem should also be overcome by the gauge cooling with different criteria for choosing the complexified gauge transformation. The idea is tested in chiral Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where exact results are reproduced at zero temperature with light quarks. It is shown that the gauge cooling indeed changes drastically the eigenvalue distribution of the Dirac operator measured during the Langevin process. Despite its non-holomorphic nature, this eigenvalue distribution has a universal diverging behavior at the origin in the chiral limit due to a generalized Banks-Casher relation as we confirm explicitly.

  20. Deconfinement on $\\mathbb R^2\\times S^1_L\\times S^1_{\\beta}$ for all gauge groups and duality to double Coulomb Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Teeple, Brett

    2015-01-01

    I study finite-temperature $\\mathcal N=1$ super Yang-Mills for any gauge group $G=A_N, B_N, C_N, D_N, E_{6,7,8},F_4,G_2$, compactified from four dimensions on a torus, $\\mathbb R^2\\times S^1_L\\times S^1_{\\beta}$. I examine in particular the low temperature regime $L\\ll\\beta=1/T$, where $L$ is the length of the spatial circle with periodic boundary conditions and with anti-periodic boundary conditions for the adjoint gauginos along the thermal cycle $S^1_{\\beta}$. For small such $L$ we are in a regime were semiclassical calculations can be performed and a transition occurs at $T_c$ much smaller than $1/NL$. The transition is mediated by the competition between non-perturbative objects including 'exotic' topological molecules: neutral and magnetic bions composed of BPS and KK monopole constituents, with $r=rank(G)$ different charges in the co-root lattice of the gauge group $G$, and the perturbative electrically charged W-bosons (along with their wino superpartners). I determine a duality to a double Coulomb ga...

  1. Determination of $c_\\mathrm A$ in three-flavour lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We report on an ongoing non-perturbative determination of the improvement coefficient of the axial current, $c_\\mathrm A$, with three flavours of dynamical $\\mathrm O(a)$ improved Wilson quarks and tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action. Our computations are based on simulations with the openQCD code. The improvement condition for a range of couplings is formulated with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions and imposed along a line of constant physics in parameter space. Our analysis involves correlation functions with boundary wave functions such that a large sensitivity to $c_\\mathrm A$ can be reached by exploiting the PCAC relation with two different pseudoscalar states.

  2. A model for QCD ground state with magnetic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Szczepaniak, Adam P

    2010-01-01

    We explore an ansatz for the QCD vacuum in the Coulomb gauge that describes gauge field fluctuations in presence of a weakly interacting gas of abelian monopoles. Such magnetic disorder leads to long-range correlations which are manifested through the area law for the Wilson loop. In particular we focus on the role of the residual monopole-monopole interactions in providing the mechanism for suppression of the gluon propagator at low-momenta which also leads to low momentum enhancement in the ghost propagator.

  3. Model for QCD ground state with magnetic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Matevosyan, Hrayr H.

    2010-05-01

    We explore an ansatz for the QCD vacuum in the Coulomb gauge that describes gauge field fluctuations in the presence of a weakly interacting gas of Abelian monopoles. Such magnetic disorder leads to long-range correlations which are manifested through the area law for the Wilson loop. In particular we focus on the role of the residual monopole-monopole interactions in providing the mechanism for suppression of the gluon propagator at low momenta which also leads to low-momentum enhancement in the ghost propagator.

  4. Solution of the Dyson-Schwinger-Equations of the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills-Theory in Coulomb-gauge; Loesung der Dyson-Schwinger-Gleichungen des Hamilton-Zugangs zur Yang-Mills-Theorie in Coulomb-Eichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, Mark Dominik

    2008-12-03

    In this work we examine the Yang-Mills-Schroedinger equation, which is a result from minimizing the vacuum energy density in Coulomb gauge. We use an ansatz for the vacuum wave functional which is motivated by the exact wave functional of quantum electrodynamics. The wave functional is by construction singular on the Gribov horizon and has a variational kernel in the exponent which represents the gluon energy. We derive the so-called Dyson-Schwinger-equations from the variational principle, that the vacuum energy density is stationary under variation with respect to the variational kernel. These Dyson-Schwinger-equations build a set of coupled integral equations for the gluon and ghost propagator, and for the curvature in gauge orbit space. These equations have been derived in the last few years, have been examined analytically in certain approximations, and first numerical results have been obtained. The case of the so-called horizon condition, which means that the ghost form factor is divergent in the infrared, has always been of special interest. But is has been found in certain approximations analytically as well als numerically that the fully coupled system has no self-consistent solution within the employed truncation on two-loop level in the energy. But one can obtain a solvable system by inserting the bare ghost-propagator into the Coulomb equation. This system possesses two different kind of infrared-divergent solutions which differ in the exponents of the power laws of the form factors in the infrared. The weaker divergent solution has previously been found, but not the stronger divergent solution. The subject of this work is to develop a deeper understanding of the presented system. We present a new renormalization scheme which enables us to reduce the number of renormalization parameters by one. This new system of integral equations is solved numerically with greatly increased precision. Doing so we found the stronger divergent solution for the first

  5. New insights into properties of large- N holographic thermal QCD at finite gauge coupling at (the non-conformal/next-to) leading order in N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Karunava; Misra, Aalok

    2016-11-01

    It is believed that large- N thermal QCD laboratories like strongly coupled QGP (sQGP) require not only a large `t Hooft coupling but also a finite gauge coupling (Natsuume, String theory and quark-gluon plasma. arXiv:hep-ph/0701201, 2007). Unlike almost all top-down holographic models in the literature, holographic large- N thermal QCD models, based on this assumption, therefore necessarily require addressing this limit from M-theory. This was initiated in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) which presented a local M-theory uplift of the string theoretic dual of large- N thermal QCD-like theories at finite gauge/string coupling of Mia et al. (Nucl. Phys. B 839:187, arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) (g_s deformation - this paper) or deformed (deformation > resolution - Dhuria and Misra in Eur Phys J C 75(1):16, arXiv:1406.6076 [hep-th], 2015) resolved warped deformed conifold, the local T^3 of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) in the MQGP limit is the T^2-invariant special Lagrangian three-cycle of Ionel and Min-OO (Ill J Math 52(3), 2008) justifying the construction in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, arXiv:1306.4339 [hep-th], 2013) of the delocalized Strominger-Yau-Zaslow Type IIA mirror of the Type IIB background of Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187, arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010).

  6. Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-02-01

    We compute, via numerical simulations, the nonperturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

  7. Non-perturbative improvement of the axial current in N_f=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient c_A required for O(a) improvement of the axial current in lattice QCD with N_f=3 flavors of Wilson fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action is determined non-perturbatively. The standard improvement condition using Schroedinger functional boundary conditions is employed at constant physics for a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ~ 0.09 fm and below. We define the improvement condition projected onto the zero topological charge sector of the theory, in order to avoid the problem of possibly insufficient tunneling between topological sectors in our simulations at the smallest bare coupling. An interpolation formula for c_A(g_0^2) is provided together with our final results.

  8. MS-on-shell quark mass relation up to four loops in QCD and a general SU(N) gauge group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Smirnov, Alexander V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Research Computing Center; Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Steinhauser, Matthias; Wellmann, David [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we compute the relation between heavy quark masses defined in the modified minimal subtraction and on-shell scheme. Detailed results are presented for all coefficients of the SU(N{sub c}) colour factors. The reduction of the four-loop on-shell integrals is performed for a general QCD gauge parameter. Some of the about 380 master integrals are computed analytically, others with high numerical precision based on Mellin-Barnes representations, and the rest numerically with the help of FIESTA. We discuss in detail the precise numerical evaluation of the four-loop master integrals. Updated relations between various short-distance masses and the MS quark mass to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy are provided for the charm, bottom and top quark. We discuss the dependence on the renormalization and factorization scale.

  9. Non-perturbative renormalization of the axial current in $N_f = 3$ lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and tree-level improved gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Bulava, John; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We non-perturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with $N_f=3$ flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity and it is imposed among Schr\\"{o}dinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of $\\approx 0.09$ fm and below. An interpolation formula for $Z_A(g_0^2)$, smoothly connecting the non-perturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  10. New insights into properties of large-N holographic thermal QCD at finite gauge coupling at (the non-conformal/next-to) leading order in N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sil, Karunava; Misra, Aalok [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2016-11-15

    It is believed that large-N thermal QCD laboratories like strongly coupled QGP (sQGP) require not only a large 't Hooft coupling but also a finite gauge coupling (Natsuume, String theory and quark-gluon plasma. arXiv:hep-ph/0701201, 2007). Unlike almost all top-down holographic models in the literature, holographic large-N thermal QCD models, based on this assumption, therefore necessarily require addressing this limit from M-theory. This was initiated in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) which presented a local M-theory uplift of the string theoretic dual of large-N thermal QCD-like theories at finite gauge/string coupling of Mia et al. (Nucl. Phys. B 839:187, arXiv:0902.1540 [hep-th], 2010) (g{sub s} gauge coupling, have been entirely missing in the literature. In this paper we largely address the following two non-trivial issues pertaining to the same. First, up to LO in N (the number of D3-branes), by calculating the temperature dependence of the thermal (and electrical) conductivity and the consequent deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law, upon comparison with Garg et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:096402, 2009), we show that, remarkably, the results qualitatively mimic a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger liquid with impurities. Second, by looking at, respectively, the scalar, vector, and tensor modes of metric perturbations and using the prescription of Kovtun and Starinets (Phys. Rev. D 72:086009, arXiv:hep-th/0506184, 2005) for constructing appropriate gauge-invariant perturbations, we obtain the non-conformal corrections to the conformal results (but at finite g{sub s}), respectively, for the speed of sound, the shear mode diffusion constant, and the shear viscosity η (and (η)/(s)). The new insight gained is that it

  11. High-loop perturbative renormalization constants for Lattice QCD (II): three-loop quark currents for tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory was able to get three- (and even four-) loop results for finite Lattice QCD renormalization constants. More recently, a conceptual and technical framework has been devised to tame finite size effects, which had been reported to be significant for (logarithmically) divergent renormalization constants. In this work we present three-loop results for fermion bilinears in the Lattice QCD regularization defined by tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions. We discuss both finite and divergent renormalization constants in the RI'-MOM scheme. Since renormalization conditions are defined in the chiral limit, our results also apply to Twisted Mass QCD, for which non-perturbative computations of the same quantities are available. We emphasize the importance of carefully accounting for both finite lattice space and finite volume effects. In our opinion the latter have in general not attracted the attention they would deserve.

  12. On Large-N Holographic Thermal QCD at Finite Gauge Coupling at (the Non-Conformal/Next-to) Leading Order in N

    CERN Document Server

    Sil, Karunava

    2016-01-01

    In the context of [1]'s string theoretic dual of large-N thermal QCD-like theories at finite gauge/string coupling (as part of the `MQGP' limit of [2]), we discuss the following. First, up to LO in N, using the results of [3], we show that the local T^3 of [2] is the T^2-invariant sLag of [3] in a resolved conifold. This, together with the results of [4], shows that for a (predominantly resolved or deformed) resolved warped deformed conifold, the local T^3 of [2] in the MQGP limit, is the T^2-invariant sLag of [3] justifying the construction of the delocalized SYZ type IIA mirror of the type IIB background of [1]. Then, using the prescription of [5], we obtain the temperature dependence of the thermal (and electrical) conductivity working up to leading order in N (the number of D3-branes), and upon comparison with [6] show that the results mimic a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger liquid with impurities. Further, including sub-leading non-conformal terms in the metric determined by M (the number of fractional D-brane...

  13. Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...

  14. Heavy-quarkonium potential with input from lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Serenone, Willian Matioli

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we study potential models incorporating a nonperturbative propagator obtained from lattice simulations of a pure gauge theory. Initially we review general aspects of gauge theories, the principles of the lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and some properties of heavy quarkonia, i.e. bound states of a heavy quark and its antiquark. As an illustration of Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models, we present applications in the case of the harmonic oscillator and SU(2) gauge theory. We then study the effect of using a gluon propagator from lattice simulations of pure SU(2) theory as an input in a potential model for the description of quarkonium, in the case of bottomonium and charmonium. We use, in both cases, a numerical approach to evaluate masses of quarkonium states. The resulting spectra are compared to calculations using the Coulomb plus linear (or Cornell) potential.

  15. Aspects of baryon structure in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Ronald

    functions, evaluated in both the Coulomb and Landau gauges. By comparing baryons that differ in their diquark content, I find evidence for enhanced correlation in the scalar diquark channel, as favored by QCD-inspired quark models. I also present results for diquark mass splittings, determined from diquark correlators in the Landau gauge. This second set of calculations was performed with the overlap Dirac operator on quenched gauge configurations at beta = 6.

  16. Nonperturbative determination of the QCD potential at O(1/m)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koma, Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koma, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Osaka Univ. (JP). Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP); Wittig, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2006-07-15

    The relativistic correction to the QCD static inter-quark potential at O(1/m) is investigated nonperturbatively for the first time by using lattice Monte Carlo QCD simulations. The correction is found to be comparable with the Coulombic term of the static potential when applied to charmonium, and amounts to 26% of the Coulombic term for bottomonium. (Orig.)

  17. G2 gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel

    2012-01-01

    QCD can be formulated using any gauge group. One particular interesting choice is to replace SU(3) by the exceptional group G2. Conceptually, this group is the simplest group with a trivial center. It thus permits to study the conjectured relevance of center degrees of freedom for QCD. Practically, since all its representation are real, it is possible to perform lattice simulations for this theory also at finite baryon densities. It is thus an excellent environment to test methods and to investigate general properties of gauge theories at finite densities. We review the status of our understanding of gauge theories with the gauge group G2, including Yang-Mills theory, Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, and QCD both in the vacuum and in the phase diagram.

  18. Towards Quantum Simulating QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, Uwe-Jens

    2014-01-01

    Quantum link models provide an alternative non-perturbative formulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. They are ideally suited for quantum simulation, for example, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. This holds the promise to address currently unsolvable problems, such as the real-time and high-density dynamics of strongly interacting matter, first in toy-model gauge theories, and ultimately in QCD.

  19. Towards quantum simulating QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Uwe-Jens

    2014-11-15

    Quantum link models provide an alternative non-perturbative formulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. They are ideally suited for quantum simulation, for example, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. This holds the promise to address currently unsolvable problems, such as the real-time and high-density dynamics of strongly interacting matter, first in toy-model gauge theories, and ultimately in QCD.

  20. Deconfinement on ℝ{sup 2}×S{sub L}{sup 1}×S{sub β}{sup 1} for all gauge groups and duality to double Coulomb gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeple, Brett [Department of Physics, University of Toronto,Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2016-04-19

    I study finite-temperature N=1 super Yang-Mills for any gauge group G=A{sub N},B{sub N},C{sub N},D{sub N},E{sub 6,7,8},F{sub 4},G{sub 2}, compactified from four dimensions on a torus, ℝ{sup 2}×S{sub L}{sup 1}×S{sub β}{sup 1}. I examine in particular the low temperature regime L≪β=1/T, where L is the length of the spatial circle with periodic boundary conditions and with anti-periodic boundary conditions for the adjoint gauginos along the thermal cycle S{sub β}{sup 1}. For small such L we are in a regime were semiclassical calculations can be performed and a transition occurs at T{sub c} much smaller than 1/NL. The transition is mediated by the competition between non-perturbative objects including ‘exotic’ topological molecules: neutral and magnetic bions composed of BPS and KK monopole constituents, with r=rank(G) different charges in the co-root lattice of the gauge group G, and the perturbative electrically charged W-bosons (along with their wino superpartners). The difference from non-SUSY theories here is that the Higgsing along the thermal cycle gives rise to a light modulus scalar field which couples to both bion-instantons and the W-bosons, and mediates a transition near T{sub c} where the bions and W-bosons compete with equal strengths. The transition is seen to be similar to previous studies on ℝ{sup 3}×S{sub L}{sup 1} http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)142; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)040; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2013)087; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2013)128 with general gauge group where a first order transition was found for all groups, but a second order one for the case of SU(2) on the torus ℝ{sup 2}×S{sub L}{sup 1}×S{sub β}{sup 1}, which was subjected to lattice studies in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)142. I determine a duality to a double Coulomb gas of neutral and magnetic bions of different charges of their constituent monopole-instantons, and W-bosons of both scalar and electric charges

  1. Monopole Condensation and Confinement in SU(2) QCD (2)

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H; Shiba, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    Monopole and photon contributions to Wilson loops are calculated using Monte-Carlo simulations of SU(2) QCD in the maximally abelian gauge. The string tensions of SU(2) QCD are well reproduced by extended monopole contributions alone.

  2. Static quark-antiquark potential in the quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2015-02-27

    We present a state-of-the-art determination of the complex valued static quark-antiquark potential at phenomenologically relevant temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. Its values are obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD simulations using spectral functions extracted via a novel Bayesian inference prescription. We find that the real part, both in a gluonic medium, as well as in realistic QCD with light u, d, and s quarks, lies close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge and shows Debye screening above the (pseudo)critical temperature T_{c}. The imaginary part is estimated in the gluonic medium, where we find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop resummed perturbation theory in the deconfined phase.

  3. STU/QCD Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Jafar

    2012-01-01

    In this review article we consider a special case of D=5, $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supergravity called the STU model. We apply the gauge/gravity correspondence to the STU model to gain insight into properties of the quark-gluon plasma. Given that the quark-gluon plasma is in reality described by QCD, therefore we call our study STU/QCD correspondence. First, we investigate the thermodynamics and hydrodynamics of the STU background. Then we use dual picture of the theory, which is type IIB string theory, to obtain the drag force and jet-quenching parameter of an external probe quark.

  4. Properties of the twisted Polyakov loop coupling and the infrared fixed point in the SU(3) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Itou, Etsuko

    2012-01-01

    We give a summary report for the nonperturbative behaviors of the twisted Polyakov loop (TPL) coupling constant for the SU(3) gauge theory, which is one of the nonperturbative renormalized coupling constants defined in finite volume. We reveal several properties for the lattice gauge theory with the twisted boundary condition and carry out the numerical simulations in the cases of the quenched QCD and N_f=12 SU(3) theories. At first, we study the quenched QCD theory by using the plaquette gauge action. The TPL coupling constant shows a fake fixed point in the Coulomb phase even in the quenched QCD. We discuss this property and show the nonperturbative running coupling constant. We also investigate the system coupled with fundamental fermions. In the simulation, we use the naive staggered fermion and the minimum number of flavor is 12 in this lattice setup because of the twisted boundary condition. The N_f=12 SU(3) gauge theory is expected that the running coupling constant shows the different behavior form th...

  5. A new approach to radial and axial gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Heribert; Heinz, Ulrich

    1992-03-01

    We develop a new path integral formulation of QCD in radial and axial gauges. This formalism yields free propagators which are free of gauge poles. We find that radial gauges are ghost free. In axial gauges ghosts cannot generally be excluded from the formalism due to the need to fix the residual gauge freedom.

  6. Lattice gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Peter; Majumdar, Pushan

    2012-03-01

    Lattice gauge theory is a formulation of quantum field theory with gauge symmetries on a space-time lattice. This formulation is particularly suitable for describing hadronic phenomena. In this article we review the present status of lattice QCD. We outline some of the computational methods, discuss some phenomenological applications and a variety of non-perturbative topics. The list of references is severely incomplete, the ones we have included are text books or reviews and a few subjectively selected papers. Kronfeld and Quigg (2010) supply a reasonably comprehensive set of QCD references. We apologize for the fact that have not covered many important topics such as QCD at finite density and heavy quark effective theory adequately, and mention some of them only in the last section "In Brief". These topics should be considered in further Scholarpedia articles.

  7. Bounding Noncommutative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, C E; Lebed, R F; Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    Jurco, Moller, Schraml, Schupp, and Wess have shown how to construct noncommutative SU(N) gauge theories from a consistency relation. Within this framework, we present the Feynman rules for noncommutative QCD and compute explicitly the most dangerous Lorentz-violating operator generated through radiative corrections. We find that interesting effects appear at the one-loop level, in contrast to conventional noncommutative U(N) gauge theories, leading to a stringent bound. Our results are consistent with others appearing recently in the literature that suggest collider limits are not competitive with low-energy tests of Lorentz violation for bounding the scale of spacetime noncommutativity.

  8. Infrared QCD and the Renormalisation Group

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, D F; Nedelko, S; Von Smekal, L; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Nedelko, Sergei; Smekal, Lorenz v.

    2004-01-01

    We study the infrared regime of QCD by means of a Wilsonian renormalisation group. We explain how, in general, the infrared structure of Green functions is deduced in this approach. Our reasoning is put to work in Landau gauge QCD, where the leading infrared terms of the propagators are computed. The results support the Kugo-Ojima scenario of confinement. Possible extensions are indicated.

  9. Abelianization of QCD plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Peter; Lenaghan, Jonathan

    2004-12-01

    QCD plasma instabilities appear to play an important role in the equilibration of quark-gluon plasmas in heavy-ion collisions in the theoretical limit of weak coupling (i.e. asymptotically high energy). It is important to understand what nonlinear physics eventually stops the exponential growth of unstable modes. It is already known that the initial growth of plasma instabilities in QCD closely parallels that in QED. However, once the unstable modes of the gauge fields grow large enough for non-Abelian interactions between them to become important, one might guess that the dynamics of QCD plasma instabilities and QED plasma instabilities become very different. In this paper, we give suggestive arguments that non-Abelian self-interactions between the unstable modes are ineffective at stopping instability growth, and that the growing non-Abelian gauge fields become approximately Abelian after a certain stage in their growth. This in turn suggests that understanding the development of QCD plasma instabilities in the nonlinear regime may have close parallels to similar processes in traditional plasma physics. We conjecture that the physics of collisionless plasma instabilities in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory becomes equivalent, respectively, to (i) traditional plasma physics, which is U(1) gauge theory, and (ii) plasma physics of U(1)×U(1) gauge theory.

  10. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: recent progress on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Denes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2014-01-01

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  11. QCD at nonzero chemical potential: Recent progress on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Attanasio, Felipe [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília - DF 70040-020 (Brazil); Seiler, Erhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), 80805 München (Germany); Sexty, Dénes [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

  12. N=2 Moduli Spaces and N=1 Dualities for $SO(n_c)$ and $USp(2n_c)$ SuperQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; Shapere, A D; Argyres, Philip C.; Shapere, Alfred D.

    1996-01-01

    We determine the exact global structure of the moduli space of $N{=}2$ supersymmetric $SO(n)$ and $\\USp(2n)$ gauge theories with matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representations, using the non-renormalization theorem for the Higgs branches and the exact solutions for the Coulomb branches. By adding an $(N{=}2)$--breaking mass term for the adjoint chiral field and varying the mass, the $N{=}2$ theories can be made to flow to either an ``electric'' $N{=}1$ supersymmetric QCD or its $N{=}1$ dual ``magnetic'' version. We thus obtain a derivation of the $N{=}1$ dualities of Seiberg.

  13. No confinement without Coulomb confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Zwanziger, D

    2003-01-01

    We compare the physical potential $V_D(R)$ of an external quark-antiquark pair in the representation $D$ of SU(N), to the color-Coulomb potential $V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ which is the instantaneous part of the 44-component of the gluon propagator in Coulomb gauge, $D_{44}(\\vx,t) = V_{\\rm coul}(|\\vx|) \\delta(t)$ + (non-instantaneous). We show that if $V_D(R)$ is confining, $\\lim_{R \\to \\infty}V_D(R) = + \\infty$, then the inequality $V_D(R) \\leq - C_D V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ holds asymptotically at large $R$, where $C_D > 0$ is the Casimir in the representation $D$. This implies that $ - V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ is also confining.

  14. Induced QCD I: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-University of Frankfurt,60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany); Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg,93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-11-14

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N{sub b} auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N{sub b} can be as small as N{sub c}. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N{sub c}) to SU(N{sub c}), (ii) derive refined bounds on N{sub b} for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.

  15. Interquark potential with finite quark mass from lattice QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi

    2011-08-26

    We present an investigation of the interquark potential determined from the q ̄q Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude for heavy quarkonia in lattice QCD. The q ̄q potential at finite quark mass m(q) can be calculated from the equal-time and Coulomb gauge BS amplitude through the effective Schrödinger equation. The definition of the potential itself requires information about a kinetic mass of the quark. We then propose a self-consistent determination of the quark kinetic mass on the same footing. To verify the proposed method, we perform quenched lattice QCD simulations with a relativistic heavy-quark action at a lattice cutoff of 1/a≈2.1  GeV in a range 1.0≤m(q)≤3.6 GeV. Our numerical results show that the q ̄q potential in the m(q)→∞ limit is fairly consistent with the conventional one obtained from Wilson loops. The quark-mass dependence of the q ̄q potential and the spin-spin potential are also examined. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Unquenched Gluon Propagator in Landau Gauge

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Using lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) we perform an unquenched calculation of the gluon propagator in Landau gauge. We use configurations generated with the AsqTad quark action by the MILC collaboration for the dynamical quarks and compare the gluon propagator of quenched QCD (i.e., the pure Yang-Mills gluon propagator) with that of 2+1 flavor QCD. The effects of the dynamical quarks are clearly visible and lead to a significant reduction of the nonperturbative infrared enhancement relat...

  17. Qcd Thermodynamics On A Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Levkova, L A

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with two flavors of dynamical staggered fermions, where all bare parameters and the renormalized anisotropy are kept constant and the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of time slices. Including results from zero- temperature scale setting simulations, which determine the Karsch coefficients, allows for the calculation of the Equation of State at finite temperatures. We also report on studies of the chiral properties of dynamical domain-wall fermions combined with the DBW2 gauge action for different gauge couplings and fermion masses. For quenched theories, the DBW2 action gives a residual chiral symmetry breaking much smaller than what was found with more traditional choices for the gauge action. Our goal is to investigate the possibilities which this and further improvemen...

  18. An introduction to gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibbo, Nicola; Benhar, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Written by three of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model, including an award-winning former director general of CERN, this book provides a completely up-to-date account of gauge theories. Starting from Feynman’s path integrals, Feynman rules are derived, gauge fixing and Faddeev-Popov ghosts are discussed, and renormalization group equations are derived. Several important applications to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are discussed, including the one-loop derivation of asymptotic freedom for QCD.

  19. Groupthink and the Blunder of the Gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    uncritical acceptance of this concept, all textbooks (until very recently) have attributed the concept to H.A. Lorentz rather than its rightful...author, L. Lorenz [1]. The first two editions of Jackson’s “Electrodynamics”, for example, attribute this gauge to H.A. Lorentz . This error is...hidden gauge I =0 and the conflicting Coulomb gauge . One cannot select conflicting gauge choices without violating the laws of physics. 8

  20. Non-perturbative renormalization of quark bilinear operators with N{sub f}=2 (tmQCD) Wilson fermions and the tree-level improved gauge action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (Italy); Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (IT)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    We present results for the renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators obtained b4>UNL<426>UNL using the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and the N{sub f}=2 twisted mass fermion action at maximal twist, which guarantees automatic O(a)- improvement. Our results are also relevant for the corresponding standard (untwisted) Wilson fermionic action since the two actions only differ, in the massless limit, by a chiral rotation of the quark fields. The scale-independent renormalization constants Z{sub V}, Z{sub A} and the ratio Z{sub P}/Z{sub S} have been computed using the RI-MOM approach, as well as other alternative methods. For Z{sub A} and Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}, the latter are based on both standard twisted mass and Osterwalder-Seiler fermions, while for Z{sub V} a Ward Identity has been used. The quark field renormalization constant Z{sub q} and the scale dependent renormalization constants Z{sub S}, Z{sub P} and Z{sub T} are determined in the RI-MOM scheme. Leading discretization effects of O(g{sup 2}a{sup 2}), evaluated in one-loop perturbation theory, are explicitly subtracted from the RI-MOM estimates. (orig.)

