McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.
1974-01-01
The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)
Vibrational motions in rotating nuclei studied by Coulomb excitations
Shimizu, Yoshifumi R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1998-03-01
As is well-known Coulomb excitation is an excellent tool to study the nuclear collective motions. Especially the vibrational excitations in rotating nuclei, which are rather difficult to access by usual heavy-ion fusion reactions, can be investigated in detail. Combined with the famous 8{pi}-Spectrometer, which was one of the best {gamma}-ray detector and had discovered some of superdeformed bands, such Coulomb excitation experiments had been carried out at Chalk River laboratory just before it`s shutdown of physics division. In this meeting some of the experimental data are presented and compared with the results of theoretical investigations. (author)
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Brandao, S.B.
1987-01-01
The level structure of 189 Os has been studied by Coulomb excitation using 35 Cl, 28 Si, 16 O beams. GOSIA, a code written to analyze multiple Coulomb excitation, was used to obtain the reduced probabilities of transition B(E2). The results for interband and intraband turned out possible the classification of the states following Nilsson levels. Gamma-rays originating from deexcitation of 216.7 and 219.4 keV have been separated and the reduced probability of transition has been measured. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Study of the N=40 shell by using Coulomb excitation
Leenhardt, St.
2000-01-01
Two Coulomb excitation experiments on neutron rich exotic nuclei have been performed at GANIL. They allowed the measurement of the reduced transition probability B(E2) (from ground state to first excited state) of some nuclei around N = 40. This number, 40, is a half-magic number in the shell model. For nuclei with an important neutron excess, it is predicted that the shell closure is stronger at N = 40. The B(E2) is a good tool for testing this growing. We have measured, by using the LISE3 spectrometer and a γ multidetector, B(E2) of 68 Ni, 66 Ni and 72 Zn, unknown till now. We have used for the first time segmented germanium 'clovers' detector, for photon detection (v/c∼0.3). Results confirm the strong shell effect for 68 Ni. Indeed 68 Ni was shown to be the Nickel isotope with the lowest value of B(E2), and hence the most rigid isotope. Nevertheless it seems that the shell effect at N = 40 decreases rapidly, for other isotopes very close to 68 Ni(Z = 28) and N = 40). (authors)
Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient polonium isotopes studied at ISOLDE
Neven, Michiel
The polonium isotopes represent an interesting region of the nuclear chart having only two protons outside the Z = 82 closed shell. These isotopes have already been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. The heavier isotopes (A > 200) seem to follow a "regular seniority-type regime" while for the lighter isotopes (A < 200) a more collective behavior is observed. Many questions remain regarding the transition between these two regimes and the configuration mixing between quantum states. Experiments in the lighter polonium isotopes point to the presence of shape coexistence, however the phenomenon is not fully understood. A Coulomb excitation study of the polonium isotopes whereby the dynamic properties are investigated can provide helpful insights in understanding the shape coexistence phenomena. In this thesis $^{202}$Po was studied via Coulomb excitation. The $^{202}$Po isotope was part of an experimental campaign in which the $^{196,198,200,206}$Po isotopes were studied as well via Coulomb...
Onset of collectivity in $^{96,98}$Sr studied via Coulomb excitation
Clement, E; Dijon, A; de France, G; Bastin, B; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Butler, P; Delahaye, P; Ekstrom, A; Georgiev, G; Hasan, N; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D; Korten, W; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Renstrom, T; Seidlitz, M; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Warr, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Zielinska, M; Bauer, C; Bruyneel, B; Butterworth, J; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; GernhäUser, R; Hess, H; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Reiter, P; Siebeck, B; Vermeulen, M; Wiens, A; De Witte, H
2014-01-01
A rapid onset of quadrupole deformation is known to occur around the neutron number 60 in the neutron-rich Zr and Sr isotopes. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich 96,98Sr investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N=60. Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble.
Onset of collectivity in 96,98Sr studied via Coulomb excitation
Clément E.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A rapid onset of quadrupole deformation is known to occur around the neutron number 60 in the neutron-rich Zr and Sr isotopes. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich 96,98Sr investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N=60. Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble.
Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient mercury isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation
Bree, Nick
This thesis describes the analysis and results of a series of Coulomb-excitation experiments on even-even neutron-deficient mercury isotopes aimed at obtaining a more detailed description of shape coexistence. Two experimental campaigns have been undertaken in the Summer of 2007 and 2008. Pure beams of 182,184,186,188Hg were produced and accelerated at the REX-ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility, located at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The beams were guided to collide with a stable target to induce Coulomb excitation. The scattered particles were registered by a double-sided silicon strip detector, and the emitted gamma rays by the MINIBALL gamma-ray spectrometer. The motivation to study these mercury isotopes, focused around shape coexistence in atomic nuclei, is addressed in chapter 1, as well as an overview of the knowledge in this region of the nuclear chart. A theoretical description of Coulomb excitation is presented in the second chapter, while the third chapter describes the setup employed for the experim...
The structure of low-lying states in ${}^{140}$Sm studied by Coulomb excitation
Klintefjord, M.; Görgen, A.; Bauer, C.; Bello Garrote, F.L.; Bönig, S.; Bounthong, B.; Damyanova, A.; Delaroche, J.P.; Fedosseev, V.; Fink, D.A.; Giacoppo, F.; Girod, M.; Hoff, P.; Imai, N.; Korten, W.; Larsen, A.C.; Libert, J.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B.A.; Molkanov, P.L.; Naïdja, H.; Napiorkowski, P.; Nowacki, F.; Pakarinen, J.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rothe, S.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Srebrny, J.; Stora, T.; Thöle, P.; Tornyi, T.G.; Tveten, G.M.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; De Witte, H.; Zielińska, M.
2016-05-02
The electromagnetic structure of $^{140}$Sm was studied in a low-energy Coulomb excitation experiment with a radioactive ion beam from the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. The $2^+$ and $4^+$ states of the ground-state band and a second $2^+$ state were populated by multi-step excitation. The analysis of the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections yielded reduced transition probabilities between all observed states and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment for the $2_1^+$ state. The experimental results are compared to large-scale shell model calculations and beyond-mean-field calculations based on the Gogny D1S interaction with a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism. Simpler geometric and algebraic models are also employed to interpret the experimental data. The results indicate that $^{140}$Sm shows considerable $\\gamma$ softness, but in contrast to earlier speculation no signs of shape coexistence at low excitation energy. This work sheds more light on the onset of deformation and collectivit...
Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for Coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS
Greene, J. P.
1998-01-01
Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the target it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation of such targets. At Argonne, ∼200 microg/cm 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) Studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm 2 Au backing and were covered with 150 microg/cm 2 Au foil. Targets of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 244 Pu and 248 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 volts. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed
Structure studies on 82Kr by means of the multiple Coulomb excitation
Bruessermann, S.
1985-01-01
With a 82 Kr beam of the energy 4.6 MeV per nucleon a 208 Pb target was irradiated in order to study the Coulomb excitation of 82 Kr. The experiment has been performed at the Society for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. The 82 Kr ions backscattered on the 208 Pb target were detected in a position-sensitive parallel-plate avalanche detector. The γ radiation of the excited 82 Kr particles was detected in 4 Ge(Li) detectors in coincidence with the particles. The spectra corrected regarding the Doppler shift contained 16 lines which permitted to determine by means of known mixing and branching ratios 22 electrical quadrupole transition matrix elements. The experimental excitation energies and the transition probabilities determined in this thesis are compared with different nuclear models, like the asymmetric rotator model, the rotational-vibrational model, the harmonic-oscillator model, the nuclear field theory, the SU(5) limit of the IBA-1, and the IBA-2 model. Thereby within the IBA-2 model a criterium for the symmetry of the wavefunction relative to the proton and neutron contributions is elaborated. Because of this criterium to the 2 1 + state a symmetric structure and to the 2 2 + ,3 states an asymmetric structure is assigned. (orig.) [de
Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb
Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others
1995-08-01
The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.
Hyperon excitation in nuclear coulomb field
Vanyashin, A.V.; Nikitin, Yu.P.; Shan'gin, A.A.
1981-01-01
A possibility is studied to measure radiative decay partial widths from the 3/2 + decuplet hyperon resonances by means of the Coulomb excitation method of the octet hyperons. The expected contributions from the strong and electromagnetic interactions in the coherence range to the hyperon excitation cross sections on heavy nuclei and on the 4 He nucleus are estimated. The particle angular distributions in the reactions Σ-+A→Σ-(1385)+A and Λ+A→Σ 0 (1385)+A are analysed in order to determine the energy range where the background conditions are the most favorable to extract the electromagnetic mechanism of the hyperon excitation [ru
Nuclear structure studies of the neutron-rich Rubidium isotopes using Coulomb excitation
Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Voulot, D; Meot, V H; Simpson, G S; Georgiev, G P; Gaudefroy, L; Roig, O
We propose to study the properties of odd-mass neutron-rich rubidium isotopes by the Coulomb-excitation technique, using the Miniball array coupled to the REX-ISOLDE facility. The results from similar measurements from the recent years (e.g. for the odd-mass and the odd-odd Cu isotopes, IS435) have shown the strong potential in such measurements for gaining information both for single-particle-like and collective states in exotic nuclei. Since there is practically no experimental information for excited states in the odd-mass Rb isotopes beyond $^{93}$Rb, the present study should be able to provide new data in a region of spherical ($^{93}$Rb and $^{95}$Rb) as well as well-deformed nuclei ($^{97}$Rb and $^{99}$Rb). Of particular interest is the rapid shape change that occurs when going from $^{95}$Rb (${\\varepsilon}_{2}$=0.06) to $^{97}$Rb (${\\varepsilon}_{2}$=0.3). These results should be of significant astrophysical interest as well, due to the close proximity of the r-process path.
Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS
Greene, J P; Ahmad, I
1999-01-01
Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the targets, it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation process. At Argonne, approx 200 mu g/cm sup 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame boron germanate (BGO) gamma-ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm sup 2 Au backings and were covered with 150 mu g/cm sup 2 Au foil. Targets of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 V. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma-ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed.
Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei
Bauer, H.
1998-01-01
The scattering system 162 Dy → 116 Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high γ-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in 162 Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)
Coulomb excitation of {sup 123}Cd
Hartig, Anna-Lena; Kroell, Thorsten; Ilieva, Stoyanka; Boenig, Sabine; Thuerauf, Michael [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Simpson, Gary; Drouet, Floriane; Ramdhane, Mourad [LPSC, Grenoble (France); Georgiev, Georgi [CSNSM, Orsay (France); Kesteloot, Nele; Wrzosek-Lipska, Kasia [KU, Leuven (Belgium); Jungclaus, Andrea; Illana Sison, Andres [CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Balabanski, Dimiter [INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Warr, Nigel [Koeln Univ. (Germany). IKP; Voulot, Didier; Wenander, Fredrik; Marsh, Bruce [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2013-07-01
On the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability in the vicinity of the double magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn one can find the {sup 123}Cd isotope. Surprisingly the neutron-rich even-A Cd isotopes in this region are showing signs of collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. In order to gain a deeper insight in this phenomenon we started to extend these studies to odd-A Cd isotopes. As first isotope the exotic nucleus {sup 123}Cd was produced for safe Coulomb excitation by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and post-accelerated by REX-ISOLDE. The γ-decay from excited states was detected with the MINIBALL array. A report on the status of the ongoing analysis is given.
Coulomb excitation of $^{116}$Te and $^{118}$Te: a study of collectivity above the Z = 50 shell gap
Cederkall, J A; Smith, J F; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Darby, I G; Hadinia, B; Grahn, T; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Bree, N C F; Baeck, T M; Julin, R J; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Huyse, M L
We propose to study the nature and collectivity of low-energy excitations in $^{116}$Te and $^{118}$Te. We aim to measure the transition probability of the 0$^{+}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$ transition by means of Coulomb excitation, employing REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. The proposed study probes the systematics of B(E2) values in light Te nuclei, which lie in a region of the nuclear chart where unusual phenomena and evolution of collectivity have been observed. The proposed study will shed light on the role of the residual proton-neutron interactions in the development of collectivity when approaching the N = Z line. This is a resubmission of the P-277 proposal. The suggestions of INTC have been taken into account and the data from the Yale $^{120}$Te study has been included.
Coulomb excitation of {sup 107}Sn
DiJulio, D.D.; Cederkall, J.; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Physics Department, 118, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Hjorth-Jensen, M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Albers, M.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Geibel, K.; Hess, H.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Taprogge, J.; Warr, N. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Bildstein, V.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Wimmer, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Darby, I.; Witte, H. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Diriken, J. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK CEN), Mol (Belgium); Goergen, A.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Lutter, R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Garching (Germany); Scheck, M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Walle, J.V. de [PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2012-07-15
The radioactive isotope {sup 107}Sn was studied using Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. This is the lightest odd-Sn nucleus examined using this technique. The reduced transition probability of the lowest-lying 3/2{sup +} state was measured and is compared to shell-model predictions based on several sets of single-neutron energies relative to {sup 100}Sn. Similar to the transition probabilities for the 2{sup +} states in the neutron-deficient even-even Sn nuclei, the measured value is underestimated by shell-model calculations. Part of the strength may be recovered by considering the ordering of the d{sub 5/2} and g{sub 7/2} single-neutron states. (orig.)
Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21Na
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2009-12-01
The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ˜ 5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for γ -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For 21Na , Coulomb excitation from the 3/2+ ground state to the first excited 5/2+ state was observed, while for 20Na , Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states. For both beams, B ( λ L) values were determined using the 2+ rightarrow 0+ de-excitation in 48Ti as a reference. The resulting B( E2) ↓ value for 21Na is 137±9 e^2fm^4, while the resulting B( λ L) ↓ values for 20Na are 55±6 e^2fm^4 for the 3+ rightarrow 2+ , 35.7±5.7 e^2 fm^4 for the 4+ rightarrow 2+ , and 0.154±0.030 μ_ N^2 for the 4+ rightarrow 3+ transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the 21Na B( E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B( λ L) values for the proton dripline nucleus 20Na .-1
Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M
2014-04-25
Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85 MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.
Coulomb excitation of {sup 8}Li
Assuncao, Marlete; Britos, Tatiane Nassar [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Descouvemont, Pierre [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique; Lepine-Szily, Alinka; Lichtenthaler Filho, Rubens; Barioni, Adriana; Silva, Diego Medeiros da; Pereira, Dirceu; Mendes Junior, Djalma Rosa; Pires, Kelly Cristina Cezaretto; Gasques, Leandro Romero; Morais, Maria Carmen; Added, Nemitala; Neto Faria, Pedro; Rec, Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear
2012-07-01
Full text: This work shows the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets that have effectively behavior of Rutherford in angles and energies of interest for determining the value of the B(E2) electromagnetic transition. Theoretical aspects involved in this type of measure, known as COULEX [1], and some results in the literature [2-3] will be presented. Some problems with the targets and measurement system while performing an experiment on Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li will be discussed: the energy resolution, background, possible contributions of the primary beam and also the excited states of the target near the region of elastic and inelastic peaks. They will be illustrated by measurements of the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets of {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb using the system RIBRAS(Brazilian Radioactive Ion Beam). In this case, the {sup 8}Li beam(T{sub 1/2} = 838 ms)is produced by {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li;{sup 8} Li){sup 8}Be reaction from RIBRAS system which is installed at Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo. The primary {sup 7L}i beam is provided by Pelletron Accelerator. [1] K. Alder and A. Winther, Electromagnetic Excitation, North-Holland, New York, 1975; [2] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Phys. Letts. B 292, 235-238, 1992; [3] J. A. Brown, F. D. Becchetti, J. W. Jaenecke, K, Ashktorab, and D. A. Roberts, J. J. Kolata, R. J. Smith, and K. Lamkin, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. Letts., 66, 19, 1991; [4] R. J. Smith, J. J Kolata, K. Lamkin and A. Morsard, F. D. Becchetti, J. A. Brown, W. Z. Liu, J. W. Jaenecke, and D. A. Roberts, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. C, 43, 5, 1991. (author)
Exclusion of nuclear forces in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments
Neese, R.E.; Guidry, M.W.
1982-01-01
A simple prescription for estimating the energy at which nuclear forces begin to play a role in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments is presented. The method differs from most commonly used recipes in accounting for projectile and target nucleus deformation effects. Using a single adjustable parameter the formula reproduces the energy for the onset of Coulomb-nuclear interference effects for a broad range of heavy-ion systems. It is suggested that most Coulomb fission experiments which have been done involve both Coulomb and nuclear excitation processes and should more properly be termed Coulomb-nuclear fission experiments
Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus Na20
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2009-10-01
The low-energy structure of the proton dripline nucleus Na20 has been studied using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. A 1.7-MeV/nucleon Na20 beam of ~5×106 ions/s was Coulomb excited by a 0.5-mg/cm2natTi target. Scattered beam and target particles were detected by the BAMBINO segmented Si detector while γ rays were detected by two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors set perpendicular to the beam axis. Coulomb excitation from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states was observed, and B(λL) values were determined using the 2+→0+ de-excitation in Ti48 as a reference. The resulting B(λL)↓ values are B(E2;3+→2+)=55±6e2fm4 (17.0±1.9 W.u.), B(E2;4+→2+)=35.7±5.7e2fm4 (11.1±1.8 W.u.), and B(M1;4+→3+)=0.154±0.030μN2 (0.086±0.017 W.u.). These measurements provide the first experimental determination of B(λL) values for this proton dripline nucleus of astrophysical interest.
Hoffmann, B.
1984-07-01
In three chapters different physical situations are described which have commonly the Coulomb interaction as driving force. The first two chapters study the Coulomb interactions in connection with the excitation of inner electron shells and the Coulomb excitation of nuclei in first order. In the third part on effect ofthe Coulomb interaction between electronic shell and nucleus is treated in second order (nuclear polarization), and its effect on the isotopic and isomeric shift is studied. (orig./HSI) [de
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of giant resonances in the hydrodynamic model
Vasconcellos Gomes, Ana Cristina de.
1990-05-01
We investigate the Coulomb excitation of giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions using a macroscopic hydrodynamical model for the harmonic vibrations of the nuclear fluid. The motion is treated as a combination of the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode and the Steinwedel-Jensen acoustic mode, and the restoring forces are calculated using the droplet model. This model is used as input to study the characteristics of multiple excitation of giant dipole resonances in nuclei. Possible signatures for the existence of such states are also discussed quantitatively. (author). 52 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
On some aspects of Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states
Massmann, H.; Robotham, H.
1979-01-01
The Coulomb excitation of nuclear rotational states is studied with a semiclassical method using classical trajectories and the classical action in order to construct the excitation probabilities. This method allows one to consider the effect on the excitation probabilities of a weak nuclear potential. An explicit expression for the 'safe bombarding energy' that is the largest bombarding energy for which the nuclear force can be neglected, is found. Also the transfer of angular momentum to the projectile's orbit is considered. One finds that the dynamical distortion of the orbit has a measurable effect on the excitation probabilities for the case of very heavy ions. Furthermore, new dimensionless parameters measuring the dynamical distortion and the effect of the adiabaticity of the collision are introduced and discussed. (author)
Leenhardt, St
2000-01-01
Two Coulomb excitation experiments on neutron rich exotic nuclei have been performed at GANIL. They allowed the measurement of the reduced transition probability B(E2) (from ground state to first excited state) of some nuclei around N = 40. This number, 40, is a half-magic number in the shell model. For nuclei with an important neutron excess, it is predicted that the shell closure is stronger at N = 40. The B(E2) is a good tool for testing this growing. We have measured, by using the LISE3 spectrometer and a {gamma} multidetector, B(E2) of {sup 68}Ni, {sup 66}Ni and {sup 72}Zn, unknown till now. We have used for the first time segmented germanium 'clovers' detector, for photon detection (v/c{approx}0.3). Results confirm the strong shell effect for {sup 68}Ni. Indeed {sup 68}Ni was shown to be the Nickel isotope with the lowest value of B(E2), and hence the most rigid isotope. Nevertheless it seems that the shell effect at N = 40 decreases rapidly, for other isotopes very close to {sup 68}Ni(Z = 28) and N = 40). (authors)
Coulomb excitation of atoms by fast multicharged ions
Yudin, G.L.
1980-01-01
Investigated is coulomb eXcitation of discrete levels of a hydrogen-like atom by a fast multicharged ion. Obtained are dependences of probabilities of channels 1S→nS and 1S→nP on the sight parameter in the zero order of sudden excitation theory. 1S-2S transition is considered in detail. Carried out are calculations for excitation of the hydrogen atom by the wholy bare carbon atom. It is shown, that at low values of excitation pr.ocess parameter eta excitation probability is a monotonously decreasing function of the impact parameter. With the growth of eta the situation is changed, and at low impact parameters the probability of 1S-2S transition is decreased. At high impact parameters approximation of sudden excitations is unacceptable, here lagging of coulomb interaction is essential
Coulomb excitation of $^{110}$Sn using REX-ISOLDE
Ekström, A; Hurst, A; Fahlander, C; Banu, A; Butler, P; Eberth, J; Górska, M; Habs, D; Huyse, M; Kester, O; Niedermayer, O; Nilsson, T; Pantea, M; Scheit, H; Schwalm, D; Sletten, G; Ushasi, D P; Van Duppen, P; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D
2006-01-01
In this paper, we report the preliminary result from the first Coulomb excitation experiment at REX-ISOLDE (Habs et al 1998 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 139 128) using neutron-deficient Sn-beams. The motivation of the experiment is to deduce the reduced transition probability, B(E2 ; 2$^+\\rightarrow$ 0$^+$) , for the sequence of neutron deficient, unstable, even-even Sn-isotopes from using a radioactive beam opens up a new path to study the lifetime of the first excited 2$^+$ state in these isotopes. The de-excitation path following fusion-evaporation reactions will for the even-even Sn isotopes pass via an isomeric 6$^+$ state, located at higher energy, which thus hampers measurements of the lifetime of the first excited state using, e.g., recoil-distance methods. For this reason the reduced transition probability of the first excited 2$^+$ state has remained unknown in this chain of isotopes although the B(E2) value of the stable isotope $^{112}$Sn was measured approximately 30 years ago (see, e.g., Stelson et...
Semiclassical treatment of nuclear effects in Coulomb excitation
Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Rasmussen, J O; Ring, P; Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.
1990-09-27
We introduce the effects of the nuclear potential in the semiclassical Alder-Winther-de Boer method, both in the coupling matrix elements and as corrections to the Rutherford orbit. We compare our results to those of pure Coulomb excitation and to coupled-channel calculations. (orig.).
The giant-dipole-resonance effect in coulomb excitation of 10B
Vermeer, W.J.; Zabel, T.H.; Esat, M.T.; Kuehner, J.A.; Spear, R.H.; Baxter, A.M.
1982-04-01
Coulomb excitation of the 0.718-MeV, Jsup(π) = 1 + , first excited state of 10 B has been studied using projectile excitation by 208 Pb and observing the backward scattered particles. The results give a clear indication of the virtual excitation of the giant dipole resonance as a second-order effect. The observed magnitude is consistent with the usual hydrodynamic model estimate and with a recent shell-model calculation
Prospects for coherently driven nuclear radiation by Coulomb excitation
Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.
2006-01-01
Possible experiments are discussed in which the Coulomb excitation of nuclear isomers would be followed by sequential energy release. The possibility of the coherent Coulomb excitation of nuclei ensconced in a crystal by channeled relativistic heavy projectiles is considered. The phase shift between neighbor-nuclei excitations can be identical to the photon phase shift for emission in forward direction. Thus, the elementary string of atoms can radiate coherently with emission of characteristic nuclear γ rays and the intensity of the radiation could be increased due to the summation of amplitudes. The Moessbauer conditions should be important for this new type of collective radiation that could be promising in the context of the γ-lasing problem
Scaling laws and higher-order effects in Coulomb excitation of neutron halo nuclei
Typel, S.; Baur, G.
2008-01-01
Essential properties of halo nuclei can be described in terms of a few low-energy constants. For neutron halo nuclei, analytical results can be found for wave functions and electromagnetic transition matrix elements in simple but well-adapted models. These wave functions can be used to study nuclear reactions; an especially simple and instructive example is Coulomb excitation. A systematic expansion in terms of small parameters can be given. We present scaling laws for excitation amplitudes and cross-sections. The results can be used to analyze experiments like 11 Be Coulomb excitation. They also serve as benchmark tests for more involved reaction theories. (orig.)
Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)
2016-07-07
In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.
Galetti, D.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.C.
1986-10-01
The quantum relativistic Coulomb excitation process including reccil effects is studied in the plane wave Born approximation. Quantum and relativistic recoil effects allow for relatively large transverse momentum transfers, usually neglected. This specific feature is shown to modify the angular distribution of Coulomb induced fission fragmentation in an essential manner. In contrast with usual treatments it is found that these results compare favourably with recent data. (Authors) [pt
Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr
Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P
Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...
Unsafe Coulomb excitation of $^{240-244}Pu$
Wiedenhöver, I; Hackman, L; Ahmad, I; Greene, J P; Amro, H; Carpenter, M P; Nisius, D T; Reiter, P; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; Khoo, T L; Siem, S; Cizewski, J A; Seweryniak, D; Uusitalo, J; Macchiavelli, A O; Chowdhury, P; Seabury, E H; Cline, D; Wu, C Y
1999-01-01
The high spin states of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 244/Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a /sup 208/Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to /sup 242/Pu were obtained as well. In the case of /sup 244/Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h(cross), revealing the completed pi i/sub 13/2/ alignment, a "first" for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of /sup 242/Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of /sup 240/Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (~300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. (11 refs).
Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells
Zhemchuzhna, Liubov, E-mail: lzhemchuzhna@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Gao, Bo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2015-03-15
A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N = 3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.
Coulomb Excitation of the N = 50 nucleus 80Zn
Van de Walle, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Mayet, P.; Raabe, R.; Sawicka, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Duppen, P. van; Aksouh, F.; Ames, F.; Habs, D.; Lutter, R.; Behrens, T.; Gernhauser, R.; Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.
2008-01-01
Neutron rich Zinc isotopes, including the N = 50 nucleus 80 Zn, were produced and post-accelerated at the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility REX-ISOLDE (CERN). Low-energy Coulomb excitation was induced on these isotopes after post-acceleration, yielding B(E2) strengths to the first excited 2 + states. For the first time, an excited state in 80 Zn was observed and the 2 1 + state in 78 Zn was established. The measured B(E2,2 1 + →0 1 + ) values are compared to two sets of large scale shell model calculations. Both calculations reproduce the observed B(E2) systematics for the full Zinc isotopic chain. The results for N = 50 isotones indicate a good N = 50 shell closure and a strong Z = 28 proton core polarization. The new results serve as benchmarks to establish theoretical models, predicting the nuclear properties of the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni
Probing shape coexistence in neutron-deficient $^{72}$Se via low-energy Coulomb excitation
We propose to study the evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-deficient $^{72}$Se by performing a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. Matrix elements will be determined for low-lying excited states allowing for a full comparison with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the intrinsic shape of the ground state, and the second 0$^{+}$ state, will be investigated using the quadrupole sum rules method.
Electromagnetic excitation with very heavy ions at and above the Coulomb barrier
Wollersheim, H.J.
1988-08-01
The present report is part of a systematic study of the electromagnetic properties of strongly deformed and shape transitional nuclei carried out at GSI. The high efficiency particle-gamma detector system is described to perform multiple Coulomb excitation experiments with very heavy projectiles. Some results obtained for the shape transitional nucleus 196 Pt will be presented to exemplify the importance of having access to both the level energies and the E2-transition matrix elements when discussing the possible structure of these states. The second part of this paper is devoted to transfer reactions between very heavy nuclei. In contrast to light projectiles heavy ions offer the possibility to study new phenomena which originate in the much larger Coulomb contribution to the total interaction. In particular, heavy deformed nuclei will be Coulomb excited by the strong electromagnetic field to high spin states already at the time when they start interacting through the nuclear forces. The particle transfer therefore takes place mainly between excited collective states and thus should give information about the interplay between single-particle degrees of freedom, pair correlations and collective excitations. In this paper results of experiments will be reported in which nuclei from the rare earth and the actinide region have been bombarded by 206,208 Pb projectiles at incident energies near the Coulomb barrier. (orig./HSI)
Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne
J. Marganiec
2016-08-01
Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.