  1. QCD, with Strings Attached

    CERN Document Server

    Guijosa, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In the nearly twenty years that have elapsed since its discovery, the gauge-gravity correspondence has become established as an efficient tool to explore the physics of a large class of strongly-coupled field theories. A brief overview is given here of its formulation and a few of its applications, emphasizing attempts to emulate aspects of the strong-coupling regime of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). To the extent possible, the presentation is self-contained, and in particular, it does not presuppose knowledge of string theory.

  2. Finite Density Fat QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, R; Di Carlo, G; Galante, A; Grillo, A F

    2000-01-01

    Lattice formulation of Finite Baryon Density QCD is problematic from computer simulation point of view; it is well known that for light quark masses the reconstructed partition function fails to be positive in a wide region of parameter space. For large bare quark masses, instead, it is possible to obtain more sensible results; problems are still present but restricted to a small region. We present evidence for a saturation transition independent from the gauge coupling $\\beta$ and for a transition line that, starting from the temperature critical point at $\\mu=0$, moves towards smaller $\\beta$ with increasing $\\mu$ as expected from simplified phenomenological arguments.

  3. Academic Training Lectures - QCD for Postgraduates

    CERN Multimedia

    Maureen Prola-Tessaur

    2010-01-01

    by Giulia Zanderighi (University of Oxford) Monday 12 to Friday 16 April 2010 From 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, Bldg. 500-1-001 Monday 12 - Modern QCD - Lecture 1 Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we will revisit some basic QCD concepts and derive fundamental properties like gauge invariance and isospin symmetry and will discuss the Feynman rules of the theory. We will then focus on the gauge group of QCD and derive the Casimirs CF and CA and some useful color identities. Tuesday 13 - Modern QCD - Lecture 2 We will start discussing the matter content of the theory and revisit the experimental measurements that led to the discovery of quarks. We will then consider a classic QCD observable, the R-ratio, and use it to illustrate the appearance of UV divergences and the need to renormalize the coupling constant of QCD. We will then discuss asymptotic freedom and confinement. Finally, we will examine a case where soft and collinear infrared divergences appear, will discuss the soft approximation in QCD ...

  4. Scalar QCD at nonzero density

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar QCD at nonzero density in the strong coupling limit. It has a sign problem which looks structurally similar to the one in QCD. We show first data for the reweighting factor. After introducing dual variables by integrating out the SU(3) gauge links, we find that at least 3 flavors are needed for a nontrivial dependence on the chemical potential. In this dual representation there is no sign problem remaining. The dual variables are partially constrained, thus we propose to use a hybrid approach for the updates: For unconstrained variables local updates can be used, while for constrained variables using updates based on the worm algorithm is more promising.

  5. The three-quark potential and perfect Abelian dominance in SU(3) lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    We study the static three-quark (3Q) potential for more than 300 different patterns of 3Q systems with high statistics, i.e., 1000-2000 gauge configurations, in SU(3) lattice QCD at the quenched level. For all the distances, the 3Q potential is found to be well described by the Y-ansatz, i.e., one-gluon-exchange (OGE) Coulomb plus Y-type linear potential. Also, we investigate Abelian projection of quark confinement in the context of the dual superconductor picture proposed by Yoichiro~Nambu~{\\it et al.} in SU(3) lattice QCD. Remarkably, quark confinement forces in both Q$\\bar{\\rm Q}$ and 3Q systems can be described only with Abelian variables in the maximally Abelian gauge, i.e., $\\sigma_{\\rm Q \\bar Q} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm Q \\bar Q}^{\\rm Abel} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm 3Q} \\simeq \\sigma_{\\rm 3Q}^{\\rm Abel}$, which we call ``perfect Abelian dominance'' of quark confinement.

  6. A Study of the H-dibaryon in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Suganuma, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We study the H-dibaryon (uuddss) in holographic QCD for the first time. Holographic QCD is derived from a QCD-equivalent D-brane system in the superstring theory via the gauge/gravity correspondence. In holographic QCD, all baryons appear as topological chiral solitons of Nambu-Goldstone bosons and (axial) vector mesons. In this framework, the H-dibaryon can be described as an SO(3)-type hedgehog state. In this paper, we present the formalism of the H-dibaryon in holographic QCD, and perform the calculation to investigate its properties in the chiral limit.

  7. Gauge-fixing parameter dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, C

    1996-01-01

    The gauge-fixing parameter \\xi dependence of two-point gauge variant correlation functions is studied for QED and QCD. We show that, in three Euclidean dimensions, or for four-dimensional thermal gauge theories, the usual procedure of getting a general covariant gauge-fixing term by averaging over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions leads to a nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence in gauge variant two-point correlation functions (e.g. fermion propagators). This nontrivial gauge-fixing parameter dependence modifies the large distance behavior of the two-point correlation functions by introducing additional exponentially decaying factors. These factors are the origin of the gauge dependence encountered in some perturbative evaluations of the damping rates and the static chromoelectric screening length in a general covariant gauge. To avoid this modification of the long distance behavior introduced by performing the average over a class of covariant gauge-fixing conditions, one can either choose ...

  8. Flow equations in the light-front QCD mass gap and confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E

    2000-01-01

    The light-front QCD is studied using the method of flow equations. Solving the light-front gluon gap equation, the effective gluon mass is generated dynamically. The effective interaction between static quark and antiquark, generated through elimination of the quark-gluon minimal coupling by flow equations, has the Coulomb, $1/q^2$, and confining, $1/q^4$, singular behavior. Elimination of the quark-gluon coupling at small gluon momenta is governed by the cutoff dependent, dynamical gluon mass, which makes this elimination possible and provides such an enhancement at $q\\sim 0$. The cutoff, which regulates small light-front $x$ divergences, sets up a scale for the dynamical gluon mass and the string tension in the $q\\bar{q}$-potential. The mechanism of confimenemet in the light-front frame is suggested, based on the singular nature of the light-front gauge along the light-front $x$-axis.

  9. Phases of planar QCD on the torus

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    At infinite N, continuum Euclidean SU(N) gauge theory defined on a symmetrical four torus has a rich phase structure with phases where the finite volume system behaves as if it had infinite extent in some or all of the directions. In addition, fermions are automatically quenched, so planar QCD should be cheaper to solve numerically that full QCD. Large N is a relatively unexplored and worthwhile direction of research in lattice field theory.

  10. Lattice QCD and the Jefferson Laboratory Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, David Richards, Konstantinos Orginos

    2011-06-01

    Lattice gauge theory provides our only means of performing \\textit{ab initio} calculations in the non-perturbative regime. It has thus become an increasing important component of the Jefferson Laboratory physics program. In this paper, we describe the contributions of lattice QCD to our understanding of hadronic and nuclear physics, focusing on the structure of hadrons, the calculation of the spectrum and properties of resonances, and finally on deriving an understanding of the QCD origin of nuclear forces.

  11. Light-Front QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J

    2004-01-01

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffr...

  12. QCD as topologically ordered system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R

    2013-01-01

    We argue that QCD belongs to a topologically ordered phase similar to many well-known condensed matter systems with a gap such as topological insulators or superconductors. Our arguments are based on analysis of the so-called ``deformed QCD" which is a weakly coupled gauge theory, but nevertheless preserves all crucial elements of strongly interacting QCD, including confinement, nontrivial $\\theta$ dependence, degeneracy of the topological sectors, etc. Specifically, we construct the so-called topological ``BF" action which reproduces the well known infrared features of the theory such as non-dispersive contribution to the topological susceptibility which can not be associated with any propagating degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we interpret the well known resolution of the celebrated $U(1)_A$ problem when would be $\\eta'$ Goldstone boson generates its mass as a result of mixing of the Goldstone field with a topological auxiliary field characterizing the system. We identify the non-propagating auxiliary topo...

  13. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  14. A nonperturbative method for QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Based on specific properties of the partition function and of the quantum correlators we derive the exact form of the beta function in the background gauge field method for QCD with an arbitrary number of flavors. The all order beta function we obtain through this method has only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus is equivalent to the 't Hooft scheme.

  15. Gauge/Liouville Triality

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, Mina; Kozcaz, Can; Shakirov, Shamil

    2013-01-01

    Conformal blocks of Liouville theory have a Coulomb-gas representation as Dotsenko-Fateev (DF) integrals over the positions of screening charges. For q-deformed Liouville, the conformal blocks on a sphere with an arbitrary number of punctures are manifestly the same, when written in DF representation, as the partition functions of a class of 3d U(N) gauge theories with N=4 supersymmetry, mass deformed to N=2, in the Omega-background. Coupling the 3d gauge theory to a hypermultiplet in fundamental representation corresponds to inserting a Liouville vertex operator; the two real mass parameters determine the momentum and position of the puncture. The DF integrals can be computed by residues. The result is the instanton sum of a five dimensional N=1 gauge theory. The positions of the poles are labeled by tuples of partitions, the residues of the integrand are the Nekrasov summands.

  16. Gauged Q balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.

    1989-03-15

    Classical nontopological soliton configurations are considered within the theory of a complex scalar field with a gauged U(1) symmetry. Their existence and stability against dispersion are demonstrated and some of their properties are investigated analytically and numerically. The soliton configuration is such that inside the soliton the local U(1) symmetry is broken, the gauge field becomes massive, and for a range of values of the coupling constants the soliton becomes a superconductor pushing the charge to the surface. Furthermore, because of the repulsive Coulomb force, there is a maximum size for these objects, making impossible the existence of Q matter in bulk form. We also briefly discuss solitons with fermions in a U(1) gauge theory.

  17. Gauged Q-balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimyeong; Stein-Schabes, Jaime A.; Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    Classical non-topological soliton configurations are considered within the theory of a complex scalar field with a gauged U symmetry. Their existence and stability against dispersion are demonstrated and some of their properties are investigated analytically and numerically. The soliton configuration is such that inside the soliton the local U symmetry is broken, the gauge field becomes massive and for a range of values of the coupling constants the soliton becomes a superconductor pushing the charge to the surface. Furthermore, because of the repulsive Coulomb force, there is a maximum size for these objects, making impossible the existence of Q-matter in bulk form. Also briefly discussed are solitons with fermions in a U gauge theory.

  18. Gauged Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.

    1988-09-01

    Classical non-topological soliton configurations are considered within the theory of a complex scalar field with a gauged U symmetry. Their existence and stability against dispersion are demonstrated and some of their properties are investigated analytically and numerically. The soliton configuration is such that inside the soliton the local U symmetry is broken, the gauge field becomes massive and for a range of values of the coupling constants the soliton becomes a superconductor pushing the charge to the surface. Furthermore, because of the repulsive Coulomb force, there is a maximum size for these objects, making impossible the existence of Q-matter in bulk form. Also briefly discussed are solitons with fermions in a U gauge theory.

  19. Unusual identities for QCD at tree-level

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Feng, Bo; Sondergaard, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a set of recently discovered quadratic relations between gauge theory amplitudes. Such relations give additional structural simplifications for amplitudes in QCD. Remarkably, their origin lie in an analogous set of relations that involve also gravitons. When certain gluon helicities are flipped we obtain relations that do not involve gravitons, but which refer only to QCD.

  20. The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.

  1. QCD thermodynamics on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkova, Ludmila A.

    Numerical simulations of full QCD on anisotropic lattices provide a convenient way to study QCD thermodynamics with fixed physics scales and reduced lattice spacing errors. We report results from calculations with two flavors of dynamical staggered fermions, where all bare parameters and the renormalized anisotropy are kept constant and the temperature is changed in small steps by varying only the number of time slices. Including results from zero-temperature scale setting simulations, which determine the Karsch coefficients, allows for the calculation of the Equation of State at finite temperatures. We also report on studies of the chiral properties of dynamical domain-wall fermions combined with the DBW2 gauge action for different gauge couplings and fermion masses. For quenched theories, the DBW2 action gives a residual chiral symmetry breaking much smaller than what was found with more traditional choices for the gauge action. Our goal is to investigate the possibilities which this and further improvements provide for the study of QCD thermodynamics and other simulations at stronger couplings.

  2. Heavy Dynamical Fermions in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Hasenfratz, Anna; Grand, Thomas A. De

    1994-01-01

    It is expected that the only effect of heavy dynamical fermions in QCD is to renormalize the gauge coupling. We derive a simple expression for the shift in the gauge coupling induced by $N_f$ flavors of heavy fermions. We compare this formula to the shift in the gauge coupling at which the confinement-deconfinement phase transition occurs (at fixed lattice size) from numerical simulations as a function of quark mass and $N_f$. We find remarkable agreement with our expression down to a fairly light quark mass. However, simulations with eight heavy flavors and two light flavors show that the eight flavors do more than just shift the gauge coupling. We observe confinement-deconfinement transitions at $\\beta=0$ induced by a large number of heavy quarks. We comment on the relevance of our results to contemporary simulations of QCD which include dynamical fermions.

  3. On the decoupling between classical Coulomb matter and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Angel; Appel, Walter

    2000-02-01

    We consider a model of matter coupled to radiation at equilibrium. Matter is described by a one-component plasma of classical point charges with Coulomb interactions, while radiation is represented by the classical transverse potential vector in Coulomb gauge. Using a straightforward generalization of the Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem, we show that the equilibrium properties of classical Coulomb matter remain unaffected by the presence of the classical radiation. As far as the real world is concerned, this decoupling does survive at large distances where both matter and radiation can be treated classically. This invalidates all the large-distances predictions, for the charge correlations, of the so-called Darwin models which incorporate retarded electromagnetic interactions beyond the instantaneous Coulomb potential. A second related important consequence is that the first relativistic corrections to the Coulomb thermodynamical quantities must be evaluated within the theory of quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature, even in a weakly relativistic and almost classical regime for matter.

  4. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as "holographic QCD" or "AdS/QCD approach". One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  5. Coulomb Thrusting Application Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-20

    this formation about the orbit radial direction. From this point on- wards, this will be referred to as the Coulomb tether regulation problem . These...m2 m2 (6.13) For the Coulomb tether regulation problem , L is taken as a sum of a constant reference length Lref and a small varying length δL...be noted that in the Coulomb tether regulation problem Lref is constant and the dif- ferential equation given in Eq. (6.13) is lin- earized by

  6. Lattice QCD for nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities.  The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics.  A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...

  7. From continuum QCD to hadron observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binosi Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the form of the renormalization group invariant quark-gluon interaction predicted by a refined nonperturbative analysis of the QCD gauge sector is in quantitative agreement with the one required for describing a wide range of hadron observables using sophisticated truncation schemes of the Schwinger-Dyson equations relevant in the matter sector.

  8. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    1998-01-01

    We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates.

  9. Review of Baryon Spectroscopy in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Huey-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The complex patterns of the hadronic spectrum have puzzled physicists since the early discovery of the "particle zoo" in the 1960s. Today, the properties of these myriad particles are understood to be the result of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with some modification by the electroweak interactions. Despite the discovery of this fundamental theory, the description of the hadronic spectrum has long been dominated by phenomenological models, due to the difficulties of addressing QCD in the strong-coupling regime, where nonperturbative effects are essential. By making numerical calculations in discretized spacetime, lattice gauge theory enables the ab initio study of many low-energy properties of QCD. Significant efforts are underway internationally to use lattice QCD to directly compute properties of ground and excited-state baryons. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum will provide insight into the character of these states beyond what can be extracted from models. In this review, I will focus on the lat...

  10. A G2-QCD neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Hajizadeh, Ouraman

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the properties of neutron stars from the underlying theory, QCD, is still an unsolved problem. This is mainly due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results for the equation of state for cold, dense QCD. As an alternative route to obtain qualitative insights, we determine the structure of a neutron star for a modified version of QCD: By replacing the gauge group SU(3) with the exceptional Lie group G2, it is possible to perform lattice simulations at finite density, while still retaining neutrons. Here, results of these lattice simulations are used to determine the mass-radius relation of a neutron star for this theory. The results show that phase changes express themselves in this relation. Also, the radius of the most massive neutron stars is found to vary very little, which would make radius determinations much simpler if this would also be true in QCD.

  11. The Bayesian reconstruction of the in-medium heavy quark potential from lattice QCD and its stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnier, Yannis [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaczmarek, Olaf [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg University, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We report recent results of a non-perturbative determination of the static heavy-quark potential in quenched and dynamical lattice QCD at finite temperature. The real and imaginary part of this complex quantity are extracted from the spectral function of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge. To obtain spectral information from Euclidean time numerical data, our study relies on a novel Bayesian prescription that differs from the Maximum Entropy Method. We perform simulations on quenched 32{sup 3} × N{sub τ} (β = 7.0, ξ = 3.5) lattices with N{sub τ} = 24, …, 96, which cover 839MeV ≥ T ≥ 210MeV. To investigate the potential in a quark-gluon plasma with light u,d and s quarks we utilize N{sub f} = 2 + 1 ASQTAD lattices with m{sub l} = m{sub s}/20 by the HotQCD collaboration, giving access to temperatures between 286MeV ≥ T ≥ 148MeV. The real part of the potential exhibits a clean transition from a linear, confining behavior in the hadronic phase to a Debye screened form above deconfinement. Interestingly its values lie close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge at all temperatures. We estimate the imaginary part on quenched lattices and find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop perturbation theory. From among all the systematic checks carried out in our study, we discuss explicitly the dependence of the result on the default model and the number of datapoints.

  12. Weak Gauge Boson Radiation in Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper Roy

    2014-01-01

    The emission of W and Z gauge boson is included in a traditional QCD + QED shower. The unitarity of the shower algorithm links the real radiation of the weak gauge bosons to the negative weak virtual corrections. The shower evolution process leads to a competition between QCD, QED and weak radiation, and allows for W and Z boson production inside jets. Various effects on LHC physics are studied, both at low and high transverse momenta, and effects at higher-energy hadron colliders are outlined.

  13. QCD with chiral 4-fermion interactions ({chi}QCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogut, J.B. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sinclair, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Lattice QCD with staggered quarks is augmented by the addition of a chiral 4-fermion interaction. The Dirac operator is now non-singular at m{sub q}=0, decreasing the computing requirements for light quark simulations by at least an order of magnitude. We present preliminary results from simulations at finite and zero temperatures for m{sub q}=0, with and without gauge fields. Chiral QCD enables simulations at physical u and d quark masses with at least an order of magnitude saving in CPU time. It also enables simulations with zero quark masses which is important for determining the equation of state. A renormalization group analysis will be needed to continue to the continuum limit. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Gauged Supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Trigiante, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We give a general review of extended supergravities and their gauging using the duality-covariant embedding tensor formalism. Although the focus is on four-dimensional theories, an overview of the gauging procedure and the related tensor hierarchy in the higher-dimensional models is given. The relation of gauged supergravities to flux compactifications is discussed and examples are worked out in detail.

  15. Gauged supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigiante, Mario

    2017-03-01

    We give a general review of extended supergravities and their gauging using the duality-covariant embedding tensor formalism. Although the focus is on four-dimensional theories, an overview of the gauging procedure and the related tensor hierarchy in the higher-dimensional models is given. The relation of gauged supergravities to flux compactifications is discussed and examples are worked out in detail.

  16. 13. international QCD conference (QCD 06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference was organized around 5 sessions: 1) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at colliders, 2) CP-violation, Kaon decays and Chiral symmetry, 3) perturbative QCD, 4) physics of light and heavy hadrons, 5) confinement, thermodynamics QCD and axion searches. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  17. Analytic Approach to Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Magradze, B

    2000-01-01

    The two-loop invariant (running) coupling of QCD is written in terms of the Lambert W function. The analyticity structure of the coupling in the complex Q^2-plane is established. The corresponding analytic coupling is reconstructed via a dispersion relation. We also consider some other approximations to the QCD beta-function, when the corresponding couplings are solved in terms of the Lambert function. The Landau gauge gluon propagator has been considered in the renormalization group invariant analytic approach (IAA). It is shown that there is a nonperturbative ambiguity in determination of the anomalous dimension function of the gluon field. Several analytic solutions for the propagator at the one-loop order are constructed. Properties of the obtained analytical solutions are discussed.

  18. Large N lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Rajamani

    2008-01-01

    Wilson loops in large N gauge theory exhibit a weak to strong coupling transition as the loop is dilated. A multiplicative matrix model captures the universal behavior associated with this transition. A universal scaling function is obtained in a double scaling limit. Numerical studies show that both large N QCD in three dimensions and the SU(N) principal chiral model in two dimensions are in the same universality class.

  19. Gauge strata and particle generations

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    2000-01-01

    Phenomenological evidence suggests the existence of non-trivial background fields in the QCD vacuum. On the other hand SU(3) gauge theory possessses three different classes of both non-generic and non-trivial strata that may be used as classical backgrounds. It is suggested that this three-fold multiplicity of non-trivial vacua may be related to the existence of particle generations, which would then find an explanation in the framework of the standard model.

  20. Understanding Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2015-01-01

    I consider two usages of the expression "gauge theory". On one, a gauge theory is a theory with excess structure; on the other, a gauge theory is any theory appropriately related to classical electromagnetism. I make precise one sense in which one formulation of electromagnetism, the paradigmatic gauge theory on both usages, may be understood to have excess structure, and then argue that gauge theories on the second usage, including Yang-Mills theory and general relativity, do not generally have excess structure in this sense.

  1. QCD Exotics

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2014-01-01

    QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex then the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetra-quark, hybrid, and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have yet to be identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states --the so-called XYZ mesons-- and compare them with expectations for conventional quark-antiquark mes...

  2. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S. S. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  3. Playing with QCD I: effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The building blocks of hadrons are quarks and gluons, although color is confined into singlet states. QCD is believed to be the fundamental theory of strong interactions. Its asymptotically free nature puts the vacuum out of reach for perturbation theory. The Lagrangian of QCD and the Feynman rules associated were built by using the Gauge Principle, starting from the quark matter fields and obtaining gluons as connections. A simpler, and sometimes necessary or complementary, approach is provided by effective field theories or effective models, especially when one has to deal with the nonperturbative sector of the theory. (author)

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.

  5. Colored-hadron distribution in hadron scattering in SU(2) lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Toru T

    2016-01-01

    In color SU(2) lattice QCD, we investigate colored-diquark distributions in two-hadron scatterings by means of Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes on the lattice. With colored-diquark operators in the Coulomb gauge, we measure components of two colored diquarks realized as intermediate states via one gluon exchange (OGE) processes in hadron scattering. From the colored-diquark distributions, we estimate the dominant range of gluon (color) exchanges between closely located two hadrons. We find that the colored-diquark components are enhanced at the short range ($\\leq$0.2 fm) and their tails show the single-exponential damping. In order to distinguish the genuine colored-diquark components originating in the color exchange processes from trivial colored two-quark components contained in two color-singlet hadrons as a result of simple transformation of hadronic basis, we repeat the analyses on the artificially constructed gauge fields, where low- and high-momentum gluon components are decoupled and only restricted pair of...

  6. Quenching parameter in a holographic thermal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Binoy Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have calculated the quenching parameter, $\\hat{q}$ in a model-independent way using the gauge-gravity duality. In earlier calculations, the geometry in the gravity side at finite temperature was usually taken as the pure AdS blackhole metric for which the dual gauge theory becomes conformally invariant unlike QCD. Therefore we use a metric which incorporates the fundamental quarks by embedding the coincident D7 branes in the Klebanov-Tseytlin background and a finite temperature is switched on by inserting a black hole into the background, known as OKS-BH metric. Further inclusion of an additional UV cap to the metric prepares the dual gauge theory to run similar to thermal QCD. Moreover $\\hat{q}$ is usually defined in the literature from the Glauber-model perturbative QCD evaluation of the Wilson loop, which has no reasons to hold if the coupling is large and is thus against the main idea of gauge-gravity duality. Thus we use an appropriate definition of $\\hat{q}$: $\\hat{q} L^- = 1/L^2$, where $L$ is the s...

  7. Conformal Gauge-Yukawa Theories away From Four Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Langaeble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in $d=4+\\epsilon$ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD...

  8. Dynamical gauge symmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece))

    1990-10-11

    We study, using lattice techniques, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional theory that mimics the electroweak sector of the standard model. We show that in the strong coupling limit of a QCD-like theory the fermion condensates which are produced induce dynamical symmetry breaking of the sector corresponding to the electroweak gauge group. (orig.).

  9. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard C.

    2014-04-15

    SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io

  10. (2+1)-flavor QCD Thermodynamics from the Gradient Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Itou, Etsuko; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Umeda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a novel method to define and calculate the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) in lattice gauge theory on the basis of the Yang-Mills gradient flow [1]. In this proceedings, we summarize the basic idea and technical steps to obtain the bulk thermodynamic quantities in lattice gauge theory using this method for the quenched and $(2+1)$-flavor QCD. The revised results of integration measure (trace anomaly) and entropy density of the quenched QCD with corrected coefficients are shown. Furthermore, we also show the flow time dependence of the parts of EMT including the dynamical fermions. This work is based on a joint-collaboration between FlowQCD and WHOT QCD.

  11. Universal properties of Wilson loop operators in large N QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2008-01-01

    Eigenvalues of a Wilson loop operator are gauge invariant and their distribution undergoes a transition at infinite N as the size of the loop is changed. We study this transition using the average characteristic polynomial associated with the Wilson loop operator. We derive the scaling function in a certain double scaling limit for two dimensional QCD and hypothesize that the transition in three and four dimensional QCD are in the same universality class. Numerical evidence for this hypothesisis provided in three dimensions

  12. Monopole Condensation and Confinement in SU(2) QCD (1)

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H; Shiba, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    An effective monopole action is derived from vacuum configurations after abelian projection in the maximally abelian gauge in $SU(2)$ QCD. Entropy dominance over energy of monopole loops is seen on the renormalized lattice with the spacing $b>b_c\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{-3} \\Lambda_L^{-1}$ when the physical volume of the system is large enough. QCD confinement may be interpreted as the (dual) Meissner effect due to the monopole condensation.

  13. New QCD sum rules based on canonical commutation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya

    2012-04-01

    New derivation of QCD sum rules by canonical commutators is developed. It is the simple and straightforward generalization of Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule on the basis of Kugo-Ojima operator formalism of a non-abelian gauge theory and a suitable subtraction of UV divergences. By applying the method to the vector and axial vector current in QCD, the exact Weinberg’s sum rules are examined. Vector current sum rules and new fractional power sum rules are also discussed.

  14. Softly Broken Supersymmetric Gauge Theories through Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Takenaga, K

    1998-01-01

    Effects of boundary conditions of fields for compactified space directions on the supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. For general and possible boundary conditions the supersymmetry is explicitly broken to yield universal soft supersymmetry breaking terms, and the gauge symmetry of the theory can also be broken through the dynamics of non-integrable phases, depending on number and the representation under the gauge group of matters. The 4-dimensional supersymmetric QCD is studied as a toy model when one of the space coordinates is compactified on $S^1$.