Clement, E
2006-06-15
The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr{sup 78} to oblate in Kr{sup 72} with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se{sup 68} nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)
Coulomb Excitation of Neutron Deficient Sn-Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE
Di julio, D D; Kownacki, J M; Marechal, F; Andreoiu, C; Siem, S; Perrot, F; Van duppen, P L E; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S
2002-01-01
It is proposed to study the evolution of the reduced transition probabilities, B(E2; 0$^{+} \\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$), for neutron deficient Sn isotopes by Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics using REX-ISOLDE and the MINIBALL detector array. Measurements of the reduced transition matrix element for the transition between the ground state and the first excited 2$^{+}$ state in light even-even Sn isotopes provide a means to study e.g. core polarization effects in the $^{100}$Sn core. Previous attempts to measure this quantity have been carried out using the decay of isomeric states populated in fusion evaporation reactions. We thus propose to utilize the unique opportunity provided by REX-ISOLDE, after the energy upgrade to 3.1 MeV/u, to use the more model-independent approach of Coulomb excitation to measure this quantity in a number of isotopes in this region.
No evidence of reduced collectivity in Coulomb-excited Sn isotopes
Kumar, R.; Saxena, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Jhingan, A.; Banerjee, A.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Dutt, S.; Garg, R.; Joshi, C.; Mishra, V.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Prajapati, S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Kumar, N.; Wollersheim, H.-J.
2017-11-01
In a series of Coulomb excitation experiments the first excited 2+ states in semimagic Sn 112 ,116 ,118 ,120 ,122 ,124 isotopes were excited using a 58Ni beam at safe Coulomb energy. The B (E 2 ; 0+→2+) values were determined with high precision (˜3 %) relative to 58Ni projectile excitation. These results disagree with previously reported B (E 2 ↑) values [A. Jungclaus et al., Phys. Lett. B 695, 110 (2011)., 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.11.012] extracted from Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements, whereas the reported mass dependence of B (E 2 ↑) values is very similar to a recent Coulomb excitation study [J. M. Allmond et al., Phys. Rev. C 92, 041303(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.041303]. The stable Sn isotopes, key nuclei in nuclear structure, show no evidence of reduced collectivity and we, thus, reconfirm the nonsymmetric behavior of reduced transition probabilities with respect to the midshell A =116 .
JANUS - A setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation at ReA3
Lunderberg, E.; Belarge, J.; Bender, P. C.; Bucher, B.; Cline, D.; Elman, B.; Gade, A.; Liddick, S. N.; Longfellow, B.; Prokop, C.; Weisshaar, D.; Wu, C. Y.
2018-03-01
A new experimental setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was constructed in a collaboration between the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of Rochester and was commissioned at the general purpose beam line of NSCL's ReA3 reaccelerator facility. The so-called JANUS setup combines γ-ray detection with the Segmented Ge Array (SeGA) and scattered particle detection using a pair of segmented double-sided Si detectors (Bambino 2). The low-energy Coulomb excitation program that JANUS enables will complement intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation studies that have long been performed at NSCL by providing access to observables that quantify collectivity beyond the first excited state, including the sign and magnitude of excited-state quadrupole moments. In this work, the setup and its performance will be described based on the commissioning run that used stable 78Kr impinging onto a 1.09 mg/cm2208Pb target at a beam energy of 3.9 MeV/u.
Unsafe Coulomb excitation of 240-244Pu
Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Cizewski, J.; Cline, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nisius, D. T.; Reiter, P.; Seabury, E. H.; Seweryniak, D.; Siem, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Wu, C. Y.
1999-01-01
The high spin states of 240 Pu and 244 Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a 208 Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to 242 Pu were obtained as well. In the case of 244 Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h b ar revealing the completed πi 13/2 alignment, a ''first'' for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of 242 Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of 240 Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (approximately300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. In this case, several observable such as the large B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios in the negative parity band, and the vanishing energy staggering between the negative and positive parity bands suggest that the strength of octupole correlations increases with rotational frequency. These stronger correlations may well be responsible for delaying or suppressing the πi 13/2 particle alignment
Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich $^{134-136}$Sn isotopes
We propose to study excited states in the isotopes $^{134,136}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to investigate the evolution of quadrupole collectivity beyond the magic shell closure at N = 82 by the determination of B(E2) values and electric quadrupole moments $\\mathcal{Q}_2$. Recent shell-model calculations using realistic interactions predict possible enhanced collectivity in neutron-rich regions. Evidence for this could be obtained by this experiment. Furthermore, the currently unknown excitation energies of the 2$^+_{1}$ and 4$^+_{1}$ states in $^{136}$Sn will be measured for the first time.
Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies
Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)
2008-07-01
Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.
Butler, P; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Darby, I G; Grahn, T; Bree, N C F; Julin, R J; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Huyse, M L
In regions near magic nuclei, seniority can be regarded as a good quantum number. In the N = 122 isotones above the Z = 82 shell closure relative high-$\\textit{j}\\,$ single-particle proton orbitals dominate the structure and thus levels up to $\\textit{I}$ = 2$\\textit{j}$ - 1 could, in principle, be understood within the seniority scheme. While B(E2) values usually increase within the band with increasing $\\textit{I}$, the seniority scheme can lead to a contrasting result. The present proposal addresses this phenomenon through the measurements of previously unknown B(E2; 0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$) values in $^{206}$Po and $^{208}$Rn. The proposed Coulomb excitation measurements of radioactive beams will be carried out at the REX-ISOLDE facility using the MINIBALL $\\gamma$-ray spectrometer.
Enhanced population of side band of {sup 155}Gd in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation
Oshima, Masumi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others
1998-03-01
In the Coulomb excitation of {sup 155}Gd with heavy projectiles, {sup 32}S, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr, unexpectedly large enhancement of a positive-parity side band has been observed. This enhancement could not be reproduced by a Coulomb-excitation calculation taking into account the recommended upper limits of E1 or E3 transitions, which are compiled in the whole mass region, and is proportional to the electric field accomplished in the Coulomb-scattering process. (author)
Coulomb excitation of 206Hg at relativistic energies
Alexander, Tom
The region of the nuclear chart surrounding the doubly-magic nucleus 208Pb provides a key area to constrain and develop contemporary nuclear structure models. One aspect of particular interest is the transition strength of the first excited 2+ state in even-even nuclei; this work describes the measurement of this value for the case of 206Hg, where the Z=80 line meets the N=126 shell closure. The nuclei of interest were synthesized using relativistic-energy projectile fragmentation at the GSI facility in Germany. They were produced in the fragmentation of a primary 208Pb beam at an energy of 1 GeV per nucleon, and separated and identifed using the Fragment Separator. The secondary beams with an energy of 140 MeV per nucleon were Coulomb excited on a secondary target of 400 mg/cm. 2 gold. Gamma-rays were detected with the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA). The precise scattering angle for Doppler-correction was determined with position information from the Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter(LYCCA). Using the sophisticated tracking algorithm native to AGATA in conjunction with pulse-shape analysis, a precise Doppler-correction is performed on the gamma spectra, and using a complex n-dimensional analysis, the B(E2) value for 206Hg is extracted relative to the known value also measured in 206Pb. A total of 409 million 206Hg particles were measured, and a cross-section of 50 mb was determined for the 2+ state at 1068 keV. The measurement of the B(E2) transition strength was found to be 1.109 W.u. This result is compared to a number of theoretical calculations, including two Gogny forces, and a modified shell model parametrization and is found to be smaller than all calculated estimations, implying that the first excited 2. + state in . {206}Hg is uncollective in nature.
Hellgartner, Stefanie Christine
2015-11-13
In this work, the N=40 subshell closure is investigated with two complementary methods using a radioactive {sup 72}Zn ISOLDE beam: One- and two-neutron transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation. In the one-neutron transfer reaction, two new levels of {sup 73}Zn were discovered. The two-neutron transfer channel allowed to study the differential cross section of the ground state and the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state of {sup 74}Zn. In the Coulomb excitation experiment, the measured B(E2) values and quadrupole moments of {sup 72}Zn showed that the yrast states 0{sup +}{sub 1}, 2{sup +}{sub 1} and 4{sup +}{sub 1} are moderately collective. Contrary, the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state has a different structure, since it features a stronger closed N=40 configuration compared to the ground state.
Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S
Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.
Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1958-06-15
The following nuclei were excited by protons of 5 MeV maximum energy: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. The reduced probabilities of the various transitions were deduced from the coulomb excitation cross-section measurements. For some even-even nuclei two 2 + levels were excited. The properties of the excited levels are interpreted in terms of the collective model. (author) [French] Au moyen de protons d'energie inferieure a 5 MeV, l'excitation coulombienne des noyaux suivants a ete etudiee: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. La mesure de la section efficace d'excitation coulombienne a permis de deduire les -probabilites reduites des diverses transitions observees. Dans certains noyaux pair-pair, deux niveaux de caractere 2 + ont ete excites. L'interpretation de ces niveaux en termes de niveaux de rotation et de niveaux de vibration a l'aide du modele collectif est discutee. En particulier, la variation des proprietes de ces niveaux avec la deformation nucleaire permet de fixer des limites a la validite des diverses hypotheses entrant dans le modele collectif. (auteur)
Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich odd-$A$ Cd isotopes
Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Marginean, N M
We propose to study excited states in the odd-${A}$ isotopes $^{123,125,127}$Cd by ${\\gamma}$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to determine the B(E2) values connecting excited states with the ground state as well as the long-lived (11/2$^{-}$) isomer. The proposed study profits from the unique capability of ISOLDE to produce beams containing Cd in the ground state or in the isomeric state. Our recent results on the neutron-rich even-A Cd nuclei appear to show that these nuclei may possess some collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. Beyond-mean-field calculations also predict these nuclei to be weakly deformed. These facets are surprising considering their proximity to the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn. Coulomb-excitation studies of odd-${A}$ Cd isotopes may give a unique insight into the deformation-driving roles played by different orbits in this region. Such studies of the onset of collectivity become especially important in light of recent...
Coulomb excitation of $^{182-184}$ Hg: Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region
We put forward a study of the interplay between individual nucleon behavior and collective degrees of freedom in the nucleus, as manifested in shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region. As a first step of this experimental campaign, we propose to perform Coulomb excitation on light mercury isotopes to probe their excited states and determine transitional and diagonal E2 matrix elements, especially reducing the current uncertainties. The results from previous Coulomb excitation measurements in this mass region performed with 2.85 MeV/u beams from REX-ISOLDE have shown the feasibility of these experiments. Based on our past experience and the results obtained, we propose a detailed study of the $^{182-184}$Hg nuclei, that exhibit a pronounced mixing between 2 low-lying excited states of apparently different deformation character, using the higher energy beams from HIE-ISOLDE which are crucial to reach our goal. The higher beam energy should result in an increased sensitivity with respect to the qua...
Signatures of Coulomb fission: a theoretical study
Oberacker, V.; Kruse, H.; Pinkston, W.T.; Greiner, W.
1979-01-01
Evidence for Coulomb fission (CF) is noted first. Then the Hamiltonian is set down and explained, and an expression for the CF probability of CF is obtained. Results are summarized. Figures show the CF probability of 238 U as a function of projectile charge number and the excitation functions for CF of 238 U by 184 W and 136 Xe. 3 figures
Use of the Coulomb excitation by light and heavy ions for quantitative analysis
Craciun, L.; Racolta, P. M.; Tripadus, V.; Dragulescu, E.; Serbanut, C.
2001-01-01
It is well known that in many cases thin layers with specific properties fulfil the same demands as former bulk materials and, although they seem to be more expensive, the general tendency has proven them to be cheaper. Therefore it might be a permanent task for physicists to develop methods, so far only applied in scientific laboratories, to a standard that might be feasible and economically justified to use them to a much larger extent. The reason for the very slow introduction of new analytical techniques is certainly the fear that instruments and apparatus used in basic research do not fulfil the standards of reliability, permanent availability and easy handling, which are important requirements for industrial applications. The knowledge of the slowing down of ions in crossing matter is of fundamental importance in methods of materials analysis using beams of charged atomic particles, Depth determination is based directly on the energy lost by the probing particles. The energy loss affects both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The physics of energy loss phenomena is very complex, involving many kinds of interactions between the projectile ion, target nuclei, and target electrons. Because of their significance in many fields of physics, these phenomena have been subject to intense studies since the beginning of the century. The theoretical treatment has been reviewed, among others, by Bohr (1948), Whaling (1958), Fano (1963), Jackson (1962,1975), Bichel (1970), Sigmund (1975), Ahlen (1980), Littmark and Ziegler (1980), Ziegler (1977, 1980), Ziegler et al. (1985). The experimental methods have been reviewed and investigated by, e.g., Chu (1979), Brauer (1987), Mertens (1987), Powers (1989). - Two well known phenomena can be used for the production of gamma-rays in bombardments with charged projectiles: a) nuclear reactions involving incident energies near and above the Coulomb barrier; in this case gamma-rays arise from the de-excitation of the product
Guichard, R.
2007-12-01
We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when ℎω > I p : it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with ℎω p : new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)
A study of the evolution of the nuclear structure along the zinc isotopic chain close to the doubly magic nucleus $^{78}$Ni is proposed to probe recent shell-model calculations in this area of the nuclear chart. Excitation energies and connecting B(E2) values will be measured through multiple Coulomb excitation experiment with laser ionized purified beams of $^{74-80}$Zn from HIE ISOLDE. The current proposal request 30 shifts.
Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.
Marchi T.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.
Coulomb Excitation of a Neutron-Rich $^{88}$Kr Beam Search for Mixed Symmetry States
Andreoiu, C; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S
2002-01-01
We propose to use the ISOLDE/REX/MINIBALL/CD set-up to perform a Coulomb Excitation experiment with a $^{88}$Kr radioactive beam. The motivation includes a search for $Mixed$ $Symmetry$ states predicted by the IBM-2 model, gathering more spectroscopy data about the $^{88}$Kr nucleus and extending shape coexistence studies (performed previously by the proposers for neutron-deficient Kr isotopes) to the neutron-rich side. The proposed experiment will provide data complementary to the Coulomb Excitation of a relativistic $^{88}$Kr beam proposed by D. Tonev et al. for a RISING experiment. A total of 12 days of beam time is necessary for the experiment, equally divided into two runs. One run with a 2.2 MeV/A beam energy on a $^{48}$Ti target and a second run with the maximum available REX energy of 3.1 MeV/A on a $^{208}$Pb target are requested. Using either a UC$_{x}$ or ThC$_{x}$ fissioning primary target coupled with a plasma source by a cooled transfer line seems to be the best choice for the proposed experime...
Probing intruder configurations in $^{186, 188}$Pb using Coulomb excitation
Columb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence, mixing and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient $^{188}$Pb nuclei are proposed with a view to extending similar studies to the $^{186}$Pb midshell nucleus. The HIE-ISOLDE beam of $^{186,188}$Pb nuclei will be delivered to MINIBALL+SPEDE set-up for simultaneous in-beam $\\gamma$-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy. The proposed experiment will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the two lowest 2$^{+}$ states in $^{188}$Pb. Moreover, the advent of SPEDE will allow probing of the bandhead 0$^{+}$ states via direct measurements of E0 transitions. Beam development is requested to provide pure and instense $^{186}$Pb beam.
Multiple Coulomb excitation effects in heavy ion compound and fusion cross sections
Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.
1981-11-01
A simple model for the average S-matrix that describes heavy ion direct processes in the presence of absorption due to compound nucleus formation is developed. The fluctuation cross section and the fusion cross section are then calculated for deformed heavy ion systems where multiple Coulomb excitation is important. A simple expression for the fusion cross section valid for above-barrier energies is then obtained. The formula clearly displays the modification, due to Coulomb excitation, in the usual geometrical expression. (Author) [pt
On the sequentiality of the multiple Coulomb-excitation process
Dannhaeuser, G.; Boer, J. de
1978-01-01
This paper describes the results of 'computer experiments' illustrating the meaning of a new concept called 'sequentiality'. This concept applies to processes in which the excitation of a given state is mainly accomplished by a large multiple of steps, and it deals with the question as to what extent a transition close to the ground state occurs before one between the highest excited states. (orig.) [de
Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Chekanov, N.A.
1985-01-01
Coulomb excitation of rotational states induced in heavyion collisions is treated in the framework of the generalized semiclassical approximation. The Hamiltonian of the system under consideration involves not only Coulomb forces (monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole) but as well a real nuclear potential in the form of the deformed Woods-Saxon potential. Strong dependence of the excitation probability on the interference between the Coulomb and nuclear interactions is shown. Calculations are carried out for the reaction 40 Ar+ 162 Dy at E=148.6 MeV. The calculated Coulomb excitation probabilities agree satisfactory with the corresponding experimental values
Kugler, E; Ratzinger, U; Wenander, F J C
2002-01-01
% IS347 \\\\ \\\\We propose to perform a pilot experiment to study very neutron rich (A<32) Na-Mg and (A<52) K-Ca isotopes in the region around the neutron shell closures of N=20 and N=28 after Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer, and to demonstrate highly efficient and cost-effective ways to bunch, charge-state breed and accelerate already existing mass-separated singly-charged radioactive ion beams. \\\\ \\\\To do this we plan to accelerate the ISOLDE beams up to 2~MeV/u by means of a novel acceleration scheme and to install an efficient $\\gamma$-ray array for low-multiplicity events around the target position.
Coulomb excitation of the two proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg
We propose to use Coulomb excitation of the single magic two-proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg. In a single-step excitation both the first 2$^{+}$ and the highly collective octupole 3$^{-}$ states will be populated. Thus, information on both quadrupole and octupole collectivity will be gained in this neutron-rich nucleus. Due to the high beam intensity, we will be able to observe multi-step Coulomb excitation as well, providing further test on theoretical calculations. The results will be used to improve the predictive power of the shell model for more exotic nuclei as we move to lighter N=126 nuclei. The experiment will use the new HIE-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL array, and will take advantage of the recently developed $^{206}$Hg beam from the molten lead target.
Coulomb excitations of low lying levels in 127I and 197Au
Singh, K.P.; Tayal, D.C.; Hans, H.S.
1988-01-01
The low-lying levels of 127 I and 197 Au were Coulomb excited with 3.54 to 4.2 MeV protons. The reduced quadrupole transition probabilities of the 203, 374.9, 418, 618.4, 628.7, 651.1 and 745.5 keV states of 127 I, and the 268.8, 278.9, 502, and 547.5 keV states of 197 Au was measured from Coulomb excitation by observing the de-excitation gamma rays with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. The low-energy protons were used for the first time to Coulomb-excite the two levels at 618.4 and 651.1 keV of 127 I and one level at 502 keV of 197 Au. The present experimental results are found in agreement with the existing experimental data except the B(E2) value of the level at 268.8 keV of 197 Au. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 32 refs
Coulomb excitation of doubly magic $^{132}$Sn with MINIBALL at HIE-ISOLDE
We propose to study the vibrational first 2$^{+}$ and 3$^{-}$ states of the doubly magic nucleus $^{132}$ Sn via Coulomb excitation using the HIE-ISOLDE facility coupled with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. The intense $^{132}$Sn beam at ISOLDE, the high beam energy of HIE-ISOLDE, the high energy resolution and good efficiency of the MINIBALL provide a unique combination and favourable advantages to master this demanding measurement. Reliable B(E2;0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$) values for neutron deficient $^{106,108,110}$Sn were obtained with the MINIBALL at REX-ISOLDE. These measurements can be extended up to and beyond the shell closure at the neutron-rich side with $^{132}$Sn. The results on excited collective states in $^{132}$Sn will provide crucial information on 2p-2h cross shell configurations which are expected to be dominated by a strong proton contribution. Predictions are made within various large scale shell model calculations and new mean field calculations within the framework of different a...
Shape coexistence in neutron-rich Sr isotopes : Coulomb excitation of $^{96}$Sr
Clement, E; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T
2007-01-01
The nuclei in the mass region A $\\cong$ 100 around Sr and Zr show a dramatic change of the nuclear ground-state shape from near spherical for N $\\leq$ 58 to strongly deformed for N $\\geq$ 60. Theoretical calculations predict the coexistence of slightly oblate and strongly prolate deformed configurations in the transitional region. However, excited rotational structures based on the highly deformed configuration, which becomes the ground state at N = 60, are not firmly established in the lighter isotopes, and the earlier interpretation of a very abrupt change of shape has been challenged by recent experimental results in favor of a rather gradual change. We propose to study the electromagnetic properties of the neutron-rich nucleus $_{38}^{96}$Sr$_{58}$ by low-energy Coulomb excitation using the REX-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL detector array. Both transitional and diagonal matrix elements will be extracted, resulting in a complete description of the transition strengths and quadrupole moments of the low-l...
Probing core polarization around 78Ni: intermediate energy Coulomb excitation of 74Ni
Marchi T.
2013-12-01
We have recently measured the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ of the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of the Michigan State University. The 74Ni secondary beam has been produced by fragmentation of 86Kr at 140 AMeV on a thick Be target. Selected radioactive fragments impinged on a secondary 197Au target where the measurement of the emitted γ-rays allows to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section and related structure information. Preliminary B(E2 values do not point towards an enhancement of the transition matrix element and the comparison to what was already measured by Aoi and co-workers in [1] opens new scenarios in the interpretation of the shell evolution of the Z=28 isotopes.
Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh
2016-01-01
The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)
Electron impact excitation of positive ions calculated in the Coulomb-Born approximation
Nakazaki, Shinobu; Hashino, Tasuke
1979-08-01
Theoretical results on the electron impact excitation of positive ions are surveyed through the end of 1978. As a guide to the available data, a list of references is made. The list shows ion species, transitions, energy range and methods of calculation for the respective data. Based on the literature survey, the validity of the Coulomb-Born approximation is investigated. Comparisons with the results of the close-coupling and the distorted-wave methods are briefly summarized. (author)
Testing refined shell-model interactions in the sd shell: Coulomb excitation of Na26
Siebeck, B; Blazhev, A; Reiter, P; Altenkirch, R; Bauer, C; Butler, P A; De Witte, H; Elseviers, J; Gaffney, L P; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kröll, T; Lutter, R; Pakarinen, J; Pietralla, N; Radeck, F; Scheck, M; Schneiders, D; Sotty, C; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F
2015-01-01
Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal sd interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the sd shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus Na26 with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with Na26 (T1/2=1,07s) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections...
A new recoil distance technique using low energy coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics
Rother, W., E-mail: wolfram.rother@googlemail.com [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Dewald, A.; Pascovici, G.; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Hackstein, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Ilie, G. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Iwasaki, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Jolie, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Melon, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) I-50019 (Italy); Petkov, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Pfeiffer, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Pissulla, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, D - 53175 Bonn (Germany); Zell, K.-O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Jones, P.; Ketelhut, S.; Nieminen, P.; Peura, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); and others
2011-10-21
We report on the first experiment combining the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift technique and multistep Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at beam energies of 3-10 A MeV. The setup involves a standard plunger device equipped with a degrader foil instead of the normally used stopper foil. An array of particle detectors is positioned at forward angles to detect target-like recoil nuclei which are used as a trigger to discriminate against excitations in the degrader foil. The method has been successfully applied to measure lifetimes in {sup 128}Xe and is suited to be a useful tool for experiments with radioactive ion beams.
On alignment of deformed nucleus spins as the result of coulomb excitation
Aleshin, V.P.; Ofengenden, S.R.
1981-01-01
In the framework of sudden impact approximation excitation probabilities and spiral distributions at Coulomb excitation of rotational levels by means of heavy ions are considered. Considerable attention is given to the accuracy of the qsub(ef)(THETA) approximation being a particular case of impact sudden approximation according to which at Coulomb of the even-even nuclei excitation the I spins of excited states are aligned perpendicularly to the symmetry axis of the Rutherford orbit. The analysis of the problem in the framework of a quasiclassical approximation has shown that the greatest deviations of qsub(ef)(THETA) approximation (at fixed constant of a quadrupole interaction q) occur for average scattering angles. Quanta calculation results are given at THETA=90 deg in the range q=0-10 for I=0-18. It has been found that excitation probabilities for dominating transitions are described in the qsub(ef)(THETA) approximation with an error being not higher than 1-2%. At I>=6 the greatest relative errors of the qsub(ef)(THETA) approximation when describing P 1 excitation probabilities do not exceed 30-40%. The relative errors at the description of spiral distributions may reach values being several times greater than the errors in corresponding excitation probabilities. It has been found that at I>=6 spiral distributions have two symmetrically situated maxima concentrated near h=+-hm, where hm=I cos (THETA/2). In the framework the of qsub(ef)(THETA) approximation in these maxima concentrated are from 50 to 70%, or to he exact - up to 80% of P 1 excitation probability [ru
Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; Czosnyka, T; Hammond, N
2002-01-01
We propose to study the Coulomb excitation of a radioactive beam of $^{70}$Se at 2.2 MeV/u obtained from the REX-ISOLDE facility in order to determine the sign of the quadrupole moment and, hence, the sign of the quadrupole deformation. Calculations suggest a 33~\\% sensitivity in Coulomb excitation yield for a nickel target depending on whether the nuclear shape is oblate or prolate. Such a determination would provide compelling evidence for the presence of oblate shapes in the vicinity of N=Z=34.
Coulomb Correlations Intertwined with Spin and Orbital Excitations in LaCoO_{3}.
Tomiyasu, K; Okamoto, J; Huang, H Y; Chen, Z Y; Sinaga, E P; Wu, W B; Chu, Y Y; Singh, A; Wang, R-P; de Groot, F M F; Chainani, A; Ishihara, S; Chen, C T; Huang, D J
2017-11-10
We carried out temperature-dependent (20-550 K) measurements of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering on LaCoO_{3} to investigate the evolution of its electronic structure across the spin-state crossover. In combination with charge-transfer multiplet calculations, we accurately quantified the renomalized crystal-field excitation energies and spin-state populations. We show that the screening of the effective on-site Coulomb interaction of 3d electrons is orbital selective and coupled to the spin-state crossover in LaCoO_{3}. The results establish that the gradual spin-state crossover is associated with a relative change of Coulomb energy versus bandwidth, leading to a Mott-type insulator-to-metal transition.
Dynamic polarization by coulomb excitation in the closed formalism for heavy ion scattering
Frahn, W.E.; Hill, T.F.
1978-01-01
We present a closed-form treatment of the effects of dynamic polarization by Coulomb excitation on the elastic scattering of deformed heavy ions. We assume that this interaction can be represented by an absorptive polarization potential. The relatively long range of this potential entails a relatively slow variation of the associated reflection function in l-space. This feature leads to a simple generalization of the closed formula derived previously for the elastic scattering amplitude of spherical heavy nuclei. We use both the polarization potential of Love et al. and the recent improved potential of Baltz et al. to derive explicit expressions for the associated reflection functions in a Coulomb-distorted eikonal approximation. As an example we analyze the elastic scattering of 90-MeV 18 O ions by 184 W and show that both results give a quantitative description of the data. (orig.) [de
It is proposed to investigate the structure of excited states in $^{68, 70}$Ni(Z =28, N=40, 42) via the measurement of electromagnetic matrix elements in a Coulomb excitation experiment in order to study the N = 40 harmonic-oscillator shell and the Z = 28 proton shell closures. The measured B(E2) values connecting low-lying 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ can be compared to shell-model predictions. It is also proposed to perform the one-neutron transfer reaction ${d}$($^{68}$Ni,$^{69}$Ni)${p}$, with the aim of populating excited states in $^{69}$Ni. Comparisons with the states populated in the recently performed ${d}$($^{66}$Ni,$^{67}$Ni)${p}$ reaction will be useful in determining the role of the neutron $d_{5/2}$ orbital in the semi-magic properties of $^{68}$Ni.