  15. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant...... in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate....

  16. An algebraic model of Coulomb scattering with spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Technical University, Budapest (Hungary); Amos, K. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2001-05-11

    A new matrix-valued realization for the so(3,1) algebra leads to a natural generalization of the Coulomb scattering problem of a particle with spin. The underlying su(2) gauge structure of this realization recasts the scattering problem into a familiar form, namely, the Coulomb scattering problem of a collection of dyons (particles having both electric and magnetic charges). Using this equivalent form and the results of Zwanziger for such systems, the scattering matrix can be calculated in the helicity formalism. (author)

  17. Coulomb Effects in Femtoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Maj, Radoslaw

    2009-01-01

    The correlation function of two identical particles - pions or kaons - interacting via Coulomb potential is computed. The particles are emitted from an anisotropic particle's source of finite lifetime. In the case of pions, the effect of halo is taken into account as an additional particle's source of large spatial extension. The relativistic effects are discussed in detail. The Bowler-Sinyukov procedure to remove the Coulomb interaction is carefully tested. In the absence of halo the procedure is shown to work very well even for an extremely anisotropic source. When the halo is taken into account the free correlation function, which is extracted by means of the Bowler-Sinyukov procedure, is distorted at small relative momenta but the source parameters are still correctly reproduced.

  18. Traceable Coulomb Blockade Thermometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hahtela, Ossi; Kemppinen, Antti; Meschke, Matthias; Prunnila, Mika; Gunnarsson, David; Roschier, Leif; Penttila, Jari; Pekola, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods, the numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip yield almost identical results. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that the relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 1 %. A good agreement within the measurement uncertainty is experimentally demonstrated between the Coulomb blockade thermometer and a superconducting reference point device that has been directly calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

  19. QCD monopole and sigma meson coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Iwazaki, Aiichi

    2016-01-01

    Under the assumption of the Abelian dominance in QCD, we show that chiral condensate is locally present around a QCD monopole. The appearance of the chiral condensate around a GUT monopole was shown in the previous analysis of the Rubakov effect. We apply a similar analysis to the QCD monopole. It follows that the condensation of the monopole carrying the chiral condensate leads to the chiral symmetry breaking as well as quark confinement. To realize the result explicitly, we present a phenomenological linear sigma model coupled with the monopoles, in which the monopole condensation causes the chiral symmetry breaking as well as confinement. The monopoles are assumed to be described by a model of dual superconductor. We identify the monopoles with scalar isoscalar $f_0$ mesons with masses $1400\\sim 1700$ MeV as well as dual gauge fields with $h_1$ vector mesons with masses $\\sim 1500$MeV.

  20. Kaluza-Klein Approach to QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, J; Labraña, P; Alfaro, Jorge; Andrianov, Alexander; Labraña, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study a reduced QCD model in $(1+1)$ dimensions obtained from QCD in 4D by compactifying two spatial dimensions. We work out this model in the large $N_c$ limit and using light cone gauge. This system is found to induce a dynamical mass for transverse gluons -- adjoint scalars in $QCD_2$, and to undergo a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking with the full quark propagators yielding non-tachyonic, dynamical quark masses, even in the chiral limit. We study quark-antiquark bound states which can be classified in this model by their properties under Lorentz transformations in 4D. The scalar and pseudoscalar sectors of the theory are examined revealing a massless ground state for pseudoscalars, different from the so called 't Hooft pion solution, and a massive spectrum for scalars.

  1. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  2. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, Fabio; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  3. Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.

  4. QCD thermodynamics from 3d adjoint Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof; Patkós, András; Petreczky, P; Szép, Z; Szep, Zs.

    1998-01-01

    The screening masses of hot SU(N) gauge theory, defined as poles of the corresponding propagators are studied in 3d adjoint Higgs model, considered as an effective theory of QCD, using coupled gap equations and lattice Monte-Carlo simulations (for N=2). Using so-called lambda gauges non-perturbative evidence for gauge independence of the pole masses within this class of gauges is given. A possible application of the screening masses for the resummation of the free energy is discussed.

  5. Lattice QCD for Baryon Rich Matter - Beyond Taylor Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornyakov, V.; Boyda, D.; Goy, V.; Molochkov, A.; Nakamura, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss our study for exploring the QCD phase diagram based on the lattice QCD. To go beyond the Taylor expansion and to reach higher density regions, we employ the canonical approach. In order to produce lattice data which meet experimental situation as much as possible, we propose a canonical approach with the charge and baryon number. We present our lattice QCD GPU code for this project which employs the clover improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action to investigate pure imaginary chemical potential.

  6. Lattice QCD for Baryon Rich Matter – Beyond Taylor Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Boyda, D. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Goy, V. [School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Nakamura, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Nikolaev, A. [School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, V.I. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Moscow Inst Phys & Technol, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss our study for exploring the QCD phase diagram based on the lattice QCD. To go beyond the Taylor expansion and to reach higher density regions, we employ the canonical approach. In order to produce lattice data which meet experimental situation as much as possible, we propose a canonical approach with the charge and baryon number. We present our lattice QCD GPU code for this project which employs the clover improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action to investigate pure imaginary chemical potential.

  7. Phase structure of finite density QCD with a histogram method

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Ejiri, Shinji; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Saito, Hana; Umeda, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We study the phase structure of QCD in the $T-\\mu$ plane using a histogram method and the reweighting technique by performing phase quenched simulations of two-flavor QCD with RG-improved gauge action and O($a$) improved Wilson quark action. Taking the effects of the complex phase of the quark determinant using the cumulant expansion method, we calculate the probability distribution function of plaquette and phase-quenched determinant as a function of $T$ and $\\mu$. We discuss the order of the QCD phase transition consulting the shape of the probability distribution function.

  8. QCD Thermodynamics with an Improved Lattice Action

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeGrand, T A; Wingate, M; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Rummukainen, K; Toussaint, D; Sugar, R L; Bernard, Claude; Hetrick, James E.; Grand, Thomas De; Wingate, Matthew; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Rummukainen, Kari; Toussaint, Doug; Sugar, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated QCD with two flavors of degenerate fermions using a Symanzik-improved lattice action for both the gauge and fermion actions. Our study focuses on the deconfinement transition on an $N_t=4$ lattice. Having located the thermal transition, we performed zero temperature simulations nearby in order to compute hadronic masses and the static quark potential. We find that the present action reduces lattice artifacts present in thermodynamics with the standard Wilson (gauge and fermion) actions. However, it does not bring studies with Wilson-type quarks to the same level as those using the Kogut--Susskind formulation.

  9. Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2012-03-15

    Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

  10. The Abelianization of QCD Plasma Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, P; Arnold, Peter; Lenaghan, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    QCD plasma instabilities appear to play an important role in the equilibration of quark-gluon plasmas in heavy-ion collisions in the theoretical limit of weak coupling (i.e. asymptotically high energy). It is important to understand what non-linear physics eventually stops the exponential growth of unstable modes. It is already known that the initial growth of plasma instabilities in QCD closely parallels that in QED. However, once the unstable modes of the gauge-fields grow large enough for non-Abelian interactions between them to become important, one might guess that the dynamics of QCD plasma instabilities and QED plasma instabilities become very different. In this paper, we give suggestive arguments that non-Abelian self-interactions between the unstable modes are ineffective at stopping instability growth, and that the growing non-Abelian gauge fields become approximately Abelian after a certain stage in their growth. This in turn suggests that understanding the development of QCD plasma instabilities i...

  11. Domain-like Structures in the QCD Vacuum, Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kalloniatis, Alexander C

    2001-01-01

    We discuss how the inclusion of singular gauge fields in the partition function for QCD can lead to a domain-like picture for the QCD vacuum by virtue of specific conditions on quantum fluctuations at the singularities. With a simplified model of hyperspherical domain regions with interiors of constant field strength we calculate the basic parameters of the QCD vacuum, the gluon condensate, topological susceptibility, string constant and quark condensate, and briefly discuss confinement of dynamical quarks and gluons.

  12. A lattice QCD calculation of the transverse decay constant of the b1(1235) meson

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, K; Michael, C; Urbach, C

    2009-01-01

    We review various B meson decays that require knowledge of the transverse decay constant of the b1(1235) meson. We report on an exploratory lattice QCD calculation of the transverse decay constant of the b1 meson. The lattice QCD calculations used unquenched gauge configurations, at two lattice spacings, generated with two flavours of sea quarks. The twisted mass formalism is used.

  13. Correlation and specific heat of U(1) and SU(2) lattice gauge models

    CERN Document Server

    Nauenberg, M

    1981-01-01

    Describes some recent work on Monte Carlo simulations of U(1) and SU (2) lattice gauge models. The authors have primarily been interested in the correlations between Wilson plaquettes in order to study the nature of the transition between the strong and weak coupling regimes. Since lattice gauge models confine static charges in the strong coupling limit, it is expected that U(1) models in four dimensions exhibit a phase transition to a weak coupling Coulomb phase, corresponding to QED. For SU(2) models the lore is that there does not exist any phase transition. In this case confinement is also a property of the continuum limit which corresponds to QCD. While the existence of a phase transition in the U(1) model can be demonstrated rigorously, virtually nothing is known theoretically about the order of this transition. For the SU(2) model there is some evidence in support of a single confining phase based on strong coupling expansions, and on Monte Carlo calculations. (8 refs).

  14. Velocity-induced Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation using the gauge-gravity correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Binoy Krishna; Thakur, Lata

    2015-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality we have obtained the potential between a heavy quark and an antiquark pair, which is moving perpendicular to the direction of orientation, in a strongly-coupled supersymmetric hot plasma. For the purpose we work on a metric in the gravity side, {\\em viz.} OKS-BH geometry, whose dual in the gauge theory side runs with the energy and hence proves to be a better background for thermal QCD. The potential obtained has confining term both in vacuum and in medium, in addition to the Coulomb term alone, usually reported in the literature. As the velocity of the pair is increased the screening of the potential gets weakened, which may be understood by the decrease of effective temperature with the increase of velocity. The crucial observation of our work is that beyond a critical separation of the heavy quark pair, the potential develops an imaginary part which is nowadays understood to be the main source of dissociation. The imaginary part is found to vanish at small $r$, thus agrees w...

  15. QCD propagators and vertices from lattice QCD (in memory of Michael Müller-Preußker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbeck, André

    2017-03-01

    We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker's important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests.

  16. Gauged Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf; Hofmann, Ralf; Keil, Mathias Th.

    2002-01-01

    Based on thermal equilibrium between the vacuum and its relevant excitations a model for cosmic inflation is presented. Due to a vacuum dominating, U(1) gauged inflaton field an inflationary regime can be reached without explicitly imposing slow-roll conditions. Thereby, nontrivial euclidean BPS saturation of the inflaton bans gravity from the field equations and masquerades the gauge symmetry as a $Z_{N+1}$ symmetry at the point where thermal equilibrium breaks down. Solving the vacuum dynamics of the gauge field in the inflaton background in the spirit of a Born-Oppenheimer approximation, a temperature dependent cosmological constant $\\La=\\La(T)$ is obtained. The $T$ dependence of $\\La$ competes with the black body radiation of the (massive) gauge field during cosmic expansion. This leads to (initial condition independent) inflation at some critical value of the inflaton amplitude. The model allows for a closed, noncollapsing universe with Planckian initial density, and hence it resolves the flatness proble...

  17. Technicolor and Lattice Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar

    2010-01-01

    Technicolor and other theories of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking invoke chiral symmetry breaking triggered by strong gauge-dynamics, analogous to that found in QCD, to explain the observed W, Z, and fermion masses. In this talk we describe why a realistic theory of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking must, relative to QCD, produce an enhanced fermion condensate. We quantify the degree to which the technicolor condensate must be enhanced in order to yield the observed quark masses, and still be consistent with phenomenological constraints on flavor-changing neutral-currents. Lattice studies of technicolor and related theories provide the only way to demonstrate that such enhancements are possible and, hopefully, to discover viable candidate models. We comment briefly on the current status of non-perturbative investigations of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking, and provide a "wish-list" of phenomenologically-relevant properties that are important to calculate in these theories

  18. Holographic QCD for H-dibaryon (uuddss)

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The H-dibaryon (uuddss) is studied in holographic QCD for the first time. In holographic QCD, four-dimensional QCD, i.e., SU($N_c$) gauge theory with chiral quarks, can be formulated with $S^1$-compactified D4/D8/$\\overline{\\rm D8}$-brane system. In holographic QCD with large $N_c$, all the baryons appear as topological chiral solitons of Nambu-Goldstone bosons and (axial) vector mesons, and the H-dibaryon can be described as an SO(3)-type topological soliton with $B=2$. We derive the low-energy effective theory to describe the H-dibaryon in holographic QCD. The H-dibaryon mass is found to be twice of the $B=1$ hedgehog-baryon mass, $M_{\\rm H} \\simeq 2.00 M_{B=1}^{\\rm HH}$, and is estimated about 1.7GeV, which is smaller than mass of two nucleons (flavor-octet baryons), in the chiral limit.

  19. The Coulomb Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Michael

    1989-06-01

    It is something of a miracle that the nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation with a Coulomb potential can be solved for the wavefunction in exact analytic form. Even more miraculous is the result of Schwinger which enables the Green's function to be solved in closed form, for this is in effect, an infinite sum of wavefunction products. In the relativistic case too the wavefunction can be found in closed form, but as yet no such result for the Green's function has been found. This lecture provides a brief overview of the situation with an emphasis on the ``hidden symmetry'' which underlies the nonrelativisitic problem and its degenerate form which carries over to the relativistic case.

  20. Coulomb field of an accelerated charge physical and mathematical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, F J; Alexander, Francis J.; Gerlach, Ulrich H.

    1991-01-01

    The Maxwell field equations relative to a uniformly accelerated frame, and the variational principle from which they are obtained, are formulated in terms of the technique of geometrical gauge invariant potentials. They refer to the transverse magnetic (TM) and the transeverse electric (TE) modes. This gauge invariant "2+2" decomposition is used to see how the Coulomb field of a charge, static in an accelerated frame, has properties that suggest features of electromagnetism which are different from those in an inertial frame. In particular, (1) an illustrative calculation shows that the Larmor radiation reaction equals the electrostatic attraction between the accelerated charge and the charge induced on the surface whose history is the event horizon, and (2) a spectral decomposition of the Coulomb potential in the accelerated frame suggests the possibility that the distortive effects of this charge on the Rindler vacuum are akin to those of a charge on a crystal lattice.

  1. Gauge fields in accelerated frames

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F

    2008-01-01

    Quantized fields in accelerated frames (Rindler spaces) with emphasis on gauge fields are investigated. Important properties of the dynamics in Rindler spaces are shown to follow from the scale invariance of the corresponding Hamiltonians. Origin and consequences of this extraordinary property of Hamiltonians in Rindler spaces are elucidated. Characteristics of the Unruh radiation, the appearance of a photon condensate and the interaction energy of vector and scalar static charges are discussed and implications for Yang-Mills theories and QCD in Rindler spaces are indicated.

  2. A proposal of a local modified QCD

    CERN Document Server

    de Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes

    2012-01-01

    A local and renormalizable version of a modified PQCD introduced in previous works is presented. The construction indicates that it could be equivalent to massless QCD. The case in which only quark condensate effects are retained is discussed in more detail. Then, the appearing auxiliary fermion fields can be integrated leading to a theory with the action of massless QCD, to which one local and gauge invariant Lagrangian term for each quark flavour is added. These terms are defined by two gluon and two quark fields, in a form curiously not harming power counting renormalizability. The gluon self-energy is evaluated in second order in the gauge coupling and all orders in the new quark couplings, and the result became transversal as required by the gauge invariance. The vacuum energy was calculated in the two loop approximation and also became gauge parameter independent. The possibilities that higher loop contributions to the vacuum energy allow the generation of a quark mass hierarchy as a flavour symmetry br...

  3. Improved methods for the study of hadronic physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orginos, Kostas [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Richards, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The solution of QCD on a lattice provides a first-principles method for understanding QCD in the low-energy regime, and is thus an essential tool for nuclear physics. The generation of gauge configurations, the starting point for lattice calculations, requires the most powerful leadership-class computers available. However, to fully exploit such leadership-class computing requires increasingly sophisticated methods for obtaining physics observables from the underlying gauge ensembles. In this study, we describe a variety of recent methods that have been used to advance our understanding of the spectrum and structure of hadrons through lattice QCD.

  4. From gauge-string duality to strong interactions: a Pedestrian's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2009-01-01

    We survey recent progress in understanding the relation of string theory to quantum chromodynamics, focusing on holographic models of gauge theories similar to QCD and applications to heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

  6. Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V

    2008-01-01

    Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.

  7. Consistent Perturbative Fixed Point Calculations in QCD and Supersymmetric QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryttov, Thomas A

    2016-08-12

    We suggest how to consistently calculate the anomalous dimension γ_{*} of the ψ[over ¯]ψ operator in finite order perturbation theory at an infrared fixed point for asymptotically free theories. If the n+1 loop beta function and n loop anomalous dimension are known, then γ_{*} can be calculated exactly and fully scheme independently in a Banks-Zaks expansion through O(Δ_{f}^{n}), where Δ_{f}=N[over ¯]_{f}-N_{f}, N_{f} is the number of flavors, and N[over ¯]_{f} is the number of flavors above which asymptotic freedom is lost. For a supersymmetric theory, the calculation preserves supersymmetry order by order in Δ_{f}. We then compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{2}) for supersymmetric QCD in the dimensional reduction scheme and find that it matches the exact known result. We find that γ_{*} is astonishingly well described in perturbation theory already at the few loops level throughout the entire conformal window. We finally compute γ_{*} through O(Δ_{f}^{3}) for QCD and a variety of other nonsupersymmetric fermionic gauge theories. Small values of γ_{*} are observed for a large range of flavors.

  8. Finite Temperature Phase Diagramm of QCD with improved Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof; Oevers, M; Schmidt, P

    1998-01-01

    We present first results of a study of two flavour QCD with Wilson fermions at finite temperature. We have used tree level Symanzik improvement in both the gauge and fermion part of the action. In a first step we explore the phase diagramm on an $8^3 \\times 4$ lattice, with particular emphasis on checking Aoki's conjecture with an improved action.

  9. Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovich, Anastasia [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-10-09

    The goal of my research project "Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity" involves deepening our understanding of gauge and gravity theories by exploring hidden structures in scattering amplitudes and using these rich structures as much as possible to aid practical calculations.

  10. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R.F. Braga

    2016-12-01

    We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  11. The strong coupling regime of twelve flavors QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Tiago Nunes da; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results recently reported in Ref.[1] [A. Deuzeman, M.P. Lombardo, T. Nunes da Silva and E. Pallante,"The bulk transition of QCD with twelve flavors and the role of improvement"] for the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf=12 fundamental flavors, and we add some numerical evidence and theoret

  12. Pion structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadi Motaghi, Narjes

    2015-05-12

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.

  13. Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase behavior observed at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uky Vivitasari, Pipit; Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) consists of source, drain, Coulomb island, and gate to modulate the number of electrons and control the current. For practical applications, it is important to operate a SET at room temperature. One proposal towards the ability to operate at room temperature is to decrease Coulomb island size down to a few nanometres. We investigate a SET using Sn-porphyrin (Sn-por) protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 1.4 nm in core diameter as a Coulomb island. The fabrication method of nanogap electrodes uses the combination of a top-down technique by electron beam lithography (EBL) and a bottom-up process through electroless gold plating (ELGP) as our group have described before. The electrical measurement was conducted at room temperature (300 K). From current-voltage (I d-V d) characteristics, we obtained clear Coulomb blockade phenomena together with a Coulomb staircase due to a Sn-por protected gold NP as a Coulomb island. Experimental results of I d-V d characteristics agree with a theoretical curve based on using the orthodox model. Clear dI d/dV d peaks are observed in the Coulomb staircase at 9 K which suggest the electron transports through excited energy levels of Au NPs. These results are a big step for obtaining SETs that can operate at room temperature.

  14. Quenching parameter in a holographic thermal QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Binoy Krishna; Arya, Bhaskar

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the quenching parameter, q ˆ in a model-independent way using the gauge-gravity duality. In earlier calculations, the geometry in the gravity side at finite temperature was usually taken as the pure AdS black hole metric for which the dual gauge theory becomes conformally invariant unlike QCD. Therefore we use a metric which incorporates the fundamental quarks by embedding the coincident D7 branes in the Klebanov-Tseytlin background and a finite temperature is switched on by inserting a black hole into the background, known as OKS-BH metric. Further inclusion of an additional UV cap to the metric prepares the dual gauge theory to run similar to thermal QCD. Moreover q ˆ is usually defined in the literature from the Glauber model perturbative QCD evaluation of the Wilson loop, which has no reasons to hold if the coupling is large and is thus against the main idea of gauge-gravity duality. Thus we use an appropriate definition of q ˆ : q ˆ L- = 1 /L2, where L is the separation for which the Wilson loop is equal to some specific value. The above two refinements cause q ˆ to vary with the temperature as T4 always and to depend linearly on the light-cone time L- with an additional (1 /L-) correction term in the short-distance limit whereas in the long-distance limit, q ˆ depends only linearly on L- with no correction term. These observations agree with other holographic calculations directly or indirectly.

  15. Gauge Theories on the Light-Front

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J

    2004-01-01

    The light-front quantization of gauge theories in light-cone gauge provides a frame-independent wavefunction representation of relativistic bound states, simple forms for current matrix elements, explicit unitary, and a trivial vacuum. The light-front Hamiltonian form of QCD provides an alternative to lattice gauge theory for the computation of nonperturbative quantities such as the hadronic spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions. In the case of the electroweak theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field. Light-front quantization then leads to an elegant ghost-free theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions, as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem.

  16. Instanton dynamics in finite temperature QCD via holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hanada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate instantons in finite temperature QCD via Witten's holographic QCD. To study the deconfinement phase, we use the setup proposed in [1]. We find that the sizes of the instantons are stabilized at certain values both in the confinement and deconfinement phases. This agrees with the numerical result in the lattice gauge theory. Besides we find that the gravity duals of the large and small instantons in the deconfinement phase have different topologies. We also argue that the fluctuation of the topological charges is large in confinement phase while it is exponentially suppressed in deconfinement phase, and a continuous transition occurs at the Gross–Witten–Wadia (GWW point. It would be difficult to observe the counterpart of this transition in lattice QCD, since the GWW point in QCD may stay at an unstable branch.

  17. Gauge-invariant approach to quark dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sazdjian, H

    2016-01-01

    The main aspects of a gauge-invariant approach to the description of quark dynamics in the nonperturbative regime of QCD are first reviewed. In particular, the role of the parallel transport operation in constructing gauge-invariant Green's functions is presented, and the relevance of Wilson loops for the representation of the interaction is emphasized. Recent developments, based on the use of polygonal lines for the parallel transport operation, are then presented. An integro-differential equation is obtained for the quark Green's function defined with a phase factor along a single, straight line segment. It is solved exactly and analytically in the case of two-dimensional QCD in the large $N_c$ limit. The solution displays the dynamical mass generation phenomenon for quarks, with an infinite number of branch-cut singularities that are stronger than simple poles.

  18. Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a non-equilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium states. In this article, we extend Jarzynski's theorem to lattice gauge theory, and present examples of applications for two challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schroedinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.

  19. World Sheet Dynamics of Effective String Theory and the Gribov Ambiguity in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick

    This PhD thesis consists of a collection of results pertaining to effective string theory and quantum chromodynamics. A bijection is proven between manifestly ISO(1, p) x SO(D - p - 1) actions whose gapless degrees of freedom consist of Goldstone fields realizing the coset ISO(1, D - 1)/ISO(1, p) x SO(D - p - 1) non-linearly, and effective actions describing p + 1 dimensional surfaces embedded in a D dimensional Minkowskian target space. Continuing with effective strings, an interesting UV complete, albeit acausal theory is analyzed whose low energy effective action has a 'wrong sign' leading irrelevant operator. The constraints integrability puts on branon scattering is also catalogued in various dimensions, and in the presence of goldstini non-linearly realizing target space supersymmetry. An interesting hidden supersymmetry is discovered, for Green-Schwarz-like actions with an arbitrary coefficient preceding the Wess-Zumino term. Lastly, with regards to QCD, techniques from the program initiated by Vladimir Gribov in 1978 to investigate the effects of a non-perturbative residual gauge ambiguity are refined and applied to the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement scenario, showing an enhanced ghost propagator and divergent color coulomb potential. I then provide a careful analysis of how to correctly implement periodic boundary conditions in the finite temperature theory, which naively would be contradictory with the Maggiore-Schaden shift which is crucial to using familiar BRST cohomology techniques to define the subset of physical states of the Hilbert space.

  20. Strong field ionization and gauge dependence of nonlocal potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rensink, T C

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal potential models have been used in place of the Coulomb potential in the Schrodinger equation as an efficient means of exploring high field laser-atom interaction in previous works. Al- though these models have found use in modeling phenomena including photo-ionization and ejected electron momentum spectra, they are known to break electromagnetic gauge invariance. This paper examines if there is a preferred gauge for the linear field response and photoionization characteristics of nonlocal atomic binding potentials in the length and velocity gauges. It is found that the length gauge is preferable for a wide range of parameters.

  1. One-loop effective action of QCD at high temperature using the heat kernel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megias, E. [Universidad de Granada (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna]. E-mail: emegias@ugr.es

    2004-07-01

    Perturbation theory is an important tool to describe the properties of QCD at very high temperatures. Recently a new technique has been proposed to compute the one-loop effective action of QCD at finite temperature by making a gauge covariant derivative expansion, which is fully consistent with topologically small and large gauge transformations (also time dependent transformations). This technique is based on the heat kernel expansion, and the thermal Wilson line plays an essential role. We consider a general SU(N-c) gauge group. (author)

  2. Production of Spin-Two Gauge Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Konitopoulos, Spyros; Savvidy, George

    2008-01-01

    We considered spin-two gauge boson production in the fermion pair annihilation process and calculated the polarized cross sections for each set of helicity orientations of initial and final particles. The angular dependence of these cross sections is compared with the similar annihilation cross sections in QED with two photons in the final state, with two gluons in QCD and W-pair in Electroweak theory.

  3. QCD results at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2005-01-01

    Recent QCD measurements from the CDF collaboration at the Tevatron are presented, together with future prospects as the luminosity increases. The measured inclusive jet cross section is compared to pQCD NLO predictions. Precise measurements on jet shapes and hadronic energy flows are compared to different phenomenological models that describe gluon emissions and the underlying event in hadron-hadron interactions.

  4. Combinatorics of Lattice QCD at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD has features which may be similar to those of continuum QCD, such as a chiral critical end point and a nuclear liquid gas transition. Here I compare the combinatorics of staggered and Wilson fermions in the strong coupling limit for arbitrary number of colors and flavors. The partition functions can be considered as an expansions in hadronic spatial hoppings from the static limit, where both discretizations can be expressed via formulae with coefficients of distinct combinatorial interpretation. The corresponding multiplicites of hadronic states are evaluated using generalizations of Catalan numbers and Lucas polynomials. I outline how quantum Monte Carlo simulations can be carried out in general, and summarize recent results on the gauge corrections to the strong coupling limit.