Computer experiments of the time-sequence of individual steps in multiple Coulomb-excitation
Boer, J. de; Dannhaueser, G.
1982-01-01
The way in which the multiple E2 steps in the Coulomb-excitation of a rotational band of a nucleus follow one another is elucidated for selected examples using semiclassical computer experiments. The role a given transition plays for the excitation of a given final state is measured by a quantity named ''importance function''. It is found that these functions, calculated for the highest rotational state, peak at times forming a sequence for the successive E2 transitions starting from the ground state. This sequential behaviour is used to approximately account for the effects on the projectile orbit of the sequential transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum from projectile to target. These orbits lead to similar deflection functions and cross sections as those obtained from a symmetrization procedure approximately accounting for the transfer of angular momentum and energy. (Auth.)
Interference of Coulomb and nuclear excitation in inelastic scattering of 20Ne from 40Ca
Ratel, Guy.
1976-01-01
Angular distributions at 54 and 63MeV and excitation functions from 35 to 95MeV for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 20 Ne by 40 Ca have been measured. Experimental data for the inelastic scattering leading to the 20 Ne (2 + , 1.63MeV) state show a characteristic minimum for the angular distributions and excitation functions. This phenomenon was explained by an interference effect between Coulomb and nuclear excitation amplitudes with the DWBA and the coupled-channel formalism. The existence of this interference minimum could be explained only by assuming a nuclear deformation stronger than these obtained with light ion scattering. However a small shift between the experimental data and theoretical curves suggests that effects of a stronger complex coupling or nuclear reorientation due to the large quadrupole moment of 20 Ne must be included [fr
Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes
Van de Walle, J; Behrens, T; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Delahaye, P; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V; Fraile, L M; Franchoo, S; Gernhäuser, R; Georgiev, G; Habs, D; Heyde, K; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Ibrahim, F; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Lauer, M; Lisetskiy, A F; Lutter, R; Marsh, B A; Mayet, P; Niedermaier, O; Pantea, M; Raabe, R; Reiter, P; Sawicka, M; Scheit, H; Schrieder, G; Schwalm, D; Seliverstov, M D; Sieber, T; Sletten, G; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Stefanescu, I; Thomas, J C; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Van Duppen, P; Verney, D; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wolf, B H; Zielinska, M
2009-01-01
At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,20) values in 74-80Zn, B(E2,42) values in 74,76Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2 states in 78,80Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of 238U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondary target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, i...
Coulomb excitation of the 4+1 states of 194Pt, 196Pt and 198Pt
Fewell, M.P.; Gyapong, G.J.; Spear, R.H.
1987-09-01
Probabilities for the Coulomb excitation of the 4 1 + states of 194 Pt, 196 Pt, 198 Pt by the backscattering of 4 He, 12 C and 16 O ions are reported. Model-independent values of the matrix elements 1 + ; M(E4), 4 1 + > and 1 + , M(E2), 4 1 + > are extracted. Agreement with previous measurements of these matrix elements is good. Values of β 2 and β 4 are determined for 194 Pt and compared with calculations of these quantities
Measurements of shape co-existence in $^{182,184}$Hg using Coulomb excitation
Voulot, D; Paul, E S; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S
2007-01-01
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{182,184}$Hg ions from the REX facility to enable the lowest states of these nuclei to be Coulomb excited. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields using the MINIBALL array we can measure the transition and diagonal E2 matrix elements for these states. This will give quantitative information about the nature of the shape coexistence in these nuclei and allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation be determined for the first time. We require 24 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.
Resonant Coulomb excitation of atomic nuclei propagating through a crystal in the channeling mode
Stepanov, A.V.
1996-01-01
The Coulomb-excitation total cross section and the distribution of decay products originating from a resonant state of a nucleus interacting with a crystal lattice has been calculated for the case of a single inelastic collision (with respect to internal degrees of freedom in a nucleus). These observables have been expressed in terms of time-dependent correlators which describe thermal oscillations of lattice nuclei and the motion of the center of mass of a nucleus propagating across a crystal target in the channelling mode. An expression generalizing the spectrum of equivalent photons calculated by the Weizsaecker-Williams method is given
Coulomb excitation of radioactive Na21 and its stable mirror Ne21
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2008-10-01
The low-energy structures of the mirror nuclei Ne21 and radioactive Na21 have been examined by using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ~5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7 MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5 mg/cm2 natTi target. Scattered beam and target particles were detected by the segmented Si detector BAMBINO, while γ rays were observed by using two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis. For each isobar, Coulomb excitation from the (3)/(2)+ ground state to the first excited (5)/(2)+ state was observed and B(E2) values were determined by using the 2+→0+ de-excitation in Ti48 as a reference. The ϕ segmentation of BAMBINO was used to deduce tentative assignments for the signs of the mixing ratios between the E2 and M1 components of the transitions. The resulting B(E2)↑ values are 131±9e2 fm4 (25.4±1.7 W.u.) for Ne21 and 205±14e2 fm4 (39.7±2.7 W.u.) for Na21. The fit to the present data and the known lifetimes determined E2/M1 mixing ratios and B(M1)↓ values of δ=(-)0.0767±0.0027 and 0.1274±0.0025μN2 and δ=(+)0.0832±0.0028 and 0.1513±0.0017μN2 for Ne21 and Na21, respectively (with Krane and Steffen sign convention). By using the effective charges ep=1.5e and en=0.5e, the B(E2) values produced by the p-sd shell model are 30.7 and 36.4 W.u. for Ne21 and Na21, respectively. This analysis resolves a significant discrepancy between a previous experimental result for Na21 and shell-model calculations.
Plunger lifetime measurements in {sup 128}Xe using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics
Rother, Wolfram; Dewald, Alfred; Ilie, Gabriela; Pissulla, Thomas; Melon, Barbara; Jolie, Jan; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Zell, Karl-Oskar [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Julin, Rauno; Jones, Peter; Greenless, Paul; Rahkila, Panu; Scholey, Cath [JYFL, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Harissopulos, Sotirios; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Konstantinopoulos, T. [INP, N.C.S.R. ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Grahn, Tuomas [JYFL, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]|[Oliver Lodge Lab., University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Balabanski, Dimiter [INRNE, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2008-07-01
We report on an experiment using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics in combination with the plunger technique for measuring lifetimes of excited states of the projectile. Aside from the investigation of E(2) features in {sup 128}Xe, the aim was to explore the special features of such experiments which are also suited to be used with radioactive beams. The measurement was performed at the JYFL with the Koeln coincidence plunger device and the JuroGam spectrometer using a {sup 128}Xe beam impinging on a {sup nat}Fe target at a beam energy of 525 MeV. Recoils were detected by means of 32 solar cells placed at extrem forward angles. Recoil-gated {gamma}-singles and {gamma}{gamma}-coincidences were measured at different target-degrader distances. Details of the experiment and first results are presented.
Sotty, C.
2013-01-01
The underlying structure in the region A ∼ 100, N ∼ 60 has been under intensive and extensive investigation, mainly by β-decay and γ-ray spectroscopy from fission processes. Around N ∼ 60, by adding just few neutrons, protons a rapid shape change occurs from spherical-like to well deformed g.s. shape. Shape coexistence has been observed in the Sr and Zr nuclei, and is expected to take place in the whole region. The mechanisms involved in the appearance of the deformation is not well understood. The interplay between down-sloping and up-sloping neutron Nilsson orbital is evoked as one of the main reasons for the sudden shape change. However, a clear identification of the active proton and neutron orbitals was still on-going. For that purpose, the neutron rich 93;95;97;99 Rb isotopes have been studied by Coulomb excitation at CERN (ISOLDE) using the REX-ISOLDE post-accelerator and the MINIBALL setup. The completely unknown structures of 97;99 Rb have been populated and observed. Prompt γ-ray coincidences of low-lying states have been observed and time-correlated in order to build level schemes. The associated transition strengths have been extracted with the GOSIA code. The observed matrix elements of the electromagnetic operator constituted new inputs of further theoretical calculations giving new insight on the involved orbitals. The sensitivity of such experiment can be increased using nuclear spin polarized radioactive ion beam. For that purpose the Tilted Foils Technique (TFT) of polarization has been investigated at CERN. This technique consists to spin polarize the ion beam, passing through thin foils tilted at an oblique angle with respect to the beam direction. The initially obtained atomic polarization is transferred to the nucleus by hyperfine interaction. This technique does not depend on the chemical nature of the element. Short lived nuclei can be polarized in-flight without any need to be stopped in a catcher. It opens up the possibility to
Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In
Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D
2010-01-01
The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...
Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In
Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)
/B(E2) values from low-energy Coulomb excitation at an ISOL facility: the /N=80,82 Te isotopes
Barton, C. J.; Caprio, M. A.; Shapira, D.; Zamfir, N. V.; Brenner, D. S.; Gill, R. L.; Lewis, T. A.; Cooper, J. R.; Casten, R. F.; Beausang, C. W.; Krücken, R.; Novak, J. R.
2003-01-01
B(E2;0+1→2+1) values for the unstable, neutron-rich nuclei 132,134Te were determined through Coulomb excitation, in inverse kinematics, of accelerated beams of these nuclei. The systematics of measured B(E2) values from the ground state to the first excited state have been extended to the N=82 shell closure in the Te nuclei and have been compared with the predictions of different theories. The measurements were performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) using the GRAFIK detector. The success of this approach, which couples a 5.7% efficient through-well NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector with thin foil microchannel plate beam detectors, also demonstrates the feasibility for Coulomb excitation studies of neutron-rich nuclei even further from the valley of beta stability, both at present-generation ISOL facilities and at the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator.
Transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation in the $^{100}$Sn Region
It is proposed to continue our REX-ISOLDE program in the $^{100}$Sn region at HIE-ISOLDE at ~5 MeV/u. Earlier measurements, with a precision of 10-20%, at 3 MeV/u with REX-ISOLDE point to a deviation between the measured B(E2) values for the first excited 2$^{+}$ states in $^{110,108,106}$Sn compared to theoretical predictions. In addition, the trend of B(E2) values for the lighter isotopes, in particular $^{106}$Sn, appear to differ between low- and high-energy measurements. In line with our letter-of-intent we aim in a first step to address the electromagnetic properties of the first 2$^{+}$and 4$^{+}$ states in $^{110,108,106}$Sn using Coulomb excitation. In these measurements we will directly access the lifetimes of the first excited 4$^{+}$ states in $^{110,108,106}$Sn for the first time. The yield of $^{104}$Sn from the LaC$_{x}$ target will be revisited to clarify if the new solid state RILIS gives sufficient yield to expand the measurements to this isotope. Following this proposal we plan similar meas...
Poirier, M.
1997-01-01
Though one would expect that large-angular momentum doubly excited states exhibit weak electronic correlations, it is shown in this paper that a first-order perturbation theory ignoring such correlations may completely fail in predicting correct autoionization probabilities: quadrupolar transitions are poorly described by lowest-order perturbation theory, except for very large angular momenta. Inclusion of second-order dipole-dipole term considerably improves the accuracy of the method. This effect is computed using Coulomb Green's function in its analytical form, probably applied here for the first time to autoionization processes. Examples are given in barium for 5d j 5g [k[ states (j=3/2, 5/2) and for 5d 5/2 nl [k[ states with l > 4. (orig.)
Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball
Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S
2002-01-01
We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.
Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N.; Ukita, G.M.
2004-01-01
The study of the odd 99,101 Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in 100,102,104 Ru. Angular distributions for the 99,101 Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of Jπ = 5=2 + , 7=2 + and 9=2 + . Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of (δ L N ) 2 and of the ratio C = δ L C /δ L N were obtained. (author)
Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Hanninger, G.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia
2004-09-15
The study of the odd {sup 99,101}Ru nuclei complements the investigation of the collectivity of the first quadrupolar excitations in {sup 100,102,104}Ru. Angular distributions for the {sup 99,101}Ru(d, d') reactions at 13 MeV were obtained in the Pelletron Laboratory using nuclear emulsion plates on the focal plane of the Enge spectrograph. A Coulomb- Nuclear Interference analysis employing DWBA-DOMP predictions with global optical potential parameters was applied to the excitation of states which could belong to the multiplet built on the first quadrupolar excitation of the core. In the analysis, three states were identified for each of the isotopes and associated, respectively, with adopted levels in the Nuclear Data Sheets Compilation of J{pi} = 5=2{sup +}, 7=2{sup +} and 9=2{sup +}. Through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions, the values of ({delta}{sup L}{sub N}){sup 2} and of the ratio C = {delta}{sub L}{sup C} /{delta}{sub L}{sup N} were obtained. (author)
Clément E.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A rapid onset of quadrupole deformation is known to occur around the neutron number 60 in the neutron-rich Zr and Sr isotopes. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich 96,98Sr investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N = 60. Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble.
Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions
Motobayashi, T [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-06-01
The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)
Rekab, S.; Zenine, N.
2006-01-01
We consider the three dimensional non relativistic eigenvalue problem in the case of a Coulomb potential plus linear and quadratic radial terms. In the framework of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger Perturbation Theory, using a specific choice of the unperturbed Hamiltonian, we obtain approximate analytic expressions for the eigenvalues of orbital excitations. The implications and the range of validity of the obtained analytic expression are discussed
Bouchez, Emmanuelle
2003-01-01
The first part of this research thesis proposes an overview of the different theoretical calculations elaborated in the region of light krypton nuclei, and of published experimental results. The second part reports the electron and gamma isomeric spectroscopy of 72,74 Kr nuclei after fragmentation of the projectile by a magnetic separator (experimental installation, experimental results, discussion). The third part reports the study of the Coulomb excitation of the 76 Kr radioactive beam (method and experimental installation, data analysis and results in terms of germanium and silicon spectra, and form of the 76 Kr)
Investigation of beam purity after in-trap decay and Coulomb excitation of $^{62}$Mn-$^{62}$Fe
Clement, E; Gernhaeuser, R A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L
2008-01-01
The in-trap decay of short lived radioactive ions is not well understood. This poses a problem for Coulomb excitation experiments at MINIBALL, where the normalization of the experiment depends strongly on observed secondary target excitation, which in turn strongly depends on the knowledge of the beam composition. For pure ISOLDE beams of short lived isotopes, the in-trap decay becomes important since a large fraction of the beam is transformed in unwanted daughter isotopes. In this proposal we intend to quantify the production of these daughter products in the REXTRAP accurately by making use of the short lived isotopes $^{61,62}$Mn and the newly installed Bragg ionization chamber at the end of the REX linear accelerator. Apart from the technical interest, the A=62 beam provides as well a good physics case, concerning the development of collectivity in neutron-rich Fe isotopes. Coulomb excitation, utilizing the standard MINIBALL setup, is proposed on both A=62 Mn and Fe. The Fe beam would be the first post-a...
Low-energy Coulomb excitation of $^{62}$Fe and $^{62}$Mn following in-beam decay of $^{62}$Mn
Gaffney, L P; Bastin, B; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Darby, I; De Witte, H; DiJulio, D; Diriken, J; Fedosseev, V N; Fransen, Ch; Gernhäuser, R; Gustafsson, A; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Lutter, R; Marsh, B A; Reiter, P; Seidlitz, M; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K
2015-01-01
Sub-barrier Coulomb-excitation was performed on a mixed beam of $^{62}$Mn and $^{62}$Fe, following in-trap $\\beta^{-}$ decay of $^{62}$Mn at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The trapping and charge breeding times were varied in order to alter the composition of the beam, which was measured by means of an ionisation chamber at the zero-angle position of the Miniball array. A new transition was observed at 418 keV, which has been tentatively associated to a $2^{(+)},3^{(+)}\\rightarrow1^{+}_{g.s.}$ transition. This fixes the relative positions of the $\\beta$-decaying $4^{(+)}$ and $1^{+}$ states in $^{62}$Mn for the first time. Population of the $2^{+}_{1}$ state was observed in $^{62}$Fe and the cross-section determined by normalisation to the $^{109}$Ag target excitation. Combining this Coulomb-excitation cross-section with previously measured lifetimes of the $2^{+}_{1}$ state, the spectroscopic quadrupole moment, $Q_{s}(2^{+}_{1})$, is extracted, albeit with a large uncertainty.
Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation
Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S
2008-01-01
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.
Schumaker, M. A.; Hurst, A. M.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Stoyer, M. A.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Barton, C. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Colosimo, S. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Djongolov, M.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Gray-Jones, C.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Kulp, W. D.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lee, G.; Lloyd, S.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Millar, B. A.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Oxley, D. C.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Wan, J.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.
2009-03-01
The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a state-of-the-art γ-ray spectrometer being constructed at the ISAC-II radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. TIGRESS will be comprised of twelve 32-fold segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover-type γ-ray detectors, with BGO/CsI(Tl) Compton-suppression shields, and is currently operational at ISAC-II in an early-implementation configuration of six detectors. Results have been obtained for the first experiments performed using TIGRESS, which examined the A = 20, 21, and 29 isotopes of Na by Coulomb excitation.
Study of Ground State Wave-function of the Neutron-rich 29,30Na Isotopes through Coulomb Breakup
Rahaman A.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Coulomb breakup of unstable neutron rich nuclei 29,30Na around the ‘island of inversion’ has been studied at energy around 434 MeV/nucleon and 409 MeV/nucleon respectively. Four momentum vectors of fragments, decay neutron from excited projectile and γ-rays emitted from excited fragments after Coulomb breakup are measured in coincidence. For these nuclei, the low-lying dipole strength above one neutron threshold can be explained by direct breakup model. The analysis for Coulomb breakup of 29,30Na shows that large amount of the cross section yields the 28Na, 29Na core in ground state. The predominant ground-state configuration of 29,30Na is found to be 28Na(g.s⊗νs1/2 and 29Na(g.s⊗νs1/2,respectively.
Guichard, R
2007-12-15
We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when {Dirac_h}{omega} > I{sub p}: it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with {Dirac_h}{omega} < I{sub p}: new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)
Guichard, R
2007-12-15
We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when {Dirac_h}{omega} > I{sub p}: it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with {Dirac_h}{omega} < I{sub p}: new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)
Butler, P; Cederkall, J A; Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Kalkuehler, M; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Finke, F; Leske, J; Huyse, M L; Seidlitz, M
We propose to study the properties of neutron-rich nuclei $^{28,29,30}$Na via Coulomb excitation experiments using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. Reliable B(E2,0$^{+}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$) values for $^{30,32}$Mg were obtained at ISOLDE. Together with recent new results on $^{31}$Mg, collective and single particle properties are probed for Z=12 at the N=20 neutron closed shell, the 'island of inversion'. We would like to extend this knowledge to the neighbouring $^{28,29,30}$Na isotopes where a different transition from the usual filling of the neutron levels into the region with low lying 2p-2h cross shell configurations is predicted by theory. Detailed theoretical predictions on the transition strength in all three Na nuclei are awaiting experimental verification and are the subject of this proposal. At REX beam energies of 3.0 MeV /nucleon the cross-sections for Coulomb excitation are sufficient. Moreover the results from the close-by $^{30,31,32}$Mg nuclei de...
Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S
The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...
Self-Consistent Monte Carlo Study of the Coulomb Interaction under Nano-Scale Device Structures
Sano, Nobuyuki
2011-03-01
It has been pointed that the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is expected to be of crucial importance to predict reliable device characteristics. In particular, the device performance is greatly degraded due to the plasmon excitation represented by dynamical potential fluctuations in high-doped source and drain regions by the channel electrons. We employ the self-consistent 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which could reproduce both the correct mobility under various electron concentrations and the collective plasma waves, to study the physical impact of dynamical potential fluctuations on device performance under the Double-gate MOSFETs. The average force experienced by an electron due to the Coulomb interaction inside the device is evaluated by performing the self-consistent MC simulations and the fixed-potential MC simulations without the Coulomb interaction. Also, the band-tailing associated with the local potential fluctuations in high-doped source region is quantitatively evaluated and it is found that the band-tailing becomes strongly dependent of position in real space even inside the uniform source region. This work was partially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (No. 2160160) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.
Excitation functions for deuterium-induced reactions on 194Pt near the coulomb barrier
Kulko, A. A.; Skobelev, N. K.; Kroha, Václav; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Šimečková, Eva; Piskoř, Štěpán; Kugler, Andrej; Demekhina, N. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, K.; Kuterbekov, K.
2012-01-01
Roč. 9, 6-7 (2012), s. 502-507 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nucelar reactions * excitation functions * charged particle activation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders
Coulomb Excitation of Neutron-Rich $A\\approx$140 Nuclei
Van duppen, P L E
2002-01-01
Investigating the isospin dependence of the product between the B( E2; 0$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow 2_{1}^{+}$)-value and the 2$_{1}^{+}$-excitation energy E$_{2^{+}}$ in even-even nuclei around $A\\!\\approx$140 one observes a rather smooth trend close to the valley of stability but clear indication for a reduction from the extrapolated B(E2)-values by one order of magnitude for some very neutron-rich nuclei. While close to the valley of stability the strong neutron-proton interaction results in an equilibration of the neutron and proton deformations with a predominate isoscalar character of the collective 2$^{+}$ excitation, it is conceivable that more loosely bound neutrons cannot polarize a close-to-magic proton core that well any more. This might result in a decoupling of the shape of the outer neutrons from the core and in a strong isovector admixture to the lowest lying 2$^{+}$ level. In this way the 2$^{+}$ -energies could be further lowered in neutron-rich nuclei, while the quadrupole moments of the proton c...
Coulomb-nuclear interference with 6Li: Isospin character of the 21+ excitation in 70,72,74Ge
Barbosa, M.D.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Ukita, G.M.
2005-01-01
Ratios of B(E2) to B(IS2), that is, of the reduced quadrupole transition probabilities related, respectively, to charge and mass were extracted through Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) for the excitation of the 2 1 + states in 70,72,74 Ge, with a relative accuracy of less than 4%. For this purpose, the CNI angular distributions associated with the inelastic scattering of 28-MeV incident 6 Li ions accelerated by the Sao Paulo Pelletron, and momentum analyzed by the Enge magnetic spectrograph were interpreted within the DWBA-DOMP approach (distorted wave approximation for the scattering process and deformed optical model for the structure representation) with global 6 Li optical parameters. The present CNI results demonstrate an abrupt change in the B(E2)/B(IS2) ratio for 74 Ge: although for 70,72 Ge, values of the order of 1.0 or slightly higher were obtained, this ratio is 0.66 (7) for 74 Ge. The heavier Ge isotope is thus one of the few nuclei that, so far, have been shown to present clear mixed symmetry components in their ground-state band
Coulomb excitation of $^{94,96}$Kr beam Deformation in the neutron-rich krypton isotopes
Hass, M; Cederkall, J A; Di julio, D D; Zamfir, N - V; Srebrny, J; Wadsworth, R; Siem, S; Marginean, R; Iwanicki, J S
Recently the energy of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in the N=60 $^{96}$Kr nucleus was determinated to be 241 keV. This was the first experimental observation of an excited state in this highly exotic nucleus. The 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in $^{94}$Kr is located at 665.5 keV, i.e. E(2$_{1}^{+}$) drops by more than 400 keV at N=60. This lowering of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ energy indicates a sharp shape transition behavior which is somewhat similar to that discovered in the Sr and Zr isotopic chains at N=60. The deformation expected for the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state of $^{96}$Kr, as resulting from the E(2$_{1}^{+}$) energy based on the semi-empirical relation of Raman et al. is $\\beta_{2}$ = 0.31, which is, however, considerably smaller than that for Sr and Zr ($\\geq$0.40). The sudden decrease of E(2$_{1}^{+}$) from N=50 to N=60 does not fully agree with the more gradual change of deformation deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of mean square charge radii, although for $^{96}$Kr, in particular, these are consistent with a $\\beta_{2}...
Some studies in scatering by Coulomb modified nuclear potentials
Laha, U.
1988-01-01
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in theoretical questions concerning the Coulomb nuclear problems with the main emphasis on their off-shell behaviour. Earlier approaches to the problem made use of a version of the two-potential formula as used by Bajzer. A slightly different point of view is presented here. An expression for the interacting Green's function for motion in the Coulomb plus Graz potential is constructed and used to obtain the half-off-shell T matrix in the ''maximal reduced form''. Similar results were also derived for the off-shell Jost functions. It is explicitly demonstrated that Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials the half-off-shell T matrix can be expressed in terms of on-and off-shell Jost functions in the same way as one does for a purely short range interaction. In presenting the results for T matrix and other related quantities, the Coulomb effect is included rigorously. Results clearly delineate the branch point singularities originating from the long range nature of the Coulomb interaction and thus provide a better understanding of the off-shell two-body Coulomb-like T matrices. It is hoped that these results will form an adequate starting point for rigorous calculations on few-body systems with charges. (author). 16 refs
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{142}$Ba and $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the HIE-ISOLDE facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^-$ state in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^-$ state using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The results will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei.
McGowan, F K; Milner, W T; Sayer, R O; Robinson, R L; Stelson, P H [Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. (USA)
1977-10-10
The Coulomb excitation reaction induced by /sup 4/He ions selectively excites 2/sup +/ and 3/sup -/ states by direct E2 and E3 Coulomb excitation. In this paper, new results are presented from ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy with 15 MeV /sup 4/He ions on a natural abundance target of W. In particular, a 3/sup -/ state in each isotope, /sup 182/ /sup 184/ /sup 186/W, was observed by direct E3 excitation. In addition to obtaining B(Elambda, 0 ..-->.. J = lambda for excitation of each state, information on the reduced transition probabilities for the different decay modes of these states is given. The Coulomb excitation probabilities of the 2'/sup +/ states at 786 keV in /sup 166/Er and at 737 keV in /sup 186/W were measured with /sup 16/O and /sup 4/He ions by the backscattered particle-gamma coincidence method in order to determine the static electric quadrupole moment Qsub(2'). For /sup 166/Er, Qsub(2')=2.11+-0.37 e.b which is in agreement with (Qsub(2'))sub(rot) and for /sup 186/W, Qsub(2')=1.17+-0.30 e.b which is in agreement with Kumar-Baranger model calculations and is significantly smaller than (Qsub(2'))sub(rot). This deviation of the measured Qsub(2') from (Qsub(2'))sub(rot) implies in the framework of the Kumar-Baranger calculations a strong coupling between ..beta..- and ..gamma..-vibrational bands. On the other hand, the observed upper limit for B(E2, 2'' ..-->.. 2') does not confirm this implication.
Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation
We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.
Inner shell coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles studied by the SCA model
Hansteen, J.M.
1976-06-01
An outline is given of the development of and some achievements hitherto gained from the semi-classical approximation (SCA) model of atomic Coulomb excitation by heavy charged particles. A few very recent results (1975-1976) are incorporated in the discussion. The SCA model has by now reached a mature state. Hence it seems reasonable to regard the atomic Coulomb excitation phenomenon as part of the extremely complicated excitation mechanism operative in the general ion-atom collision. A clear understanding of the complicated X-ray producing mechanisms in heavy-ion-atom collisions is lacking at present. Despite these facts, the conceptually simple SCA model has furthered our understanding far beyond initial expectations. Moreover, this model has at the same time provided a well-founded starting point for continued researches in this rapidly expanding field of physics. (JIW)
Intershell resistance in multiwall carbon nanotubes: A Coulomb drag study
Lunde, Anders Mathias; Flensborg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2005-01-01
We calculate the intershell resistance R-21 in a multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F) (e.g., a gate voltage), varying the chirality of the inner and outer tubes. This is done in a so-called Coulomb drag setup, where a current I-1 in one shell induces...... a voltage drop V-2 in another shell by the screened Coulomb interaction between the shells neglecting the intershell tunneling. We provide benchmark results for R-21 = V2/I-1 within the Fermi liquid theory using Boltzmann equations. The band structure gives rise to strongly chirality-dependent suppression...... effects for the Coulomb drag between different tubes due to selection rules combined with mismatching of wave vector and crystal angular momentum conservation near the Fermi level. This gives rise to orders of magnitude changes in R-21 and even the sign of R-21 can change depending on the chirality...
2002-01-01
We propose to perform Coulomb excitation experiments of neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of $^{68}$Ni towards $^{78}$Ni using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled with the highly efficient MINIBALL array. Major changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus are expected around the N = 40 subshell closure. Recent B(E2) measurements suggested that $^{68}$Ni behaves like a doubly magic nucleus while neutron-rich Zn isotopes with N>38 exhibit a sudden increase of B(E2) values which may be the signature of deformation. We would like to check and test these predictions for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of N = 40 and N = 50 shell closures like $^{72}$Zn, $^{74}$Zn, $^{76}$Zn, $^{68}$Ni, $^{70}$Ni. Our calculations show that an energy upgrade from 2.2 to 3 MeV/nucleon will be of crucial importance for a part of our study while some nuclei can still be very efficiently studied at an energy of 2.2 MeV/nucleon. Therefore, to perform our experiment in an efficient way, we request 21 shifts of beam time before the ene...
Space charge-limited emission studies using Coulomb's Law
Carr, Christopher G.
2004-01-01
Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Child and Langmuir introduced a solution to space charge limited emission in an infinite area planar diode. The solution follows from starting with Poisson's equation, and requires solving a non-linear differential equation. This approach can also be applied to cylindrical and spherical geometries, but only for one-dimensional cases. By approaching the problem from Coulomb's law and applying the effect of an assumed charge distribution...
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ state in this nucleus. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decay connecting the 3$^{-}$ and 2$^{+}$ states using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The result will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in this nucleus. We require 27 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.
Bircher, Martin P; Rothlisberger, Ursula
2018-06-12
Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TD-DFT) has become a valuable tool in the calculation of excited states of molecules of various sizes. However, standard generalized-gradient approximation and hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals often fail to correctly predict charge-transfer (CT) excitations with low orbital overlap, thus limiting the scope of the method. The Coulomb-attenuation method (CAM) in the form of the CAM-B3LYP functional has been shown to reliably remedy this problem in many CT systems, making accurate predictions possible. However, in spite of a rather consistent performance across different orbital overlap regimes, some pitfalls remain. Here, we present a fully flexible and adaptable implementation of the CAM for Γ-point calculations within the plane-wave pseudopotential molecular dynamics package CPMD and explore how customized xc functionals can improve the optical spectra of some notorious cases. We find that results obtained using plane waves agree well with those from all-electron calculations employing atom-centered bases, and that it is possible to construct a new Coulomb-attenuated xc functional based on simple considerations. We show that such a functional is able to outperform CAM-B3LYP in some cases, while retaining similar accuracy in systems where CAM-B3LYP performs well.
Elastic scattering study of three 4n nuclei systems above the Coulomb barrier
Ashok Kumar; Sarita Kumar; Sunita Kumar
2000-01-01
A comprehensive study of elastic scattering of 4n nuclei, namely 16 O + 40 Ca, 24 Mg + 24 Mg and 32 S + 28 Si is carried out at various incident energies near and above the Coulomb barrier using a semi microscopic approach. In the present work real part of the nucleus-nucleus interaction is microscopically calculated using equivalence relation between RGM and GCM
Coulomb drag in anisotropic systems: a theoretical study on a double-layer phosphorene
Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; Salavati-Fard, T.
2016-01-01
We theoretically study the Coulomb drag resistivity in a double-layer electron system with highly anisotropic parabolic band structure using Boltzmann transport theory. As an example, we consider a double-layer phosphorene on which we apply our formalism. This approach, in principle, can be tuned
Shell structure in the vicinity of the doubly magic {sup 100}Sn via Coulomb excitation at PreSPEC
Guastalla, Giulia
2014-11-17
The PreSPEC setup in combination with the high intensity primary beams available at GSI provided unique opportunities for the key nuclear structure studies on exotic nuclei. The experiment performed on the neutron deficient {sup 104}Sn aimed to deduce the reduced transition probability of the first excited 2{sup +} state quantified by the B(E2; 0{sup +} → 2{sup +}) value. This result is the central point in the discussion of the evolution of nuclear structure in proximity of the doubly magic nucleus {sup 100}Sn. As {sup 100}Sn is not yet accessible for such measurements, a series of experiments have been performed for neutron-deficient Sn isotopes over the past few years. These data showed excessive experimental B(E2) strength compared to shell model calculations below neutron number N=64 and they are therefore not excluding a constant or even increasing collectivity below {sup 106}Sn. Hence, the measurement of the B(E2) value in the next even-even isotope toward {sup 100}Sn, i.e. {sup 104}Sn, was a crucial step to verify the robustness of the shell gap of {sup 100}Sn. Moreover, {sup 104}Sn is the heaviest isotope of the Sn isotopic chain for which a shell model calculation without significant truncation of the valence space can be performed and therefore with this experimental value the validity of Large Scale Shell Model (LSSM) calculations could be tested. As a main result of the experiment a B(E2) value corresponding to 0.10(4) e{sup 2}b{sup 2} has been extracted for {sup 104}Sn. The experimental value showed a very good agreement with the predicted one and, despite the large error bar, it clearly established a downward trend of the B(E2) values of the Sn isotopic chain toward A=100. This implied enhanced stability of the N = Z = 50 shell closure against ph-excited quadrupole modes. However, an experiment of this kind is very challenging for several reasons. First, {sup 104}Sn lies in proximity of the proton drip line and has therefore a small production
McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.
2014-05-01
We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.
Two-craft Coulomb formation study about circular orbits and libration points
Inampudi, Ravi Kishore
This dissertation investigates the dynamics and control of a two-craft Coulomb formation in circular orbits and at libration points; it addresses relative equilibria, stability and optimal reconfigurations of such formations. The relative equilibria of a two-craft tether formation connected by line-of-sight elastic forces moving in circular orbits and at libration points are investigated. In circular Earth orbits and Earth-Moon libration points, the radial, along-track, and orbit normal great circle equilibria conditions are found. An example of modeling the tether force using Coulomb force is discussed. Furthermore, the non-great-circle equilibria conditions for a two-spacecraft tether structure in circular Earth orbit and at collinear libration points are developed. Then the linearized dynamics and stability analysis of a 2-craft Coulomb formation at Earth-Moon libration points are studied. For orbit-radial equilibrium, Coulomb forces control the relative distance between the two satellites. The gravity gradient torques on the formation due to the two planets help stabilize the formation. Similar analysis is performed for along-track and orbit-normal relative equilibrium configurations. Where necessary, the craft use a hybrid thrusting-electrostatic actuation system. The two-craft dynamics at the libration points provide a general framework with circular Earth orbit dynamics forming a special case. In the presence of differential solar drag perturbations, a Lyapunov feedback controller is designed to stabilize a radial equilibrium, two-craft Coulomb formation at collinear libration points. The second part of the thesis investigates optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations in circular Earth orbits by applying nonlinear optimal control techniques. The objective of these reconfigurations is to maneuver the two-craft formation between two charged equilibria configurations. The reconfiguration of spacecraft is posed as an optimization problem using the
Ejection of Coulomb Crystals from a Linear Paul Ion Trap for Ion-Molecule Reaction Studies.
Meyer, K A E; Pollum, L L; Petralia, L S; Tauschinsky, A; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P; Heazlewood, B R
2015-12-17
Coulomb crystals are being increasingly employed as a highly localized source of cold ions for the study of ion-molecule chemical reactions. To extend the scope of reactions that can be studied in Coulomb crystals-from simple reactions involving laser-cooled atomic ions, to more complex systems where molecular reactants give rise to multiple product channels-sensitive product detection methodologies are required. The use of a digital ion trap (DIT) and a new damped cosine trap (DCT) are described, which facilitate the ejection of Coulomb-crystallized ions onto an external detector for the recording of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra. This enables the examination of reaction dynamics and kinetics between Coulomb-crystallized ions and neutral molecules: ionic products are typically cotrapped, thus ejecting the crystal onto an external detector reveals the masses, identities, and quantities of all ionic species at a selected point in the reaction. Two reaction systems are examined: the reaction of Ca(+) with deuterated isotopologues of water, and the charge exchange between cotrapped Xe(+) with deuterated isotopologues of ammonia. These reactions are examples of two distinct types of experiment, the first involving direct reaction of the laser-cooled ions, and the second involving reaction of sympathetically-cooled heavy ions to form a mixture of light product ions. Extensive simulations are conducted to interpret experimental results and calculate optimal operating parameters, facilitating a comparison between the DIT and DCT approaches. The simulations also demonstrate a correlation between crystal shape and image shape on the detector, suggesting a possible means for determining crystal geometry for nonfluorescing ions.
Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory
Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Thaler, R.M.
1980-01-01
The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+ 208 Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data
Breton, Vincent
1990-01-01
We have studied Coulomb effects in the electron-nucleus interaction by measuring electron and positron elastic scattering. The Coulomb field of the nucleus acts differently on theses particles because of their opposite charges. The experiment took place at the Accelerateur Lineaire de Saclay, with 450 MeV electrons and positrons. We measured the emittance of the positron and electron beams. We compared electron and positron beams having the same energy, the same emittance and the same intensity. This way, we measured positron scattering cross sections with 2 % systematic error. By comparing positron and electron elastic scattering cross sections for momentum transfers between 1 and 2 fm -1 , on a Lead 208 target, we showed that the calculations of Coulomb effects in elastic scattering are in perfect agreement with experimental results. The comparison of positron and electron elastic scattering cross sections on Carbon showed that dispersive effects are smaller than 2 % outside the diffraction minima. These two results demonstrate in a definitive way that electron scattering allows to measure charge densities in the center of nuclei with an accuracy of the order of 1 %. (author) [fr
Boucerredj, N.; Beggas, K.
2016-10-01
We present our study of high intensity femtosecond laser field interaction with large cluster of Kr and Na (contained 2.103 to 2.107 atoms). When laser intensity is above a critical value, it blows off all of electrons from the cluster and forms a non neutral ion cloud. The irradiation of these clusters by the intense laser field leads to highly excitation energy which can be the source of energetic electrons, electronic emission, highly charge, energetic ions and fragmentation process. During the Coulomb explosion of the resulting highly ionized, high temperature nanoplasma, ions acquire again their energy. It is shown that ultra fast ions are produced. The goal of our study is to investigate in detail a comparative study of the expansion and explosion then the ion energy of metallic and rare gas clusters irradiated by an intense femtosecond laser field. We have found that ions have a kinetic energy up to 105 eV and the Coulomb pressure is little than the hydrodynamic pressure. The Coulomb explosion of a cluster may provide a new high energy ion source.
Optical studies of multiply excited states
Mannervik, S.
1989-01-01
Optical studies of multiply-excited states are reviewed with emphasis on emission spectroscopy. From optical measurements, properties such as excitation energies, lifetimes and autoionization widths can be determined with high accuracy, which constitutes a challenge for modern computational methods. This article mainly covers work on two-, three- and four-electron systems, but also sodium-like quartet systems. Furthermore, some comments are given on bound multiply-excited states in negative ions. Fine structure effects on transition wavelengths and lifetimes (autoionization) are discussed. In particular, the most recent experimental and theoretical studies of multiply-excited states are covered. Some remaining problems, which require further attention, are discussed in more detail. (orig.) With 228 refs
Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.
2003-01-01
We study the phase structure of SU(2) gauge theories at zero and high temperature, with and without scalar matter fields, in terms of the symmetric/broken realization of the remnant gauge symmetry which exists after fixing to Coulomb gauge. The symmetric realization is associated with a linearly rising color Coulomb potential (which we compute numerically), and is a necessary but not sufficient condition for confinement.
Jung, Han Sae; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Wong, Dillon; Germany, Chad; Kahn, Salman; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S.; Desai, Dhruv K.; Rodgers, Griffin F.; Bradley, Aaron J.; Velasco, Jairo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Wang, Feng; Zettl, Alex; Crommie, Michael F.
2015-01-01
Owing to its relativistic low-energy charge carriers, the interaction between graphene and various impurities leads to a wealth of new physics and degrees of freedom to control electronic devices. In particular, the behavior of graphene’s charge carriers in response to potentials from charged Coulomb impurities is predicted to differ significantly from that of most materials. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) can provide detailed information on both the spatial and energy dependence of graphene's electronic structure in the presence of a charged impurity. The design of a hybrid impurity-graphene device, fabricated using controlled deposition of impurities onto a back-gated graphene surface, has enabled several novel methods for controllably tuning graphene’s electronic properties.1-8 Electrostatic gating enables control of the charge carrier density in graphene and the ability to reversibly tune the charge2 and/or molecular5 states of an impurity. This paper outlines the process of fabricating a gate-tunable graphene device decorated with individual Coulomb impurities for combined STM/STS studies.2-5 These studies provide valuable insights into the underlying physics, as well as signposts for designing hybrid graphene devices. PMID:26273961
Rigorous study of the mean field approximation of Debye and Hueckel for Coulomb systems
Kennedy, T.G.
1984-01-01
The statistical mechanics of a classical charge symmetric Coulomb system is studied in three dimensions in the limit that the plasma parameter (the inverse temperature divided by the Debye length) goes to zero. To make the system stable, a short range interaction, e.g., hard cores is included. This short range interaction is allowed to go to zero as the plasma parameter goes to zero. Debye and Hueckel used a mean field approximation to give a nonrigorous study of Coulomb systems in his limit. For a system with no external charge distribution, it is shown that the pressure, density, and correlation functions are asymptotic to their Debye-Hueckel approximations. These approximations consist of the ideal gas term plus a term of one lower order in the plasma parameter. The main tools are the Sine-Gordon transformation, the Mayer expansion, and some new correlation inequalities. The sine-Gordon transformation and the Mayer expansion are used to express the observables as functional integrals with respect to a Gaussian measure. The correlation inequalities help control these functional integrals
Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules
Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.
1986-01-01
Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
Study of inner shell excitation effect on C-H dissociation in aromatic hydrocarbon solids
Shimoyama, I.; Nakagawa, K.; Matsui, F.; Yoem, H.W.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, S.; Mase, K.
2000-01-01
Since Carson et al. have reported the 'Coulomb Explosion' model, an inner shell excitation effect on dissociation is intensively attractive because multiply ionized states induced by Auger decay enhance dissociation. This effect on chemical reaction has been investigated especially for surface reaction processes such as desorption induced electron transition (DIET). Recently, some studies on DIET using monochromatic soft X-rays have reported that desorption yield depends on not only the repulsion energy but also the character of excited molecular orbital (MO). This means that inner shell resonant excitations to different MO result in different desorption. This Inner Shell Resonant Excitation Effect' is very interesting because it enables us to control photochemical reactions with synchrotron radiation. Two important problems lie ahead of us for application of this effect. One problem is secondary effect. When one irradiates soft X-rays to materials, following reaction includes two kinds of mixed effects; fundamental effect (FE) and secondary effect (SE). FE originates from interactions between photons and materials, while SE originates from interactions between secondary electrons and materials. Since the inner shell resonant excitation effect essentially originates from FE, it is important to know the ratio of FE to SE in a photochemical reaction in order to estimate true magnitude of the inner shell resonant excitation effect. The other problem is the difference between surface reaction and bulk reaction. Weather the bulk reaction shows inner shell excitation effect as well as the surface reaction does? Some studies of the inner shell excitation effect on damage in bulk have been reported. To our knowledge, however, there is no study which reports the difference between bulk and surface reaction. In this paper, we present two kinds of works with aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. First, we present photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) on condensed benzene to study
Study of the elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb at energies around the Coulomb barrier
Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Escrig, D. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, M.A.G.; Andres, M.V. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Angulo, C. [Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, J. [Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cherubini, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Demaret, P. [Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Espino, J.M. [Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Figuera, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Freer, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garcia-Ramos, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Gomez-Camacho, J. [Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Gulino, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Kakuee, O.R. [Van der Graaff Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Martel, I. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: imartel@uhu.es; Metelko, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Moro, A.M. [Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain)] (and others)
2008-04-15
The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb has been measured at laboratory energies of 14, 16, 18 and 22 MeV. These data were analyzed using phenomenological Woods-Saxon form factors and optical model calculations. A semiclassical polarization potential was used to study the effect of the Coulomb dipole polarizability. Evidence for long range absorption, partially arising from Coulomb dipole polarizability, is reported. The energy variation of the optical potential was found to be consistent with the dispersion relations which connect the real and imaginary parts of the potential.
Zhang Wenwen; Hou Xun; Wu Zhaoxin; Liang Shixiong; Jiao Bo; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang
2011-01-01
The luminance decays of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated with initial luminance of 1000 to 20 000 cd m -2 through a scalable Coulombic degradation and a stretched exponential decay. We found that the estimated lifetime by scalable Coulombic degradation deviates from the experimental results when the OLEDs work with high initial luminance. By measuring the temperature of the device during degradation, we found that the higher device temperatures will lead to instabilities of organic materials in devices, which is expected to result in the difference between the experimental results and estimation using the scalable Coulombic degradation.
Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.
2002-01-01
Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru
Analytical study of doubly excited ridge states
Wong, H.Y.
1988-01-01
Two different non-separable problems are explored and analyzed. Non-perturbative methods need to be used to handle them, as the competing forces involved in these problems are equally strong and do not yield to a perturbative analysis. The first one is the study of doubly excited ridge states of atoms, in which two electrons are comparably excited. An analytical wavefunction for such states is introduced and is used to solve the two-electron Hamiltonian in the pair coordinates called hyperspherical coordinates variationally. The correlation between the electrons is built in analytically into the structure of the wavefunction. Sequences of ridge states out to very high excitation are computed and are organized as Rydberg series converging to the double ionization limit. Numerical results of such states in He and H - are compared with other theoretical calculations where available. The second problem is the analysis of the photodetachment of negative ions in an electric field via the frame transformation theory. The presence of the electron field requires a transformation from spherical to cylindrical symmetry for the outgoing photoelectron. This gives an oscillatory modulating factor as the effect of the electric field on cross-sections. All of this work is derived analytically in a general form applicable to the photodetachment of any negative ion. The expressions are applied to H - and S - for illustration
Study of the Neutron-rich Isotope Ar-46 Through Intermediate Energy Coulomb Excitation
Calinescu, S.; Ceceres, L.; Grévy, S.; Sorlin, O.; Sohler, D.; Stanoiu, M.; Negoita, F.; Clement, E.; Astabatyan, R.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Bowry, M.; Catford, W.; Dombradi, Z.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia, R.; Gillibert, R.; Guerin, H.; Thomas, J. C.; Kuti, I.; Lukyanov, S.; Lepailleur, A.; Maslov, V.; Morfouace, P.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Niikura, M.; Perrot, L.; Podolyak, Z.; Petrone, C.; Peniozhkevich, Y.; Roger, T.; Rotaru, F.; Stefan, I.; Vajta, Zs.; Wilson, E.
2014-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 2 (2014), s. 199-204 ISSN 0587-4254 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : GANIL * detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2014
Coulomb dissociation of 8B at 254 MeV/u
Surowka, G.; Iwasa, N.; Boue, F.
1999-01-01
As an alternative method to determine the cross section of 7 Be (p, γ) 8 B, the Coulomb dissociation reaction 8 B → 7 Be + p at E inc = 254 MeV/u was measured. Our preliminary results show the dominant role of the dipole excitation in the Coulomb break-up process. The extracted astrophysical S 17 factor is consistent with the lower-value results both of the direct-capture studies, and the RIKEN Coulomb-dissociation experiment at ∼ 50 MeV/u. (author)
Systematic studies of positron production in heavy-ion collisions near the Coulomb barrier
Tsertos, H.; Berdermann, E.; Bosch, F.; Kienle, P.; Koenig, W.; Kozhuharov, C.; Clemente, M.; Huchler, S.
1991-04-01
We present the results obtained from systematic studies of positron creation for a series of heavy-collision systems, with united charge Z u = Z 1 + Z 2 ranging from Z u = 164 (Pb+Pb) to Z u = 184 (U+U) at bombarding energies close to the Coulomb barrier, using the Orange-β-spectrometer at GSI. For each collision system studied, the dominating continuous distributions due to quasi-atomic and nuclear positron emission are determined accurately. This is essential in obtaining the characteristics of the still unexplained monoenergetic positron lines which appear in the energy range between 200 keV and 400 keV. Our results are compared with coupled-channels calculations for quasi-atomic positron creation. The latter describe quite well the global features of the measured spectra, but overestimate systematically their absolute values. From the comparison, a common normalization factor of f = 0.76 ± 0.04 can be established for the calculated spectra. In particular, the dependence on Z u of the measured emission probabilities was found to follow a power law; ∝ Z u 19.5±1 , in fair agreement with the theoretical predictions. (orig.)
Effective non-Coulombic power-law potential for the study of light and heavy mesons
Barik, N.; Jena, S.N.
1982-01-01
From purely phenomenological considerations we have shown that it is possible to describe successfully the heavy meson spectra of cc-bar and bb-bar systems in the framework of an effective non-Coulombic power-law potential in the form V(r) = V 0 +ar/sup ν/ (with a,ν>0). The nonsingular short-distance behavior of this potential, which is in apparent contradiction with the predictions of quantum- chromodynamics, does not pose any problem in explaining the fine-hyperfine splitting, if we prescribe the spin dependence to be generated through this static confining potential in the form of an approximately equal admixture of scalar and vector parts with no contributions from the anomalous quark magnetic moments. This nonrelativistic formalsm, when extended to a unified study of the entire meson spectra including the ordinary light and the heavy mesons, gives a very good account of the meson masses, fine-hyperfine splittings, electromagnetic transition rates, and leptonic decay widths without reflecting any inadequacy in the short- and long-range behavior of this simple effective power-law potential
Effect of the moment-of-inertia variation on Coulomb-nuclear interference in heavy ion scattering
Bolotin, Yu.L.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Inopin, E.V.; Chekanov, N.A.
1987-01-01
Effect of moment-of-inertia (MI) variation on probabilities of the Coulomb excitation of nucleus rotational states (RS) is investigated. The calculation is performed in the generalized quasiclassical approximation. Cillisions with an aimed parameter equal to 0 and recording of scattered ion at angles close to 180 deg were considered. Effect of MI dependence on angular momentum (AM) on the RS Coulomb excitation probability in the 86 Kr+ 238 U process at 400 MeV 86 Kr has been studied. For small AMs (I < 10), when the MI variation can be neglected, the Coulomb-nuclear interference leads to a marked shift of RS excitation probability maxima. However, with increasing transferred AM the convergence of probabilities conditioned with mutual compensation of phases shift related to the MI variation and Coulomb-nucleus interference, is noted. It is also noted that correct parameters of deformed nuclei extracted from experiments on the Coulomb excitation of high-spin states can be obtained only during simultaneous accountancy of both the Coulomb-nuclear interference and the MI variation of excited nuclei
Wang, J.; Xu, C.; Furlong, K.; Zhong, B.; Xiao, Z.; Yi, L.; Chen, T.
2017-12-01
Although Coulomb stress changes induced by earthquake events have been used to quantify stress transfers and to retrospectively explain stress triggering among earthquake sequences, realistic reliable prospective earthquake forecasting remains scarce. To generate a robust Coulomb stress map for earthquake forecasting, uncertainties in Coulomb stress changes associated with the source fault, receiver fault and friction coefficient and Skempton's coefficient need to be exhaustively considered. In this paper, we specifically explore the uncertainty in slip models of the source fault of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake as a case study. This earthquake was chosen because of its wealth of finite-fault slip models. Based on the wealth of those slip models, we compute the coseismic Coulomb stress changes induced by this mainshock. Our results indicate that nearby Coulomb stress changes for each slip model can be quite different, both for the Coulomb stress map at a given depth and on the Pacific subducting slab. The triggering rates for three months of aftershocks of the mainshock, with and without considering the uncertainty in slip models, differ significantly, decreasing from 70% to 18%. Reliable Coulomb stress changes in the three seismogenic zones of Nanki, Tonankai and Tokai are insignificant, approximately only 0.04 bar. By contrast, the portions of the Pacific subducting slab at a depth of 80 km and beneath Tokyo received a positive Coulomb stress change of approximately 0.2 bar. The standard errors of the seismicity rate and earthquake probability based on the Coulomb rate-and-state model (CRS) decay much faster with elapsed time in stress triggering zones than in stress shadows, meaning that the uncertainties in Coulomb stress changes in stress triggering zones would not drastically affect assessments of the seismicity rate and earthquake probability based on the CRS in the intermediate to long term.
Interatomic Coulombic electron capture
Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.
2010-01-01
In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.
Romain, P.
1990-03-01
The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16 O + 144 Nd and 80 Se + 80 Se reactions produce the same 160 Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared [fr
Study of the 17Ne Coulomb dissociation process and its role for the rp process of nucleosynthesis
Marganiec, Justyna [TU Darmstadt (Germany); EMMI, GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Wamers, Felix [EMMI, GSI Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Egorova, Irina [BLTP JINR Dubna (Russian Federation); Grigorenko, Leonid [FLNR JINR Dubna (Russian Federation); RRC KI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heil, Michael [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Perfenova, Yuliya [FLNR JINR Dubna (Russian Federation); INP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plag, Ralf [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration
2014-07-01
The study of {sup 17}Ne Coulomb dissociation process gives us a possibility to study the time-reversed reaction {sup 15}O(2p,γ){sup 17}Ne, with the detailed balance theorem. This reaction could serve as a bypass of {sup 15}O waiting point during the rp process, and move the initial CNO material towards heavier nuclei. The two-proton capture can proceed sequentially or directly from the three-body continuum. And the reaction rate can be enhanced by a few orders of magnitude by taking the three-body continuum into account. The Coulomb dissociation method is the one way to experimentally determine the three-body radiative capture cross section, which is needed to verify theoretical calculations, and which was not experimentally determined yet. The experiment has been performed at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI.
Study of the (3He,d) reactions on 58Ni, 60Ni and 56Fe near the Coulomb barrier
Baghdadi, A.; Seltz, R.; Magnac-Valette, D.; Bonneaud, G.; Gerardin, C.
1975-01-01
Using spectroscopic information gained by earlier measurements of the proton bound states populated by stripping reactions, ( 3 He,d) reactions on 58 Ni, 60 Ni and 56 Fe targets are studied at energies near the Coulomb barrier and evaluation is made of the vertex function 3 He>. This value is then used to determine spectroscopic factors for low-lying states in 57 Co [fr
Ground-state configuration of neutron-rich Aluminum isotopes through Coulomb Breakup
Chakraborty S.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Neutron-rich 34,35Al isotopes have been studied through Coulomb excitation using LAND-FRS setup at GSI, Darmstadt. The method of invariant mass analysis has been used to reconstruct the excitation energy of the nucleus prior to decay. Comparison of experimental CD cross-section with direct breakup model calculation with neutron in p3/2 orbital favours 34Al(g.s⊗νp3/2 as ground state configuration of 35Al. But ground state configuration of 34Al is complicated as evident from γ-ray spectra of 33Al after Coulomb breakup of 34Al.
Inner shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles studied by the SCA model
Hansteen, J.M.
1976-12-01
The seven papers, introduced by the most recent, subtitled 'A condensed status review', form a survey of the work by the author and his colleagues on K-, L-, and M-shell ionisation by impinging protons, deuterons and α-particles in the period 1971-1976. The SCA model is discussed and compared with other approximations for inner shell Coulomb ionisation. The future aspects in this field are also discussed. (JIW)
A preliminary study of the Gribov ambiguity in lattice SU(3) Coulomb gauge
Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States)); Petrarca, S. (Dipt. di Fisica, Rome-1 Univ. (Italy) INFN, Rome (Italy)); Vladikas, A. (Dipt. di Fisica, Rome-2 Univ. (Italy) INFN, Rome (Italy))
1991-10-10
We report on simulations of pure SU(3) gauge theory on a 10{sup 3}x20 lattice at {beta}=6.0 in the Coulomb gauge, from which the Gribov ambiguity appears to be maximal, in the sense that the gauge-fixing process is highly unstable with respect to variations of the starting configuration via random gauge transformations. We give a heuristic explanation of the larger number of Gribov copies in such a gauge with respect to the Landau gauge. (orig.).