  5. Lattice QCD Thermodynamics with Physical Quark Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Soltz, R A; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, Swagato; Vranas, P

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years new physics methods and algorithms as well as the latest supercomputers have enabled the study of the QCD thermodynamic phase transition using lattice gauge theory numerical simulations with unprecedented control over systematic errors. This is largely a consequence of the ability to perform continuum extrapolations with physical quark masses. Here we review recent progress in lattice QCD thermodynamics, focussing mainly on results that benefit from the use of physical quark masses: the crossover temperature, the equation of state, and fluctuations of the quark number susceptibilities. In addition, we place a special emphasis on calculations that are directly relevant to the study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC.

  6. Gauge mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mangiarotti, L

    1998-01-01

    This book presents in a unified way modern geometric methods in analytical mechanics based on the application of fibre bundles, jet manifold formalism and the related concept of connection. Non-relativistic mechanics is seen as a particular field theory over a one-dimensional base. In fact, the concept of connection is the major link throughout the book. In the gauge scheme of mechanics, connections appear as reference frames, dynamic equations, and in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Inertial forces, energy conservation laws and other phenomena related to reference frames are analyzed;

  7. Interpolating the Coulomb Phase of Little String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. We also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.

  8. Vortices in gauge models at finite density with vector condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Miransky, V A; Jia, Junji

    2006-01-01

    There exists a class of gauge models incorporating a finite density of matter in which the Higgs mechanism is provided by condensates of gauge (or gauge and scalar) fields, i.e., there are vector condensates in this case. We describe vortex solutions in the simplest model in this class, the gauged $SU(2)\\times U(1)_Y$ $\\sigma$-model with the chemical potential for hypercharge $Y$, in which the gauge symmetry is completely broken. It is shown that there are three types of topologically stable vortices in the model, connected either with photon field or hypercharge gauge field, or with both of them. Explicit vortex solutions are numerically found and their energy per unit length are calculated. The relevance of these solutions for the gluonic phase in the dense two-flavor QCD is discussed.

  9. Lattice QCD based on OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Matthias; Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present an OpenCL-based Lattice QCD application using a heatbath algorithm for the pure gauge case and Wilson fermions in the twisted mass formulation. The implementation is platform independent and can be used on AMD or NVIDIA GPUs, as well as on classical CPUs. On the AMD Radeon HD 5870 our double precision dslash implementation performs at 60 GFLOPS over a wide range of lattice sizes. The hybrid Monte-Carlo presented reaches a speedup of four over the reference code running on a server CPU.

  10. Phase transitions in dense 2-colour QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boz, Tamer; Fister, Leonard; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate 2-colour QCD with 2 flavours of Wilson fermion at nonzero temperature T and quark chemical potential mu, with a pion mass of 700 MeV (m_pi/m_rho=0.8). From temperature scans at fixed mu we find that the critical temperature for the superfluid to normal transition depends only very weakly on mu above the onset chemical potential, while the deconfinement crossover temperature is clearly decreasing with mu. We also present results for the Landau-gauge gluon propagator in the hot and dense medium.

  11. Extracting Electric Polarizabilities from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will Detmold, William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-05-01

    Charged and neutral, pion and kaon electric polarizabilities are extracted from lattice QCD using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions. We utilize classical background fields to access the polarizabilities from two-point correlation functions. Uniform background fields are achieved by quantizing the electric field strength with the proper treatment of boundary flux. These external fields, however, are implemented only in the valence quark sector. A novel method to extract charge particle polarizabilities is successfully demonstrated for the first time.

  12. Light-cone quantized QCD and novel hadron phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors reviews progress made in solving gauge theories such as collinear quantum chromodynamics using light-cone Hamiltonian methods. He also shows how the light-cone Fock expansion for hadron wavefunctions can be used to compute operator matrix elements such as decay amplitudes, form factors, distribution amplitudes, and structure functions, and how it provides a tool for exploring novel features of QCD. The author also reviews commensurate scale relations, leading-twist identities which relate physical observables to each other, thus eliminating renormalization scale and scheme ambiguities in perturbative QCD predictions.

  13. Playing with QCD I: effective field theories. Second lecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Two relevant phase transitions in QCD associated with SSB mechanisms for different symmetries of the action. Approximate Z(Nc) symmetry and deconfinement [exact for pure gauge SU(Nc)]. Order parameter: (trace of the) Polyakov loop. Approximate chiral symmetry and chiral transition [exact for massless quarks]. Order parameter: chiral condensate. Some good estimates within a very simple framework: the bag model. Very crude, disagrees with lattice QCD on the nature of the transition, but still used in several calculations (EoS for compact stars, hydro evolution of the QGP, etc.). Going beyond: effective models (based on symmetries of SQCD). (author)

  14. Monopole action and condensation in SU(2) QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H; Hiroshi Shiba; Tsuneo Suzuki

    1994-01-01

    An effective monopole action for various extended monopoles is derived from vacuum configurations after abelian projection in the maximally abelian gauge in SU(2) QCD. The action appears to be independent of the lattice volume. Moreover it seems to depend only on the physical lattice spacing of the renormalized lattice, not on \\beta. Entropy dominance over energy of monopole loops is seen on the renormalized lattice with the spacing b>b_c\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{-3} \\Lambda_L^{-1}. This suggests that monopole condensation always (for all \\beta) occurs in the infinite-volume limit of lattice QCD.

  15. Equivalent of a Thouless energy in lattice QCD Dirac spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Berbenni-Bitsch, M E; Ma, J Z; Meyer, S; Wilke, T

    2000-01-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) is a powerful statistical tool to model spectral fluctuations. In addition, RMT provides efficient means to separate different scales in spectra. Recently RMT has found application in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In mesoscopic physics, the Thouless energy sets the universal scale for which RMT applies. We try to identify the equivalent of a Thouless energy in complete spectra of the QCD Dirac operator with staggered fermions and $SU_c(2)$ lattice gauge fields. Comparing lattice data with RMT predictions we find deviations which allow us to give an estimate for this scale.

  16. Lattice QCD computations: Recent progress with modern Krylov subspace methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommer, A. [Bergische Universitaet GH Wuppertal (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interaction of matter. In order to compare the theory with results from experimental physics, the theory has to be reformulated as a discrete problem of lattice gauge theory using stochastic simulations. The computational challenge consists in solving several hundreds of very large linear systems with several right hand sides. A considerable part of the world`s supercomputer time is spent in such QCD calculations. This paper presents results on solving systems for the Wilson fermions. Recent progress is reviewed on algorithms obtained in cooperation with partners from theoretical physics.

  17. Structure of flux tube in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiba, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the flux tube is studied in SU(2) QCD from the standpoint of the abelian projection theory. It is shown that the flux distributions of the orthogonal electric field and the magnetic field are produced by the effect that the abelian monopoles in the maximally abelian (MA) gauge are expelled from the string region.

  18. QCD in the color-flow representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik; Ohl, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Reuter, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Speckner, C. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2012-06-15

    For many practical purposes, it is convenient to formulate unbroken nonabelian gauge theories like QCD in a color-flow basis. We present a new derivation of SU(N) interactions in the color-flow basis by extending the gauge group to U(N) x U(1)' in such a way that the two U(1) factors cancel each other. We use the quantum action principles to show the equivalence to the usual basis to all orders in perturbation theory. We extend the known Feynman rules to exotic color representations (e.g. sextets) and interactions (e.g. {epsilon}{sub ijk}). We discuss practical applications as they occur in automatic computation programs.

  19. The problem of quantization of lightcone QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Alexey V

    2011-01-01

    There exists the problem to construct a quantum algebra of observables in lightcone QCD beyond the perturbative regime. It has recently established that the boundary gauge fields are crucial for a consistent construction of the classical dynamic system. If the gauge group is non-Abelian and there are four or more space-time dimensions then the procedure of symplectic reduction gives a classical dynamical system with very complicated Hamiltonian having infinite power over the coupling constant. Then, to quantize the theory one should to construct a Poisson algebra and to quantize it. Careful analysis shows that a Poisson formulation has a problem with: canonical commutation relations, spatial invariance, and the boundary degrees of freedom in the Hamiltonian.

  20. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    AdS/QCD, light-front holography, and the nonperturbative running coupling / Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy de Teramond and Alexandre Deur -- New results on non-abelian vortices - Further insights into monopole, vortex and confinement / K. Konishi -- Study on exotic hadrons at B-factories / Toru Iijima -- Cold compressed baryonic matter with hidden local symmetry and holography / Mannque Rho -- Aspects of baryons in holographic QCD / T. Sakai -- Nuclear force from string theory / K. Hashimoto -- Integrating out holographic QCD back to hidden local symmetry / Masayasu Harada, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Holographic heavy quarks and the giant Polyakov loop / Gianluca Grignani, Joanna Karczmarek and Gordon W. Semenoff -- Effect of vector-axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum in hot and/or dense matter / Masayasu Harada and Chihiro Sasaki -- Infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators compatible with color confinement in Yang-Mills theory with the Gribov horizon / Kei-Ichi Kondo -- Chiral symmetry breaking on the lattice / Hidenori Fukaya [for JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations] -- Gauge-Higgs unification: Stable Higgs bosons as cold dark matter / Yutaka Hosotani -- The limits of custodial symmetry / R. Sekhar Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Higgs searches at the tevatron / Kazuhiro Yamamoto [for the CDF and D[symbol] collaborations] -- The top triangle moose / R. S. Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Conformal phase transition in QCD like theories and beyond / V. A. Miransky -- Gauge-Higgs unification at LHC / Nobuhito Maru and Nobuchika Okada -- W[symbol]W[symbol] scattering in Higgsless models: Identifying better effective theories / Alexander S. Belyaev ... [et al.] -- Holographic estimate of Muon g - 2 / Deog Ki Hong -- Gauge-Higgs dark matter / T. Yamashita -- Topological and curvature effects in a multi-fermion interaction model / T. Inagaki and M. Hayashi -- A model of soft mass generation / J. Hosek -- TeV physics and conformality / Thomas Appelquist -- Conformal

  1. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015 (Fig.~1). A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions; what is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD?; where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers?; and what experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus.This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  2. Odd sector of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampf, Karol [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Soelvegatan 14A, SE 223-62 Lund (Sweden); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-15

    A systematic study of the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD is presented. We briefly describe different applications including {pi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} decay, muonic g-2 factor and test of new holographic conjectures.

  3. Resonances in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Matthias F. M.; Lange, Jens Sören; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B.; Metag, Volker; Nakano, Takashi; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Stephen L.; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  4. Resonances in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Matthias F M; Pennington, Michael; Bettoni, Diego; Brambilla, Nora; Crede, Volker; Eidelman, Simon; Gillitzer, Albrecht; Gradl, Wolfgang; Lang, Christian B; Metag, Volker; Nieves, Juan; Neubert, Sebastian; Oka, Makoto; Olsen, Steve L; Pappagallo, Marco; Paul, Stephan; Pelizäus, Marc; Pilloni, Alessandro; Prencipe, Elisabetta; Ritman, Jim; Ryan, Sinead; Thoma, Ulrike; Uwer, Ulrich; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting 'Resonances in QCD', which took place at GSI October 12-14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with ${\\it up}$, ${\\it down}$ and ${\\it strange}$ quark content were considered. For heavy-light and heavy-heavy meson systems, those with ${\\it charm}$ quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  5. The QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  6. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  7. Proceedings, QCD-TNT-III, From Quarks and Gluons to Hadronic Matter: A Bridge too Far?

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the third edition of the QCD-TNT workshop the traditional focus of the last two editions (that is gaining a firmer grasp on the infrared behavior of the QCD Green's functions) will be slightly shifted towards attempts to implement the transition from the fundamental (quarks and gluons) to the effective (mesons and hadrons) degrees of freedom. So in addition to the traditional QCD-TNT themes (e.g., confinement, gluon mass generation, lattice simulations in different gauges, QCD at finite temperature and density) we plan to have more phenomenologically oriented topics (e.g., experimental reviews, determination of form factors from first principle, construction of Bethe-Salpeter kernels). In addition, a special session will be dedicated to review talks, summarizing the state-of-the-art, as well as highlighting the future perspectives, of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields using ultracold neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices, and other systems.

  8. Maximal abelian and Curci-Ferrari gauges in momentum subtraction at three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J M

    2015-01-01

    The vertex structure of QCD fixed in the maximal abelian gauge (MAG) and Curci-Ferrari gauge is analysed at two loops at the fully symmetric point for the 3-point functions corresponding to the three momentum subtraction (MOM) renormalization schemes. Consequently the three loop renormalization group functions are determined for each of these three schemes in each gauge using properties of the renormalization group equation.

  9. A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event.

  10. Mirror QCD and Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Teryaev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    An analog of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) sector known as mirror QCD (mQCD) can affect the cosmological evolution and help in resolving the Cosmological Constant problem. In this work, we explore an intriguing possibility for a compensation of the negative QCD vacuum contribution to the ground state energy density of the universe by means of a positive contribution from the chromomagnetic gluon condensate in mQCD. The trace anomaly compensation condition and the form of the mQCD coupling constant in the infrared limit have been proposed by analysing a partial non-perturbative solution of the Einstein--Yang-Mills equations of motion.

  11. Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.

  12. Towards the heavy dense QCD phase diagram using Complex Langevin simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Jäger, Benjamin; Seiler, Erhard; Sexty, Dénes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods cannot probe far into the QCD phase diagram with a real chemical potential, due to the famous sign problem. Complex Langevin simulations, using adaptive step-size scaling and gauge cooling, are suited for sampling path integrals with complex weights. We report here on tests of the deconfinement transition in pure Yang-Mills SU(3) simulations and present an update on the QCD phase diagram in the limit of heavy and dense quarks.

  13. Exceptional Confinement in G(2) Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, K; Pepé, M; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    We study theories with the exceptional gauge group G(2). The 14 adjoint "gluons" of a G(2) gauge theory transform as {3}, {3bar} and {8} under the subgroup SU(3), and hence have the color quantum numbers of ordinary quarks, anti-quarks and gluons in QCD. Since G(2) has a trivial center, a "quark" in the {7} representation of G(2) can be screened by "gluons". As a result, in G(2) Yang-Mills theory the string between a pair of static "quarks" can break. In G(2) QCD there is a hybrid consisting of one "quark" and three "gluons". In supersymmetric G(2) Yang-Mills theory with a {14} Majorana "gluino" the chiral symmetry is Z(4)_\\chi. Chiral symmetry breaking gives rise to distinct confined phases separated by confined-confined domain walls. A scalar Higgs field in the {7} representation breaks G(2) to SU(3) and allows us to interpolate between theories with exceptional and ordinary confinement. We also present strong coupling lattice calculations that reveal basic features of G(2) confinement. Just as in QCD, wher...

  14. Generalized Weinberg Sum Rules in Deconstructed QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Sekhar-Chivukula, R; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Kurachi, Masafumi; Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Recently, Son and Stephanov have considered an "open moose" as a possible dual model of a QCD-like theory of chiral symmetry breaking. In this note we demonstrate that although the Weinberg sum rules are satisfied in any such model, the relevant sums converge very slowly and in a manner unlike QCD. Further, we show that such a model satisfies a set of generalized sum rules. These sum rules can be understood by looking at the operator product expansion for the correlation function of chiral currents, and correspond to the absence of low-dimension gauge-invariant chiral symmetry breaking condensates. These results imply that, regardless of the couplings and F-constants chosen, the open moose is not the dual of any QCD-like theory of chiral symmetry breaking. We also show that the generalized sum rules lead to a compact expression for the difference of vector- and axial-current correlation functions. This expression allows for a simple formula for the S parameter (L_10), which implies that S is always positive a...

  15. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  16. Full CKM matrix with lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Masataka; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The authors show that it is now possible to fully determine the CKM matrix, for the first time, using lattice QCD. |V{sub cd}|, |V{sub cs}|, |V{sub ub}|, |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub us}| are, respectively, directly determined with the lattice results for form factors of semileptonic D {yields} {pi}lv, D {yields} Klv, B {yields} {pi}lv, B {yields} Dlv and K {yields} {pi}lv decays. The error from the quenched approximation is removed by using the MILC unquenced lattice gauge configurations, where the effect of u, d and s quarks is included. The error from the ''chiral'' extrapolation (m{sub l} {yields} m{sub ud}) is greatly reduced by using improved staggered quarks. The accuracy is comparable to that of the Particle Data Group averages. In addition, |V{sub ud}|, |V{sub ts}|, |V{sub ts}| and |V{sub td}| are determined by using unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental result for sin (2{beta}). In this way, they obtain all 9 CKM matrix elements, where the only theoretical input is lattice QCD. They also obtain all the Wolfenstein parameters, for the first time, using lattice QCD.

  17. Thermodynamics of AdS/QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kajantie, Keijo; Yee, J T; Yee, Jung-Tay

    2007-01-01

    We study finite temperature properties of four dimensional QCD-like gauge theories in the gauge theory/gravity duality picture. The gravity dual contains two deformed 5d AdS metrics, with and without a black hole, and a dilaton. We study the thermodynamics of the 4d boundary theory and constrain the two metrics so that they correspond to a high and a low temperature phase separated by a first order phase transition. The equation of state has the standard form for the pressure of a strongly coupled fluid modified by a vacuum energy, a bag constant. We determine the parameters of the deformation by using QCD results for $T_c$ and the hadron spectrum. With these parameters, we show that the phase transition in the 4d boundary theory and the 5d bulk Hawking-Page transition agree. We probe the dynamics of the two phases by computing the quark-antiquark free energy in them and confirm that the transition corresponds to confinement-deconfinement transition.

  18. Revisiting strong coupling QCD at finite baryon density and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, M

    2008-01-01

    The strong coupling limit ($\\beta_{gauge}=0$) of lattice QCD with staggered fermions enjoys the same non-perturbative properties as continuum QCD, namely confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. In contrast to the situation at weak coupling, the sign problem which appears at finite density can be brought under control for a determination of the full (mu,T) phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations. Further difficulties with efficiency and ergodicity of the simulations, especially at the strongly first-order, low-T, finite-mu transition, are addressed respectively with a worm algorithm and multicanonical sampling. Our simulations reveal sizeable corrections to the old results of Karsch and Muetter. Comparison with analytic mean-field determinations of the phase diagram shows discrepancies of O(10) in the location of the QCD critical point.

  19. Millenial Messages for QCD from the Superworld and from the String

    CERN Document Server

    Strassler, M J

    2003-01-01

    Supersymmetric gauge theories have had a significant impact on our understanding of QCD and of field theory in general. The phases of N=1 supersymmetric QCD (SQCD) are discussed, and the possibility of similar phases in non-supersymmetric QCD is emphasized. It is described how duality in SQCD links many previously known duality transformations that were thought to be distinct, including Olive-Montonen duality of N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory and quark-hadron duality in (S)QCD. A connection between Olive-Montonen duality and the confining strings of Yang-Mills theory is explained, in which a picture of confinement via non-abelian monopole condensation -- a generalized dual Meissner effect -- emerges explicitly. Similarities between supersymmetric and ordinary QCD are discussed, as is a non-supersymmetric QCD-like ``orbifold'' of N=1 Yang-Mills theory. I briefly discuss the recent discovery that gauge theories and string theories are more deeply connected than ever previously realized. Specific questions for ...

  20. Baryons and Low-Density Baryonic Matter in 1+1 Dimensional Large N_c QCD with Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Prabal; Jamgochian, Arec; Kumar, Nilay

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies baryons and baryonic matter in the combined large N_c and heavy quark mass limits of QCD in 1+1 dimension. In this non-relativistic limit, baryons are composed of N_c quarks that interact, at leading order in N_c, through a color Coulomb potential. Using variational techniques, very accurate calculations of single baryon masses and interaction energies of low-density baryon crystal are performed. These results are used to cross-check a general numerical approach applicable for arbitrary quark masses and baryon densities recently proposed by Bringoltz, which is based on a lattice in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. The Bringoltz method differs from a previous approach of Salcedo, et al. in its treatment of a finite box effect - namely gauge configurations that wind around the box. One might expect these effects to be small for large enough boxes, in which the baryon density approaches zero to high accuracy at the edges. However, the effects of these windings appear to be quite...

  1. Cosmologically safe QCD axion without fine-tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; DESY Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS

    2015-10-15

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous PQ symmetry. In this letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop the chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to the original Kim's model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of the chiral symmetry breaking in the Abelian gauge theory.

  2. Cosmologically Safe QCD Axion without Fine-Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-02-05

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. In this Letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to Kim's original model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of chiral symmetry breaking in Abelian gauge theory.

  3. An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Matteo; Pittler, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian ("Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian") carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the...

  4. Cosmologically safe QCD axion without fine-tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Masaki; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Although QCD axion models are widely studied as solutions to the strong CP problem, they generically confront severe fine-tuning problems to guarantee the anomalous PQ symmetry. In this letter, we propose a simple QCD axion model without any fine-tunings. We introduce an extra dimension and a pair of extra quarks living on two branes separately, which is also charged under a bulk Abelian gauge symmetry. We assume a monopole condensation on our brane at an intermediate scale, which implies that the extra quarks develop the chiral symmetry breaking and the PQ symmetry is broken. In contrast to the original Kim's model, our model explains the origin of the PQ symmetry thanks to the extra dimension and avoids the cosmological domain wall problem because of the chiral symmetry breaking in the Abelian gauge theory.

  5. Infinite coupling duals of N=2 gauge theories and new rank 1 superconformal field theories

    OpenAIRE

    Argyres, Philip C.; Wittig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a proposed duality [arXiv:0711.0054] between infinitely coupled gauge theories and superconformal field theories (SCFTs) with weakly gauged flavor groups predicts the existence of new rank 1 SCFTs. These superconformal fixed point theories have the same Coulomb branch singularities as the rank 1 E_6, E_7, and E_8 SCFTs, but have smaller flavor symmetry algebras and different central charges. Gauging various subalgebras of the flavor algebras of these rank 1 SCFTs provides many ex...

  6. Dimensional transmutation in the longitudinal sector of equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Golterman, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    We study the pure-gauge sector of an $SU(N)$ gauge theory, equivariantly gauge fixed to $SU(N-1)\\times U(1)$, which is an asymptotically free non-linear sigma model in four dimensions. We show that dimensional transmutation takes place in the large-$N$ limit, and elaborate on the relevance of this result for a speculative scenario in which the strong longitudinal dynamics gives rise to a novel Higgs-Coulomb phase.

  7. Field-strength correlators for QCD in a magnetic background

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, Enrico; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of an exploratory study (by means of Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice) of the properties of the gauge-invariant two-point correlation functions of the gauge-field strengths for $N_f=2$ QCD at zero temperature and in the presence of a magnetic background field: the analysis provides evidence for the emergence of anisotropies in the nonperturbative part of the correlators and for an increase of the gluon condensate as a function of the external magnetic field.

  8. A problem of the QCD axion in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Yanagida, T.T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15

    We point out that the QCD axion generally couples to all the gauge fields in nature through the Super-Weyl, Kaehler and sigma-model anomalies in supergravity. If supersymmetry is dynamically broken by the hidden-sector gauge interactions, the axion potential receives corrections due to the instanton in the hidden sector. We show that the supersymmetry breaking models are tightly constrained for the Peccei-Quinn mechanism to successfully solve the strong CP problem. In particular, the gravity mediation turns out to be strongly disfavored. (orig.)

  9. Phases of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, Simon

    2009-04-09

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction within the Standard Model of elementary particles. Today's research in this area dedicates substantial resources to numeric solutions of the QCD field equations and experimental programs exploring the phases of QCD. This thesis proceeds along a complementary line - that of modelling QCD, with the aim of identifying its dominant degrees of freedom. This is possible by minimally coupling effective potentials for the Polyakov loop to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models using temporal background fields to model chiral symmetry breaking respecting colour confinement. The fermion sign problem resulting from the minimal coupling is addressed in this work establishing a novel, systematically ordered approach. The modifications to the approximative order parameter of colour confinement, the Polyakov loop, are in direct connection with the fermion sign problem. Furthermore an effective coupling of quark densities of different flavours is induced. This mechanism, most likely also present in QCD, produces finite contributions to flavour off diagonal susceptibilities. Susceptibilities are amongst the most promising physical quantities for the experimental exploration of the phase transition at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)

  10. QCD physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.

    1992-05-01

    We present measurements of jet production and isolated prompt photon production in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from the 1988--89 run of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). To test QCD with jets, the inclusive jet cross section (p{bar p} {yields} J + X) and two jet angular distributions (p{bar P} {yields} JJ + X) are compared to QCD predictions and are used to search for composite quarks. The ratio of the scaled jet cross sections at two Tevatron collision energies ({radical}s= 546 and 1800 GeV) is compared to QCD predictions for X{sub T} scaling violations. Also, we present the first evidence for QCD interference effects (color coherence) in third jet production (p{bar p} {yields} JJJ + X). To test QCD with photons, we present measurements of the transverse momentum spectrum of single isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X), double isolated prompt photon production (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} + X), and the angular distribution of photon-jet events (p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} J + X). We have also measured the isolated production ratio of {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons (p{bar p} {yields} {eta} + X)/(p{bar p} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + X) = 1.02 {plus minus} .15(stat) {plus minus} .23(sys).

  11. Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Thaler, R. M.

    1980-10-01

    The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+208Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 208Pb(p, p), E=0.8 GeV, Kerman, McManus, and Thaler, and Watson multiple scattering theories, Coulomb correction terms, high momentum transfer.

  12. Light hadron spectrum and decay constants in quenched lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allton, C.R.; Lellouch, L.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Wittig, H. (Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH (United Kingdom)); Baxter, R.M.; Booth, S.P.; Bowler, K.C.; Henty, D.S.; Kenway, R.D.; McNeile, C.; Pendleton, B.J.; Richards, D.G.; Simone, J.N.; Simpson, A.D. (Department of Physics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)); (UKQCD Collaboration)

    1994-01-01

    We present results for light hadrons composed of both degenerate and nondegenerate quarks in quenched lattice QCD. We calculate masses and decay constants using 60 gauge configurations with an [ital O]([ital a])-improved fermion action at [beta]=6.2. Using the [rho] mass to set the scale we find hadron masses within two to three standard deviations of the experimental values (given in parentheses): [ital m][sub [ital K

  13. Gluon condensate and the vacuum structure of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    1998-01-01

    Phenomenological evidence and analytic approximations to the QCD ground state suggest a complex gluon condensate structure. Exclusion of elementary fermion excitations by the generation of infinite mass corrections is a consequence. In addition the existence of vacuum condensates in unbroken non-abelian gauge theories, endows SU(3) and higher order groups with a non-trivial structure in the manifold of possible vacuum solutions, which is not present in SU(2). This may be related to the existence of particle generations.

  14. Neutralino annihilation into massive quarks with supersymmetric QCD corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Björn; Klasen, Michael; Kovařík, Karol

    2009-03-01

    We compute the full O(αs) supersymmetric (SUSY)-QCD corrections for neutralino annihilation into massive quarks through gauge or Higgs bosons and squarks in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, including the known resummation of logarithmically enhanced terms. The numerical impact of the corrections on the extraction of SUSY mass parameters from cosmological data is analyzed for gravity-mediated SUSY-breaking scenarios and shown to be sizable, so that these corrections must be included in common analysis tools.