Toda, S.; Stein, R.S.; Lin, J.
2011-01-01
We report on a broad and unprecedented increase in seismicity rate following the M=9.0 Tohoku mainshock for M ≥ 2 earthquakes over inland Japan, parts of the Japan Sea and Izu islands, at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high (≥15 m) seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ~80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common.
Mirror symmetry and Coulomb effects in light N ≅ Z nuclei
Bentley, M.A.; Williams, S.J.; Joss, D.T.
2002-01-01
Some latest results from gamma-ray spectroscopic studies of high spin states of isobaric multiplets are presented. An experimental programme is underway to examine exited states of isobaric multiplets of total isospin T 1/2 and T = 1 and the comparison of energies of excited states can be interpreted in terms of Coulomb effects. Through a systematic study of these Coulomb effects, and through examination of the calculated Coulomb energies from full pf-shell model calculations, it is now becoming clear that measurement of Coulomb energies can yield very detailed information on the evolution of nuclear structure phenomena as a function of energy and angular momentum. In this contribution, latest results of studies of isobaric analogue states at high spin in the A = 50, 51 and 53 systems are presented. (author)
Core polarization and the Coulomb energy difference of mirror nuclei
Barroso, A.
1977-01-01
The effect of the core polarization on the Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei with a LS doubly closed shell plus or minus one nucleon is studied. Using the Kallio-Kolltveit interaction it is found that the first-order configuration mixing including 2p-2h core excitations is too small and sometimes of the wrong sign to explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. (Auth.)
The Coulomb gap and low energy statistics for Coulomb glasses
Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M; Bergli, Joakim; Kirkengen, Martin; Galperin, Yuri M
2008-01-01
We study the statistics of local energy minima in the configuration space of two-dimensional lattice Coulomb glasses with site disorder and the behavior of the Coulomb gap depending on the strength of random site energies. At intermediate disorder, i.e., when the typical strength of the disorder is of the same order as the nearest-neighbor Coulomb energy, the high energy tail of the distribution of the local minima is exponential. We furthermore analyze the structure of the local minima and show that most sites of the system have the same occupation numbers in all of these states. The density of states (DOS) shows a transition from the crystalline state at zero disorder (with a hard gap) to an intermediate, probably glassy state with a Coulomb gap. We analyze this Coulomb gap in some detail and show that the DOS deviates slightly from the traditional linear behavior in 2D. For finite systems these intermediate Coulomb gap states disappear for large disorder strengths and only a random localized state in which all electrons are in the minima of the random potential exists. Dedication: This paper is dedicated to Thomas Nattermann, our dearest friend, brilliant colleague, and outstanding teacher
Kar, S.; Ho, Y.K.
2009-01-01
We have investigated the doubly excited 1 D e resonance states of Ps - interacting with pure Coulomb and screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potentials employing highly correlated wave functions. For pure Coulomb interaction, in the framework of stabilization method and complex coordinate rotation method we have obtained two resonances below the n = 2 threshold of the Ps atom. For screened Coulomb interaction, we employ the stabilization method to extract resonance parameters. Resonance energies and widths for the 1 D e resonance states of Ps - for different screening parameter ranging from infinity (pure Coulomb case) to a small value are also reported. (author)
Coulomb disintegration as an information source for relevant processes in nuclear astrophysics
Bertulani, C.A.
1989-01-01
The possibility of obtaining the photodisintegration cross section using the equivalent-photon number method first deduced and employed for the Coulomb disintegration processes has been suggested. This is very interesting because there exist radioactive capture processes, related to the photodisintegration through time reversal, that are relevant in astrophysics. In this paper, the recent results of the Karlsruhe and the Texas A and M groups on the Coulomb disintegration of 6 Li and 7 Li and the problems of the method are discussed. The ideas developed in a previous paper (Nucl. Phys. A458 (1986) 188) are confirmed qualitatively. To understand the process quantitatively it is necessary to use a quantum treatment that would imply the introduction of Coulomb excitation effects of higher orders. The Coulomb disintegration of exotic secondary beams is also studied. It is particularly interesting the question about what kind of nuclear structure information, as binding energies of momentum distributions, may be obtained. (Author) [es
Cycling capacity recovery effect: A coulombic efficiency and post-mortem study
Wilhelm, Jörn; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Keil, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas
2017-10-01
The analysis of lithium-ion battery aging relies on correct differentiation between irreversible and reversible capacity changes. Anode overhang regions have been observed to influence Coulombic Efficiency (CE) measurements through lithium diffusion into and out of these areas, complicating precise capacity determination. This work presents an analysis of the extent of graphite anode overhang lithiation after calendar storage by means of local X-ray diffraction (XRD), CE measurements, and color change analysis. We found LiC12 lithiation of the anode overhang area after 20 month storage at 40 °C at high state of charge (SoC) and partial lithiation (LiC18) at medium SoC storage at 40 °C and 25 °C. Graphite color changes in the overhang areas are observed and consistent with the state of lithiation measured by XRD. Coulombic efficiencies greater than unity and increasing capacity during 1200 h of cycling are detected for high SoC storage cells. The capacity difference between high and low storage SoC batteries decreases by up to 40 mAh (3.6% of nominal capacity) after cycling compared to tests directly after storage. Consequently, the size of the anode overhang areas as well as the battery storage temperature and duration need to be considered in CE analysis and state of health assessment.
Study of breakup mechanism of a loosely bound projectile in a region of Coulomb-breakup dominance
Uesaka T.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A kinematically complete measurement of the deuteron elastic break reaction has been carried out at Ed = 140 MeV on 12C, 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb targets in a wide angular range of θp , θn = 0° –8° for a detailed study of the reaction mechanism of loosely bound projectiles in kinematical regions of Coulomb-breakup dominance. A ﬁnite-range calculation of the post-form distorted-wave Born approximation is presented.
Dorner, B.
1996-01-01
A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with 'ab initio' calculations. Al 2 O 3 is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe 2 Ca 3 (GeO 4 ) 3 , where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl 3 in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs
Ghorai, Sankar; Chaudhury, Pinaki
2018-05-30
We have used a replica exchange Monte-Carlo procedure, popularly known as Parallel Tempering, to study the problem of Coulomb explosion in homogeneous Ar and Xe dicationic clusters as well as mixed Ar-Xe dicationic clusters of varying sizes with different degrees of relative composition. All the clusters studied have two units of positive charges. The simulations reveal that in all the cases there is a cutoff size below which the clusters fragment. It is seen that for the case of pure Ar, the value is around 95 while that for Xe it is 55. For the mixed clusters with increasing Xe content, the cutoff limit for suppression of Coulomb explosion gradually decreases from 95 for a pure Ar to 55 for a pure Xe cluster. The hallmark of this study is this smooth progression. All the clusters are simulated using the reliable potential energy surface developed by Gay and Berne (Gay and Berne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1982, 49, 194). For the hetero clusters, we have also discussed two different ways of charge distribution, that is one in which both positive charges are on two Xe atoms and the other where the two charges are at a Xe atom and at an Ar atom. The fragmentation patterns observed by us are such that single ionic ejections are the favored dissociating pattern. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Microscopic study of {sup 6}He elastic scattering around the Coulomb barrier
Descouvemont, P. [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, C.P. 229, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2016-07-07
We investigate {sup 6}He scattering on {sup 27}Al, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 120}Sn, and {sup 208}Pb in a microscopic version of the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) method. We essentially focus on energies around the Coulomb barrier. The {sup 6}He nucleus is described by an antisymmetric 6-nucleon wave function, defined in the Resonating Group Method. The {sup 6}He continuum is simulated by square-integrable positive-energy states. The model does not depend on any adjustable parameter as it is based only on well known nucleon-target potentials. We show that experimental elastic cross sections are fairly well reproduced. The calculation suggests that breakup effects increase for high target masses. For a light system such as {sup 6}He+{sup 27}Al, breakup effects are small, and a single-channel approximation provides fair results.
Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies of elementary excitations
Ament, Lucas Johannes Peter (Luuk)
2010-01-01
Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an X-ray in, X-ray out technique that enables one to study the dispersion of excitations in solids. In this thesis, we investigated how various elementary excitations of transition metal oxides show up in RIXS spectra.
Study on Excitation-triggered Damage Mechanism in Perilous Rock
Chen, Hongkai; Wang, Shengjuan
2017-12-01
Chain collapse is easy to happen for perilous rock aggregate locating on steep high slope, and one of the key scientific problems is the damage mechanism of perilous rock under excitation action at perilous rock rupture. This paper studies excitation-triggered damage mechanism in perilous rock by wave mechanics, which gives three conclusions. Firstly, when only the normal incidence attenuation spread of excitation wave is considered, while the energy loss is ignored for excitation wave to spread in perilous rock aggregate, the paper establishes one method to calculate peak velocity when excitation wave passes through boundary between any two perilous rock blocks in perilous rock aggregate. Secondly, following by Sweden and Canmet criteria, the paper provides one wave velocity criterion for excitation-triggered damage in the aggregate. Thirdly, assuming double parameters of volume strain of cracks or fissures in rock meet the Weibull distribution, one method to estimate micro-fissure in excitation-triggered damage zone in perilous rock aggregate is established. The studies solve the mechanical description problem for excitation-triggered damage in perilous rock, which is valuable in studies on profoundly rupture mechanism.
Study of the nuclear-coulomb low-energy scattering parameters on the basis of the p-matrix approach
Babenko, V.A.; Petrov, N.M.
1993-01-01
The P-matrix approach application to the description of two charged strongly interacting particles nuclear-Coulomb scattering parameters is considered. The nuclear-Coulomb scattering length and effective range explicit expressions in terms of the P-matrix parameters are found. The nuclear-Coulomb low-energy parameters expansions in powers of small parameter β ≡ R/a b , involving terms with big logarithms, are obtained. The nuclear-Coulomb scattering length and effective range for the square-well and the delta-shell short range potentials are found in an explicit form. (author). 21 refs
Study of excitation energy dependence of nuclear level density parameter
Mohanto, G.; Nayak, B.K.; Saxena, A.
2016-01-01
In the present study, we have populated CN by fusion reaction and excitation energy of the intermediate nuclei is determined after first chance α-emission to investigate excitation energy dependence of the NLD parameter. Evaporated neutron spectra were measured following alpha evaporation for obtaining NLD parameter for the reaction 11 B + 197 Au, populating CN 208 Po. This CN after evaporating an α-particle populates intermediate nucleus 204 Pb. The 204 Pb has magic number of Z=82. Our aim is to study the excitation energy dependence of NLD parameter for closed shell nuclei
Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State
Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht
We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.
More major earthquakes at the Nepal Himalaya? - Study on Coulomb stress perspective
Som, S. K.; Sarkar, Subhrasuchi; Dasgupta, Soumitra
2018-07-01
On April 2015 a major earthquake of 7.9 Mw occurred in the Nepal Himalaya, followed by 553 earthquakes of local magnitude greater than 4.0 within the first 43 days including another major event of 7.3 Mw. We resolve the static coulomb failure stress (CFS) change onto the finite fault models of 7.9 Mw after Elliott et al. (2016) and Galezka et al. (2015) and its effect on associated receiver faults. Correlation of aftershocks with the enhanced CFS condition shows that the Elliott et al. (2016) model explains 60.4% and the Galezka et al. (2015) model explains about 47.7% of the aftershocks in high stress regions. Aftershocks were poorly spatially correlated with the enhanced CFS condition after the 7.9 Mw main shock and can be explained by correlation with release of seismic energy from the associated secondarily stressed prominent thrust planes and transverse faults. Stress resolved on the associated receiver faults show increased stress on both transverse and thrust fault systems with the potential of triggering significant aftershocks or subsequent main shocks.
Kinetics studies following state-selective laser excitation
Keto, J.W.
1994-04-01
The objective of this contract was the study of state-to-state, electronic energy transfer reactions relevant to the excited state chemistry observed in discharges. We studied deactivation reactions and excitation transfer in collisions of excited states of xenon and krypton atoms with Ar, Kr, Xe and chlorine. The reactant states were excited selectively in two-photon transitions using tunable u.v. and v.u.v. lasers. Excited states produced by the collision were observed by their fluorescence. Reaction rates were measured by observing the time dependent decay of signals from reactant and product channels. In addition we measured interaction potentials of the reactants by laser spectroscopy where the laser induced fluorescence or ionization is measured as a function of laser wavelength (excitation spectra) or by measuring fluorescence spectra at fixed laser frequencies with monochromators. The spectra were obtained in the form of either lineshapes or individual lines from rovibrational transitions of bound states. Our research then required several categories of experiments in order to fully understand a reaction process: 1. High resolution laser spectroscopy of bound molecules or lineshapes of colliding pairs is used to determine potential curves for reactants. 2. Direct measurements of state-to-state reaction rates were measured by studying the time dependent loss of excited reactants and the time dependent formation of products. 3. The energy selectivity of a laser can be used to excite reactants on an excited surface with controlled internuclear configurations. For free states of reactants (as exist in a gas cell) this has been termed laser assisted reactions, while for initially bound states (as chemically bound reactants or dimers formed in supersonic beams) the experiments have been termed photo-fragmentation spectroscopy
M. Soltanolkotabi
1998-04-01
Full Text Available Single-valence electron atoms are an important class of atoms. Their oscillator strengths are their important properties. Knowing the oscillator strengths one can easity calculate the transition probabilities of the spectral lines and hence the lifetimes of energy levels of most atoms. The oscillator strengths of the spectral lines of most atoms are not knoen with sufficient accuracy due to the experimental difficulties. The results of most measurements are subject to large inaccuracies due to uncertainties in vapor pressure data. A quick and simple theoretical method for calculation of atomic oscillator strength seems to be the Coulomb approximation of Bates and Damagaard. This method reveals some interesting properties that are generally confirmed by experimental results. In this paper, we have studied oscillator strengths and line strengths of the different allowed transitions in AgI and AuI using the Coulomb approximation. The log (λfg curves(λ, f and g are the wavelength of transition, oscillator strength and statistical weight of upper level, respectively versus the reciprocal of the principal quantum number of upper level, 1/n, show a linear behavior only for large values of the principal quantum number of lower level. The effect of change of total angular momentum,Δ J, in the curvature and slope of the plotted curves has been also investigated. The deviation of the curves from straight lines, which indicates failure of the Coulomb approximation is due to the exchange forces. In addition, the n3fg curves (n , the effective total quantum number of upper level have been plotted versus n for different allowed transitions in AgL and AuI. It has been found that f is proportional to 1/n and this proportionality is linear for large values of n . For some transitions, however, there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence for large values of n , which can be attributed to the signature of total angular momentum quantum
Fluorescence study of some xanthine dyes under stepped laser excitation
Chirkova, L.V.; Ketsle, G.A.; Ermagambetov, K.T.
1996-01-01
Paper is devoted to definition of triplet state in molecules of xanthine dyes and study of intramolecular energy circulation. Stepped two-quanta excitation of dyes has been carried out with help of experimental unit. Intensive luminescence activated by excitation of triplet molecules of dyes within triplet-triplet band with wave length of 1060 nm was registered for eosin. Given luminescence spectrally coincides with fast fluorescence. 5 refs., 6 figs
Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals
Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael
2012-01-01
We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures, such as b......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...
Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.
Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M
2008-08-01
We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.
Valluri, S.R.; Romo, W.J.
1989-01-01
The dependence of the phase shift δ l (k) on the angular momentum l is investigated. An analytic expression for the derivative of the phase shift with respect to angular momentum is derived for a class of potentials that includes complex and real potentials. The potentials behave like the finite range potential for small r and like a Coulomb potential for large r. Specific examples like the square well, the pure point charge Coulomb and a combination of a square well and the Coulomb potential are analytically treated. Possible applications are briefly indicated. (orig.)
Influences of temperature on asymmetric quantum dot qubit in Coulombic impunity potential
Chen, Y.-J.; Song, H.-T.; Xiao, J.-L.
2018-05-01
Using the variational method of the Pekar-type, we study the influences of the temperature on the asymmetric quantum dot (QD) qubit in the Coulombic impunity potential. Then we derive the numerical results and formulate the derivative relationships of the electron probability density and the electron oscillation period in the superposition state of the ground state and the first-excited state with the electron-phonon coupling constant, the Coulombic impurity potential, the transverse and longitudinal confinement strengths at different temperatures, respectively.
Study of the 6Li+16O light heavy-ion system around the Coulomb barrier
Glasner, K.; Ricken, L.; Kuhlmann, E.
1986-01-01
Total cross sections of the light heavy-ion reactions 16 O( 6 Li,p) 21 Ne, i=0-10, have been measured for beam energies Esub(Li)=4.5-8.0 MeV in steps of 100 keV. Additional excitation functions of the inclusive reactions 16 O( 6 Li,xy), x=p, n and α, were taken for Esub(li)=4.1-12.5 MeV. The 6 Li+ 16 O reaction can be understood as a predominant compound-nucleus process as extensive Hauser-Feshbach calculations show. A comprehensive statistical analysis yields a coherence width GAMMA=130+-20 keV for Esub(x)( 22 Na)approx.=19 MeV. Statistically significant deviations from pure fluctuation phenomena are found in most excitation functions at Esub(x)( 22 Na)=17.9, 18.4, 19.2 and 20.2 MeV. Interpreting these structures with widths 400<=GAMMAsub(tot)<=800 keV as intermediate-width resonances in terms of rotational band, tentative spin assignments can be given. (orig.)
Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg
1998-01-01
Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)
Coulomb double helical structure
Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu
2012-01-01
Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.
Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K
2011-07-01
Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.
Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders
Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai
2009-01-01
counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...
Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21
Röder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos
2016-01-01
Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,γ)N20 and N20(n,γ)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,γ)N20 rate is...
Coulomb correction calculations of pp Bremsstrahlung
Katsogiannis, A.; Amos, K.; Jetter, M.; von Geramb, H.V.
1994-01-01
The effects of the Coulomb interaction upon the photon cross section and analyzing power from pp Bremsstrahlung have been studied in detail. Off-shell properties of the Coulomb T matrices have been considered but the associated, Coulomb modified, hadronic T matrices are important elements in any analyses of low energy, forward proton scattering data. At the lowest energy considered (5 MeV), the full calculations gave cross sections that were half the size of those found without Coulomb effects or with a simple model approximation to them. With increasing energy, the cross sections varied to those characteristic of magnetic interaction dominance and the specific differences due to Coulomb effects diminished. 47 refs., 7 figs
A Neutron Scattering Study of Collective Excitations in Superfluid Helium
Graf, E. H.; Minkiewicz, V. J.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans
1974-01-01
Extensive inelastic-neutron-scattering experiments have been performed on superfluid helium over a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. A high-resolution study has been made of the pressure dependence of the single-excitation scattering at the first maximum of the dispersion curve over...... of the multiexcitation scattering was also studied. It is shown that the multiphonon spectrum of a simple Debye solid with the phonon dispersion and single-excitation cross section of superfluid helium qualitatively reproduces these data....
Universal monopole scaling near transitions from the Coulomb phase.
Powell, Stephen
2012-08-10
Certain frustrated systems, including spin ice and dimer models, exhibit a Coulomb phase at low temperatures, with power-law correlations and fractionalized monopole excitations. Transitions out of this phase, at which the effective gauge theory becomes confining, provide examples of unconventional criticality. This Letter studies the behavior at nonzero monopole density near such transitions, using scaling theory to arrive at universal expressions for the crossover phenomena. For a particular transition in spin ice, quantitative predictions are made by mapping to the XY model and confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations.
Study of single-electron excitations by electron microscopy
Craven, A.J.; Gibson, J.M.; Howie, A.; Spalding, D.R.
1978-01-01
The inelastic scattering of fast electrons by the excitation of L-shell electrons at a stacking fault in silicon has been studied with a scanning transmission electron microscope. It was found that the bright-field stacking fault contrast is preserved in the filtered L-shell-loss signal at 100 eV. This result is discussed in terms of the delocalization of the excitation mechanism. It is concluded that localization effects will typically become significant only for energy transfers greater than 1 keV from a fast electron of energy 80 keV. (author)
Studies of spin excitations with electromagnetic and hadronic probes
Lindgren, R.A.; Petrovich, F.
1982-01-01
Excitation of unnatural parity states, predominantly of high spin, using electromagnetic and hadronic probes, is discussed. Spectroscopic strengths are deduced from studies of (e,e'), (p,p'), (π.π'), and (p,n) for states whose doorway is the stretched particle-hole configuration. These levels are excited primarily through the isovector electromagnetic-nucleon magnetization coupling, nucleon-nucleon tensor coupling, and pion-nucleon spin-orbit coupling. The extracted isovector spectroscopic strength is typically 38% of the extreme single particle-hole model and about 66% of that predicted by more realistic nuclear structure calculations. The observed isoscalar strength is only about one half of the isovector strength. The results obtained with the three different probes are quite consistent. The primary conclusion is that the missing strength for these high spin excitations is at least as large as for the low spin M1 and GT excitations. This implies the existence of other important quenching mechanisms since the Δ-N -1 mechanism involved in the discussion of the low spin excitation affects only the isovector transitions and contributes little to high spin excitations. A method for using (e,e') and π + /π - cross section ratios to separate and determine the absolute isoscalar and isovector spin densities for T 0 to T 0 transitions in N is not equal to Z nuclei is also discussed and some comments on extracting information from (e,e') and (p,p') studies at high q on low spin 1 + and 2 - levels are presented. 78 references
Charge-carrier dynamics and Coulomb effects in semiconductor tetrapods
Mauser, Christian
2011-01-01
charge carriers were additionally studied at high excitation energies. An efficient multi-exciton emission of the CdSe/CdS tetrapods could be observed, which is to be lead back to the exciton phase-space filling and a reduced Auger effect. The larger volume of the longer tetrapods allows a dual emission from the CdSe and the CdS with comparable intensities. The occuring Coulomb effects between a spatially separated electron-hole pair were studied in CdSe/CdTe tetrapods, which exhibit a type-II transition. A correlation between the tetrapod leg length and the binding energy of the charge-transfer exciton could be established, which is also reproduced in the theoretical simulations.
Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films
Rajkovic, Ivan
2008-01-01
This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)
Localization of optical excitations on random surfaces: SNOM studies
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
1999-01-01
Localization of optical excitations on nanostructured metal surfaces and fractal colloid silver aggregates are studied by using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The SNOM images obtained in both configurations exhibit spatially localized (within 150 to 250 nm) light intensity...
Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films
Rajkovic, Ivan
2008-10-21
This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)
Exclusive studies of the GDR in excited nuclei
Nanal, V.
1998-01-01
The GDR in 164 Er at 62 MeV excitation energy has been studied in coincidence with the evaporation residues, selected using the Argonne fragment mass analyzer (FMA). The 164 Er* has a prolate shape with deformation statistical model fit to the data indicate that similar to the ground state
de Angelis, G.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Martinez, T.; Orlandi, R.; Petrovici, A.; Sahin, E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Tonev, D.; Lunardi, S.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Wadsworth, R.; Gadea, A.; Kaneko, K.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Blank, B.; Bracco, A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Farnea, E.; Gottardo, A.; Greene, J. P.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Lister, C. J.; Mengoni, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Pechenaya, O. L.; Recchia, F.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Ur, C. A.; Zhu, S.
2012-03-01
Excited states of the N=Z=33 nucleus 66As have been populated in a fusion-evaporation reaction and studied using γ-ray spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put into the search for candidates for the T=1 states. A new 3+ isomer has been observed with a lifetime of 1.1(3) ns. This is believed to be the predicted oblate shape isomer. The excited levels are discussed in terms of the shell model and of the complex excited Vampir approaches. Coulomb energy differences are determined from the comparison of the T=1 states with their analog partners. The unusual behavior of the Coulomb energy differences in the A=70 mass region is explained through different shape components (oblate and prolate) within the members of the same isospin multiplets. This breaking of the isospin symmetry is attributed to the correlations induced by the Coulomb interaction.
Study of high-j neutron excitations outside 136Xe
Talwar, R.; Kay, B. P.; Mitchell, A. J.; Adachi, S.; Entwisle, J. P.; Fujita, Y.; Gey, G.; Noji, S.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Tamii, A.
2017-09-01
The character of single-neutron excitations outside of N = 82 has been studied using nucleon transfer reactions in terms of the energy centroid of their strength as well as the fragmentation of this strength among the actual states of the nucleus. However, extending the systematic study of the N = 83 isotones to 137Xe has been challenging due to xenon being a gas at room temperature. Though several attempts have been made, a quantitative determination of the spectroscopic factors for the neutron 9/2- and 13/2+ excitations in 137Xe is still lacking. In the present work, we report on a study of the 136Xe(α,3He)137Xe reaction carried out at 100 MeV to probe the l = 5 , 9/2- and l = 6 , 13/2+ single-neutron excitations. The experimental technique and results will be presented discussing them in context of the evolution of these single-neutron excitations and the influence of the tensor interaction on the neutron single-particle states as the proton orbits are filling. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the Australian Research Council Discovery Project 120104176, and the UK Science and Technology Facilities.
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
Coulomb interaction in the supermultiplet basis
Ruzha, Ya.Kh.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.; Vanagas, V.V.
1989-01-01
An approximate expression for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction operator in the supermultiplet basis has been derived with the account for the orbitally-nonsymmetric terms. From the general expression a simplified formula for the Coulomb interaction energy has been proposed. On the basis of the expression obtained the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the framework of a strongly restricted dynamic model in the light (4≤A≤40) and heavy (158≤A≤196) nuclei region has been studied. 19 refs.; 4 tabs
Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime
Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2002-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...
Core polarization and Coulomb displacement energies
Shlomo, S.; Love, W.G.
1982-01-01
The contributions of core polarization terms (other than the Auerbach-Kahana-Weneser (AKW) effect) to Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei near A = 16 and A = 40 are examined within the particle-vibration coupling model. The parameters of the model are determined using updated data on the locations and strengths of multipole core excitations. In the absence of relevant data an energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exploited. Taking into account multipole excitations up to L = 5 and subtracting the contributions which are due to short-range correlations, significant contributions (1-3%) to ΔEsub(c) are found. These corrections arise from particle coupling to low-lying collective states (long-range correlations). The implications of these results on the Coulomb energy problem are discussed. (Auth.)
Coulomb gap triptych in a periodic array of metal nanocrystals.
Chen, Tianran; Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B I
2012-09-21
The Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states (DOS) is a universal consequence of electron-electron interaction in disordered systems with localized electron states. Here we show that in arrays of monodisperse metallic nanocrystals, there is not one but three identical adjacent Coulomb gaps, which together form a structure that we call a "Coulomb gap triptych." We calculate the DOS and the conductivity in two- and three-dimensional arrays using a computer simulation. Unlike in the conventional Coulomb glass models, in nanocrystal arrays the DOS has a fixed width in the limit of large disorder. The Coulomb gap triptych can be studied via tunneling experiments.
Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Wadsworth, R; Danchev, M T; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J
It is proposed to initiate an experimental program to study the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs) of unstable nuclei from the N = 80 isotonic chain. The main aim of this program is to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the MSSs, an effect dubbed $\\textit{shell stabilization}$ of MSSs. This will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The MSSs of these nuclei will be identified experimentally by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in inverse kinematics Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions on light targets. As a first step of this program we apply for a beam time for the radioactive $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm beams at beam energy of 2.85 MeV/u. These beams will be used to determine the absolute B(E2;2$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 0$_{1}^{+}$) values for $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm in Coulomb excit...
Fluorescence excitation studies of molecular photoionization in external electric fields
Poliakoff, E.D.; Dehmer, J.L.; Parr, A.C.; Leroi, G.E.
1985-01-01
Using molecular nitrogen as an example, we show that fluorescence excitation spectroscopy can be used to measure partial photoionization cross sections of free molecules in external electric fields. The production of the N 2 + (B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state was studied and the threshold for this process was found to shift linearly with the square root of the applied field. This behavior is compared with the hydrogenic case and with previously studied systems
Spurious Excitations in Semiclassical Scattering Theory.
Gross, D. H. E.; And Others
1980-01-01
Shows how through proper handling of the nonuniform motion of semiclassical coordinates spurious excitation terms are eliminated. An application to the problem of nuclear Coulomb excitation is presented as an example. (HM)
Coulomb interactions in charged fluids.
Vernizzi, Graziano; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera
2011-07-01
The use of Ewald summation schemes for calculating long-range Coulomb interactions, originally applied to ionic crystalline solids, is a very common practice in molecular simulations of charged fluids at present. Such a choice imposes an artificial periodicity which is generally absent in the liquid state. In this paper we propose a simple analytical O(N(2)) method which is based on Gauss's law for computing exactly the Coulomb interaction between charged particles in a simulation box, when it is averaged over all possible orientations of a surrounding infinite lattice. This method mitigates the periodicity typical of crystalline systems and it is suitable for numerical studies of ionic liquids, charged molecular fluids, and colloidal systems with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.
Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.
Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven
2017-04-12
Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.
A study of vibrational relaxation of electronically-excited molecules
Datsyuk, V.V.; Izmailov, I.A.; Kochelap, V.A.
1992-09-01
The time kinetics of the vibrational relaxation of excimers is studied in the diffusional approximation. Simple formulae for functions of nonstationary vibrational distribution are found for the electronically excited molecules. Some spectral-kinetic dependencies of the excimer luminescence are explained in a new way. The possibilities of the determination of excimer parameters are discussed. The dependence of energetical characteristics of excimer lasers on these parameters is particularly emphasized. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs
New laser-driven nuclear excitation studies. Concepts and proposals
Drska, L.; Hanus, V.; Sinor, M.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. There has been a great interest in the processes of nuclear excitation and triggering in high-parameter laser-produced plasmas in recent years. A series of papers devoted to the theory of this event has been published. Several experiments have already been attempted to study the excitation of the lowest nuclear levels of medium / high-Z nuclides (Ta 181, U 235 etc.), all the same unsuccessful or inconclusive. In the first part of this paper, the situation will be overviewed and analysis of the reasons of this unsatisfactory state of affairs will be accomplished. Prospects of the possible solving of the problem by using novel / projected laser facilities (esp. LIL / PETAL, XFEL, ELI-Phase) will be outlined. Potential of the future ELI Beam Facility in the Czech Republic in this area will be stressed. In the second part, some proposals for the excitation and triggering studies using combined high-power and high-intensity LIL / PETAL system (2012) with multi-kilojoule and multi-petawatt parameters will be discussed. Results of preliminary simulations supporting the thinking about potential projects will be shown and conditions essential for meaningful effort in this area will be analyzed. Problems of realistic simulations of such experiments will be addressed. Completely novel chances for the excitation / triggering studies would be started by constructed / projected facilities XFEL (coherent X-rays ∼ 12 keV, 2014) and ELI (multi-petawatt Phase 1, 2015). Application of intense / coherent high-energy X-rays and / or intense electron / ion beams allows new experimental schemes, extends the range of nuclides to be studied and (maybe) will enable to test some new triggering methods. In the last part of the presentation some possibilities in point (esp. for ELI Beamlines), will be drawn up. Acknowledgements. This research has been supported by the Research Program no. 6840770022 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the
On Coulomb disintegration of relativistic nuclei and hypernuclei
Lyuboshits, V.L.
1989-01-01
The dependence of the total cross-section of excitation and disintegration of a relativistic nucleus in the Coulomb field on the energy and parameters characterizing nuclear dimensions is investigated. The analogy with the problem of atomic ionization at the passage of charged particles through matter is used. The results are applied to the description of the Coulomb dissociation of nuclei with small binding energies. An explicit expression for the effective cross-section of the Coulomb disintegration of the hypernucleus-Λ 3 H into a deuteron and Λ-particle. 12 refs
Egidi, Franco, E-mail: franco.egidi@sns.it; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)
2014-12-14
In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.
Excitation of giant resonances in heavy ion collisions
Kuehn, W.
1991-01-01
Introduction: What are Giant Resonances? General Features of Giant Resonances, Macroscopic Description and Classification, Basic Excitation Mechanisms, Decay Modes, Giant Resonances Built on Excited States, Relativistic Coulomb Excitation of Giant Resonances, Experimental Situation. (orig.)
Coulomb effects in particle distributions inclusive
Erazmus, B.; Martin, L.; Pluta, J.; Stavinky, A.
1997-01-01
Single pion distributions from central 158 A.GeV/c Pb + Pb collisions measured by the NA44 experiment show the effect of Coulomb interaction with the net charge produced during the reaction. Coulomb effects are analyzed with the help of the microscopic model RQMD and a model including the Coulomb interaction. Different sets of kinematical characteristics of the net charge have been used to reproduce the experimental data and a strong sensitivity to the charge value has been found. This study has evidenced the non-negligible influence of a Coulomb charge, present in the region of the central rapidity in heavy ion collisions on the inclusive distributions of the produced particles. A more thorough analysis of the data obtained from the experiment NA44 is now under way to take into account the hyperon decay that can modify the fraction of different particles, particularly at low transverse momenta
Structure and Spectrum of Dust Coulomb Clusters
Cheung, F.M.H.; Ford, C.; Barkby, S.; Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.
2005-01-01
In our study, the dynamics of Coulomb cluster systems were simulated for different number of particles. The spectra of energy states of dust Coulomb clusters corresponding to various packing sequences were obtained. The broadening of the spectrum due to inter-ring twist was discovered. It was found that the inter-ring twist will lead to a change in the energy spectrum of Coulomb cluster. This change was accompanied by a distortion of stable shells such that particles are able to compensate for any additional Coulomb energy (owing to the inter-ring twist) by further reducing their radial distance as much as possible. The overall effect is a change in the shape of the outer-shell from circular to elliptical
Gebremedhin, Daniel H; Weatherford, Charles A
2015-02-01
This is a response to the comment we received on our recent paper "Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit." In that paper, we introduced a computational algorithm that is appropriate for solving stiff initial value problems, and which we applied to the one-dimensional time-independent Schrödinger equation with a soft Coulomb potential. We solved for the eigenpairs using a shooting method and hence turned it into an initial value problem. In particular, we examined the behavior of the eigenpairs as the softening parameter approached zero (hard Coulomb limit). The commenters question the existence of the ground state of the hard Coulomb potential, which we inferred by extrapolation of the softening parameter to zero. A key distinction between the commenters' approach and ours is that they consider only the half-line while we considered the entire x axis. Based on mathematical considerations, the commenters consider only a vanishing solution function at the origin, and they question our conclusion that the ground state of the hard Coulomb potential exists. The ground state we inferred resembles a δ(x), and hence it cannot even be addressed based on their argument. For the excited states, there is agreement with the fact that the particle is always excluded from the origin. Our discussion with regard to the symmetry of the excited states is an extrapolation of the soft Coulomb case and is further explained herein.
Study on the excited diatomic molecules of rare gas
Kasama, Kunihiko; Arai, Shigeyoshi
1981-01-01
The study on the excited diatomic molecules of rare gas is presented. The absorption spectra, the mechanism of formation and attenuation and the reactions with other molecules are described. The excitation of rare gas was made by using a pulsed electron beam generator. The absorption of excited diatomic molecules was measured as the functions of time. Two absorption peaks were observed. The electron states of rare gases were estimated. The observed and calculated transition values were given for each peak. The absorption spectra of Ne change with time. The spectra of Ar do not change with time. Four and eleven absorption maxima were seen in the spectra of Kr and Xe, respectively. In the case of Ar, the thermal equilibrium existed. The constants of the production and attenuation rates were obtained as the functions of Ar gas pressure. In the case of Ne, there wad definitely the time dependence of absorption spectra. The attenuation constant was obtained for each transition between various vibration levels. It is necessary to consider the relaxation from high vibrational levels. The energy transfer between vibrational levels hardly occurred in Ne because the intervals are large. When there are other molecules, the attnuation was accelerated. (Kato, T.)
Appleberry, W. T.
1983-01-01
Standard hydraulic shock absorber modified to form coulomb (linear friction) damper. Device damps very small velocities and is well suited for use with large masses mounted on soft springs. Damping force is easily adjusted for different loads. Dampers are more reliable than fluid dampers and also more economical to build and to maintain.
On the Coulomb displacement energy
Sato, H.
1976-01-01
The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)
Expansions for Coulomb wave functions
Boersma, J.
1969-01-01
In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are
Study of the first excited state in 5Li
Gagne, R.M.; Fou, C.M.; Ward, S.
1975-01-01
The reaction 6 Li( 3 He,α) 5 Li(α)p was studied with a 1.8MeV incident 3 He beam. Coincidence spectra (α-α) were measured at theta 1 =25 deg, 35 deg, 40 deg and theta 2 =-150 deg. The purpose was to locate the first excited state of 5 Li. The analysis yields E(x)=3.2+0.2MeV and GAMMA=1.5+-0.5MeV
Sharma, M K; Prasad, R; Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Sinha, A K
2003-01-01
In order to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions the experiment has been carried out for measuring excitation functions (EF's) for several reactions in the system sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te, in the energy range approx = 42 - 82 MeV, using activation technique. To the best of our knowledge EF's for presently measured reactions are being reported for the first time. The measured EF's have been compared with those calculated theoretically using codes CASCADE and ALICE-91. Effect of variation of parameters, of the codes, on calculated EF's has also been studied. The analysis of the present data indicates presence of contributions from incomplete fusion in some cases. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data.
Olsen, Stine T; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Hansen, Thorsten; Ratner, Mark A; Mikkelsen, Kurt V
2017-06-20
Molecular photoswitches incorporated in molecular junctions yield the possibility of light-controlled switching of conductance due to the electronic difference of the photoisomers. Another isomerization mechanism, dark photoswitching, promoted by a voltage stimulus rather than by light, can be operative in the Coulomb blockade regime for a specific charge state of the molecule. Here we elucidate theoretically the mechanistic and thermodynamic restrictions for this dark photoswitching for donor-acceptor substituted 4n and 4n+2 π-electron open-chain oligoenes (1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene) by considering the molecular energies and orbitals of the molecules placed in a junction. For an electrocyclic ring closure reaction to occur for these compounds, we put forward two requirements: a) the closed stereoisomer (cis or trans form) must be of lower energy than the open form, and b) the reaction pathway must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb blockade diamonds were therefore modeled for this compound to elucidate how a dark photoswitching event would manifest itself in the stability plot. From this modeling of conductance as a function of gate and bias potentials, we predict a collapse in Coulomb diamond size, that is, a decrease in the height of the island of zero conductance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Comment on "Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit".
Carrillo-Bernal, M A; Núñez-Yépez, H N; Salas-Brito, A L; Solis, Didier A
2015-02-01
In the referred paper, the authors use a numerical method for solving ordinary differential equations and a softened Coulomb potential -1/√[x(2)+β(2)] to study the one-dimensional Coulomb problem by approaching the parameter β to zero. We note that even though their numerical findings in the soft potential scenario are correct, their conclusions do not extend to the one-dimensional Coulomb problem (β=0). Their claims regarding the possible existence of an even ground state with energy -∞ with a Dirac-δ eigenfunction and of well-defined parity eigenfunctions in the one-dimensional hydrogen atom are questioned.
Amini, Kasra; Boll, Rebecca; Lauer, Alexandra; Burt, Michael; Lee, Jason W L; Christensen, Lauge; Brauβe, Felix; Mullins, Terence; Savelyev, Evgeny; Ablikim, Utuq; Berrah, Nora; Bomme, Cédric; Düsterer, Stefan; Erk, Benjamin; Höppner, Hauke; Johnsson, Per; Kierspel, Thomas; Krecinic, Faruk; Küpper, Jochen; Müller, Maria; Müller, Erland; Redlin, Harald; Rouzée, Arnaud; Schirmel, Nora; Thøgersen, Jan; Techert, Simone; Toleikis, Sven; Treusch, Rolf; Trippel, Sebastian; Ulmer, Anatoli; Wiese, Joss; Vallance, Claire; Rudenko, Artem; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Brouard, Mark; Rolles, Daniel
2017-07-07
Laser-induced adiabatic alignment and mixed-field orientation of 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene (C 6 H 3 F 2 I) molecules are probed by Coulomb explosion imaging following either near-infrared strong-field ionization or extreme-ultraviolet multi-photon inner-shell ionization using free-electron laser pulses. The resulting photoelectrons and fragment ions are captured by a double-sided velocity map imaging spectrometer and projected onto two position-sensitive detectors. The ion side of the spectrometer is equipped with a pixel imaging mass spectrometry camera, a time-stamping pixelated detector that can record the hit positions and arrival times of up to four ions per pixel per acquisition cycle. Thus, the time-of-flight trace and ion momentum distributions for all fragments can be recorded simultaneously. We show that we can obtain a high degree of one-and three-dimensional alignment and mixed-field orientation and compare the Coulomb explosion process induced at both wavelengths.
Coulomb sum rules in the relativistic Fermi gas model
Do Dang, G.; L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Giai, Van.
1986-11-01
Coulomb sum rules are studied in the framework of the Fermi gas model. A distinction is made between mathematical and observable sum rules. Differences between non-relativistic and relativistic Fermi gas predictions are stressed. A method to deduce a Coulomb response function from the longitudinal response is proposed and tested numerically. This method is applied to the 40 Ca data to obtain the experimental Coulomb sum rule as a function of momentum transfer
Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....
Neutron scattering studies on magnetic excitations in complex ordered manganites
Senff, D
2007-09-15
This thesis deals with magnetic excitations in three different Manganese oxides, single-layered LaSrMnO{sub 4}, charge- and orbital-ordered La{sub 1/2}Sr{sub 3/2}MnO{sub 4}, and multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3}, which are studied by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The properties of the first system, LaSrMnO{sub 4}, are governed by the complex interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom typical for the physics of manganites. The magnetic low-temperature behavior is quite unusual, and the comprehensive analysis of the spin-wave spectrum of LaSrMnO{sub 4} suggests a heterogenous ground state with ferromagnetic orbital polarons embedded in an antiferromagnetic background. The doped system La{sub 1/2}Sr{sub 3/2}MnO{sub 4} exhibits a stable charge- and orbital-ordered state, which today is discussed very controversially, as it is of great relevance for the colossal increase of electric conductivity at the metal-insulator transition in perovskite manganites. Analyzing the spin-wave dispersion of the ordered state, we find an excellent agreement with classical predictions by Goodenough and reject a recent alternative proposal. The different strength of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange in the CE-type ordering leads to the conclusion that the magnetic state has to be considered as a weak AFM coupling of stable FM elements. This thesis is further supported by the thermal evolution of the ordered state, revealing anisotropic correlations and the close competition of FM and AFM correlations above the Neel transition, as well as by the doping dependence of the charge- and orbital-ordered state, which is interpreted on the basis of a different response of the magnetic system with respect to additional electrons or holes. In the orthorhombic perovskite TbMnO{sub 3} the electric polarization is closely coupled to the magnetic degrees of freedom via a complex, non-collinear magnetic ordering. Precisely characterizing the different magnon excitations
Neutron scattering studies on magnetic excitations in complex ordered manganites
Senff, D.
2007-09-01
This thesis deals with magnetic excitations in three different Manganese oxides, single-layered LaSrMnO 4 , charge- and orbital-ordered La 1/2 Sr 3/2 MnO 4 , and multiferroic TbMnO 3 , which are studied by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The properties of the first system, LaSrMnO 4 , are governed by the complex interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom typical for the physics of manganites. The magnetic low-temperature behavior is quite unusual, and the comprehensive analysis of the spin-wave spectrum of LaSrMnO 4 suggests a heterogenous ground state with ferromagnetic orbital polarons embedded in an antiferromagnetic background. The doped system La 1/2 Sr 3/2 MnO 4 exhibits a stable charge- and orbital-ordered state, which today is discussed very controversially, as it is of great relevance for the colossal increase of electric conductivity at the metal-insulator transition in perovskite manganites. Analyzing the spin-wave dispersion of the ordered state, we find an excellent agreement with classical predictions by Goodenough and reject a recent alternative proposal. The different strength of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange in the CE-type ordering leads to the conclusion that the magnetic state has to be considered as a weak AFM coupling of stable FM elements. This thesis is further supported by the thermal evolution of the ordered state, revealing anisotropic correlations and the close competition of FM and AFM correlations above the Neel transition, as well as by the doping dependence of the charge- and orbital-ordered state, which is interpreted on the basis of a different response of the magnetic system with respect to additional electrons or holes. In the orthorhombic perovskite TbMnO 3 the electric polarization is closely coupled to the magnetic degrees of freedom via a complex, non-collinear magnetic ordering. Precisely characterizing the different magnon excitations allows to identify all relevant modes of the
Hrasko, P.; Foeldy, L.; Toth, A.
1986-07-01
Electron-positron pair production in strong Coulomb fields is outlined. It is shown that the singular behaviour of the adiabatic basis can be removed if solutions of the time dependent external field Dirac equation are used as a basis to expand the fermion field operator. This latter 'asymptotic basis' makes it possible to introduce Feynman-propagator. Applying the reduction technique, the computation of all of the basic quantities can be reduced to the solution of an integral equation. The positron spectrum for separable potential model with Lorentzian time dependence and for potential jump is analyzed in the pole approximation. (author)
Dynamics in few body Coulomb problems
Ovchinnikov, S.Y.; Macek, J.H.; Tantawi, R.S.; Sabbah, A.S.
1999-01-01
We develop the 'positive energy Sturmian technique' for the solution of time-dependent Schroedinger equations which describe few Coulomb centers with scattering initial conditions. The 'positive energy Sturmian technique' is based on the following main steps: (i) time-dependent scaled transformation; (ii) Fourier transformation into the frequency domain; (iii) outgoing wave Sturmian expansions; and (iv) solution of coupled equations. The technique has been applied in electron-atom and ion-atom collisions for calculations of energy and angular distributions of emitted electrons and excitations of atoms. Refs. 2 (author)
Coulomb energy, vortices, and confinement
Greensite, Jeff; Olejnik, Stefan
2003-01-01
We estimate the Coulomb energy of static quarks from a Monte Carlo calculation of the correlator of timelike link variables in the Coulomb gauge. We find, in agreement with Cucchieri and Zwanziger, that this energy grows linearly with distance at large quark separations. The corresponding string tension, however, is several times greater than the accepted asymptotic string tension, indicating that a state containing only static sources, with no constituent gluons, is not the lowest energy flux tube state. The Coulomb energy is also measured on thermalized lattices with center vortices removed by the de Forcrand-D'Elia procedure. We find that when vortices are removed, the Coulomb string tension vanishes
Generalized ladder operators for the Dirac-Coulomb problem via SUSY QM
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB
2003-12-01
The supersymmetry in quantum mechanics and shape invariance condition are applied as an algebraic method to solving the Dirac-Coulomb problem. The ground state and the excited states are investigated via new generalized ladder operators. (author)
Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”
Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, E. V. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chaikovsky, S. A. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics, UD, RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Artyomov, A. P. [Institute of High Current Electrons, SB, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-09-15
The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.
Coulomb explosion of “hot spot”
Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Artyomov, A. P.
2016-01-01
The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed, and the estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Bobrov, V.B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Trigger, S.A., E-mail: satron@mail.r [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaia St., 13, Bd. 2. Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2011-04-18
Highlights: The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Bobrov, V.B.; Trigger, S.A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The review of the critical opalescence problem is presented. → Light scattering in a two-component electron-nuclear system is studied. → The exact relations between the structure factors and compressibility are found. → The obtained relations are valid for strong interaction for the Coulomb systems. → The experimental verification of these relations is possible for various elements. - Abstract: Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications
Ershova, Olga
2012-03-09
Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on {sup 100}Mo, {sup 93}Mo and {sup 92}Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the {sup 100}Mo({gamma},n), {sup 100}Mo({gamma},2n), {sup 93}Mo({gamma},n) and {sup 92}Mo({gamma},n) reactions were determined. A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. (orig.)
The Coulomb-nuclear force interference in the system 32S + 60Ni
Dannhaeuser, G.
1980-01-01
For the reaction 60 Ni( 32 S, 32 S*) 60 Ni* using particle-γ-coincidences the excitation functions of 32 S(2 + 1 ) and 60 Ni(2 + 1 ) for projectile energies of 70-100 MeV as well as with Si single counters the angular distribution of the elastically and inelastically scattered 32 S ions for incident energies of 90, 95, and 100 MeV were measured. A comparison of the measurements with the results of different computer codes led to following results: 1.) At the determination of the static quadrupole moment Q 2 of 32 S using the reorientation effect the influence of the nuclear force can be neglected for projectile energies Esub(P) 32 S the value Q 2 = -0.18 +- 0.04 eb was found. (Hereby destructive interference with the virtual excitation of the 2 + 2 -state is assumed). 3.) For projectile energies Esub(P) >= 72 MeV at which the excitation by nuclear forces was small against the Coulomb excitation, an evaluation of the excitation function of 32 S(2 + 1 ) by the semiclassical code NCL, which regards the influence of the nuclear interaction approximatively, yielded values for the static quadrupole moment, which agree within the measurement errors with the above value. 4.) For the quantitative analysis of the measured angular distributions a quantum mechanical CC-code was required. 5.) Using the semiclassical CC-code NCL an illustrative and detailed interpretation of the excitation functions of 32 S(2 + 1 ) and 60 Ni(2 + 1 ) could be given. 6.) The code NCL allows the study of the influence of the Coulomb-nuclear force interference on the temporal behaviour of the excitation process. 7.) Using the code NCL the angular distribution of the decay γ quanta for a fixed particle-scattering angle theta approx. 0 in dependence on the incident energy was calculated. (orig.) [de
Coulomb collisions in the solar wind
Klein, L. W.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.
1985-01-01
A major improvement of the present investigation over previous studies of the subject is related to the use of helium temperatures obtained from helium ion measurements uncontaminated by the high-velocity tail of the proton distribution. More observations, covering a large parameter range, were employed, and the effects of interspecies drift were taken into account. It is shown in a more definite way than has been done previously, that Coulomb collisions provide the most important mechanism bringing about equilibrium between helium and protons in the solar wind. Other mechanisms may play some part in restricted regions, but Coulomb collisions are dominant on the macroscale.
Molecular resonances in sub-Coulomb energy region (12C-12C, 12C-24Mg, 12C-9Be systems)
Takimoto, Kiyohiko; Shimomura, Susumu; Tanaka, Makoto; Murakami, Tetsuya; Fukada, Mamoru; Sakaguchi, Atsushi
1982-01-01
Molecular resonance in sub-Coulomb energy region was studied on 12 C- 12 C, 12 C- 24 Mg and 12 C- 9 Be systems. The excitation functions and the angular distributions were measured on the reactions 12 C( 12 C, 8 Besub(g,s,)) 16 Osub(g,s,), 24 Mg( 12 C, α) 32 S and 9 Be ( 12 C, 8 Besub(g,s,)) 13 Csub(g,s,). Sub-Coulomb resonances were observed in all systems and the contribution of the 12 Csub(2nd)*(0 + , 7.65 MeV) state is proposed. (author)
The Coulomb potential in quantum mechanics and related topics
Haeringen, H. van.
1978-01-01
This dissertation consists of an analytic study of the Coulomb interaction in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and some related topics. The author investigates in a number of self-contained articles various interesting and important properties of the Coulomb potential. Some of these properties are shared by other potentials which also play a role in quantum mechanics. For such related interactions a comparative study is made. The principal difficulties in the description of proton-deuteron scattering and break-up reactions, due to the Coulomb interaction, are studied by working out a simple model. The bound states are studied for the Coulomb plus Yamaguchi potential, for the symmetric shifted Coulomb potential, and for local potentials with an inverse-distance-squared asymptotic behaviour. (Auth.)
Kinetic studies following state-selective laser excitation
Keto, J.W.
1992-01-01
We have made measurements of state-to-state deactivation cross sections and radiative lifetimes for Xe*(6p,6p',7p) and Kr*(5p) states in xenon and krypton buffer gases. These results are relevant to kinetic models and both excimer lasers and the infrared xenon laser; and they are a significant improvement in the precision of the known radiative lifetimes. This type of experiment can now be compared with recent calculations of state-to-state collisional relaxation in rare-gases by Hickman, Huestis, and Saxon. We have also made significant progress in the study of the electronic spectra of small molecules of the rare gases. Spectra have been obtained for Xe 2 , Xe 3 , Xe 4 , and larger clusters. As guidance for the larger clusters of the rare gases we have obtained the first multiphoton spectra for excitons in condensed xenon. In collaboration with research on the multiphoton spectra of the rare gases, we have continued experiments using synchrotron radiation in collaboration with the University of Hamburg. In experiments there we have observed excitation and fluorescence spectra for single xenon atoms at the surface, within the second layer, and within the bulk of large argon clusters
Integral equation for Coulomb problem
Sasakawa, T.
1986-01-01
For short range potentials an inhomogeneous (homogeneous) Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation of the Fredholm type yields the wave function of scattering (bound) state. For the Coulomb potential, this statement is no more valid. It has been felt difficult to express the Coulomb wave function in a form of an integral equation with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation. In the present paper, the author shows that an inhomogeneous integral equation of a Volterra type with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation can be constructed both for the scattering and the bound states. The equation yielding the binding energy is given in an integral form. The present treatment is easily extended to the coupled Coulomb problems
Ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlated excitons in GaAs quantum wells
Mycek, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.
1995-12-01
The author measures the transient nonlinear optical response of room temperature excitons in gallium arsenide quantum wells via multi-wave mixing experiments. The dynamics of the resonantly excited excitons is directly reflected by the ultrafast decay of the induced nonlinear polarization, which radiates the detected multi-wave mixing signal. She characterizes this ultrafast coherent emission in both amplitude and phase, using time- and frequency-domain measurement techniques, to better understand the role of Coulomb correlation in these systems. To interpret the experimental results, the nonlinear optical response of a dense medium is calculated using a model including Coulomb interaction. She contributes three new elements to previous theoretical and experimental studies of these systems. First, surpassing traditional time-integrated measurements, she temporally resolves the amplitude of the ultrafast coherent emission. Second, in addition to measuring the third-order four-wave mixing signal, she also investigates the fifth-order six-wave mixing response. Third, she characterizes the ultrafast phase dynamics of the nonlinear emission using interferometric techniques with an unprecedented resolution of approximately 140 attoseconds. The author finds that effects arising from Coulomb correlation dominate the nonlinear optical response when the density of excitons falls below 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2}, the saturation density. These signatures of Coulomb correlation are investigated for increasing excitation density to gradually screen the interactions and test the validity of the model for dense media. The results are found to be qualitatively consistent with both the predictions of the model and with numerical solutions to the semiconductor Bloch equations. Importantly, the results also indicate current experimental and theoretical limitations, which should be addressed in future research.
Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA
Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.
2013-01-01
Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported
Equations of state for self-excited MHD generator studies
Rogers, F.J.; Ross, M.; Haggin, G.L.; Wong, L.K.
1980-02-26
We have constructed a state-of-the-art equation of state (EOS) for argon covering the temperature density range attainable by currently proposed self-excited MHD generators. The EOS for conditions in the flow channel was obtained primarily by a non-ideal plasma code (ACTEX) that is based on a many body activity expansion. For conditions in the driver chamber the EOS was primarily obtained from a fluid code (HDFP) that calculates the fluid properties from perturbation theory based on the insulator interatomic pair potential but including electronic excitations. The results are in agreement with several sets of experimental data in the 0.6 - 91 GPa pressure range.
Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei
2018-01-01
In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.
Cross-sections and average angular momenta in fusion reactions near the coulomb barrier
Dasgupta, M.