  15. Neutralino Annihilation into Massive Quarks with SUSY-QCD Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Björn; Kovarik, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We compute the full O(alpha_s) supersymmetric (SUSY) QCD corrections for neutralino annihilation into massive quarks through gauge or Higgs bosons and squarks in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), including the known resummation of logarithmically enhanced terms. The numerical impact of the corrections on the extraction of SUSY mass parameters from cosmological data is analyzed for gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenarios and shown to be sizable, so that these corrections must be included in common analysis tools.

  16. QCD propagators and vertices from lattice QCD (in memory of Michael Müller-Preußker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternbeck André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review lattice calculations of the elementary Greens functions of QCD with a special emphasis on the Landau gauge. These lattice results have been of interest to continuum approaches to QCD over the past 20 years. They are used as reference for Dyson-Schwinger- and functional renormalization group equation calculations as well as for hadronic bound state equations. The lattice provides low-energy data for propagators and three-point vertices in Landau gauge at zero and finite temperature even including dynamical fermions. We summarize Michael Müller-Preußker’s important contributions to this field and put them into the perspective of his other research interests.

  17. Lattice QCD on fine lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing

    2016-11-01

    These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.

  18. Resonances in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Matthias F.M., E-mail: m.lutz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lange, Jens Sören, E-mail: Soeren.Lange@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Pennington, Michael, E-mail: michaelp@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bettoni, Diego [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Brambilla, Nora [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Crede, Volker [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Eidelman, Simon [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Budker Istitute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gillitzer, Albrecht [Institut für Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lang, Christian B. [Institut für Physik, Universität Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Metag, Volker [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Nakano, Takashi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); and others

    2016-04-15

    We report on the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting ‘Resonances in QCD’, which took place at GSI October 12–14, 2015. A group of 26 people met to discuss the physics of resonances in QCD. The aim of the meeting was defined by the following three key questions: • What is needed to understand the physics of resonances in QCD? • Where does QCD lead us to expect resonances with exotic quantum numbers? • What experimental efforts are required to arrive at a coherent picture? For light mesons and baryons only those with up, down and strange quark content were considered. For heavy–light and heavy–heavy meson systems, those with charm quarks were the focus. This document summarizes the discussions by the participants, which in turn led to the coherent conclusions we present here.

  19. Knot topology in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, L P; Pak, D G

    2013-01-01

    We consider topological structure of classical vacuum solutions in quantum chromodynamics. Topologically non-equivalent vacuum configurations are classified by non-trivial second and third homotopy groups for coset of the color group SU(N) (N=2,3) under the action of maximal Abelian stability group. Starting with explicit vacuum knot configurations we study possible exact classical solutions as vacuum excitations. Exact analytic non-static knot solution in a simple CP^1 model in Euclidean space-time has been obtained. We construct an ansatz based on knot and monopole topological vacuum structure for searching new solutions in SU(2) and SU(3) QCD. We show that singular knot-like solutions in QCD in Minkowski space-time can be naturally obtained from knot solitons in integrable CP^1 models. A family of Skyrme type low energy effective theories of QCD admitting exact analytic solutions with non-vanishing Hopf charge is proposed.

  20. Lattice QCD for Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, Sz; Kampert, K H; Katz, S D; Kawanai, T; Kovacs, T G; Mages, S W; Pasztor, A; Pittler, F; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Szabo, K K

    2016-01-01

    We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to several tens of MeV we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (chi) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and chi, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.

  1. QCD Evolution Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the QCD Evolution 2015 Workshop which was held 26–30 May, 2015 at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, USA. The workshop is a continuation of a series of workshops held during four consecutive years 2011, 2012, 2013 at Jefferson Lab, and in 2014 in Santa Fe, NM. With the rapid developments in our understanding of the evolution of parton distributions including low-x, TMDs, GPDs, higher-twist correlation functions, and the associated progress in perturbative QCD, lattice QCD and effective field theory techniques we look forward with great enthusiasm to the 2015 meeting. A special attention was also paid to participation of experimentalists as the topics discussed are of immediate importance for the JLab 12 experimental program and a future Electron Ion Collider.

  2. PT Symmetry and QCD: Finite Temperature and Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Ogilvie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of PT symmetry to quantum chromodynamics (QCD, the gauge theory of the strong interactions, is explored in the context of finite temperature and density. Two significant problems in QCD are studied: the sign problem of finite-density QCD, and the problem of confinement. It is proven that the effective action for heavy quarks at finite density is PT-symmetric. For the case of 1+1 dimensions, the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian, although not Hermitian, has real eigenvalues for a range of values of the chemical potential μ, solving the sign problem for this model. The effective action for heavy quarks is part of a potentially large class of generalized sine-Gordon models which are non-Hermitian but are PT-symmetric. Generalized sine-Gordon models also occur naturally in gauge theories in which magnetic monopoles lead to confinement. We explore gauge theories where monopoles cause confinement at arbitrarily high temperatures. Several different classes of monopole gases exist, with each class leading to different string tension scaling laws. For one class of monopole gas models, the PT-symmetric affine Toda field theory emerges naturally as the effective theory. This in turn leads to sine-law scaling for string tensions, a behavior consistent with lattice simulations.

  3. Duality and Superconvergence Relation in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tachibana, M

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the phase structures of various N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories including even the exceptional gauge group from the viewpoint of superconvergence of the gauge field propagator. Especially we analyze in detail whether a new type of duality recently discovered by Oehme in $SU(N_c)$ gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter fields can be found in more general gauge theories with more general matter representations or not. The result is that in the cases of theories including matter fields in only the fundamental representation, Oehme's duality holds but otherwise it does not. In the former case, superconvergence relation might give good criterion to describe the interacting non-Abelian Coulomb phase without using some information from dual magnetic theory.

  4. QCD Physics (CMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Jets which are the signatures of quarks and gluons in the detector can be described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of parton-parton scattering. Jets are abundantly produced at the LHC's high energy scales. Measurements of inclusive jets, dijets and multijets can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions (PDF), as well as to measure the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}$. The measurements use the samples of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at various center-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV.

  5. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  7. A gauge-invariant reorganization of thermal gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Nan

    2010-07-01

    This dissertation is devoted to the study of thermodynamics for quantum gauge theories. The poor convergence of quantum field theory at finite temperature has been the main obstacle in the practical applications of thermal QCD for decades. In this dissertation I apply hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, which is a gauge-invariant reorganization of the conventional perturbative expansion for quantum gauge theories to the thermodynamics of QED and Yang-Mills theory to three-loop order. For the Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of electrons and photons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T, m{sub f}/T and e{sup 2}, where m{sub D} and m{sub f} are the photon and electron thermal masses, respectively, and e is the coupling constant. I demonstrate that the hard-thermal-loop perturbation reorganization improves the convergence of the successive approximations to the QED free energy at large coupling, e {proportional_to} 2. For the non-Abelian case, I present a calculation of the free energy of a hot gas of gluons by expanding in a power series in m{sub D}/T and g{sup 2}, where m{sub D} is the gluon thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. I show that at three-loop order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory is compatible with lattice results for the pressure, energy density, and entropy down to temperatures T {proportional_to} 2 - 3 T{sub c}. The results suggest that HTLpt provides a systematic framework that can be used to calculate static and dynamic quantities for temperatures relevant at LHC. (orig.)

  8. Coulomb excitation of Ga-73

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkaell, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekstrom, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kroell, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Koester, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

    2010-01-01

    The B(E2; I-i -> I-f) values for transitions in Ga-71(31)40 and Ga-73(31)42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga-71,Ga-73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted gamma rays were dete

  9. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...

  10. The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)

  11. Noncompact lattice formulation of gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Friedberg, R; Pang, Y; Ren, H C

    1995-01-01

    We expand the gauge field in terms of a suitably constructed complete set of Bloch wave functions, each labeled by a band designation \\,n\\, and a wave number \\,\\vec K\\, restricted to the Brillouin zone. A noncompact formulation of lattice QCD (or QED) can be derived by restricting the expansion only to the \\,0^{th}-band (\\,n = 0\\,) functions, which are simple continuum interpolations of discrete values associated with sites or links on a lattice. The exact continuum theory can be reached through the inclusion of all \\,n = 0\\, and \\,n \

  12. Gauge theory and little gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    The gauge theory is the most important type of the field theory, in which the interactions of the elementary particles are described by the exchange of the gauge bosons.In this article, the gauge theory is reexamined as geometry of the vector space, and a new concept of "little gauge theory" is introduced. A key peculiarity of the little gauge theory is that the theory is able to give a restriction for form of the connection field. Based on the little gauge theory, Cartan geometry, a charged boson and the Dirac fermion field theory are investigated. In particular, the Dirac fermion field theory leads to an extension of Sogami's covariant derivative. And it is interpreted that Higgs bosons are included in new fields introduced in this article.

  13. Complex Langevin Dynamics in 1+1d QCD at Non-Zero Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalzbauer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We present our results obtained from gauge cooled complex Langevin simulations in 1+1d QCD at non-zero densities in the strong coupling regime with unrooted staggered fermions. For small quark masses there are regions of the chemical potential where this method fails to reproduce correct results. In these parameter ranges we studied the effect of different gauge cooling schemes on the distributions of the fermion determinant as well as of observables.

  14. Polyakov-Quark-Meson-Diquark Model for two-color QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Strodthoff, Nils

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on the phase diagram of two-color QCD from a chiral effective model approach based on a quark-meson-diquark model using the Functional Renormalization Group (FRG). We discuss the impact of perturbative UV contributions, the inclusion of gauge field dynamics via a phenomenological Polyakov loop potential, and the impact of matter backcoupling on the gauge sector. The corresponding phase diagram including these effects is found to be in qualitative agreement with recent lattice investigations.

  15. QCD and Hadron Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2015-02-26

    This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.

  16. QCD at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb collaborations are testing QCD with unprecedented precision and in a new energy regime. Inclusive jet, isolated photon, vector boson and heavy quark production cross section measurements are reported here including a selection of first results at the new frontier collision energy of 13 TeV.

  17. The Phases of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E V

    1996-01-01

    In the recent years we have learned that light quarks play a crucial role in QCD-like theories, transforming it to many different phases. We review what is known about them, both from lattice and non-lattice approaches. A particularly simple mechanism of the QCD chiral restoration phase transition is discussed first: it suggests that it is a transition from randomly placed tunneling events (instantons) at low T to strongly localized tunneling-anti-tunneling pairs at high T. Many features of the transition found on the lattice can be explained in this simple picture. Very relevant for RHIC, this approach predicts a strong non-perturbative interaction between quarks $above$ the phase transition. It also predicts that QGP-like phase sets in at $zero$ temperature, provided few more light quark flavors are added to QCD. Finally, we also discuss possible experimental signatures of the QCD phase transition. One issue is CERN dilepton data, possibly related with ``dropping'' masses of $\\rho, A_1$ mesons. Another is d...

  18. Phenomenology from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, L P

    2003-01-01

    After a short presentation of lattice QCD and some of its current practical limitations, I review recent progress in applications to phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on heavy-quark masses and on hadronic weak matrix elements relevant for constraining the CKM unitarity triangle. The main numerical results are highlighted in boxes.

  19. Conformal Properties in High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature $T_c,$ using the RG improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a $32^3\\times 16$ lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively $Z(3)$ center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a non-trivial $Z(3)$ center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature QCD. We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature $\\beta=100.0 \\, (T \\simeq10^{58} T_c)$ remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the $Z(3)$ twisted boundary condition for $t/L_t \\geq 0.2$, but differs from that with the $Z(3)$ trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks $m_q$, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the $Z(3)$ twisted gauge fi...

  20. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  1. Instantons, Fluxons and Open Gauge String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Griguolo, L; Szabó, R J; Griguolo, Luca; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    We use the exact instanton expansion to illustrate various string characteristics of noncommutative gauge theory in two dimensions. We analyse the spectrum of the model and present some evidence in favour of Hagedorn and fractal behaviours. The decompactification limit of noncommutative torus instantons is shown to map in a very precise way, at both the classical and quantum level, onto fluxon solutions on the noncommutative plane. The weak-coupling singularities of the usual Gross-Taylor string partition function for QCD on the torus are studied in the instanton representation and its double scaling limit, appropriate for the mapping onto noncommutative gauge theory, is shown to be a generating function for the volumes of the principal moduli spaces of holomorphic differentials. The noncommutative deformation of this moduli space geometry is described and appropriate open string interpretations are proposed in terms of the fluxon expansion.

  2. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    CERN Document Server

    de Haro, Sebastian; Butterfield, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening Sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Section 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  3. Conceptual Aspects of Gauge/Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haro, Sebastian; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Butterfield, Jeremy N.

    2016-11-01

    We give an introductory review of gauge/gravity duality, and associated ideas of holography, emphasising the conceptual aspects. The opening sections gather the ingredients, viz. anti-de Sitter spacetime, conformal field theory and string theory, that we need for presenting, in Sect. 5, the central and original example: Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence. Sections 6 and 7 develop the ideas of this example, also in applications to condensed matter systems, QCD, and hydrodynamics. Sections 8 and 9 discuss the possible extensions of holographic ideas to de Sitter spacetime and to black holes. Section 10 discusses the bearing of gauge/gravity duality on two philosophical topics: the equivalence of physical theories, and the idea that spacetime, or some features of it, are emergent.

  4. Gauge-Invariant Formalism with Dirac-mode Expansion for Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gongyo, Shinya; Suganuma, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We develop a manifestly gauge-covariant expansion of the QCD operator such as the Wilson loop, using the eigen-mode of the QCD Dirac operator $\\Slash D=\\gamma^\\mu D^\\mu$. With this method, we perform a direct analysis of the correlation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QCD Monte Carlo calculation on $6^4$ at $\\beta$=5.6. As a remarkable fact, the confinement force is almost unchanged even after removing the low-lying Dirac modes, which are responsible to chiral symmetry breaking. This indicates that one-to-one correspondence does not hold for between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. In this analysis, we carefully amputate only the "essence of chiral symmetry breaking" by cutting off the low-lying Dirac modes, and can artificially realize the "confined but chiral restored situation" in QCD.

  5. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  6. CL2QCD - Lattice QCD based on OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Philipsen, Owe; Sciarra, Alessandro; Bach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We present the Lattice QCD application CL2QCD, which is based on OpenCL and can be utilized to run on Graphic Processing Units as well as on common CPUs. We focus on implementation details as well as performance results of selected features. CL2QCD has been successfully applied in LQCD studies at finite temperature and density and is available at http://code.compeng.uni-frankfurt.de/projects/clhmc.

  7. A holographic study of the gauged NJL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Will; Evans, Nick

    2017-08-01

    The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model of chiral symmetry breaking predicts a second order chiral phase transition. If the fermions in addition have non-abelian gauge interactions then the transition is expected to become a crossover as the NJL term enhances the IR chiral symmetry breaking of the gauge theory. We study this behaviour in the holographic Dynamic AdS/QCD description of a non-abelian gauge theory with the NJL interaction included using Witten's multi-trace prescription. We study the behaviour of the mesonic spectrum as a function of the NJL coupling and the ratio of the UV cut off scale to the dynamical scale of the gauge theory.

  8. The Coulomb branch of the Leigh-Strassler deformation and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Benini, F

    2004-01-01

    The Dijkgraaf-Vafa approach is used in order to study the Coulomb branch of the Leigh-Strassler massive deformation of N=4 SYM with gauge group U(N). The theory has N=1 SUSY and an N-dimensional Coulomb branch of vacua, which can be described by a family of ``generalized'' Seiberg-Witten curves. The matrix model analysis is performed by adding a tree level potential that selects particular vacua. The family of curves is found: it consists of order N branched coverings of a base torus, and it is described by multi-valued functions on the latter. The relation between the potential and the vacuum is made explicit. The gauge group SU(N) is also considered. Finally the resolvents from which expectation values of chiral operators can be extracted are presented.

  9. Euler-Lagrange Equations for the Gribov Reggeon Calculus in QCD and in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, L. N.

    The theory of the high energy scattering in QCD and gravity is based on the reggeization of gluons and gravitons, respectively. We discuss the corresponding effective actions for reggeized particle interactions. The Euler-Lagrange equations in these theories are constructed with a variational approach for the effective actions and by using their invariance under the gauge and general coordinate transformations.

  10. Casimir effect as a source of chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floratos, E. (Crete Univ., Iraklion (Greece). Physics Dept.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Papantonopoulos, E. (Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1985-02-21

    The vacuum of QCD, defined on a space-time topology T/sup 3/ x R, breaks chiral symmetry. The physical mechanism responsible is the formation of fermionic condensates due to Casimir forces. Representations of coloured fermions, which possess asymptotic freedom, stabilize the formation of these condensates through their gauge interactions. Estimates of ratios of the order parameters are given for various representations.

  11. Diagrammatic proof of the BCFW recursion relation for gluon amplitudes in QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draggiotis, P.D.; Kleiss, R.H.P.; Lazopoulos, A.; Papadopoulos, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a proof of the Britto Cachazo Feng Witten tree-level recursion relation for gluon amplitudes in QCD, based on a direct equivalence between BCFW decompositions and Feynman diagrams. We demonstrate that this equivalence can be made explicit when working in a convenient gauge. We exhibit

  12. The baryonic phase in holographic descriptions of the QCD phase diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Kim, K.-Y.; Magou, M.; Seo, Y.; Sin, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic models of the QCD temperature-chemical potential phase diagram based on the D3/D7 system with chiral symmetry breaking. The baryonic phase may be included through linked D5-D7 systems. In a previous analysis of a model with a running gauge coupling a baryonic phase was shown to

  13. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  14. Testing the supersymmetric QCD Yukawa coupling in a combined LHC/ILC analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Freitas; P Z Skands

    2007-11-01

    In order to establish supersymmetry (SUSY) at future colliders, the identity of gauge couplings and the corresponding Yukawa couplings between gauginos, sfermions and fermions needs to be verified. A first phenomenological study for determining the Yukawa coupling of the SUSY-QCD sector is presented here, using a method which combines information from LHC and ILC.

  15. Bridging a gap between continuum-QCD and ab initio predictions of hadron observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Binosi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within contemporary hadron physics there are two common methods for determining the momentum-dependence of the interaction between quarks: the top-down approach, which works toward an ab initio computation of the interaction via direct analysis of the gauge-sector gap equations; and the bottom-up scheme, which aims to infer the interaction by fitting data within a well-defined truncation of those equations in the matter sector that are relevant to bound-state properties. We unite these two approaches by demonstrating that the renormalisation-group-invariant running-interaction predicted by contemporary analyses of QCD's gauge sector coincides with that required in order to describe ground-state hadron observables using a nonperturbative truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations in the matter sector. This bridges a gap that had lain between nonperturbative continuum-QCD and the ab initio prediction of bound-state properties.

  16. Statistical analysis and the equivalent of a Thouless energy in lattice QCD Dirac spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Guhr, T; Meyer, S; Wilke, T

    1999-01-01

    Random Matrix Theory (RMT) is a powerful statistical tool to model spectral fluctuations. This approach has also found fruitful application in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Importantly, RMT provides very efficient means to separate different scales in the spectral fluctuations. We try to identify the equivalent of a Thouless energy in complete spectra of the QCD Dirac operator for staggered fermions from SU(2) lattice gauge theory for different lattice size and gauge couplings. In disordered systems, the Thouless energy sets the universal scale for which RMT applies. This relates to recent theoretical studies which suggest a strong analogy between QCD and disordered systems. The wealth of data allows us to analyze several statistical measures in the bulk of the spectrum with high quality. We find deviations which allows us to give an estimate for this universal scale. Other deviations than these are seen whose possible origin is discussed. Moreover, we work out higher order correlators as well, in particular ...

  17. Gauge engineering and propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  18. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  19. Three Instanton Computations In Gauge Theory And String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, C E

    2005-01-01

    We employ a variety of ideas from geometry and topology to perform three new instanton computations in gauge theory and string theory. First, we consider supersymmetric QCD with gauge group SU( Nc) and with Nf flavors. In this theory, it is well known that instantons generate a superpotential if Nf = Nc − 1 and deform the moduli space of supersymmetric vacua if Nf = Nc. We extend these results to supersymmetric QCD with Nf > Nc flavors, for which we show that instantons generate a hierarchy of new, multi- fermion F-terms in the effective action. Second, we revisit the question of which Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic string are stable under worldsheet instanton corrections to the effective space-time superpotential. For instance, compactifications described by (0, 2) linear sigma models are believed to be stable, suggesting a remarkable cancellation among the instanton effects in these theories. We show that this cancellation follows directly from a residue theorem, whose proof relie...

  20. Lattice Landau Gauge via Stereographic Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Smekal, L.; Mehta, D.; Sternbeck, A.

    alexander.jorkowski@student.adelaide.edu.au, dhagash.mehta@adelaide.edu.au, andre.sternbeck@adelaide.edu.au The complete cancellation of Gribov copies and the Neuberger 0/0 problem of lattice BRST can be avoided in modified lattice Landau gauge. In compact U(1), where the problem is a lattice artifact, there remain to be Gribov copies but their number is exponentially reduced. Moreover, there is no cancellation of copies there as the sign of the Faddeev-Popov determinant is posi- tive. Applied to the maximal Abelian subgroup this avoids the perfect cancellation amongst the remaining Gribov copies for SU(N) also. In addition, based on a definition of gauge fields on the lattice as stereographically-projected link variables, it provides a framework for gauge fixed Monte-Carlo simulations. This will include all Gribov copies in the spirit of BRST. Their average is not zero, as demonstrated explicitly in simple models. This might resolve present discrepancies between gauge-fixed lattice and continuum studies of QCD Green’s functions.

  1. The QCD spectrum with three quark flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C; DeGrand, T A; Datta, S; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Orginos, K; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Bernard, Claude; Burch, Tom; Grand, Thomas A. De; Datta, Saumen; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Orginos, Kostas; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Doug

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a lattice hadron spectrum calculation using three flavors of dynamical quarks - two light and one strange, and quenched simulations for comparison. These simulations were done using a one-loop Symanzik improved gauge action and an improved Kogut-Susskind quark action. The lattice spacings, and hence also the physical volumes, were tuned to be the same in all the runs to better expose differences due to flavor number. Lattice spacings were tuned using the static quark potential, so as a byproduct we obtain updated results for the effect of sea quarks on the static quark potential. We find indications that the full QCD meson spectrum is in better agreement with experiment than the quenched spectrum. For the 0++ (a0) meson we see a coupling to two pseudoscalar mesons, or a meson decay on the lattice.

  2. Deconfinement in QCD with dynamical quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, O A; Zinovjev, G M

    1996-01-01

    We study the phase structure of full QCD within the canonical ensemble with respect to triality in a lattice formulation. The procedure for the calculation of the effective potentials in this case is given. As an example we consider the three dimensional SU(2) gauge model at finite temperatures in the strong coupling region. The potential exhibits a deconfinement phase transition unlike the similar potential obtained in the grand canonical ensemble which demonstrates explicit Z(N) symmetry breaking at any temperature. Furthermore, we investigate the effective potential with the chiral condensate included. In contradiction to other authors, we find chiral symmetry restoration in all triality sectors. In the scheme with massless staggered fermions we observe chiral symmetry restoration accompanying a deconfinement phase transition of first order. Above the critical point, besides two Z(2) symmetric "deconfining" vacua there exists a metastable "confining" vacuum in a wide region of parameters. Such a picture co...

  3. Hadrons in AdS/QCD models

    CERN Document Server

    de Paula, W; 10.1007/s00601-011-0267-0

    2012-01-01

    We discuss applications of gauge/gravity duality to describe the spectrum of light hadrons. We compare two particular 5-dimensional approaches: a model with an infrared deformed Anti-de Sitter metric and another one based on a dynamical AdS/QCD framework with back-reacted geometry in a dilaton/gravity background. The models break softly the scale invariance in the infrared region and allow mass gap for the field excitations in the gravity description, while keeping the conformal property of the metric close to the four-dimensional boundary. The models provide linear Regge trajectories for light mesons, associated with specially designed infrared gravity properties. We also review the results for the decay widths of the f0's into two pions, as overlap integrals between mesonic string amplitudes, which are in qualitative agreement with data.

  4. Novel Aspects of QCD in Leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J

    2004-01-01

    I review several topics in electroproduction which test fundamental aspects of QCD. These include the role of final-state interactions in producing diffractive leptoproduction processes, the shadowing of nuclear structure functions, and target-spin asymmetries. The antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is shown to be quark-flavor specific, suggesting that some part of the anomalous NuTeV result for $\\sin^2\\theta_W$ could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents. I also discuss the physics of the heavy-quark sea, hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, and evidence for color transparency for nuclear processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes, as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions.

  5. Twisted mass QCD at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Mueller-Preussker, M.; Petschlies, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Lombardo, M.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, LNF, Frascati (Italy); Philipsen, O.; Zeidlewicz, L. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Sternbeck, A. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM School of Chemistry and Physics

    2007-10-15

    We discuss the use of Wilson fermions with twisted mass for simulations of QCD thermodynamics. As a prerequisite for a future analysis of the finite-temperature transition making use of automatic {partial_derivative} (a) improvement, we investigate the phase structure in the space spanned by the hopping parameter {kappa}, the coupling {beta}, and the twisted mass parameter {mu}. We present results for N{sub f}=2 degenerate quarks on a 16{sup 3} x 8 lattice, for which we investigate the possibility of an Aoki phase existing at strong coupling and vanishing {mu}, as well as of a thermal phase transition at moderate gauge couplings and non-vanishing {mu}. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  7. Hadron Resonances from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.

  8. Applications of Jarzynski's relation in lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nada, Alessandro; Costagliola, Gianluca; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Jarzynski's equality is a well-known result in statistical mechanics, relating free-energy differences between equilibrium ensembles with fluctuations in the work performed during non-equilibrium transformations from one ensemble to the other. In this work, an extension of this relation to lattice gauge theory will be presented, along with numerical results for the $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ gauge model in three dimensions and for the equation of state in $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$ Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Then, further applications will be discussed, in particular for the Schr\\"odinger functional and for the study of QCD in strong magnetic fields.

  9. Finite baryon density effects on gauge field dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bödeker, Dietrich

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the effective action for QCD gauge fields at finite temperatures and densities, obtained after integrating out the hardest momentum scales from the system. We show that a non-vanishing baryon density induces a charge conjugation (C) odd operator to the gauge field action, proportional to the chemical potential. Even though it is parametrically smaller than the leading C even operator, it could have an important effect on C odd observables. The same operator appears to be produced by classical kinetic theory, allowing in principle for a non-perturbative study of such processes.

  10. Three-Form Gauging of axion Symmetries and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinearly realized Abelian global symmetries can be reformulated as local shift symmetries gauged by three-form gauge fields. The anomalous symmetries of the Standard Model (such as Peccei-Quinn or $B+L$) can be dualized to local symmetries gauged by the Chern-Simons three-forms of the Standard Model gauge group. In this description the strong CP problem can be reformulated as the problem of a massless three-form field in QCD, which creates an arbitrary CP-violating constant four-form electric field in the vacuum. Both the axion as well as the massless quark solutions amount to simply Higgsing the three-form gauge field, hence screening the electric field in the vacuum. This language gives an alternative way for visualizing the physics of the axion solution as well as the degree of its vulnerability due to gravitational corrections. Any physics that can jeopardize the axion solution must take the QCD three-form out of the Higgs phase. This can only happen if the physics in question provides an additional ma...