1992-01-01
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the study of heavy ion collisions near the Coulomb barrier. This has been triggered mainly by the observations of enhancements by factors of about one to two order of magnitude in sub-Coulomb barrier fusion (SBF) cross-sections between medium mass nuclei, as compared to predictions based on one-dimensional barrier penetration model (l-d BPM). Though, a considerable amount of work both theoretical and experimental has been done in this field, a complete understanding of the SBF phenomenon has not yet been achieved. The relation between fusion excitation function and angular momentum (l) distribution in SBF reactions is a topic of current interest. It is believed that l-distributions provide a more stringent test of SBF models that the excitation functions alone. Simultaneous measurement of l-distribution (or its moments) and fusion excitation function is expected to lead to a better understanding of the relationship between these two qualities. Such information has been obtained in experiments done at pelletron accelerator facility. In the present talk the measurement of fusion cross-sections and the method of determination of average l from partial evaporation residue cross-section has been elaborated. An analysis of the experimental data on the basis of some of the SBF models has been discussed briefly. (author). 13 refs
Nuclear moments from heavy-ion inelastic scattering above the Coulomb barrier
Gross, E.E.
1981-01-01
Use of appropriate theoretical techniques allows the study of the moments of the nuclear charge distribution to be extended above the Coulomb barrier. The investigation of nuclear moments through analysis of differential cross sections is discussed with the aid of several examples: 12 C(70.4 MeV) + 144 146 Nd, importance of multistep effects; 20 Ne(131 MeV) + 208 Pb, large hexadecapole deformation; 12 C(78 MeV) + 194 Pt, asymmetric rotor model; and 22 Ne(93.5 MeV) + 126 Te, mutual excitation. 13 figures, 1 table
VUV Study of Electron-Pyrimidine Dissociative Excitation
Hein, Jeff; Al-Khazraji, Hajar; Tiessen, Collin; Lukic, Dragan; Trocchi, Joshuah; McConkey, William
2013-05-01
A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. Data have been made absolute using Lyman- α from H2 as a secondary standard. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The emission cross section of Lyman- α is measured to be (2.44 +/- 0.25) 10-18 cm2 at 100 eV impact energy. The probability of extracting C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.
Non local theory of excitations applied to the Hubbard model
Kakehashi, Y; Nakamura, T; Fulde, P
2010-01-01
We propose a nonlocal theory of single-particle excitations. It is based on an off-diagonal effective medium and the projection operator method for treating the retarded Green function. The theory determines the nonlocal effective medium matrix elements by requiring that they are consistent with those of the self-energy of the Green function. This arrows for a description of long-range intersite correlations with high resolution in momentum space. Numerical study for the half-filled Hubbard model on the simple cubic lattice demonstrates that the theory is applicable to the strong correlation regime as well as the intermediate regime of Coulomb interaction strength. Furthermore the results show that nonlocal excitations cause sub-bands in the strong Coulomb interaction regime due to strong antiferromagnetic correlations, decrease the quasi-particle peak on the Fermi level with increasing Coulomb interaction, and shift the critical Coulomb interaction U C2 for the divergence of effective mass towards higher energies at least by a factor of two as compared with that in the single-site approximation.
Response of sliding structures to seismic excitation: bibliographical study
Sarh, K.; Duval, C.
1992-11-01
Calculation of the seismic response of structures on sliding supports involves the dual problem of ''non-linear'' and ''random'' dynamic behaviour. After a review of the non-linearities common in dynamics, slipping is compared with a hysteresis phenomenon. Simple examples are then used to present the Fokker-Planck equation and the equivalent linearization method. Finally, the methods for modification of the excitation spectrum intended for the engineering calculations are recalled. (authors). 21 figs., 23 refs
Bedrosian, B.; Barbela, M.; Drenick, R.F.; Tsirk, A.
1980-10-01
The critical excitation method provides a new, alternative approach to methods presently used for seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures. The critical excitation method offers the advantages that: (1) it side-steps the assumptions regarding the probability distribution of ground motions, and (2) it does not require an artificial, and to some extent arbitrarily generated, time history of ground motion, both features to which structural integrity analyses are sensitive. Potential utility of the critical excitation method is studied from the user's viewpoint. The method is reviewed and compared with the response spectrum method used in current practice, utilizing the reactor buildings of a PWR and a BWR plant in case studies. Two types of constraints on critical excitation were considered in the study. In one case, only an intensity limit was used. In the other case, imposition of an intensity limit together with limits on the maximum acceleration and/or velocity for the critical excitation is considered
Proton-/sup 90/Zr interaction at sub-Coulomb proton energies
Laird, C.E.; Flynn, D.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.
1987-01-01
The proton-/sup 90/Zr interaction at sub-Coulomb energies has been investigated in the context of the Lane model, with isospin coupling included, and with alternate decay modes represented with the Hauser-Feshbach model. Scattering and reaction cross sections were accurately measured in order to obtain enough information to constrain the real and absorptive parts of the proton potential. Differential elastic scattering excitation functions were measured at back angles of 135 0 and 165 0 from 2 to 7 MeV, with cross section accuracies of 3%. The energy range was sufficient to go from a region where the backscattering was predominantly Coulomb, enabling additional checks on the cross section accuracies, to a region where the gross structure of the cross sections deviated significantly from Rutherford scattering. Radiative capture cross sections were measured from 1.9 to 5.7 MeV proton energies. The capture cross sections were obtained by summing the measured cross sections for the first two primary gamma rays in addition to some 34 other transitions which terminated on the ground and first excited state. The total inelastic scattering cross section to all /sup 90/Zr excited states (except the first excited state which has been previously measured) was measured at several energies between 3.9 and 5.7 MeV by observing the radiative decay of the residual, excited /sup 90/Zr nuclei. The analysis yielded several model parameters suggestive of large nuclear structure effects. The depth of the absorptive potential was found to vary as W/sub D/ = 2.73+0.70 E/sub p/ in the 2 to 7 MeV proton energy range studied. A real diffuseness of 0.54 fm, significantly smaller than that obtained in neighboring nuclei, was obtained
Intergrain Coupling in Dusty-Plasma Coulomb Crystals
Mohideen, U.; Smith, M.A.; Rahman, H.U.; Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D.A.
1998-01-01
We have studied the lattice structure of dusty-plasma Coulomb crystals formed in rectangular conductive grooves as a function of plasma temperature and density. The crystal appears to be made of mutually repulsive columns of grains confined by the walls of the groove. The columns are oriented along the direction of the electrode sheath electric field. A simple phenomenological model wherein the intergrain spacing results from an attractive electric-field-induced dipole-dipole force balanced by a repulsive monopole Coulomb force is consistent with observed features of the Coulomb crystal. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Chandrasekhar, Ngangbam; Singh, Nungleppam Monorajan; Gartia, R. K.
2018-04-01
Luminescent techniques require one or the other source of excitations which may vary from high cost X-rays, γ-rays, β-rays etc. to low cost LED. Persistent luminescent materials or Glow-in-the-Dark phosphors are the optical harvesters which store the optical energy from day light illuminating a whole night. They are so sensitive that they can be excited even with the low light of firefly. Therefore, instead of using a high cost excitation source authors have developed a low cost functioning of excitation source controlling short pulses of LED to excite persistent phosphors with the aid of ExpEYES Junior (Hardware/software framework developed by IUAC, New Delhi). Using this, the authors have excited the sample under investigation upto 10 ms. Trap spectroscopy of the pre-excited sample with LED is studied using Thermoluminescence (TL) technique. In this communication, development of the excitation source is discussed and demonstrate the its usefulness in the study of trap spectroscopy of commercially available CaS:Eu2+, Sm3+. Trapping parameters are also evaluated using Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) technique.
Ab Initio Study of Electronic Excitation Effects on SrTiO_{3}
Zhao, Shijun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Weber, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-11-14
Interaction of energetic ions or lasers with solids often induces electronic excitations that may modify material properties significantly. In this study, effects of electronic excitations on strontium titanate SrTiO_{3} (STO) are investigated based on first-principles calculations. The lattice structure, electronic properties, lattice vibrational frequencies, and dynamical stabilities are studied in detail. The results suggest that electronic excitation induces charge redistribution that is mainly observed in Ti–O bonds. The electronic band gap increases with increasing electronic excitation, as excitation mainly induces depopulation of Ti 3d states. Phonon analysis indicates that there is a large phonon band gap induced by electronic excitation because of the changes in the vibrational properties of Ti and O atoms. In addition, a new peak appears in the phonon density of states with imaginary frequencies, an indication of lattice instability. Further dynamics simulations confirm that STO undergoes transition to an amorphous structure under strong electronic excitations. In conclusion, the optical properties of STO under electronic excitation are consistent with the evolution of atomic and electronic structures, which suggests a possibility to probe the properties of STO in nonequilibrium state using optical measurement.
Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies, June 1, 1977--May 31, 1978
Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Guidry, M.W.
1978-01-01
Research progress is summarized for activities of the University of Tennessee department of physics and astronomy in the following areas: (1) in-beam spectroscopy of high-spin state, (2) Coulomb-nuclear interference and inelastic heavy ion scattering (3) Coulomb excitation, nuclear theory, (4) nuclear structure studies with alpha-induced direct reactions, and (5) developmental activities
Pre-Excitation Studies for Rubidium-Plasma Generation
Aladi, M; Barna, I.F.; Czitrovszky, Aladar; Djotyan, Gagik; Dombi, Peter; Dzsotjan, David; FöLdes, Istvan; Hamar, Gergo; Ignacz, Peter; Kedves, Miklos; Kerekes, Attila; Levai, Peter; Marton, Istvan; Nagy, Attila; Oszetzky, Daniel; Pocsai, Mihaly; Racz, Peter; Raczkevi, Bela; Szigeti, Janos; Sörlei, Zsuzsa; Szipöcs, Robert; Varga, Dezso; Varga-Umbrich, Karoly; Varro, Sandor; Vamos, Lenard; Vesztergombi, György
2014-01-01
The key element in the Proton-Driven-Plasma-Wake-Field-Accelerator (AWAKE) project is the generation of highly uniform plasma from Rubidium vapor. The standard way to achieve full ionization is to use high power laser which can assure the over-barrier-ionization (OBI) along the 10 meters long active region. The Wigner-team in Budapest is investigating an alternative way of uniform plasma generation. The proposed Resonance Enhanced Multi Photon Ionization (REMPI) scheme probably can be realized by much less laser power. In the following the resonant pre-excitations of the Rb atoms are investigated, theoretically and the status report about the preparatory work on the experiment are presented.
Isoelectronic study of triply excited Li-like states
Benis, E P; Zouros, T J M; Gorczyca, T W; Zamkov, M; Richard, P
2003-01-01
Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCSs) for the production and Auger decay of the intra-shell 2s2p 22 D triply excited state formed in collisions of He-like ions (Z = 5-9) with H 2 were determined experimentally, using zero-degree Auger projectile electron spectroscopy. The 2 D e state was directly produced by 180 deg. resonant scattering of the quasi-free H 2 electrons from the 1s2s 3 S metastable state of the ion. Resonant energies and DDCSs calculated using the R-matrix approach within the electron scattering model were found to be in good overall agreement with experiment. (letter to the editor)
Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with the use of composite targets
Kierkegaard, K.; Ludvigsen, S.; Petterson, B.; Veje, E.
1985-01-01
Some Li- and Na-compounds have been bombarded with 80 keV Ar + ions, and excitation of sputtered particles has been studied with optical spectrometry. Very strong excitation of Li I and Na I was observed, but essentially no excitation of electronegative elements. For levels in Li I and also in Na I with n 8, the relative level populations fall noticeably above the extrapolation of such power law behaviors. This is discussed and tentatively interpreted in terms of two-step processes. (i) The projectile excites a target electron from the valence band to the conduction band. (ii) Such an excitation is transferred resonantly to the sputtered atom on its way out. (orig.)
Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.
Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M
2015-01-08
Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each
11Li Breakup on 208 at energies around the Coulomb barrier.
Fernández-García, J P; Cubero, M; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M; Acosta, L; Alcorta, M; Alvarez, M A G; Borge, M J G; Buchmann, L; Diget, C A; Falou, H A; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Gómez-Camacho, J; Kanungo, R; Lay, J A; Madurga, M; Martel, I; Moro, A M; Mukha, I; Nilsson, T; Sánchez-Benítez, A M; Shotter, A; Tengblad, O; Walden, P
2013-04-05
The inclusive breakup for the (11)Li + (208)Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of (9)Li following the (11)Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the (11)Li continuum at low excitation energy.
11Li Breakup on 208Pb at Energies Around the Coulomb Barrier
Fernández-García, J.P.; Cubero, M.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.
2013-01-01
The inclusive breakup for the 11Li+208Pb reaction at energies around the Coulomb barrier has been measured for the first time. A sizable yield of 9Li following the 11Li dissociation has been observed, even at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Using the first-order semiclassical perturbation...... theory of Coulomb excitation it is shown that the breakup probability data measured at small angles can be used to extract effective breakup energy as well as the slope of B(E1) distribution close to the threshold. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations, including both nuclear...... and Coulomb couplings between the target and projectile to all orders, reproduce the measured inclusive breakup cross sections and support the presence of a dipole resonance in the 11Li continuum at low excitation energy....
How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude
Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1974-01-01
The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)
Coulomb branches with complex singularities
Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario
2018-06-01
We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.
Radiative capture versus Coulomb dissociation
Esbensen, H.; Physics
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8 B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7 Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed
Radiative Capture versus Coulomb Dissociation
Esbensen, Henning
2006-01-01
Measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of 8B have been used to infer the rate of the inverse radiative proton capture on 7Be. The analysis is usually based on the assumptions that the two processes are related by detailed balance and described by E1 transitions. However, there are corrections to this relation. The Coulomb form factors for the two processes, for example, are not identical. There are also E2 transitions and higher-order effects in the Coulomb dissociation, and the nuclear induced breakup cannot always be ignored. While adding first-order E2 transitions enhances the decay energy spectrum, the other mechanisms cause a suppression at low relative energies. The net result may accidentally be close to the conventional first-order E1 calculation, but there are differences which cannot be ignored if accuracies of 10% or better are needed
Computational assignment of redox states to Coulomb blockade diamonds.
Olsen, Stine T; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Hansen, Thorsten; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V
2014-09-07
With the advent of molecular transistors, electrochemistry can now be studied at the single-molecule level. Experimentally, the redox chemistry of the molecule manifests itself as features in the observed Coulomb blockade diamonds. We present a simple theoretical method for explicit construction of the Coulomb blockade diamonds of a molecule. A combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method is invoked to calculate redox energies and polarizabilities of the molecules, including the screening effect of the metal leads. This direct approach circumvents the need for explicit modelling of the gate electrode. From the calculated parameters the Coulomb blockade diamonds are constructed using simple theory. We offer a theoretical tool for assignment of Coulomb blockade diamonds to specific redox states in particular, and a study of chemical details in the diamonds in general. With the ongoing experimental developments in molecular transistor experiments, our tool could find use in molecular electronics, electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis.
Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-05-13
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.
Muhammady Shibghatullah
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We report structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of SrCoO3 in Pm3̅m and P4/mbm space groups, which are calculated by using generalized gradient approximation corrected with on-site Coulomb repulsion U and exchange energies J. The cubic lattice parameter a and local magnetic moments of Co (μCo are optimized by varying U at Co 3d site. Employing ultrasoft pseudopotential, the values of U = 8 eV and J = 0.75 eV are the best choice for Pm3̅m space group. We found the value of μCo = 2.56 μB, which is consistent with the previous results. It was also found that Co 3d, hybridized with O 2p, is the main contributor to ferromagnetic metallic properties. Besides, norm-conserving pseudopotential promotes a, which is in good agreement with experimental result. However, it is not suitable for P4/mbm space group. By using ultrasoft pseudopotential, the value of U = 3 eV (J = 0.75 is the most suitable for P4/mbm group. Ferromagnetic metallic properties, Jahn-Teller distortion, and reasonable lattice parameters have been obtained. This study shows that U has significant contribution to the calculated properties and also points out that P4/mbm space group with US-PP is suitable to describe experimental results.
Ma, Pan; Wang, Chuncheng; Luo, Sizuo; Yu, Xitao; Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Wenhui; Yu, Jiaqi; Yang, Yizhang; Tian, Xu; Cui, Zhonghua; Ding, Dajun
2018-05-01
We studied the relative yields and dissociation dynamics for two- and three-body Coulomb explosion (CE) channels from highly charged carbonyl sulfide molecules in intense laser fields using the CE imaging technique. The electron recollision contributions are evaluated by comparing the relative yields for the multiple ionization process in linearly polarized and circularly polarized (LP and CP) laser fields. The nonsequential multiple ionization is only confirmed for the charge states of 2 to 4 because the energy for further ionization from the inner orbital is much larger than the maximum recollision energy, 3.2U p . The novel deviations of kinetic energy releases distributions between LP and CP pulses are observed for the charge states higher than 4. It can be attributed to the stronger molecular bending in highly charged states before three-body CE with CP light, in which the bending wave packet is initialed by the triple or quartic ionization and spread along their potential curves. Compared to LP light, CP light ionizes a larger fraction of bending molecules in the polarization plane.
On analytical solutions to the problem of the Coulomb and confining potentials
Dineykhan, M.; Nazmitdinov, R.G.
1997-01-01
The oscillator representation method is presented and applied to calculate the energy spectrum of the superposition of the Coulomb and the power-law potentials, the Coulomb and the Yukawa potentials. The method provides an efficient way to obtain analytical results for arbitrary set of parameters of the considered potentials. The energies of ground and excited states of a quantum system are in good agreement with the exact results
Alpha particles-and 3He inelastic scattering by 124Sn in the coulomb barrier region
Appoloni, C.R.
1976-01-01
Angular distributions for inelastic scattering of α and 3 He particles in 124 Sn at the incident energies around Coulomb barrier were measured using the 8UD Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of The University of Sao Paulo. The results were analysed by DWBA with a collective form factor including the effects due to the interference between coulomb and nuclear excitations with the code PATIWEN (Ba75). The nuclear deformation parameters for the one phonon levels (2 + and 3 - ) have been obtained. (Author) [pt
Gauge orbits and the Coulomb potential
Greensite, J.
2009-01-01
If the color Coulomb potential is confining, then the Coulomb field energy of an isolated color charge is infinite on an infinite lattice, even if the usual UV divergence is lattice regulated. A simple criterion for Coulomb confinement is that the expectation value of timelike link variables vanishes in the Coulomb gauge, but it is unclear how this criterion is related to the spectrum of the corresponding Faddeev-Popov operator, which can be used to formulate a quite different criterion for Coulomb confinement. The purpose of this article is to connect the two seemingly different Coulomb confinement criteria, and explain the geometrical basis of the connection.
Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters
Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.
1981-01-01
The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter
Sobhy, M. A.; Elshenawy, M. M.; Takahashi, Masateru; Whitman, B. H.; Walter, N. G.; Hamdan, S. M.
2011-01-01
Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation
Fusion and quasi-elastic processes near the Coulomb barrier
Abriola, D.
1987-01-01
An overview of the fusion phenomenon below Coulomb barrier is presented. The current theoretical descriptions, emphasizing the relations with direct reactions are discussed. The definition and systematic behaviour of the fusion enhancement below the Coulomb barrier are also presented. The role of coupling to surface degrees of freedom, namely permanent deformations of nuclei, inelastic and transfer channels is shown. The importance of studies describing simultaneously quase-elastic processes and fusion are also shown. (M.C.K.) [pt
Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system
Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.
1994-01-01
We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself
The generalized parabolic Coulomb wavefunction in spherical coordinates
Gasaneo, G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Sur, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Otranto, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Sur, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)
2001-10-19
In this work we present a detailed study of the recently introduced {delta}{sub m,n} basis for three Coulomb particles. We show that the scattering and generalized Coulomb problems as well as a {phi}{sub 2} approach can be viewed as particular cases of this basis. We derive a partial wave expansion for {delta}{sub m,n} functions and analyse the reduction to some of the precedent cases. (author)
Dual structure in the charge excitation spectrum of electron-doped cuprates
Bejas, Matías; Yamase, Hiroyuki; Greco, Andrés
2017-12-01
Motivated by the recent resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments for electron-doped cuprates, we study the charge excitation spectrum in a layered t -J model with the long-range Coulomb interaction. We show that the spectrum is not dominated by a specific type of charge excitations, but by different kinds of charge fluctuations, and is characterized by a dual structure in the energy space. Low-energy charge excitations correspond to various types of bond-charge fluctuations driven by the exchange term (J term), whereas high-energy charge excitations are due to usual on-site charge fluctuations and correspond to plasmon excitations above the particle-hole continuum. The interlayer coupling, which is frequently neglected in many theoretical studies, is particularly important to the high-energy charge excitations.
Studies of isovector excitations in nuclei by neutron-induced reactions
Nilsson, L.
1987-01-01
In this paper isovector excitations in nuclei, in particular the giant isovector quadrupole resonance in spherical nuclei, will be discussed. Several methods to investigate this excitation have been used, e.g. inelastic electron scattering and charge-exchange reactions. An alternative method to study isovector E2 resonances in nuclei, based on the radiative capture of fast neutrons, will be presented. Results from such experiments performed at the tandem accelerator laboratories in Los Alamos and Uppsala will be presented and discussed in terms of the direct-semidirect capture model. As a separate issue, the preparations being undertaken at Uppsala for studies of isovector excitations in nuclei by means of the (n,p) reaction will be described. A schematic lay-out of the experiment will be presented together with some relevant neutron beam parameters. Among isovector excitations to be studied by this method are the isovector monopole resonance and the Gamow-Teller resonance. 54 references, 6 figures, 1 table
Regularization of the Coulomb scattering problem
Baryshevskii, V.G.; Feranchuk, I.D.; Kats, P.B.
2004-01-01
The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb potential is used within the scope of both stationary and time-dependent scattering theories in order to find the parameters which determine the regularization of the Rutherford cross section when the scattering angle tends to zero but the distance r from the center remains finite. The angular distribution of the particles scattered in the Coulomb field is studied on rather a large but finite distance r from the center. It is shown that the standard asymptotic representation of the wave functions is inapplicable in the case when small scattering angles are considered. The unitary property of the scattering matrix is analyzed and the 'optical' theorem for this case is discussed. The total and transport cross sections for scattering the particle by the Coulomb center proved to be finite values and are calculated in the analytical form. It is shown that the effects under consideration can be important for the observed characteristics of the transport processes in semiconductors which are determined by the electron and hole scattering by the field of charged impurity centers
Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution
Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)] [and others
1997-04-01
Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.
Study of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states in Sn and Dy nuclei
Stolk, A.
1988-01-01
A study is presented of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The aim is to get more detailed information on the properties of the GDR and to use it as a tool for the investigation of nuclear structure at high excitation energy. The high energy γ-rays seen from the decay of excited state GDRs in heavy ion fusion reactions reflect the average properties of the states populated by the γ-emission. The measurements at different initial excitation energies of 114 Sn provide information on the nuclear level density near the particle separation energy at an average angular momentum of 10ℎ. The study of shape changes at very high spin in 152-156 Dy nuclei is presented. A theoretical model developed to describe fusion-evaporation reactions is presented. 149 refs.; 63 figs.; 13 tabs
Study of highly excited high spin states via the (HI, α) reaction
Kubono, S.
1982-01-01
Three subjects are discussed in this paper. 1) The mechanism of (HI, α) reactions is briefly studied. 2) Possible excitation of molecular resonance states of 12 C- 12 C in 24 Mg through the 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg reaction were investigated. A precise measurement of the level widths in 24 Mg did not support the previous report that the molecular states seen in 12 C + 12 C scattering had been excited in the transfer reaction 12 C( 16 O, α) 24 Mg. 3) Highly excited states in 28 Si, which have a large parentage of 12 C- 16 O, were also studied via the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) 28 Si reaction. An angular correlation measurement revealed the lowest 8 + and 10 + states at 14.00 and 15.97 MeV, respectively, which were selectively excited in the 12 C( 20 Ne, α) reaction. These results suggest a possible new band in 28 Si. (author)
Ginzburg criterion for ionic fluids: the effect of Coulomb interactions.
Patsahan, O
2013-08-01
The effect of the Coulomb interactions on the crossover between mean-field and Ising critical behavior in ionic fluids is studied using the Ginzburg criterion. We consider the charge-asymmetric primitive model supplemented by short-range attractive interactions in the vicinity of the gas-liquid critical point. The model without Coulomb interactions exhibiting typical Ising critical behavior is used to calibrate the Ginzburg temperature of the systems comprising electrostatic interactions. Using the collective variables method, we derive a microscopic-based effective Hamiltonian for the full model. We obtain explicit expressions for all the relevant Hamiltonian coefficients within the framework of the same approximation, i.e., the one-loop approximation. Then we consistently calculate the reduced Ginzburg temperature t(G) for both the purely Coulombic model (a restricted primitive model) and the purely nonionic model (a hard-sphere square-well model) as well as for the model parameters ranging between these two limiting cases. Contrary to the previous theoretical estimates, we obtain the reduced Ginzburg temperature for the purely Coulombic model to be about 20 times smaller than for the nonionic model. For the full model including both short-range and long-range interactions, we show that t(G) approaches the value found for the purely Coulombic model when the strength of the Coulomb interactions becomes sufficiently large. Our results suggest a key role of Coulomb interactions in the crossover behavior observed experimentally in ionic fluids as well as confirm the Ising-like criticality in the Coulomb-dominated ionic systems.
Coulomb fission and transfer fission at heavy ion collisions
Himmele, G.
1981-01-01
In the present thesis the first direct evidence of nuclear fission after inelastic scattering of heavy ions (sup(183,184)W, 152 Sm → 238 U; 184 W → 232 Th; 184 W, 232 Th → 248 Cm) is reported. Experiments which were performed at the UNILAC of the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt show the observed heavy ion induced fission possesses significant properties of the Coulomb fission. The observed dependence of the fission probability for inelastic scattering on the projectile charge proves that the nuclear fission is mediated by the electromagnetic interaction between heavy ions. This result suggests moreover a multiple Coulomb-excitation preceding the fission. Model calculations give a first indication, that the Coulomb fission proceeds mainly from the higher β phonons. In the irradiation with 184 W the fission probability of 232 Th is for all incident energies about 40% smaller that at 238 U. The target dependence of the Coulomb fission however doesn't allow, to give quantitative statements about the position and B(E2)-values of higher lying β phonons. (orig./HSI) [de
Characterization of ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap
Okada, K.; Takayanagi, T.; Wada, M.; Ohtani, S.; Schuessler, H. A.
2010-01-01
We describe a simple and fast method for simulating observed images of ion Coulomb crystals. In doing so, cold elastic collisions between Coulomb crystals and virtual very light atoms are implemented in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation code. Such an approach reproduces the observed images of Coulomb crystals by obtaining density plots of the statistics of existence of each ion. The simple method has the advantage of short computing time in comparison with previous calculation methods. As a demonstration of the simulation, the formation of a planar Coulomb crystal with a small number of ions has been investigated in detail in a linear ion trap both experimentally and by simulation. However, also large Coulomb crystals including up to 1400 ions have been photographed and simulated to extract the secular temperature and the number of ions. For medium-sized crystals, a comparison between experiments and calculations has been performed. Moreover, an MD simulation of the sympathetic cooling of small molecular ions was performed in order to test the possibility of extracting the temperature and the number of refrigerated molecular ions from crystal images of laser-cooled ions. Such information is basic to studying ultracold ion-molecule reactions using ion Coulomb crystals including sympathetically cooled molecular ions.
Hager, Robert, E-mail: rhager@pppl.gov; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-04-15
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with targets partially covered with oxygen
Weng, J.; Veje, E.
1984-01-01
We have bombarded pure, elemental targets of Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, and Au with 80 keV Ar + ions and studied excitation of sputtered atoms or ions under UHV conditions as well as with oxygen present at the target surface. The measurements on Mg, Al, Si, and Ti have been done at projectile incidence angles from 0 0 to 85 0 . Excitation probabilities for gold were found to be only very little influenced by oxygen, but for Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, and Ti, the excitation probabilities were in many, but not all, cases found to depend strongly on the oxygen pressure as well as on the beam current density. This indicates that the excitation mechanism is strongly dependent on the initial electronic conditions of the solid. (orig.)
Coulomb interactions in particle beams
Jansen, G.H.