  11. Aspects of confinement in QCD from lattice simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, Daniel

    2011-01-12

    We study confinement in quantum chromodynamics via numerical simulations in the framework of lattice gauge theory. In Landau gauge, the mechanism of confinement is related to the infrared behavior of the ghost and gluon propagators via the Gribov-Zwanziger and Kugo- Ojima scenarios. These scenarios entail a scaling behavior. Functional methods in the continuum allow both for this behavior and for decoupling solutions, while lattice simulations in three and four dimensions yield only the latter. A possible explanation for this mismatch is based on limitations of standard lattice gauge fixing methods. Hence, we investigate a number of alternative gauge fixing algorithms in pure SU(2) gauge theory in two, three and four dimensions. We find that stochastic quantization yields an infrared behavior of the propagators in agreement with the results of standard procedures, even though the Faddeev-Popov operator spectrum indicates some different properties. In the strong-coupling limit, our results challenge the standard picture. In particular, we find in a non-perturbative completion of Landau gauge an enormous effect of the Gribov ambiguity. It entails that no subset of infrared solutions can be excluded yet. Moreover, we study the gluon propagator with free boundary conditions. On large lattices, the results mostly show the standard behavior. We also examine non-periodic gauge transformations. Furthermore, we analyze two topics related to the phase diagram of QCD. First, we explore the sign problem for fermions on the lattice by simulating the three-dimensional Thirring model with a complex Langevin equation. The algorithm succeeds in yielding a 'Silver Blaze' behavior of observables, but it does not reliably describe the onset to a phase with non-zero density. Second, we determine properties of the deconfinement phase transition of pure SU(2) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, like the critical temperature, by means of the gluon propagator in Landau gauge. (orig.)

  12. Future directions for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    New directions for exploring QCD at future high-energy colliders are sketched. These include jets within jets. BFKL dynamics, soft and hard diffraction, searches for disoriented chiral condensate, and doing a better job on minimum bias physics. The new experimental opportunities include electron-ion collisions at HERA, a new collider detector at the C0 region of the TeVatron, and the FELIX initiative at the LHC.

  13. Discrete gauge theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild Propitius, M.D.F.; Bais, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures, we present a self-contained treatment of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group $H$ via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete $H$ gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global $H$ cha

  14. Chaos in Chiral Condensates in Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Murata, Keiju; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2016-12-01

    Assigning a chaos index for dynamics of generic quantum field theories is a challenging problem because the notion of a Lyapunov exponent, which is useful for singling out chaotic behavior, works only in classical systems. We address the issue by using the AdS /CFT correspondence, as the large Nc limit provides a classicalization (other than the standard ℏ→0 ) while keeping nontrivial quantum condensation. We demonstrate the chaos in the dynamics of quantum gauge theories: The time evolution of homogeneous quark condensates ⟨q ¯q ⟩ and ⟨q ¯γ5q ⟩ in an N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the S U (Nc) gauge group at large Nc and at a large 't Hooft coupling λ ≡NcgYM2 exhibits a positive Lyapunov exponent. The chaos dominates the phase space for energy density E ≳(6 ×1 02)×mq4(Nc/λ2), where mq is the quark mass. We evaluate the largest Lyapunov exponent as a function of (Nc,λ ,E ) and find that the N =2 supersymmetric QCD is more chaotic for smaller Nc.

  15. The QCD Running Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, A; de Teramond, G F

    2016-01-01

    We review the present knowledge for $\\alpha_s$, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in QCD. The dependence of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics -from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ at high $Q^2$, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small $Q^2$, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of $\\alpha_s$, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in the high $Q^2$ domain of QCD. We review how $\\alpha_s$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as ...

  16. Spin-2 NΩ dibaryon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etminan, Faisal [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nemura, Hidekatsu [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Aoki, Sinya [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Doi, Takumi [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ikeda, Yoichi [Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi [Nihon University, College of Bioresource Sciences, Kanagawa 252-0880 (Japan); Ishii, Noriyoshi [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Murano, Keiko [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sasaki, Kenji [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate properties of the N(nucleon)–Ω(Omega) interaction in lattice QCD to seek for possible dibaryon states in the strangeness −3 channel. We calculate the NΩ potential through the equal-time Nambu–Bethe–Salpeter wave function in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with the renormalization group improved Iwasaki gauge action and the nonperturbatively O(a) improved Wilson quark action at the lattice spacing a≃0.12 fm on a (1.9 fm){sup 3}× 3.8 fm lattice. The ud and s quark masses in our study correspond to m{sub π}=875(1) MeV and m{sub K}=916(1) MeV. At these parameter values, the central potential in the S-wave with the spin 2 shows attractions at all distances. By solving the Schrödinger equation with this potential, we find one bound state whose binding energy is 18.9(5.0)({sup +12.1}{sub −1.8}) MeV, where the first error is the statistical one, while the second represents the systematic error.

  17. Lattice-motivated holomorphic nearly perturbative QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, César; Cvetič, Gorazd; Kögerler, Reinhart

    2017-07-01

    Newer lattice results indicate that, in the Landau gauge at low spacelike momenta, the gluon propagator and the ghost dressing function are finite nonzero. This leads to a definition of the QCD running coupling, in a specific scheme, that goes to zero at low spacelike momenta. We construct a running coupling which fulfills these conditions, and at the same time reproduces to a high precision the perturbative behavior at high momenta. The coupling is constructed in such a way that it reflects qualitatively correctly the holomorphic (analytic) behavior of spacelike observables in the complex plane of the squared momenta, as dictated by the general principles of quantum field theories. Further, we require the coupling to reproduce correctly the nonstrange semihadronic decay rate of tau lepton which is the best measured low-momentum QCD observable with small higher-twist effects. Subsequent application of the Borel sum rules to the V + A spectral functions of tau lepton decays, as measured by OPAL Collaboration, determines the values of the gluon condensate and of the V + A six-dimensional condensate, and reproduces the data to a significantly higher precision than the usual \\overline{{MS}} running coupling.

  18. Lattice-motivated holomorphic nearly perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Cesar; Kogerler, Reinhart

    2016-01-01

    Newer lattice results indicate that, in the Landau gauge at low spacelike momenta, the gluon propagator and the ghost dressing function are finite nonzero. This leads to a definition of the QCD running coupling, in a specific scheme, that goes to zero at low spacelike momenta. We construct a running coupling which fulfills these conditions, and at the same time reproduces to a high precision the perturbative behavior at high momenta. The coupling is constructed in such a way that it reflects qualitatively correctly the holomorphic (analytic) behavior of spacelike observables in the complex plane of the squared momenta, as dictated by the general principles of Quantum Field Theories. Further, we require the coupling to reproduce correctly the nonstrange semihadronic decay rate of tau lepton which is the best measured low-momentum QCD observable with negligible higher-twist effects. Subsequent application of the Borel sum rules to the V+A spectral functions of tau lepton decays, as measured by OPAL Collaboratio...

  19. Non-perturbative study of QCD correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhov, A Y

    2006-01-01

    This PhD dissertation is devoted to a non-perturbative study of QCD correlators. The main tool that we use is lattice QCD. We concentrated our efforts on the study of the main correlators of the pure Yang - Mills theory in the Landau gauge, namely the ghost and the gluon propagators. We are particularly interested in determining the $\\Lqcd$ parameter. It is extracted by means of perturbative predictions available up to NNNLO. The related topic is the influence of non-perturbative effects that show up as appearance of power-corrections to the low-momentum behaviour of the Green functions. A new method of removing these power corrections allows a better estimate of $\\Lqcd$. Our result is $\\Lambda^{n_f=0}_{\\ms} = 269(5)^{+12}_{-9}$ MeV. Another question that we address is the infrared behaviour of Green functions, at momenta of order and below $\\Lqcd$. At low energy the momentum dependence of the propagators changes considerably, and this is probably related to confinement. The lattice approach allows to check t...

  20. Dynamics for QCD on an Infinite Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundling, Hendrik; Rudolph, Gerd

    2017-02-01

    We prove the existence of the dynamics automorphism group for Hamiltonian QCD on an infinite lattice in R^3, and this is done in a C*-algebraic context. The existence of ground states is also obtained. Starting with the finite lattice model for Hamiltonian QCD developed by Kijowski, Rudolph (cf. J Math Phys 43:1796-1808 [15], J Math Phys 46:032303 [16]), we state its field algebra and a natural representation. We then generalize this representation to the infinite lattice, and construct a Hilbert space which has represented on it all the local algebras (i.e., kinematics algebras associated with finite connected sublattices) equipped with the correct graded commutation relations. On a suitably large C*-algebra acting on this Hilbert space, and containing all the local algebras, we prove that there is a one parameter automorphism group, which is the pointwise norm limit of the local time evolutions along a sequence of finite sublattices, increasing to the full lattice. This is our global time evolution. We then take as our field algebra the C*-algebra generated by all the orbits of the local algebras w.r.t. the global time evolution. Thus the time evolution creates the field algebra. The time evolution is strongly continuous on this choice of field algebra, though not on the original larger C*-algebra. We define the gauge transformations, explain how to enforce the Gauss law constraint, show that the dynamics automorphism group descends to the algebra of physical observables and prove that gauge invariant ground states exist.

  1. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  2. Renormalization of Extended QCD$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Extended QCD (XQCD) proposed by Kaplan [1] is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of two-dimensional (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of large number of colors Nc, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low energy region.

  3. Dual Superconductivity in Abelian Higgs Model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, B. S.

    2017-04-01

    The study of generalized field associated with Abelian dyons has been undertaken and it has been demonstrated that topologically, a non-Abelian gauge theory is equivalent to a set of Abelian gauge theories supplemented by dyons which undergo condensation leading to confinement and consequently to superconducting model of QCD vacuum, where the Higgs field plays the role of a regulator only. Constructing the effective action for dyonic field in Abelian projection of QCD, it has been demonstrated that any charge (electrical or magnetic) of dyon screens its own direct potential to which it minimally couples and anti-screens the dual potential leading to dual superconductivity in accordance with generalized Meissner effect. In this Abelian projection of QCD an Abelian Higgs model (AHM) has been successfully constructed and it has been shown to incorporate dual superconductivity and confinement as the consequence of dyonic condensation. It has been demonstrated that in AHM t' Hooft loop creates the string (AHM-string) around which the monopole current under London limit leads to vanishing coherence length in the chromo-magnetic superconductor. It has also been shown that in London limit the squared density of monopole current around AHM-string has a maximum at the distance of the order of penetration length.

  4. Novel QCD Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-08-12

    I review a number of topics where conventional wisdom in hadron physics has been challenged. For example, hadrons can be produced at large transverse momentum directly within a hard higher-twist QCD subprocess, rather than from jet fragmentation. Such 'direct' processes can explain the deviations from perturbative QCD predictions in measurements of inclusive hadron cross sections at fixed x{sub T} = 2p{sub T}/{radical}s, as well as the 'baryon anomaly', the anomalously large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Initial-state and final-state interactions of the struck quark, the soft-gluon rescattering associated with its Wilson line, lead to Bjorken-scaling single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, as well as nuclear shadowing and antishadowing. The Gribov-Glauber theory predicts that antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is not universal, but instead depends on the flavor quantum numbers of each quark and antiquark, thus explaining the anomalous nuclear dependence measured in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering. Since shadowing and antishadowing arise from the physics of leading-twist diffractive deep inelastic scattering, one cannot attribute such phenomena to the structure of the nucleus itself. It is thus important to distinguish 'static' structure functions, the probability distributions computed from the square of the target light-front wavefunctions, versus 'dynamical' structure functions which include the effects of the final-state rescattering of the struck quark. The importance of the J = 0 photon-quark QCD contact interaction in deeply virtual Compton scattering is also emphasized. The scheme-independent BLM method for setting the renormalization scale is discussed. Eliminating the renormalization scale ambiguity greatly improves the precision of QCD predictions and increases the sensitivity of

  5. QCD Glueball Regge Trajectories and the Pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, F J; De Bicudo, P J A; Tavares-Ribeiro, J E F; Szczepaniak, A P; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R; Bicudo, Pedro J A; Szczepaniak, Adam P

    2000-01-01

    We report glueball Regge trajectories emerging from diagonalizing a confining Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian for constituent gluons. Using a BCS vacuum ansatz and gap equation, the dressed gluons acquire a mass, of order 800 MeV, providing the quasiparticle degrees of freedom for a TDA glueball formulation. The TDA eigenstates for two constituent gluons have orbital, L, excitations with a characteristic energy of 400 MeV and reveal clear Regge trajectories for each L and S combination giving J=L+S... |L-S|, where S is the total (sum) gluon spin. Significantly, all trajectories have the same 0.28 GeV-2 Regge slope, similar to the pomeron value of 0.25 GeV-2. Recent lattice data further supports this result and yields an intercept close to the pomeron.

  6. QCD glueball Regge trajectory and the pomeron

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, F J; Ribeiro, J E F; Szczepaniak, Adam P

    2002-01-01

    Implementing many-body techniques successful in other fields, we report a glueball Regge trajectory emerging from diagonalizing a confining Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian for constituent gluons. Through a BCS vacuum ansatz and gap equation, the dressed gluons acquire a dynamic mass, of order 0.8 GeV, providing the quasiparticle degrees of freedom for a TDA glueball formulation. The TDA eigenstates for two constituent gluons have orbital, L, excitations with a characteristic energy of 0.4 GeV revealing a clear Regge trajectory. In particular, the J sup P sup C =2 sup + sup + glueball coincides with the pomeron given by alpha sub P (t)=1.08+(0.25 GeV sup - sup 2)t. We also ascertain that lattice data supports our result. Finally, we conjecture on the odderon puzzle.

  7. Induced QCD I: Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Wettig, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU(N_c) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N_b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N_b can be as small as N_c. In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U(N_c) to SU(N_c), (ii) derive refined bounds on N_b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the ga...

  8. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  9. Quantum Gauge General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2004-01-01

    Based on gauge principle, a new model on quantum gravity is proposed in the frame work of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The model has local gravitational gauge symmetry, and the field equation of the gravitational gauge field is just the famous Einstein's field equation. Because of this reason, this model is called quantum gauge general relativity, which is the consistent unification of quantum theory and general relativity. The model proposed in this paper is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity, which is one of the most important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity proposed in this paper. Another important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity is that it can explain both classical tests of gravity and quantum effects of gravitational interactions, such as gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments and gravitational shielding effects found in Podkletnov experiments.

  10. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, D. Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Bjorn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knoebel, Ronja; Kroell, Thorsten; Kruecken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; del Rio Saez, Jose Sanchez; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  11. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, D. Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Bjorn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knoebel, Ronja; Kroell, Thorsten; Kruecken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; del Rio Saez, Jose Sanchez; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  12. Coulomb Effects in Few-Body Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deltuva A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of screening and renormalization is used to include the Coulomb interaction between the charged particles in the momentum-space description of three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The necessity for the renormalization of the scattering amplitudes and the reliability of the method is demonstrated. The Coulomb effect on observables is discussed.

  13. Interpolating Gauges,Parameter Differentiability,WT-identities and the epsilon term

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, S D

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of variation of a Green's function in a gauge field theory with a gauge parameter theta involves field transformations that are (close to) singular. Recently, we had demonstrated {hep-th/0106264}some unusual results that follow from this fact for an interpolating gauge interpolating between the Feynman and the Coulomb gauge (formulated by Doust). We carry out further studies of this model. We study properties of simple loop integrals involved in an interpolating gauge. We find that the proof of continuation of a Green's function from the Feynman gauge to the Coulomb gauge via such a gauge in a gauge-invariant manner seems obstructed by the lack of differentiability of the path-integral with respect to theta (at least at discrete values for a specific Green's function considered) and/or by additional contributions to the WT-identities. We show this by the consideration of simple loop diagrams for a simple scattering process. The lack of differentiability, alternately, produces a large change in the ...

  14. Test of QCD at colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Shima; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS collaborations measure QCD processes in a wide kinematic range using proton--proton colliding data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A variety of recent results is presented. The results provide validation of the current understanding of QCD, such as the proton structure and interactions and radiations of partons.

  15. QCD: Questions, challenges, and dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.

    1996-11-01

    An introduction to some outstanding issues in QCD is presented, with emphasis on work by Diakonov and co-workers on the influence of the instanton vacuum on low-energy QCD observables. This includes the calculation of input valence-parton distributions for deep-inelastic scattering. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  16. String effect and QCD coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Troyan, S.I.

    1985-12-19

    In the framework of the idea of local parton-hadron duality we discuss the asymptotic predictions of QCD perturbation theory for angular distributions of hadron flows in the three-jet events, e/sup +/e/sup -/->qanti qg->hadrons. The coherence of soft gluon emission provides the QCD explanation of the string effect observed in experiments. (orig.).

  17. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  18. Phase diagrams of exceptional and supersymmetric lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellegehausen, Bjoern-Hendrik

    2012-07-10

    In this work different strongly-coupled gauge theories with and without fundamental matter have been studied on the lattice with an emphasis on the confinement problem and the QCD phase diagram at nonvanishing net baryon density as well as on possible supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. In gauge theories with a non-trivial centre symmetry, as for instance SU(3)-Yang-Mills theory, confinement is intimately related to the centre of the gauge group, and the Polyakov loop serves as an order parameter for confinement. In QCD, this centre symmetry is explicitly broken by quarks in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. But still quarks and gluons are confined in mesons, baryons and glueballs at low temperatures and small densities, suggesting that centre symmetry is not responsible for the phenomenon of confinement. Therefore it is interesting to study pure gauge theories without centre symmetry. In this work this has been done by replacing the gauge group SU(3) of the strong interaction with the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}, that has a trivial centre. To investigate G{sub 2} gauge theory on the lattice, a new and highly efficient update algorithm has been developed, based on a local HMC algorithm. Employing this algorithm, the proposed and already investigated first order phase transition from a confined to a deconfined phase has been confirmed, showing that indeed a first order phase transition without symmetry breaking or an order parameter is possible. In this context, also the deconfinement phase transition of the exceptional Lie groups F4 and E6 in three spacetime dimensions has been studied. It has been shown that both theories also possess a first order phase transition.

  19. Report of the 2005 Snowmass Top/QCD Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juste, A.; /Fermilab; Kiyo, Y.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Petriello, F.; /Wisconsin U., Madison /Fermilab; Teubner, T.; /Liverpool U., Dept. Math.; Agashe, K.; Batra, P.; Baur, U.; Berger, C.F.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Gehrmann-De Ridder, A.; Gehrmann, T.; Glover, E.W.N.; Godfrey, S.; Hoang, A.; Perelstein, M.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T.; Zhu, S.; /Johns

    2006-01-17

    This report discusses several topics in both top quark physics and QCD at an International Linear Collider (ILC). Issues such as measurements at the t tbar threshold, including both theoretical and machine requirements, and the determination of electroweak top quark couplings are reviewed. New results concerning the potential of a 500 GeV e+e collider for measuring Wtb couplings and the top quark Yukawa coupling are presented. The status of higher order QCD corrections to jet production cross sections, heavy quark form factors, and longitudinal gauge boson scattering, needed for percent-level studies at the ILC, are reviewed. A new study of the measurement of the hadronic structure of the photon at a gamma gamma collider is presented. The effects on top quark properties from several models of new physics, including composite models, Little Higgs theories, and CPT violation, are studied.

  20. Hard-Thermal-Loop QCD thermodynamics and quark number susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogliacci Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The weak-coupling expansion of the QCD pressure is known up to the order g6 log g. However, at experimentally relevant temperatures, the corresponding series is poorly convergent. In this proceedings, we discuss at which extent the gauge-invariant resummation scheme, Hard-Thermal-Loop perturbation theory (HTLpt, improves the apparent convergence. We first present HTLpt results for QCD thermodynamic functions up to three-loop order at vanishing chemical potential. Then, we report a preliminary HTLpt result of one-loop quark number susceptibility, probing the finite density equation of state. Our results are consistent with lattice data down to 2 − 3Tc, reinforcing the weakly-coupled quasiparticle picture in the intermediate coupling regime.

  1. Casimir operator dependences of nonperturbative fermionic QCD amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, H. M.; Grandou, T.; Hofmann, R.

    2016-07-01

    In eikonal and quenched approximations, it is argued that the strong coupling fermionic QCD Green’s functions and related amplitudes depart from a sole dependence on the SUc(3) quadratic Casimir operator, C2f, evaluated over the fundamental gauge group representation. Noted in nonrelativistic quark models and in a nonperturbative generalization of the Schwinger mechanism, an additional dependence on the cubic Casimir operator shows up, in contradistinction with perturbation theory and other nonperturbative approaches. However, it accounts for the full algebraic content of the rank-2 Lie algebra of SUc(3). Though numerically subleading effects, cubic Casimir dependences, here and elsewhere, appear to be a signature of the nonperturbative fermionic sector of QCD.

  2. Cohomological gauge theory, quiver matrix models and Donaldson-Thomas theoryCohomological gauge theory, quiver matrix models and Donaldson-Thomas theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirafici, M.; Sinkovics, A.; Szabo, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between Donaldson–Thomas theory of Calabi–Yau threefolds and a six-dimensional topological Yang–Mills theory. Our main example is the topological U(N) gauge theory on flat space in its Coulomb branch. To evaluate its partition function we use equivariant localization techniques

  3. D-branes and coherent topological charge structure in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Hank

    2006-12-01

    Monte Carlo studies of pure glue SU(3) gauge theory using the overlap-based topological charge operator have revealed a laminar structure in the QCD vacuum consisting of extended, thin, co- herent, locally 3-dimensional sheets of topological charge embedded in 4D space, with opposite sign sheets interleaved. Studies of localization properties of Dirac eigenmodes have also shown evidence for the delocalization of low-lying modes on effectively 3-dimensional surfaces. In this talk, I review some theoretical ideas which suggest the possibility of 3-dimensionally coherent topological charge structure in 4-dimensional gauge theory and provide a possible interpretation of the observed structure. I begin with Luscher's "Wilson bag" integral over the 3-index Chern- Simons tensor. The analogy with a Wilson loop as a charged world line in 2-dimensional CP N-1 sigma models suggests that the Wilson bag surface represents the world volume of a physical membrane. The large-N chiral Lagrangian arguments of Witten also indicate the existence of multiple "k-vacuum" states with discontinuous transitions between k-vacua at θ = odd multi- ples of π. The domain walls between these vacua have the properties of a Wilson bag surface. Finally, I review the AdS/CFT duality view of θ dependence in QCD. The dual realtionship be- tween topological charge in gauge theory and Ramond-Ramond charge in type IIA string theory suggests that the coherent topological charge sheets observed on the lattice are the holographic image of wrapped D6 branes.

  4. Gluon and ghost propagator studies in lattice QCD at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouane, Rafik

    2013-04-29

    Gluon and ghost propagators in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) computed in the infrared momentum region play an important role to understand quark and gluon confinement. They are the subject of intensive research thanks to non-perturbative methods based on Dyson-Schwinger (DS) and functional renormalization group (FRG) equations. Moreover, their temperature behavior might also help to explore the chiral and deconfinement phase transition or crossover within QCD at non-zero temperature. Our prime tool is the lattice discretized QCD (LQCD) providing a unique ab-initio non-perturbative approach to deal with the computation of various observables of the hadronic world. We investigate the temperature dependence of Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators in pure gluodynamics and in full QCD. Regarding the gluon propagator, we compute its longitudinal D{sub L} as well its transversal D{sub T} components. The aim is to provide a data set in terms of fitting formulae which can be used as input for DS (or FRG) equations. We deal with full (N{sub f}=2) LQCD with the twisted mass fermion discretization. We employ gauge field configurations provided by the tmfT collaboration for temperatures in the crossover region and for three fixed pion mass values in the range [300,500] MeV. Finally, within SU(3) pure gauge theory (at T=0) we compute the Landau gauge gluon propagator according to different gauge fixing criteria. Our goal is to understand the influence of gauge copies with minimal (non-trivial) eigenvalues of the Faddeev-Popov operator.

  5. Kenneth Wilson and lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ukawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics and computation of lattice QCD, a space-time lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics, and Kenneth Wilson's seminal role in its development. We start with the fundamental issue of confinement of quarks in the theory of the strong interactions, and discuss how lattice QCD provides a framework for understanding this phenomenon. A conceptual issue with lattice QCD is a conflict of space-time lattice with chiral symmetry of quarks. We discuss how this problem is resolved. Since lattice QCD is a non-linear quantum dynamical system with infinite degrees of freedom, quantities which are analytically calculable are limited. On the other hand, it provides an ideal case of massively parallel numerical computations. We review the long and distinguished history of parallel-architecture supercomputers designed and built for lattice QCD. We discuss algorithmic developments, in particular the difficulties posed by the fermionic nature of quarks, and their resolution. The triad of efforts toward b...

  6. Mapping the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, K

    1999-01-01

    The QCD vacuum in which we live, which has the familiar hadrons as its excitations, is but one phase of QCD, and far from the simplest one at that. One way to better understand this phase and the nonperturbative dynamics of QCD more generally is to study other phases and the transitions between phases. We are engaged in a voyage of exploration, mapping the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon number chemical potential mu . Because of asymptotic freedom, the high temperature and high baryon density phases of QCD are more simply and more appropriately described in terms of quarks and gluons as degrees of freedom, rather than hadrons. The chiral symmetry breaking condensate which characterizes the vacuum phase melts away. At high densities, quarks form Cooper pairs and new condensates develop. The formation of such superconducting phases requires only weak attractive interactions; these phases may nevertheless break chiral symmetry and have excitations which are indistinguishable from thos...

  7. The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)

  8. QCD at Fixed Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Negele, John W; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    Since present Monte Carlo algorithms for lattice QCD may become trapped in a fixed topological charge sector, it is important to understand the effect of calculating at fixed topology. In this work, we show that although the restriction to a fixed topological sector becomes irrelevant in the infinite volume limit, it gives rise to characteristic finite size effects due to contributions from all $\\theta$-vacua. We calculate these effects and show how to extract physical results from numerical data obtained at fixed topology.

  9. SU(3) gauge theory with four degenerate fundamental fermions on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the project studying large $N_f$ QCD, the LatKMI Collaboration has been investigating the SU(3) gauge theory with four fundamental fermions (four-flavor QCD). The main purpose of studying four-flavor QCD is to provide a qualitative comparison to $N_f= 8$, $12$, $16$ QCD; however, a quantitative comparison to real-world QCD is also interesting. To make such comparisons more meaningful, it is desirable to use the same kind of lattice action consistently, so that qualitative difference of different theories are less affected by artifacts of lattice discretization. Here, we adopt the highly-improved staggered quark action with the tree-level Symanzik gauge action (HISQ/tree), which is exactly the same as the setup for our simulations for $SU(3)$ gauge theories with $N_f=8$, $12$ and $16$ fundamental fermions~\\cite{Aoki:2013xza, Aoki:2012eq, Aoki:2014oma}. In the next section, we show the fermion mass dependence of $F_\\pi$, $\\langle\\bar{\\psi}\\psi\\rangle$, $M_\\pi$, $M_\\rho$, $M_N$ and their chiral extr...

  10. Ultracold Quantum Gases and Lattice Systems: Quantum Simulation of Lattice Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are of central importance in many areas of physics. In condensed matter physics, Abelian U(1) lattice gauge theories arise in the description of certain quantum spin liquids. In quantum information theory, Kitaev's toric code is a Z(2) lattice gauge theory. In particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the non-Abelian SU(3) gauge theory of the strong interactions between quarks and gluons, is non-perturbatively regularized on a lattice. Quantum link models extend the concept of lattice gauge theories beyond the Wilson formulation, and are well suited for both digital and analog quantum simulation using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices. Since quantum simulators do not suffer from the notorious sign problem, they open the door to studies of the real-time evolution of strongly coupled quantum systems, which are impossible with classical simulation methods. A plethora of interesting lattice gauge theories suggests itself for quantum simulation, which should al...

  11. Generalized Higher Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Patricia; Schmidt, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    We study a generalization of higher gauge theory which makes use of generalized geometry and seems to be closely related to double field theory. The local kinematical data of this theory is captured by morphisms of graded manifolds between the canonical exact Courant Lie 2-algebroid $TM\\oplus T^*M$ over some manifold $M$ and a semistrict gauge Lie 2-algebra. We discuss generalized curvatures and their infinitesimal gauge transformations. Finite gauge transformation as well as global kinematical data are then obtained from principal 2-bundles over 2-spaces. As dynamical principle, we consider first the canonical Chern-Simons action for such a gauge theory. We then show that a previously proposed 3-Lie algebra model for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory is very naturally interpreted as a generalized higher gauge theory.

  12. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2017-02-15

    Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  13. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  14. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-02-01

    Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  15. Supergravity from Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berkowitz, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Gauge/gravity duality is the conjecture that string theories have dual descriptions as gauge theories. Weakly-coupled gravity is dual to strongly-coupled gauge theories, ideal for lattice calculations. I will show precision lattice calculations that confirm large-N continuum D0-brane quantum mechanics correctly reproduces the leading-order supergravity prediction for a black hole's internal energy---the first leading-order test of the duality---and constrains stringy corrections.

  16. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  17. Jets and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in $e^+ e^-$ collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in $ep$ and $pp/p\\bar{p}$ collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundam...

  18. QCD and Supernovas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, T.

    2005-12-01

    In this contribution we briefly summarize aspects of the physics of QCD which are relevant to the supernova problem. The topic of greatest importance is the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear and strongly-interacting matter, which is required to describe the physics of the proto-neutron star (PNS) and the neutron star remnant (NSR) formed during a supernova event. Evaluation of the EOS in the regime of relevance for these systems, especially the NSR, requires detailed knowledge of the spectrum and strong interactions of hadrons of the accessible hadronic species, as well as other possible phases of strongly interacting matter, such as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The forces between pairs of baryons (both nonstrange and strange) are especially important in determining the EOS at NSR densities. Predictions for these forces are unfortunately rather model dependent where not constrained by data, and there are several suggestions for the QCD mechanism underlying these short-range hadronic interactions. The models most often employed for determining these strong interactions are broadly of two types, 1) meson exchange models (usually assumed in the existing neutron star and supernova literature), and 2) quark-gluon models (mainly encountered in the hadron, nuclear and heavy-ion literature). Here we will discuss the assumptions made in these models, and discuss how they are applied to the determination of hadronic forces that are relevant to the supernova problem.

  19. QCD Factorization and PDFs from Lattice QCD Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, we review a QCD factorization based approach to extract parton distribution and correlation functions from lattice QCD calculation of single hadron matrix elements of quark-gluon operators. We argue that although the lattice QCD calculations are done in the Euclidean space, the nonperturbative collinear behavior of the matrix elements are the same as that in the Minkowski space, and could be systematically factorized into parton distribution functions with infrared safe matching coefficients. The matching coefficients can be calculated perturbatively by applying the factorization formalism on to asymptotic partonic states.

  20. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  1. Periodic Monopoles With Singularities And N=2 Super-QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkis, S A; Cherkis, Sergey A.; Kapustin, Anton

    2003-01-01

    We study solutions of the Bogomolny equation on R^2\\times S^1$ with prescribed singularities. We show that Nahm transform establishes a one-to-one correspondence between such solutions and solutions of the Hitchin equations on a punctured cylinder with the eigenvalues of the Higgs field growing at infinity in a particular manner. The moduli spaces of solutions have natural hyperkahler metrics of a novel kind. We show that these metrics describe the quantum Coulomb branch of certain N=2 d=4 supersymmetric gauge theories on R^3\\times S^1. The Coulomb branches of the corresponding uncompactified theories have been previously determined by E. Witten using the M-theory fivebrane. We show that the Seiberg-Witten curves of these theories are identical to the spectral curves associated to solutions of the Bogomolny equation on R^2\\times S^1. In particular, this allows us to rederive Witten's results without recourse to the M-theory fivebrane.

  2. Periodic Monopoles with Singularities and =2 Super-QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.; Kapustin, Anton

    We study solutions of the Bogomolny equation on 2×1 with prescribed singularities. We show that the Nahm transform establishes a one-to-one correspondence between such solutions and solutions of the Hitchin equations on a punctured cylinder with the eigenvalues of the Higgs field growing at infinity in a particular manner. The moduli spaces of solutions have natural hyperkähler metrics of a novel kind. We show that these metrics describe the quantum Coulomb branch of certain =2 d=4 supersymmetric gauge theories on 3×1. The Coulomb branches of the corresponding uncompactified theories have been previously determined by E. Witten using the M-theory fivebrane. We show that the Seiberg-Witten curves of these theories are identical to the spectral curves associated to solutions of the Bogomolny equation on 2×1. In particular, this allows us to rederive Witten's results without recourse to the M-theory fivebrane.

  3. RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.

    2000-06-01

    This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.

  4. RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.

    2000-06-01

    This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Smooth models for the Coulomb potential

    CERN Document Server

    González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Karwowski, Jacek; Savin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Smooth model potentials with parameters selected to reproduce the spectrum of one-electron atoms are used to approximate the singular Coulomb potential. Even when the potentials do not mimic the Coulomb singularity, much of the spectrum is reproduced within the chemical accuracy. For the Hydrogen atom, the smooth approximations to the Coulomb potential are more accurate for higher angular momentum states. The transferability of the model potentials from an attractive interaction (Hydrogen atom) to a repulsive one (Harmonium and the uniform electron gas) is discussed.

  6. Charmed meson decay constants in three-flavor lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.; DeTar, C.; Di Pierro, M.; Freeland, Elizabeth D.; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U.M.; Hetrick, J.E.; El-Khadra, Aida X.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Levkova, L.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Menscher, D.; Maresca, F.; Nobes, M.; Okamoto, M.; Renner, D.B.; Simone, J.; Sugar, R.; Toussaint, D.; Trottier, H.D.; /Art Inst. of Chicago /Columbia

    2005-06-01

    The authors present the first lattice QCD calculation with realistic sea quark content of the D{sup +}-meson decay constant f{sub D+}. They use the MILC Collaboration's publicly available ensembles of lattice gauge fields, which have a quark sea with two flavors (up and down) much lighter than a third (strange). They obtain f{sub D+} = 201 {+-} 3 {+-} 17 MeV, where the errors are statistical and a combination of systematic errors. They also obtain f{sub D{sub s}} = 249 {+-} 3 {+-} 16 MeV for the D{sub s} meson.

  7. Recent results for the proton spin decomposition from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Washington Univ., DC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Panagopoulos, Haralambos [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Vaquero, Alejandro [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    The exact decomposition of the proton spin has been a much debated topic, on the experimental as well as the theoretical side. In this talk we would like to report on recent non-perturbative results and ongoing efforts to explore the proton spin from lattice QCD. We present results for the relevant generalized form factors from gauge field ensembles that feature a physical value of the pion mass. These generalized form factors can be used to determine the total spin and angular momentum carried by the quarks. In addition we present first results for our ongoing effort to compute the angular momentum of the gluons in the proton.

  8. Recent results for the proton spin decomposition from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Jansen, Karl; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Steffens, Fernanda; Vaquero, Alejandro; Wiese, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The exact decomposition of the proton spin has been a much debated topic, on the experimental as well as the theoretical side. In this talk we would like to report on recent non-perturbative results and ongoing efforts to explore the proton spin from lattice QCD. We present results for the relevant generalized form factors from gauge field ensembles that feature a physical value of the pion mass. These generalized form factors can be used to determine the total spin and angular momentum carried by the quarks. In addition we present first results for our ongoing effort to compute the angular momentum of the gluons in the proton.

  9. The K+ K+ scattering length from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Thomas Luu; Konstantinos Orginos; Assumpta Parreno; Martin Savage; Aaron Torok; Andre Walker-Loud

    2007-09-11

    The K+K+ scattering length is calculated in fully-dynamical lattice QCD with domain-wall valence quarks on the MILC asqtad-improved gauge configurations with fourth-rooted staggered sea quarks. Three-flavor mixed-action chiral perturbation theory at next-to-leading order, which includes the leading effects of the finite lattice spacing, is used to extrapolate the results of the lattice calculation to the physical value of mK + /fK + . We find mK^+ aK^+ K^+ = â~0.352 ± 0.016, where the statistical and systematic errors have been combined in quadrature.

  10. Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Harigaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei–Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.

  11. B-physics computations from Nf=2 tmQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, N.; Dimopoulos, P.; Frezzotti, R.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Lubicz, V.; Michael, C.; Picca, E.; Rossi, G.C.; Sanfilippo, F.; Shindler, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Simula, S.; Tarantino, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present an accurate lattice QCD computation of the b-quark mass, the B and Bs decay constants, the B-mixing bag-parameters for the full four-fermion operator basis, as well as estimates for \\xi and f_{Bq}\\sqrt{B_q} extrapolated to the continuum limit and the physical pion mass. We have used Nf = 2 dynamical quark gauge configurations at four values of the lattice spacing generated by ETMC. Extrapolation in the heavy quark mass from the charm to the bottom quark region has been carried out using ratios of physical quantities computed at nearby quark masses, having an exactly known infinite mass limit.

  12. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD, to all Orders

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    2000-01-01

    We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant tadpole-like diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, e.g. the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates. We consider in our study both the Wilson and the clover action for fermions.

  13. On Domain-like Structures in the QCD Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Kalloniatis, Alexander C

    2001-01-01

    We suggest that clusters or domains of topological charge and action density occur in the QCD vacuum as an effect of singularities in gauge fields and can simultaneously lead to confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. The string constant, condensates and topological susceptibility are estimated within a simplified model of hyperspherical domains with interiors of constant field strength with reasonable values obtained. Propagators of dynamical quarks and gluons have compact support in configuration space, thus having entire Fourier transforms, which gives rise to their confinement.

  14. Exploring quark transverse momentum distributions with lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard U. Musch, Philipp Hagler, John W. Negele, Andreas Schafer

    2011-05-01

    We discuss in detail a method to study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) using lattice QCD. To develop the formalism and to obtain first numerical results, we directly implement a bi-local quark-quark operator connected by a straight Wilson line, allowing us to study T-even, "process-independent" TMDs. Beyond results for x-integrated TMDs and quark densities, we present a study of correlations in x and transverse momentum. Our calculations are based on domain wall valence quark propagators by the LHP collaboration calculated on top of gauge configurations provided by MILC with 2+1 flavors of asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks.

  15. Study of the structure of the QCD vacuum by means of overlap fermions; Untersuchung der Struktur des QCD-Vakuums mit Hilfe von Overlap-Fermionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Volker

    2008-12-15

    In this thesis the structure of the QCD vacuum and the nature of the chiral phase transition were studied by means of overlap fermions. The main topic of the theiss lies in the study of the infrared long-range aspects shown by the low-lying eigenmodes of the overlap operator. For the characterization of the structure and dimension of an arbitray density embedded in the four-dimensional space-time diverse analysis tools were developed. These are applied both at low temperature (T=0) in the valence-quark approximation of QCD and in the environment of the high-temperature phase transition of the full QCD for the description of the structure of the modes and the topological density, as well as for the analysis of the local self-duality of the basing gauge fields.

  16. Deconstructing six dimensional gauge theories with strongly coupled moose meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, T; Gregoire, Thomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been realized that five dimensional theories can be generated dynamically from asymptotically free, QCD-like four dimensional dynamics via ``deconstruction.'' In this paper we generalize this construction to six dimensional theories using a moose mesh with alternating weak and strong gauge groups. A new ingredient is the appearance of self couplings between the higher dimensional components of the gauge fields that appear as a potential for pseudo-Goldstone bosons in the deconstructed picture. We show that, in the limit where the weak gauge couplings are made large, such potentials are generated with appropriate size from finite one loop correction. Our construction has a number of applications, in particular to the constructions of ``little Higgs'' models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  17. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Takaaki; Rosen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance ...

  18. Conformal Gauge-Yukawa Theories away From Four Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Langaeble, Kasper; Litim, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    We present the phase diagram and associated fixed points for a wide class of Gauge-Yukawa theories in $d=4+\\epsilon$ dimensions. The theories we investigate involve non-abelian gauge fields, fermions and scalars in the Veneziano-Witten limit. The analysis is performed in steps, we start with QCD...... fixed points. We argue for a very rich phase diagram in three dimensions while in dimensions higher than four certain Gauge-Yukawa theories are ultraviolet complete because of the emergence of an asymptotically safe fixed point.......$_d$ and then we add Yukawa interactions and scalars which we study at next-to- and next-to-next-to-leading order. Interacting infrared fixed points naturally emerge in dimensions lower than four while ultraviolet ones appear above four. We also analyse the stability of the scalar potential for the discovered...

  19. QCD-instantons at LHC. Theoretical aspects; QCD-Instantonen am LHC. Theoretische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, M.

    2007-06-15

    Instantons are nonperturbative, topologically nontrivial field configurations, which occur in every nonabelian gauge theory. They can be understood as tunneling processes between topologically distinct vacua. Although being a basic theoretical aspect of the Standard Model, a direct experimental verification of instanton processes is still lacking. In this thesis the general discovery potential for QCD-instantons at the LHC is studied in detail by means of instanton perturbation theory. In this context the close correspondence between the leading instanton induced processes at HERA and at LHC becomes important. Essential aspects and differences to deep inelastic scattering can already be revealed by studying the simplest process. Based on these results inclusive cross sections are calculated including the emission of final state gluons. Compared to deep inelastic scattering, a large enhancement of the cross section is found. (orig.)

  20. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  1. Phase of the complex functional determinant in QCD at small chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E S

    2008-01-01

    We construct an effective action for QCD by expanding the quark determinant in powers of the chemical potential at finite temperature in the case of massless quarks. To cut the infinite series we adopt the Weinberg power counting criterium. We compute the minimal effective action ($\\sim p^4$), expanding in the external momentum, which implies the use of the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. Our main result is a gauge invariant expression for the phase of the functional determinant in QCD. Implications for lattice simulations are briefly discussed.

  2. Discussion of QCD aspects of multi­boson production measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years many precise measurements of the cross sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC have shown significant tensions to predictions calculated at NLO QCD. Where available, NNLO(+NNLL) predictions have shown large corrections and are in general in better agreement with the data. The talk will review these QCD aspects of diboson measurements using new, precise results obtained at both 8 TeV and 13 TeV in the fully leptonic decay channels in the production of Zgamma, WW (with jet veto and with exactly one jet), WZ and ZZ(*).

  3. Coupled channel approach to strangeness S = -2 baryon-bayron interactions in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Kenji; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The baryon-baryon interactions with strangeness S = -2 with the flavor SU(3) breaking are calculated for the first time by using the HAL QCD method extended to coupled channel system in lattice QCD. The potential matrices are extracted from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions obtained by the 2+1 flavor gauge configurations of CP-PACS/JLQCD Collaborations with a physical volume of 1.93 fm cubed and with m_pi/m_K = 0.96, 0.90, 0.86. The spatial structure and the quark mass dependence of the potential matrix in the baryon basis and in the SU(3) basis are investigated.

  4. Complex Probability Distributions A Solution for the Long-Standing Problem of QCD at Finite Density

    CERN Document Server

    Azcoiti, V

    1996-01-01

    We show how the prescription of taking the absolute value of the fermion determinant in the integration measure of QCD at finite density, forgetting its phase, reproduces the correct thermodynamical limit. This prescription, which applies also to other gauge theories with non-positive-definite integration measure, also has the advantage of killing finite size effects due to extremely small mean values of the cosine of the phase of the fermion determinant. We also give an explanation for the pathological behaviour of quenched QCD at finite density.

  5. The QCD equation of state with charm quarks from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael

    Recently, there have been several calculations of the QCD equation of state (EoS) on the lattice. These calculations take into account the two light quarks and the strange quark, but have ignored the effects of the charm quark, assuming that the charm mass (mc ≈ 1300 MeV) is exponentially suppressed at the temperatures which are explored. However, future heavy ion collisions, such as those planned at the LHC, may well probe temperature regimes where the charm quarks play an important role in the dynamics of the QGP. We present a calculation of the charm quark contribution to the QCD EoS using p4-improved staggered fermions at Nt = 4, 6, 8. This calculation is done with a quenched charm quark, i.e. the relevant operators are measured using a valence charm quark mass on a 2+1 flavor gauge field background. The charm quark masses are determined by calculating charmonium masses (metac and mJ/Psi) and fixing these mesons to their physical masses. The interaction measure, pressure, energy density, and entropy density are calculated. We find that the charm contribution makes a significant contribution, even down to temperatures as low as the pseudo-critical temperature, Tc. However, there are significant scaling corrections at the lattice spacings that we use, preventing a reliable continuum extrapolation.

  6. LanHEP - a package for automatic generation of Feynman rules in gauge models

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, A Yu

    1996-01-01

    We consider the general problem of derivation of the Feynman rules for the matrix elements in momentum representation from the given Lagrangian in coordinate space invariant under the transformation of some gauge group. LanHEP package presented in this paper allows to define in a convenient way the gauge model Lagrangian in canonical form and then to generate automatically the Feynman rules that can be used in the following calculation of the physical processes by means of CompHEP package. The detailed description of LanHEP commands is given and several examples of LanHEP applications (QED, QCD, Standard Model in the t'Hooft-Feynman gauge) are presented.

  7. Rain Gauges Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  8. Coulomb screening in linear coasting nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parminder

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of coulomb screening on primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe having scale factor that evolves linearly with time. Coulomb screening affects primordial nucleosynthesis via enhancement of thermonuclear reaction rates. This enhancement is determined by the solving Poisson equation within the context of mean field theory (under appropriate conditions during the primordial nucleosynthesis). Using these results, we claim that the mean field estimates of coulomb screening hardly affect the predicted element abundances and nucleosynthesis parameters$, \\{\\eta_9,\\xi_e\\}$. The deviations from mean field estimates are also studied in detail by boosting genuine screening results with the screening parameter ($\\omega_s$). These deviations show negligible effect on the element abundances and on nucleosynthesis parameters. This work thus rules out the coulomb screening effects on primordial nucleosynthesis in slow evolving models and confirms that constraints in ref.[7] on nucleosynthesis parame...

  9. Comments on Coulomb pairing in aromatic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, D L

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported anomalies in the double-photonionization spectra of aromatic molecules such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and coronene are attributed to Coulomb-pair resonances of pi electrons.

  10. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  11. QCD and dimensional deconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Son, D T

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by phenomenological models of hidden local symmetries and the ideas of dimensional deconstruction and gauge/gravity duality, we consider the model of an "open moose". Such a model has a large number K of hidden gauge groups as well as a global chiral symmetry. In the continuum limit K->infinity the model becomes a 4+1 dimensional theory of a gauge field propagating in a dilaton background and an external space-time metric with two boundaries. We show that the model reproduces several well known phenomenological and theoretical aspects of low-energy hadron dynamics. We derive the general formulas for the mass spectrum, the decay constants of the pion and vector mesons, and the couplings between mesons. We then consider two simple realizations, one with a flat metric and another with a "cosh" metric interpolating between two AdS boundaries. For the pion form-factor, the single pole rho-meson dominance is exact in the latter case and approximate in the former case. We discover that an AdS/CFT-like pres...

  12. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  13. High Density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of high partonic density QCD is presented considering, in the double logarithm approximation, the parton recombination mechanism built in the AGL formalism, developed including unitarity corrections for the nucleon as well for nucleus. It is shown that these corrections are under theoretical control. The resulting non linear evolution equation is solved in the asymptotic regime, and a comprehensive phenomenology concerning Deep Inelastic Scattering like $F_2$, $F_L$, $F_2^c$. $\\partial F_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, $\\partial F^A_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, etc, is presented. The connection of our formalism with the DGLAP and BFKL dynamics, and with other perturbative (K) and non-perturbative (MV-JKLW) approaches is analised in detail. The phenomena of saturation due to shadowing corrections and the relevance of this effect in ion physics and heavy quark production is emphasized. The implications to e-RHIC, HERA-A, and LHC physics and some open questions are mentioned.

  14. String theory meets QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N

    2003-01-01

    String theory began life in the late 1960s as an attempt to understand the properties of nuclear matter such as protons and neutrons. Although it was not successful it has since developed a life of its own as a possible theory of everything - with the potential to incorporate quantum gravity as well as the other forces of nature. However, in a remarkable about face in the last five years, it has now been discovered that string theory and the standard theory of nuclear matter - QCD - might in fact describe the same physics. This is an exciting development that was the centre of discussion at a major workshop in Seattle in February. After spending 30 years as a possible theory of everything, string theory is returning to its roots to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. (U.K.)

  15. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  16. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  17. Gaussian expansion approach to Coulomb breakup

    CERN Document Server

    Egami, T; Matsumoto, T; Iseri, Y; Kamimura, M; Yahiro, M

    2004-01-01

    An accurate treatment of Coulomb breakup reactions is presented by using both the Gaussian expansion method and the method of continuum discretized coupled channels. As $L^2$-type basis functions for describing Coulomb breakup processes, we take complex-range Gaussian functions, which form in good approximation a complete set in a large configuration space being important for the processes. Accuracy of the method is tested quantitatively for $^{8}{\\rm B}+^{58}$Ni scattering at 25.8 MeV.

  18. Analytic structure of QCD propagators in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Siringo, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Analytical functions for the propagators of QCD, including a set of chiral quarks, are derived by a one-loop massive expansion in the Landau gauge, deep in the infrared. By analytic continuation, the spectral functions are studied in Minkowski space, yielding a direct proof of positivity violation and confinement from first principles.The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is described on the same footing of gluon mass generation, providing a unified picture. While dealing with the exact Lagrangian, the expansion is based on massive free-particle propagators, is safe in the infrared and is equivalent to the standard perturbation theory in the UV. By dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly without including mass counterterms that would spoil the gauge and chiral symmetry of the Lagrangian. Universal scaling properties are predicted for the inverse dressing functions and shown to be satisfied by the lattice data. Complex conjugated poles are found for the gluon propagator, in agre...

  19. Transient anomalous charge production in strong-field QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tanji, N; Berges, J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate axial charge production in two-color QCD out of equilibrium. We compute the real-time evolution starting with spatially homogeneous strong gauge fields, while the fermions are in vacuum. The idealized class of initial conditions is motivated by Glasma flux tubes in the context of heavy-ion collisions. We focus on axial charge production at early times, where important aspects of the anomalous dynamics can be derived analytically. This is compared to real-time lattice simulations. Quark production at early times leading to anomalous charge generation is investigated using Wilson fermions. Our results indicate that coherent gauge fields can transiently produce significant amounts of axial charge density, while part of the induced charges persist to be present even well beyond characteristic decoherence times. The comparisons to analytic results provide stringent tests of real-time representations of the axial anomaly on the lattice.

  20. Application of the Faddeev-Jackiw formalism to the gauged WZW model

    CERN Document Server

    Paschalis, J E; Paschalis, J E; Porfyriadis, P I

    1995-01-01

    The two-flavor Wess-Zumino model coupled to electromagnetism is treated as a constraint system using the Faddeev-Jackiw method. Expanding into series of powers of the pion fields and keeping terms up to second and third order we obtain Coulomb- gauge Lagrangeans containing non-local terms.

  1. Hamiltonian reduction of the U$_{EM}$(1) gauged three flavour WZW model

    CERN Document Server

    Paschalis, J E

    1995-01-01

    The three-flavour Wess-Zumino model coupled to electromagnetism is treated as a constraint system using the Faddeev-Jackiw method. Expanding into series of powers of the Goldstone boson fields and keeping terms up to second and third order we obtain Coulomb-gauge hamiltonian densities.

  2. Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis Effective Potential for Quark Propagator in Real-Time Thermal Field Theory and Landau Gauge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We complete the derivation of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective potential for quark propagator at finite temperature and finite quark chemical potential in the real-time formalism of thermal field theory and in Landau gauge. In the approximation that the function A(p2) in inverse quark propagator is replaced by unity, by means of the running gauge coupling and the quark mass function invariant under the renormalization group in zero temperature Quantum Chromadynamics (QCD), we obtain a calculable expression for the thermal effective potential, which will be a useful means to research chiral phase transition in QCD in the real-time formalism.

  3. Highly Effective Action from Large N Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2014-01-01

    Recently John H. Schwarz put forward a conjecture that the world-volume action of a probe $D3$-brane in an AdS5 x S5 background of type IIB superstring theory can be reinterpreted as the highly effective action (HEA) of four-dimensional N=4 superconformal field theory on the Coulomb branch. We argue that the HEA can be derived from the noncommutative (NC) field theory representation of the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map defining a spacetime field redefinition between ordinary and NC gauge fields. It is based only on the well-known facts that the master fields of large N matrices are higher-dimensional NC U(1) gauge fields and the SW map is a local coordinate transformation eliminating U(1) gauge fields known as the Darboux theorem in symplectic geometry.

  4. cuLGT: Lattice Gauge Fixing on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    We adopt CUDA-capable Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) for Landau, Coulomb and maximally Abelian gauge fixing in 3+1 dimensional SU(3) and SU(2) lattice gauge field theories. A combination of simulated annealing and overrelaxation is used to aim for the global maximum of the gauge functional. We use a fine grained degree of parallelism to achieve the maximum performance: instead of the common 1 thread per site strategy we use 4 or 8 threads per lattice site. Here, we report on an improved version of our publicly available code (www.cuLGT.com and github.com/culgt) which again increases performance and is much easier to include in existing code. On the GeForce GTX 580 we achieve up to 470 GFlops (utilizing 80% of the theoretical peak bandwidth) for the Landau overrelaxation code.

  5. Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Luu, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path ...

  6. Excited Baryons in Holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins

    2011-11-08

    The light-front holographic QCD approach is used to describe baryon spectroscopy and the systematics of nucleon transition form factors. Baryon spectroscopy and the excitation dynamics of nucleon resonances encoded in the nucleon transition form factors can provide fundamental insight into the strong-coupling dynamics of QCD. The transition from the hard-scattering perturbative domain to the non-perturbative region is sensitive to the detailed dynamics of confined quarks and gluons. Computations of such phenomena from first principles in QCD are clearly very challenging. The most successful theoretical approach thus far has been to quantize QCD on discrete lattices in Euclidean space-time; however, dynamical observables in Minkowski space-time, such as the time-like hadronic form factors are not amenable to Euclidean numerical lattice computations.

  7. Deconfining transition in Full QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, J M; Del Debbio, L; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence that in full QCD with two dynamical quarks confinement is produced by dual superconductivity of the vacuum as in the quenched theory. Preliminary information is obtained on the nature of the deconfining transition.

  8. International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...

  9. Excitation Spectra In Nongravitational Theories Marginal Stability, String Webs, Bound States In Gauge Theories And Hot Little Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, K S

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two topics—marginal stability in gauge theories and little string theories at the Hagedorn temperature. The spectrum of stable supersymmetric charged particle states can change discontinuously as we change the vacuum on the Coulomb branch of four dimensional gauge theories with extended supersymmetry. This discontinuous change manifests itself via the decay of some of these states which become marginally unstable across certain submanifolds in the Coulomb branch. We describe how this decay process can be studied through semiclassical field configurations, purely within the low energy effective action on the Coulomb branch, even at strong coupling. We then describe how these semiclassical field configurations naturally give rise to and generalize the string web description of these supersyrnmetric states found in D-brane constructions for some gauge theories. After a brief study of string web interactions in theories with sixteen supercharges, we move on to study the supers...

  10. Fermion frontiers in vector lattice gauge theories: Proceedings. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The inclusion of fermions into simulations of lattice gauge theories is very difficult both theoretically and numerically. With the presence of Teraflops-scale computers for lattice gauge theory, the authors wanted a forum to discuss new approaches to lattice fermions. The workshop concentrated on approaches which are ripe for study on such large machines. Although lattice chiral fermions are vitally important to understand, there is not technique at hand which is viable on these Teraflops-scale machines for real-world problems. The discussion was therefore focused on recent developments and future prospects for QCD-like theories. For the well-known fermion formulations, the Aoki phase in Wilson fermions, novelties of U{sub A}(1) symmetry and the {eta}{prime} for staggered fermions and new approaches for simulating the determinant for Wilson fermions were discussed. The newer domain-wall fermion formulation was reviewed, with numerical results given by many speakers. The fermion proposal of Friedberg, Lee and Pang was introduced. They also were able to compare and contrast the dependence of QCD and QCD-like SUSY theories on the number of quark flavors. These proceedings consist of several transparencies and a summary page from each speaker. This should serve to outline the major points made in each talk.

  11. Baryon spectroscopy in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Leinweber; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; David Richards; Anthony G. Williams; James Zanotti

    2004-04-01

    We review recent developments in the study of excited baryon spectroscopy in lattice QCD. After introducing the basic methods used to extract masses from correlation functions, we discuss various interpolating fields and lattice actions commonly used in the literature. We present a survey of results of recent calculations of excited baryons in quenched QCD, and outline possible future directions in the study of baryon spectra.

  12. Low temperature relations in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Agasian, N O

    2002-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the low temperature relations for the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in QCD with two and three quarks. It is shown that the temperature derivatives of the anomalous and normal (quark massive term) contributions to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in QCD are equal to each other in the low temperature region. Leading corrections connected with $\\pi\\pi$-interactions and thermal excitations of $K$ and $\\eta$ mesons are calculated.

  13. Experimental Summary Moriond QCD 2008

    CERN Document Server

    de Roeck, Albert

    2008-01-01

    2008 was a vintage year for the QCD Moriond meeting. Plenty of new data from Tevatron, HERA, B-Factories and other experiments have been reported. Some brand new results became public just before or even during the conference. A few new hints for New Physics came up in Winter 2008, but these await further scrutiny. This paper is the write-up of the experimental summary talk given at the Moriond QCD March meeting.

  14. Particular solutions of the equation for the quark propagator in the infra-red region of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Davydychev, A.I.; Kurennoy, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A number of particular solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator in the infra-red region of QCD is obtained taking account of the gauge identities. The solutions are of a nonperturbative character, some of them break the chiral invariance. The obtained solutions are analysed with the help of the effective potential method.

  15. Computing K and D meson masses with N-f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Remi; Boucaud, Philippe; Carbonell, Jaume; Drach, Vincent; Farchioni, Federico; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Montvay, Istvan; Pallante, Elisabetta; Pene, Olivier; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc; Wenger, Urs

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N-f = 2 + 1 + 1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and

  16. Coulomb's law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto; Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Rigel Mora-Luna, Refugio

    2016-05-01

    Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ̅ in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb's law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb's law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb's law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally observed or

  17. Infinite coupling duals of N=2 gauge theories and new rank 1 superconformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    We show that a proposed duality [arXiv:0711.0054] between infinitely coupled gauge theories and superconformal field theories (SCFTs) with weakly gauged flavor groups predicts the existence of new rank 1 SCFTs. These superconformal fixed point theories have the same Coulomb branch singularities as the rank 1 E_6, E_7, and E_8 SCFTs, but have smaller flavor symmetry algebras and different central charges. Gauging various subalgebras of the flavor algebras of these rank 1 SCFTs provides many examples of infinite-coupling dualities, satisfying an intricate set of consistency checks. They also provide examples of N=2 conformal theories with marginal couplings but no weak-coupling limits.

  18. Integrability and separation of variables in Calogero-Coulomb-Stark and two-center Calogero-Coulomb systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-01-01

    We define the integrable N-dimensional Calogero-Coulomb-Stark and two-center Calogero-Coulomb systems and construct their constants of motion via the Dunkl operators. Their Schroedinger equations decouple in parabolic and elliptic coordinates, respectively, into the set of three differential equations like for the Coulomb-Stark and two-center Coulomb problems.

  19. Modified Lattice Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Von Smekal, L; Sternbeck, A; Williams, A G

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified lattice Landau gauge based on stereographically projecting the link variables on the circle S^1 -> R for compact U(1) or the 3-sphere S^3 -> R^3 for SU(2) before imposing the Landau gauge condition. This can reduce the number of Gribov copies exponentially and solves the Gribov problem in compact U(1) where it is a lattice artifact. Applied to the maximal Abelian subgroup this might be just enough to avoid the perfect cancellation amongst the Gribov copies in a lattice BRST formulation for SU(N), and thus to avoid the Neuberger 0/0 problem. The continuum limit of the Landau gauge remains unchanged.

  20. Justification of the complex Langevin method with the gauge cooling procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Keitaro; Shimasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been remarkable progress in the complex Langevin method, which aims at solving the complex action problem by complexifying the dynamical variables in the original path integral. In particular, a new technique called the gauge cooling was introduced and the full QCD simulation at finite density has been made possible in the high temperature (deconfined) phase or with heavy quarks. Here we provide a rigorous justification of the complex Langevin method including the gauge cooling procedure. We first show that the gauge cooling can be formulated as an extra term in the complex Langevin equation involving a gauge transformation parameter, which is chosen appropriately as a function of the configuration before cooling. The probability distribution of the complexified dynamical variables is modified by this extra term. However, this modification is shown not to affect the Fokker-Planck equation for the corresponding complex weight as far as observables are restricted to gauge invariant ones. Thus...

  1. All Tree-level Amplitudes in Massless QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2010-10-25

    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in N = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different flavors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all N = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark-pairs.

  2. Classification of N=2 Superconformal Field Theories with Two-Dimensional Coulomb Branches, II

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, P C; Argyres, Philip C.; Wittig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    We continue the classification of 2-dimensional scale-invariant rigid special Kahler (RSK) geometries. This classification was begun in [hep-th/0504070] where singularities corresponding to curves of the form y^2=x^6 with a fixed canonical basis of holomorphic one forms were analyzed. Here we perform the analysis for the y^2=x^5 type singularities. (The final maximal singularity type, y^2=x^3(x-1)^3, will be analyzed in a later paper.) These singularities potentially describe the Coulomb branches of N=2 supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions. We show that there are only 13 solutions satisfying the integrability condition (enforcing the RSK geometry of the Coulomb branch) and the Z-consistency condition (requiring massless charged states at singularities). Of these solutions, one has a marginal deformation, and corresponds to the known solution for certain Sp(2) gauge theories, while the rest correspond to isolated strongly interacting conformal field theories.

  3. Spectrum and mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) adjoint QCD with two Dirac flavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Georg; Giudice, Pietro; Münster, Gernot; Montvay, Istvan; Piemonte, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    In this work we present the results of our investigation of SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation (aQCD2), which belongs to the class of strongly interacting gauge theories that are of basic interest for extensions of the Standard Model. We have done numerical lattice simulations of this theory at two different values of the gauge coupling and several fermion masses. Our results include the particle spectrum and the mass anomalous dimension. The spectrum contains new exotic fermion-gluon states and flavor-singlet mesons. The mass anomalous dimension is determined from the scaling of the masses and the mode number. The remnant dependence of the universal mass ratios and mass anomalous dimension on the gauge coupling indicates the relevance of scaling corrections, such that earlier estimations for the universal fixed point value of the mass anomalous dimension are incomplete without their inclusion.

  4. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO XiangQian

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking,which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero.In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory,one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses,and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit.This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks,without any ambiguous mass extrapolation.The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD,which deserves further investigation.

  5. Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.

  6. QCD at finite temperature and density on the lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardo M.-P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first lecture we briefly summarize the basics of field theory thermodynamics and critical phenomena. We then introduce the lattice gauge field theory approach to QCD at finite temperature and density, which is a non-perturbative scheme allowing first principle calculations using the QCD Lagrangian as a sole input. Some of the general concepts and idea introduced at the beginning are demonstrated by use of simple effective models of QCD. The second lecture is devoted to applications. We emphasize that current methods suffice to study the main phenomena at RHIC and LHC energies, and we discuss the ongoing theoretical efforts devoted to the solution of the sign problem which hampers the simulations of cold and dense matter. We conclude with short overview of the status of the field as of Summer 2008.

  7. Gauge coupling unification in gauge-Higgs grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We discuss renormalization group equations for gauge coupling constants in gauge-Higgs grand unification on five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum warped space. We show that all four-dimensional Standard Model gauge coupling constants are asymptotically free and are effectively unified in SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unified theories on 5D Randall-Sundrum warped space.

  8. Basis Tensor Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Daniel J H

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate gauge theories in analogy with the vierbein formalism of general relativity. More specifically, we reformulate gauge theories such that their gauge dynamical degrees of freedom are local fields that transform linearly under the dual representation of the charged matter field. These local fields, which naively have the interpretation of non-local operators similar to Wilson lines, satisfy constraint equations. A set of basis tensor fields are used to solve these constraint equations, and their field theory is constructed. A new local symmetry in terms of the basis tensor fields is used to make this field theory local and maintain a Hamiltonian that is bounded from below. The field theory of the basis tensor fields is what we call the basis tensor gauge theory.

  9. Digital lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a $\\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in $2+1$ dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms...

  10. CogGauge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cog-Gauge is a portable hand-held game that can be used by astronauts and crew members during space exploration missions to assess their cognitive workload...

  11. Gauge theories and holisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Richard

    Those looking for holism in contemporary physics have focused their attention primarily on quantum entanglement. But some gauge theories arguably also manifest the related phenomenon of nonseparability. While the argument is strong for the classical gauge theory describing electromagnetic interactions with quantum "particles", it fails in the case of general relativity even though that theory may also be formulated in terms of a connection on a principal fiber bundle. Anandan has highlighted the key difference in his analysis of a supposed gravitational analog to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. By contrast with electromagnetism in the original Aharonov-Bohm effect, gravitation is separable and exhibits no novel holism in this case. Whether the nonseparability of classical gauge theories of nongravitational interactions is associated with holism depends on what counts as the relevant part-whole relation. Loop representations of quantized gauge theories of nongravitational interactions suggest that these conclusions about holism and nonseparability may extend also to quantum theories of the associated fields.

  12. Canonical quantization of four- and five-dimensional U(1) gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnerb, N.; Horwitz, L. P.

    1993-12-01

    We discuss the canonical quantization of an interacting massless U(1) gauge field using a bosonic gauge-fixing method. We present a way to make the transformation between the Lorentz and the Coulomb gauge of such theories, without using an explicit representation of the fields in terms of creation-annihilation operators. We demonstrate this method in the case of Maxwell photons interacting with Schrödinger electrons and then we treat, with the same methods, a system of higher-dimensional equations appearing in the framework of a manifestly covariant relativistic quantum theory. The nonrelativistic limit of the Coulomb term for such a theory is discussed and compared to the Fokker action appearing in the Wheeler-Feynman action-at-a-distance theory for electromagnetic interactions.

  13. Compact U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs theory with monopole suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, B; Mitrjushkin, V K; Müller-Preussker, M; Krishnan, Balasubramanian

    1996-01-01

    We investigate a model of a U(1)-Higgs theory on the lattice with compact gauge fields but completely suppressed (elementary) monopoles. We study the model at two values of the quartic Higgs self-coupling, a strong coupling, \\lambda = 3.0, and a weak coupling, \\lambda=0.01. We map out the phase diagrams and find that the monopole suppression eliminated the confined phase of the standard lattice model at strong gauge coupling. We perform a detailed analysis of the static potential and study the mass spectrum in the Coulomb and Higgs phases for three values of the gauge coupling. We also probe the existence of a scalar bosonium to the extent that our data allow and conclude that further investigations are required in the Coulomb phase.

  14. Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2007-04-14

    The authors propose a new linear-scaling method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals with Gaussian basis functions called the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method. In this method, the Coulomb potential is expanded in a basis of mixed Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions that express the core and smooth Coulomb potentials, respectively. Coulomb integrals can be evaluated by three-center one-electron overlap integrals among two Gaussian basis functions and one mixed auxiliary function. Thus, the computational cost and scaling for large molecules are drastically reduced. Several applications to molecular systems show that the GFC method is more efficient than the analytical integration approach that requires four-center two-electron repulsion integrals. The GFC method realizes a near linear scaling for both one-dimensional alanine alpha-helix chains and three-dimensional diamond pieces.

  15. Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Baishali; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

  16. Gauge field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    This third edition on the classic Gauge Field Theories is an ideal reference for researchers starting work with the Large Hadron Collider and the future International Linear Collider. This latest title continues to offer an up to date reference containing revised chapters on electroweak interactions and model building including a completely new chapter on conformality. Within this essential reference logical organization of the material on gauge invariance, quantization, and renormalization is also discussed providing necessary reading for Cosmologists and Particle Astrophysicists

  17. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  18. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Axel

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  19. Confining gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, F

    2009-01-01

    By superposition of regular gauge instantons or merons, ensembles of gauge fields are constructed which describe the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Various properties of the Wilson loops, the gluon condensate and the topological susceptibility are found to be in qualitative agreement with phenomenology or results of lattice calculations. Limitations in the application to the glueball spectrum and small size Wilson loops are discussed.

  20. QCD at collider energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, A.; Bordes, G.

    1986-05-01

    We examine available experimental distributions of transverse energy and transverse momentum, obtained at the CERN pp¯ collider, in the context of quantum chromodynamics. We consider the following. (i) The hadronic transverse energy released during W+/- production. This hadronic transverse energy is made out of two components: a soft component which we parametrize using minimum-bias events and a semihard component which we calculate from QCD. (ii) The transverse momentum of the produced W+/-. If the transverse momentum (or the transverse energy) results from a single gluon jet we use the formalism of Dokshitzer, Dyakonov, and Troyan, while if it results from multiple-gluon emission we use the formalism of Parisi and Petronzio. (iii) The relative transverse momentum of jets. While for W+/- production quarks play an essential role, jet production at moderate pT and present energies is dominated by gluon-gluon scattering and therefore we can study the Sudakov form factor of the gluon. We suggest also how through a Hankel transform of experimental data we can have direct access to the Sudakov form factors of quarks and gluons.

  1. Hadroquarkonium from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Maurizio; Bali, Gunnar S.; Collins, Sara; Knechtli, Francesco; Moir, Graham; Söldner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The hadroquarkonium picture [S. Dubynskiy and M. B. Voloshin, Phys. Lett. B 666, 344 (2008), 10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.086] provides one possible interpretation for the pentaquark candidates with hidden charm, recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, as well as for some of the charmoniumlike "X , Y , Z " states. In this picture, a heavy quarkonium core resides within a light hadron giving rise to four- or five-quark/antiquark bound states. We test this scenario in the heavy quark limit by investigating the modification of the potential between a static quark-antiquark pair induced by the presence of a hadron. Our lattice QCD simulations are performed on a Coordinated Lattice Simulations (CLS) ensemble with Nf=2 +1 flavors of nonperturbatively improved Wilson quarks at a pion mass of about 223 MeV and a lattice spacing of about a =0.0854 fm . We study the static potential in the presence of a variety of light mesons as well as of octet and decuplet baryons. In all these cases, the resulting configurations are favored energetically. The associated binding energies between the quarkonium in the heavy quark limit and the light hadron are found to be smaller than a few MeV, similar in strength to deuterium binding. It needs to be seen if the small attraction survives in the infinite volume limit and supports bound states or resonances.

  2. Chiral imbalance in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiral imbalance (ChI is given by a difference between the numbers of RH and LH quarks which may occur in the fireball after heavy ion collision. To characterize it adiabatically a quark chiral (axial chemical potential must be introduced taking into account emergence of a ChI in such a phase. In this report the phenomenology of formation of Local spatial Parity Breaking (LPB in the hot and dense baryon matter is discussed and its simulation within a number of QCD-inspired models is outlined. The appearance of new states in the spectra of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector particles in such a matter is elucidated. In particular, from the effective vector meson theory in the presence of Chern-Simons interaction it is demonstrated that the spectrum of massive vector mesons splits into three polarization components with different effective masses. The asymmetry in production of longitudinally and transversely polarized states of ρ and ω mesons for various values of the dilepton invariant mass can serve as a characteristic indication of the LPB in PHENIX, STAR and ALICE experiments.

  3. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-02-21

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as {tau}{sub exp}(a){proportional_to}a{sup -5}, where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10){tau}{sub exp}. This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N{sub f}=2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f{sub K} as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  4. Topological and magnetic properties of the QCD vacuum probed by overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buividovich, P.V. [Univ. Regensburg (Germany). ITP; Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    We study some of the local CP-odd and magnetic properties of the non-Abelian vacuum with use of overlap fermions within the quenched lattice gauge theory. Among these properties are the following: inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the topological charge density (chirality for massless fermions) in SU(2) gluodynamics (for uncooled gauge configurations the chirality is localized on low-dimensional defects with d=2.3, while a sequence of cooling steps gives rise to four-dimensional instantons and hence a four-dimensional structure of the chirality distribution); finite local fluctuations of the chirality growing with the strength of an external magnetic field; magnetization and susceptibility of the QCD vacuum in SU(3) theory; magnetic catalysis of the chiral symmetry breaking, and the electric conductivity of the QCD vacuum in strong magnetic fields.

  5. Topological and magnetic properties of the QCD vacuum probed by overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Braguta, V V; Kalaydzhyan, T; Polikarpov, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study some of the local CP-odd and magnetic properties of the non-Abelian vacuum with use of overlap fermions within the quenched lattice gauge theory. Among these properties are the following: inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the topological charge density (chirality for massless fermions) in SU(2) gluodynamics (for uncooled gauge configurations the chirality is localized on low-dimensional defects with d=2..3, while a sequence of cooling steps gives rise to four-dimensional instantons and hence a four-dimensional structure of the chirality distribution); finite local fluctuations of the chirality growing with the strength of an external magnetic field; magnetization and susceptibility of the QCD vacuum in SU(3) theory; magnetic catalysis of the chiral symmetry breaking, and the electric conductivity of the QCD vacuum in strong magnetic fields.

  6. Perturbative aspects of the phase diagram of QCD with heavy quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreau, Julien; Reinosa, Urko

    2017-03-01

    We report on recent progress in the description of the phase diagram of QCD with heavy quarks at nonzero temperature and chemical potential in the context of a modified perturbative approach. The latter is based on a simple massive extension of the QCD Lagrangian in the Landau-DeWitt gauge, the background field generalization of the Landau gauge. Here, the background field plays the role of an order parameter for the center symmetry, relevant for confinement-deconfinement transition. One-loop results in this approach give a fairly accurate description of the phase diagram both at real and imaginary chemical potential. We comment on issues related to the sign problem in continuum approaches. Based on works in collaboration with Matthieu Tissier and Nicolás Wschebor.

  7. An asymptotic solution of large-$N$ $QCD$, and of large-$N$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ $SUSY$ $QCD$

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We find an asymptotic solution for two- and three-point correlators of local gauge-invariant operators, in a lower-spin sector of massless large-$N$ $QCD$ (and of massless large-$N$ $\\cal{N}$ $=1$ $SUSY$ $QCD$), in terms of glueball and meson propagators (and of their $SUSY$ partners), by means of a new purely field-theoretical technique that we call the asymptotically-free bootstrap. The asymptotically-free bootstrap exploits the lowest-order conformal invariance of connected correlators of gauge invariant composite operators in perturbation theory, the renormalization-group improvement, and a recently-proved asymptotic structure theorem for glueball and meson propagators (and for their $SUSY$ partners), that involves the unknown particle spectrum and the anomalous dimension of operators for fixed spin. In principle the asymptotically-free bootstrap extends to all the higher-spin two- and three-point correlators whose lowest-order conformal limit is non-vanishing in perturbation theory, and by means of the o...

  8. RIKEN WINTER SCHOOL: STRUCTURE OF HADRONS - INTRODUCTION TO QCD HARD PROCESSES. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, DECEMBER 9-12, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAITO,N.

    1999-12-09

    In this lecture I give a pedagogical introduction to the Perturbative QCD to understand the short-distance dynamics of the strong interaction. Starting with fundamental concepts such as the color degree of freedom of QCD, non-abelian gauge field theory, renormalization group equation etc., I explain a basic idea of the perturbative QCD and apply this idea to the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} processes and the structure functions. The notion of mass singularity and the necessity of its factorization is discussed in some detail.

  9. Understanding Parton Distributions from Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Dru B.

    2005-01-01

    I examine the past lattice QCD calculations of three representative observables, the transverse quark distribution, momentum fraction, and axial charge, and emphasize the prospects for not only quantitative comparison with experiment but also qualitative understanding of QCD.

  10. Magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Itakura, Kazunori; Kuramoto, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    The "QCD Kondo effect" stems from the color exchange interaction in QCD with non-Abelian property, and can be realized in a high-density quark matter containing heavy-quark impurities. We propose a novel type of the QCD Kondo effect induced by a strong magnetic field. In addition to the fact that the magnetic field does not affect the color degrees of freedom, two properties caused by the Landau quantization in a strong magnetic field are essential for the "magnetically induced QCD Kondo effect"; (1) dimensional reduction to 1 +1 -dimensions, and (2) finiteness of the density of states for lowest energy quarks. We demonstrate that, in a strong magnetic field B , the scattering amplitude of a massless quark off a heavy quark impurity indeed shows a characteristic behavior of the Kondo effect. The resulting Kondo scale is estimated as ΛK≃√{eqB }αs1 /3exp {-4 π /Ncαslog (4 π /αs)} where αs and Nc are the fine structure constant of strong interaction and the number of colors in QCD, and eq is the electric charge of light quarks.

  11. Exploring the structure of the quenched QCD vacuum with overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Koma, Y. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Streuer, T. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-05-15

    Overlap fermions have an exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects of quenched gauge field configurations. This includes the localization and chiral properties of the eigenmodes, the local structure of the ultraviolet filtered field strength tensor, as well as the structure of topological charge fluctuations. We conclude that the vacuum has a multifractal structure. (orig.)

  12. QCD Phase Diagram with Imaginary Chemical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report our recent results on the QCD phase diagram obtained from the lattice QCD simulation. The location of the phase boundary between hadronic and QGP phases in the two-flavor QCD phase diagram is investigated. The imaginary chemical potential approach is employed, which is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the QCD with imaginary chemical potential and analytic continuation to the real chemical potential region.

  13. Gauge Model with Massive Gravitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2003-01-01

    Gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on principle of local gauge invariance. Because the model hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, and gauge theory of gravity is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum model.However, in the original model, all gauge gravitons are massless. We want to ask whether there exist massive gravitonsin Nature. In this paper, we will propose a gauge model with massive gravitons. The mass term of gravitational gaugefield is introduced into the theory without violating the strict local gravitational gauge symmetry. Massive gravitons canbe considered to be possible origin of dark energy and dark matter in the Universe.

  14. Analytic QCD Binding Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the analytic forms of a recent non-perturbative, manifestly gauge- and Lorentz-invariant description (of the exchange of all possible virtual gluons between quarks ($Q$) and/or anti-quarks ($\\bar{Q}$) in a quenched, eikonal approximation) to extract analytic forms for the binding potentials generating a model $Q$-$\\bar{Q}$ "pion", and a model $QQQ$ "nucleon". Other, more complicated $Q$, $\\bar{Q}$ contributions to such color-singlet states may also be identified analytically. An elementary minimization technique, relevant to the ground states of such bound systems, is adopted to approximate the solutions to a more proper, but far more complicated Schroedinger/Dirac equation; the existence of possible contributions to the pion and nucleon masses due to spin, angular momentum, and "deformation" degrees of freedom is noted but not pursued. Neglecting electromagnetic and weak interactions, this analysis illustrates how the one new parameter making its appearance in this exact, realistic formali...

  15. Strings, Loops, Knots and Gauge Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, J C

    1993-01-01

    The loop representation of quantum gravity has many formal resemblances to a background-free string theory. In fact, its origins lie in attempts to treat the string theory of hadrons as an approximation to QCD, in which the strings represent flux tubes of the gauge field. A heuristic path-integral approach indicates a duality between background-free string theories and generally covariant gauge theories, with the loop transform relating the two. We review progress towards making this duality rigorous in three examples: 2d Yang-Mills theory (which, while not generally covariant, has symmetry under all area-preserving transformations), 3d quantum gravity, and 4d quantum gravity. $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory in 2 dimensions has been given a string-theoretic interpretation in the large-$N$ limit by Gross, Taylor, Minahan and Polychronakos, but here we provide an exact string-theoretic interpretation of the theory on $\\R\\times S^1$ for finite $N$. The string-theoretic interpretation of quantum gravity in 3 dimensions...

  16. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  17. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2001-01-01

    , such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states, which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means...

  18. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2001-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means...

  19. Scalar-QED {Dirac_h}-corrections to the Coulomb potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisica (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: helayel@cbpf.br; Penna-Firme, A.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Educacao. E-mail: andrepf@cbpf.br; Shapiro, I.L. [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. E-mail: shapiro@fisica.ufjf.br

    2000-05-01

    The leading long-distance 1-loop quantum corrections to the Coulomb potential are derived for scalar QED and their gauge-independence is explicitly checked. The potential is obtained from the direct calculation of the 2-particle scattering amplitude, taking into account all relevant 1-loop diagrams. Our investigation should be regarded as first step towards the same programme for effective Quantum Gravity. In particular, with our calculation in the framework of scalar QED, we are able to demonstrate the incompleteness of some previous studies concerning the quantum Gravity counterpart. (author)

  20. Lattice QCD with 12 Degenerate Quark Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Xiao-Yong

    2012-01-01

    We report on new data from additional zero temperature simulations of QCD with 12 flavors. This is a continuation of previous studies using the DBW2 gauge action and naive staggered fermions. With the use of the force gradient integrator and a multiple-quark-mass preconditioned HMC, we have done simulations with input quark masses from $m_q=0.003$ to $m_q=0.008$. We have observed a metastable, first order, bulk transition that occurs at small input quark masses. As the quark mass increases, this first order bulk transition ends at a second order critical point, and, for still heavier quark masses, becomes the cross-over we have previously reported. We present measurements of hadron masses, decay constants and other low energy observables in the small quark mass region on the weak coupling side of the bulk transition. Our results show that the behavior of the system is still consistent with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. We also discuss a preliminary investigation into the behavior of the bulk transitio...