1988-01-01
This thesis presents a theoretical description of the Coulomb interaction between identical charged particles (electrons or ions) in focussed beam. The charge-density effects as well as the various statistical interaction effects, known as the Boersch effect and the 'trajectory displacement effect', are treated. An introductory literature survey is presented from which the large differences in theoretical approach appear. Subsequently the methods are investigated which are used in studies of comparable problems in plasma physics and stellar dynamics. These turn out to be applicable to particle beams only for certain extreme conditions. The approach finally chosen in this study is twofold. On the one hand use is made of a semi-analytical model in which the statistical and dynamical aspects of the N-particle problem are reduced to two-particle problem. This model results in a number of explicit equations in the experimental parameters, with ties of the beam can be determined directly. On the other hand use has been made of a purely numerical Monte Carlo model in which the kinematical equations of an ensemble interacting particles with 'at random' chosen starting conditions are solved exactly. This model does not lead to general expressions, but yields a specific numerical prediction for each simulated experimental situation. The results of both models appear to agree well mutually. This yields a consistent theory which complements the existing knowledge of particle optics and which allow the description of systems in which the interaction between particles can not be neglected. The predictions of this theory are qualitatively and quantitatively compared with those from some other models, recently reported in literature. (author). 256 refs.; 114 figs.; 1180 schemes; 5 tabs
Excitation and photon decay of giant resonances excited by intermediate energy heavy ions
Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.
1987-01-01
Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the giant resonances. In particular, recent measurements have been made of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented. 22 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
EPR studies of excited state exchange and crystal-field effects in rare earth compounds
Huang, C.Y.; Sugawara, K.; Cooper, B.R.
1976-01-01
EPR in excited crystal-field states of Tm 3+ , Pr 3+ , and Tb 3+ in singlet-ground-state systems and in the excited state of Ce 3+ in CeP are reviewed. Because one is looking at a crystal-field excited state resonance, the exchange, even if isotropic, does not act as a secular perturbation. This means that one obtains different effects and has access to more information about the dynamic effects of exchange than in conventional paramagnetic resonance experiments. The Tm and Pr monopnictides studied are paramagnetic at all temperatures. The most striking feature of the behavior of the GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ EPR in the Tm compounds is the presence of an anomalous maximum in the temperature dependence of the g-factor. The relationship of this effect to anisotropic exchange is discussed. The results of the EPR of the excited GAMMA 5 /sup (2)/ level of Tb 3 + (g-factor becomes very large at T/sub N/ in antiferromagnetic TbX (X = P, As, Sb) and that of the excited GAMMA 8 level of Ce 3+ in antiferromagnetic CeP will also be reported. For sufficient dilution of the Tb 3+ in the terbium monopnictides, the systems become paramagnetic (Van Vleck paramagnets) down to 0 0 K. The Tb 3+ excited state resonance EPR in Tb/sub 0.1/ La/sub 0.9/P was studied as an example of behavior in such systems. 10 fig
Dynamic study of excited state hydrogen-bonded complexes of harmane in cyclohexane-toluene mixtures.
Carmona, Carmen; Balón, Manuel; Galán, Manuel; Guardado, Pilar; Muñoz, María A
2002-09-01
Photoinduced proton transfer reactions of harmane or 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (HN) in the presence of the proton donor hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in cyclohexane-toluene mixtures (CY-TL; 10% vol/vol of TL) have been studied. Three excited state species have been identified: a 1:2 hydrogen-bonded proton transfer complex (PTC), between the pyridinic nitrogen of the substrate and the proton donor, a hydrogen-bonded cation-like exciplex (CL*) with a stoichiometry of at least 1:3 and a zwitterionic exciplex (Z*). Time-resolved fluorescence measurements evidence that upon excitation of ground state PTC, an excited state equilibrium is established between PTC* and the cationlike exciplex, CL*, lambdaem approximately/= 390 nm. This excited state reaction is assisted by another proton donor molecule. Further reaction of CL* with an additional HFIP molecule produces the zwitterionic species, Z*, lambda(em) approximately/= 500 nm. From the analysis of the multiexponential decays, measured at different emission wavelengths and as a function of HFIP concentration, the mechanism of these excited state reactions has been established. Thus, three rate constants and three reciprocal lifetimes have been determined. The simultaneous study of 1,9-dimethyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (MHN) under the same experimental conditions has helped to understand the excited state kinetics of these processes.
Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Ki-Seok
2018-04-01
We investigate the role of Coulomb interaction in the multifractality of Anderson metal-insulator transition, where the Coulomb interaction is treated within the Hartree-Fock approximation, but disorder effects are taken into account exactly. An innovative technical aspect in our simulation is to utilize the Ewald-sum technique, which allows us to introduce the long-range nature of the Coulomb interaction into Hartree-Fock self-consistent equations of order parameters more accurately. This numerical simulation reproduces the Altshuler-Aronov correction in a metallic state and the Efros-Shklovskii pseudogap in an insulating phase, where the density of states ρ (ω ) is evaluated in three dimensions. Approaching the quantum critical point of a metal-insulator transition from either the metallic or insulting phase, we find that the density of states is given by ρ (ω ) ˜|ω| 1 /2 , which determines one critical exponent of the McMillan-Shklovskii scaling theory. Our main result is to evaluate the eigenfunction multifractal scaling exponent αq, given by the Legendre transformation of the fractal dimension τq, which characterizes the scaling behavior of the inverse participation ratio with respect to the system size L . Our multifractal analysis leads us to identify two kinds of mobility edges, one of which occurs near the Fermi energy and the other of which appears at a high energy, where the density of states at the Fermi energy shows the Coulomb-gap feature. We observe that the multifractal exponent at the high-energy mobility edge remains to be almost identical to that of the Anderson localization transition in the absence of Coulomb interactions. On the other hand, we find that the multifractal exponent near the Fermi energy is more enhanced than that at the high-energy mobility edge, suspected to result from interaction effects. However, both the multifractal exponents do not change even if the strength of the Coulomb interaction varies. We also show that the
Coulomb excitation of Ca-44 and Ar-46
Calinescu, S.; Caceres, L.; Grévy, S.; Sorlin, O.; Dombradi, Z.; Stanoiu, M.; Astabatyan, R.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Bowry, M.; Catford, W.; Clement, E.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia, R.; Gillibert, R.; Guerin, I. H.; Kuti, I.; Lukyanov, S.; Lepailleur, A.; Maslov, V.; Morfouace, P.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negoita, F.; Niikura, M.; Perrot, L.; Podolyak, Z.; Petrone, C.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Roger, T.; Rotaru, F.; Sohler, D.; Stefan, I.; Thomas, J. C.; Vajta, Zs.; Wilson, E.
2016-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 4 (2016), s. 044333 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron rich nuclei * low lying states * scattering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016
Photoionization of furan from the ground and excited electronic states.
Ponzi, Aurora; Sapunar, Marin; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Došlić, Nađa; Decleva, Piero
2016-02-28
Here we present a comparative computational study of the photoionization of furan from the ground and the two lowest-lying excited electronic states. The study aims to assess the quality of the computational methods currently employed for treating bound and continuum states in photoionization. For the ionization from the ground electronic state, we show that the Dyson orbital approach combined with an accurate solution of the continuum one particle wave functions in a multicenter B-spline basis, at the density functional theory (DFT) level, provides cross sections and asymmetry parameters in excellent agreement with experimental data. On the contrary, when the Dyson orbitals approach is combined with the Coulomb and orthogonalized Coulomb treatments of the continuum, the results are qualitatively different. In excited electronic states, three electronic structure methods, TDDFT, ADC(2), and CASSCF, have been used for the computation of the Dyson orbitals, while the continuum was treated at the B-spline/DFT level. We show that photoionization observables are sensitive probes of the nature of the excited states as well as of the quality of excited state wave functions. This paves the way for applications in more complex situations such as time resolved photoionization spectroscopy.
Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces
Freyland, Werner
2011-01-01
Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.
Magnetic excitations studied with time-of-flight spectroscopy
Rainford, B.
1996-01-01
An introduction to time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy is presented in the context of the study of magnetic materials. Examples are taken from the class of rare earth and actinide magnetic materials known as 'strongly correlated electron' systems. (author) 11 figs., 24 refs
Magnetic excitations studied with time-of-flight spectroscopy
Rainford, B [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
1996-11-01
An introduction to time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy is presented in the context of the study of magnetic materials. Examples are taken from the class of rare earth and actinide magnetic materials known as `strongly correlated electron` systems. (author) 11 figs., 24 refs.
Ordering in classical Coulombic systems
Schiffer, J. P.
1998-01-01
The author discusses the properties of classical Coulombic matter at low temperatures. It has been well known for some time [1,2] that infinite Coulombic matter will crystallize in body-centered cubic form when the quantity Λ (the dimensionless ratio of the average two-particle Coulomb energy to the kinetic energy per particle) is larger than approximately175. But the systems of such particles that have been produced in the laboratory in ion traps, or ion beams, are finite with surfaces defined by the boundary conditions that have to be satisfied. This results in ion clouds with sharply defined curved surfaces, and interior structures that show up as a set of concentric layers that are parallel to the outer surface. The ordering does not appear to be cubic, but the charges on each shell exhibit a ''hexatic'' pattern of equilateral triangles that is the characteristic of liquid crystals. The curvature of the surfaces prevents the structures on successive shells from interlocking in any simple fashion. This class of structures was first found in simulations [3] and later in experiments [4
Studies of the fluorescent excited state of impurities in ionic crystals
Romestain, Robert
1972-01-01
The author of this research thesis first presents experimental methods used in this research: principles (recall on the optical spectrum of an impurity in a solid, use of fluorescence polarization) and techniques (sample preparation, liquid helium cryostat, application of a disturbance, optical detection). Then, he reports the study of the Mn ++ ion in a tetrahedron crystalline field, the study of the Jahn Teller effect on the excited state of the F + centre in CaO, and the study by double resonance of a specific excited state of this same centre in CaO
Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Olive, D.H.; Varner, R.L.; Sherrill, B.; Thoennessen, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lefevre, F.; Marques, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Mittig, W.; Ostendorf, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Schutz, Y.; Pol, J. van; Wilschut, H.W.; Diaz, J.; Ferrero, J.L.; Marin, A.
1994-01-01
Projectile - phonon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon 64 Zn beam from 208 Pb and 209 Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5 and 4.5 relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF 2 scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei. (orig.)
In-beam study of excited states in 68 As
Badica, T.; Popa, G.; Popescu, I.; Scantei, N.
1994-01-01
As a continuation of our study of odd-odd 68 As nucleus, neutron gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were measured with two Ge(HP) γ-ray and a NE213 scintillation neutron detector. The levels were populated in the 54 Fe( 16 O, p n) reaction. On the basis of the n-γ and n-γγ coincidences a new, more complete level scheme has been established up to 3.2 MeV. Yield functions and angular distribution were used to extract information on spins and multipolarities of γ-transitions. Available level experimental parameters were compared with theoretical predictions of the parabolic rule. (Author)
Pulsed radiation studies of carotenoid radicals and excited states
Burke, M.
2001-04-01
The one-electron reduction potentials of the radical cations of five dietary carotenoids, in aqueous micellar environments, have been obtained from a pulse radiolysis study of electron transfer between the carotenoids and tryptophan radical cations as a function of pH, and lie in the range 980 to 1060 mV. The decays of the carotenoid radical cations suggest a distribution of exponential lifetimes. The radicals persist for up to about one second, depending on the medium and may re-orientate within a biological environment to react with other biomolecules, such as tyrosine, cysteine or ascorbic acid, which was indeed confirmed. Spectral information of carotenoid pigmented liposomes has been collected, subsequently pulse radiolysis was used to generate the radical cations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein, in unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. The rate constants for the 'repair' of these carotenoid radical cations by water-soluble vitamin C were found to be similar (∼1 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 ) for β-carotene and zeaxanthin and somewhat lower (∼0.5 x 10 7 M -1 s -1 ) for lutein. The results are discussed in terms of the microenvironment of the carotenoids and suggest that for β-carotene, a hydrocarbon carotenoid, the radical cation is able to interact with a water-soluble species even though the parent hydrocarbon carotenoid is probably entirely in the non-polar region of the liposome. Studies investigating the ability of ingested lycopene to protect human lymphoid cells against singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide radical mediated cell damage have shown that a high lycopene diet is beneficial in protecting human cells against reactive oxygen species. Triplet states of carotenoids were produced in benzene solvent and their triplet lifetimes were found to depend on the concentration of the parent molecule. The rate constants obtained for ground state quenching correlate with the number of conjugated double bonds, the longer chain systems having
Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.
Studies of Excited $D$ mesons in $B$ meson decays
AUTHOR|(CDS)2082679
This thesis documents the studies of several three-body B + meson decays, each with a charged charmed meson in the final state. All analyses presented use a data sample recorded by the LHCb detector in 2011 and 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 $fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data. The $B^{+} \\to D^{-}K^{+}\\pi^{+}$ and $B^{+} \\to D^{+}K^{+}\\pi^{-}$ decay modes are observed for the first time. The branching fraction of the favoured $B^{+} \\to D^{-}K^{+}\\pi^{+}$ decay mode is measured relative to the topologically similar $B^{+} \\to D^{-}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{+}$ decay and the $B^{+} \\to D^{-}K^{+}\\pi^{+}$ final state is used as a normalisation channel for the suppressed $B^{+} \\to D^{+}K^{+}\\pi^{-}$ decay branching fraction measurement. Searches are performed for the quasi-two-body decays $B^{+} \\to D^{+}K^{*}(892)^{0}$ and $B^{+} \\to D_{2}^{*}(2460)^{0}K^{+}$, using the sample of $B^{+} \\to D^{+}K^{+}\\pi^{-}$ candidate decays. No significant signals are observed for either decay mode and upper limits a...
Pulsed radiation studies of carotenoid radicals and excited states
Burke, M
2001-04-01
The one-electron reduction potentials of the radical cations of five dietary carotenoids, in aqueous micellar environments, have been obtained from a pulse radiolysis study of electron transfer between the carotenoids and tryptophan radical cations as a function of pH, and lie in the range 980 to 1060 mV. The decays of the carotenoid radical cations suggest a distribution of exponential lifetimes. The radicals persist for up to about one second, depending on the medium and may re-orientate within a biological environment to react with other biomolecules, such as tyrosine, cysteine or ascorbic acid, which was indeed confirmed. Spectral information of carotenoid pigmented liposomes has been collected, subsequently pulse radiolysis was used to generate the radical cations of {beta}-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein, in unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. The rate constants for the 'repair' of these carotenoid radical cations by water-soluble vitamin C were found to be similar ({approx}1 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1}s{sup -1}) for {beta}-carotene and zeaxanthin and somewhat lower ({approx}0.5 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1}s{sup -1}) for lutein. The results are discussed in terms of the microenvironment of the carotenoids and suggest that for {beta}-carotene, a hydrocarbon carotenoid, the radical cation is able to interact with a water-soluble species even though the parent hydrocarbon carotenoid is probably entirely in the non-polar region of the liposome. Studies investigating the ability of ingested lycopene to protect human lymphoid cells against singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide radical mediated cell damage have shown that a high lycopene diet is beneficial in protecting human cells against reactive oxygen species. Triplet states of carotenoids were produced in benzene solvent and their triplet lifetimes were found to depend on the concentration of the parent molecule. The rate constants obtained for ground state quenching correlate with the number
Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system
Seri, Marcello
2012-09-14
In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.
Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system
Seri, Marcello
2012-01-01
In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.
Study of resonant magnet exciting system for the 3 GeV proton synchrotron
Koseki, Shoichiro; Zhang, Fengqing; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tani, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Adachi, Toshikazu; Someya, Hirohiko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
2001-07-01
Exciting system for magnets of the 3 GeV Proton synchrotron is under consideration. A resonant exciting system is studied, and two type of power supply are compared. One is a parallel supply that is used generally. Another is a modified series supply. Either of them uses IGBT sinusoidal converters. Capacity of the power converter of the series supply for bending magnets becomes 28.8 MVAp. This is lager more than twice compared with the parallel supply. In the other hand, the series supply has good control performance and flexibility. More study is necessary to decide finally. (author)
Stephan Thamban, P. L.; Yun, Stuart; Padron-Wells, Gabriel; Hosch, Jimmy W.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Verity Instruments, Inc., 2901 Eisenhower Street, Carrollton, Texas 75007 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)
2012-11-15
Traditionally process plasmas are often studied and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. Here, the authors compare experimental measurements from a secondary electron beam excitation and direct process plasma excitation to discuss and illustrate its distinctiveness in the study of process plasmas. They present results that show excitations of etch process effluents in a SF{sub 6} discharge and endpoint detection capabilities in dark plasma process conditions. In SF{sub 6} discharges, a band around 300 nm, not visible in process emission, is observed and it can serve as a good indicator of etch product emission during polysilicon etches. Based on prior work reported in literature the authors believe this band is due to SiF{sub 4} gas phase species.
A storage ring study of dissociative excitation and recombination of D3+
Le Padellec, A.; Larson, Aa.; Semaniak, J.; Stroemholm, C.; Larsson, M.; Rosen, S.; Danared, H.; Peterson, J.R.
1998-01-01
Dissociative recombination and excitation of D 3 + have been studied in CRYRING, a heavy-ion storage ring at the Manne Siegbahn laboratory at Stockholm University. The measured cross section for dissociative recombination was used to deduce a 300 K rate constant of 2.7 x 10 -8 cm 3 s -1 . This is a factor of four smaller than the corresponding value for H 3 + measured earlier in CRYRING. Dissociative excitation into both the D and 2D channels (D + D or D 2 ) were studied. The 2D channel occurs at energies below threshold for the ion's dissociative states, which indicates that resonant enhanced dissociative excitation via autoionizing resonances takes place. No measurable effect could be observed for the dissociative recombination cross sections when an electric field of 30 V/cm was applied to the electron-ion interaction region. (orig.)
A Study of Semileptonic $B$ Decays in Orbitally Excited $D$ Mesons at LHCb
Battista, Vincenzo
In this thesis, a study of semi-inclusive semileptonic $B$ decays in excited $D$ mesons has been presented; in particular, the analysis has been focused on orbitally excited $P$-wave $D^{**}$ mesons and on higher mass resonances found in the data sample. The theoretical framework to study inclusive semileptonic $B$ meson decays is the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) approach, while exclusive decay modes are described different models, such as the so-called ISGW2 and LLSW; on the other hand, excited $D$ mesons properties are predicted by the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET). The final measurements has been perfomed on a data sample collected at LHCb experiment (Chapter 2) in the (2011-2012) data taking period, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of $3 fb^{-1}$. This data sample has been subjected to two different selection stages, calibrated on a MonteCarlo (MC) sample: a pre-selection of $B \\to D^{*} \\mu \
Nguyen, Hung X; Kirkton, Robert D; Bursac, Nenad
2018-05-01
We describe a two-stage protocol to generate electrically excitable and actively conducting cell networks with stable and customizable electrophysiological phenotypes. Using this method, we have engineered monoclonally derived excitable tissues as a robust and reproducible platform to investigate how specific ion channels and mutations affect action potential (AP) shape and conduction. In the first stage of the protocol, we combine computational modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophysiological techniques to derive optimal sets of mammalian and/or prokaryotic ion channels that produce specific AP shape and conduction characteristics. In the second stage of the protocol, selected ion channels are stably expressed in unexcitable human cells by means of viral or nonviral delivery, followed by flow cytometry or antibiotic selection to purify the desired phenotype. This protocol can be used with traditional heterologous expression systems or primary excitable cells, and application of this method to primary fibroblasts may enable an alternative approach to cardiac cell therapy. Compared with existing methods, this protocol generates a well-defined, relatively homogeneous electrophysiological phenotype of excitable cells that facilitates experimental and computational studies of AP conduction and can decrease arrhythmogenic risk upon cell transplantation. Although basic cell culture and molecular biology techniques are sufficient to generate excitable tissues using the described protocol, experience with patch-clamp techniques is required to characterize and optimize derived cell populations.
Study of excitation energy sharing in heavy ion collisions as a function of their inelasticity
Lott, B.
1986-01-01
The excitation energy sharing between the fragments of a heavy ion collision has been studied for quasi-elastic and deep inelastic mechanisms. A 32 S beam of 232 MeV incident energy has been used to bombard several targets (S, 58 Ni, 93 Nb). The evaporated charged particle multiplicities have been measured by inclusive measurements of the projectile-like nuclei and exclusive measurements of the two final nuclei. Evaporation calculations using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism allows us to deduce from the multiplicity measurements the projectile-like excitation energy. These results are compatible with the assumption of an equal sharing of excitation energies for quasi-elastic reaction products, and with the assumption of a mass ratio sharing for fully relaxed reaction products. Limiting values for the relaxation time of this mode have been deduced and are in agreement with predictions from the model developed by Randrup [fr
Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors
Milenkovic, Rade [Laboratorium fuer Thermalhydraulics PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, OVGA 415, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rade.milenkovic@psi.ch; Sigg, Beat [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, George [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2005-12-15
Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period.
Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors
Milenkovic, Rade; Sigg, Beat; Yadigaroglu, George
2005-01-01
Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period
Controllability of the Coulomb charging energy in close-packed nanoparticle arrays.
Duan, Chao; Wang, Ying; Sun, Jinling; Guan, Changrong; Grunder, Sergio; Mayor, Marcel; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui
2013-11-07
We studied the electronic transport properties of metal nanoparticle arrays, particularly focused on the Coulomb charging energy. By comparison, we confirmed that it is more reasonable to estimate the Coulomb charging energy using the activation energy from the temperature-dependent zero-voltage conductance. Based on this, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the parameters that could be used to tune the Coulomb charging energy in nanoparticle arrays. We found that four parameters, including the particle core size, the inter-particle distance, the nearest neighboring number, and the dielectric constant of ligand molecules, could significantly tune the Coulomb charging energy.
Feng, H.; Zheng, Y.; Ding, S.
2007-01-01
Infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the linear triatomic molecule has been studied using the quadratic anharmonic Lie-algebra model, unitary transformations, and Magnus approximation. An explicit Lie-algebra expression for the vibrational transition probability is obtained by using a Lie-algebra approach. This explicit Lie-algebra expressions for time-evolution operator and vibrational transition probabilities make the computation clearer and easier. The infrared multiphoton vibrational excitation of the DCN linear tri-atomic molecule is discussed as an example
Studies of isotopic effects in the excited electronic states of molecular systems
1982-01-01
Rare gas halogen (RGH) lasers serve as convenient tools for a range of photophysical processes which exhibit isotope effects. This document summarizes progress in the production of molecular systems in their electronic excited states with the aid of RGH lasers, and the various isotopic effects one can study under these conditions. We conclude that the basic physical mechanisms involved in the isotopically sensitive characteristics of excited molecular electronic states are sufficiently selective to be useful in both the detection and separation of many atomic materials
Characterization and excitation behaviour studies of radionuclide (scandium) in glass matrix
Rehana, Ishrat; Shahid, K.A.; Husain, S.; Muhammad, Din
1999-01-01
Directional movements of bed load in marine sediments are studied using a radioactive tracer, scandium, similar to the natural sediment in the area. Scandium glass prepared for this purpose was analyzed by atomic emission spectrography for quality assurance purposes. A buffer composed of graphite with 5% germanium oxide was used for accurate and reproducible analyses. The role of this buffer in the excitation behavior of scandium and variations in spectral line intensity with respect to various influencing parameters are reported. Volatilization of scandium was observed using the moving plate technique, with a dc-arc as the excitation source
Coulomb potentials between spherical heavy ions
Iwe, H.
1982-01-01
The Coulomb interaction between spherical nuclei having arbitrary radial nuclear charge distributions is calculated. All these realistic Coulomb potentials are given in terms of analytical expressions and are available for immediate application. So in no case a numerical computation of the Coulomb integral is required. The parameters of the charge distributions are taken from electron scattering analysis. The Coulomb self-energies of the charge distributions used are also calculated analytically in a closed form. For a number of nucleus-nucleus pairs, the Coulomb potentials derived from realistic charge distributions are compared with those normally used in various nucleus-nucleus optical model calculations. In this connection a detailed discussion of the problem how to choose consistently Coulomb parameters for different approximations is given. (orig.)
Study of some excited states of 16O by correlation measurements
Avril, M.; Bianchi, L.; Lepareux, M.; Saunier, N.; Fotti, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Strazzeri, A.
Angular correlation measurements were used in the study of some 16 O highly excited levels, with 32 and 34 6 Li ions. The results indicate spins of 6 and 7 for the levels at 21.8 and 20.9 MeV of 16 O [fr
X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X ...
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system Ba (, =F, Cl, Br, I) ... India; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Republic of China ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational ...
Magnetic Dimer Excitations in Cs3Cr2CI9 Studied by Neutron Scattering
Leuenberger, Bruno; Güdel, Hans U.; Kjems, Jørgen
1985-01-01
The energy dispersion of the singlet-triplet dimer excitation in Cs3Cr2CI9h as been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) at temperatures down to 1.3 K. The results can be accounted for by using a completely isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian in the random phase approximation (RPA). Only...
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.
1987-01-01
The collective vibrational excitations of two different crystalline monolayer phases of ethane (C2H6) adsorbed on the graphite (0001) surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The monolayer phases studied are the commensurate 7/8 ×4 structure in which the ethane molecules lie...
Electron spectroscopy studies of argon K-shell excitation and vacancy cascades
Southworth, S.H.; MacDonald, M.A.; LeBrun, T.; Azuma, Y.; Cooper, J.W.
1995-01-01
Electron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used for studies of Ar K-shell excitation and vacancy decay processes. In addition, electrons and fluorescent X-rays have been recorded in coincidence to select subsets of the ejected electron spectra. Examples are presented for Ar 1s photoelectrons and KLL and LMM Auger spectra
Locard, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France)
1967-07-01
The nucleus of {sup 151}Sm, which has 89 neutrons, happens to be on the lower edge of the deformed nuclei of region II. Therefore, the study of its levels is very interesting for the verification of the goodness of the collective models for deformed nuclei when the deformation is small (we introduce these models in the first chapter). {sup 151}Sm has often been studied, but the direct gamma spectrum measured with a lithium drift-germanium detector (chapter 3) shows many high energy transitions which did not appear in the previous level schemes. In order to settle these transitions, we have undertaken gamma-gamma coincidence spectra (as well as sum-coincidence spectra) experiments with a scintillation spectrometer designed in our laboratory (chapter 2). The investigation of the intensities of these coincidences leads us to modify the last proposed level schemes: we suppress the levels at 405,5 and 650 keV, we add levels at 245,6 - 306,6 - 522 - 952 and 962 keV. We have also verified the multipolarities of the main transitions and measured the half-lives of a few levels (chapter 3) (we find a half-life of 1.1 {+-} 0.5 nanosecond for the level at 167,7 keV). In chapter 4, we compare our results to the predictions of the models described in chapter 1. (author) [French] Le noyau de {sup 151}Sm, qui possede 89 neutrons, se trouve a la limite inferieure des noyaux deformes de la region II. L'etude de ses niveaux excites est donc d'un interet tout particulier pour la verification de la validite des differents modeles collectifs pour les noyaux deformes, lorsque la deformation est petite (nous introduisons ces modeles dans un premier chapitre). Le {sup 151}Sm a deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes, mais le spectre gamma direct fait avec une jonction de germanium compense au lithium (chapitre 3), nous a montre l'existence d'un grand nombre de transitions de hautes energies qui ne sont pas placees dans les schemas proposes jusqu'a ce jour. Pour preciser la place de ces
A study of quasi-mode parametric excitations in lower-hybrid heating of tokamak plasmas
Villalon, E.; Bers, A.
1980-01-01
A detailed linear and non-linear analysis of quasi-mode parametric excitations relevant to experiments in supplementary heating of tokamak plasmas is presented. The linear analysis includes the full ion-cyclotron harmonic quasi-mode spectrum. The non-linear analysis, considering depletion of the pump electric field, is applied to the recent Alcator A heating experiment. Because of the very different characteristics of a tokamak plasma near the wall (in the shadow of the limiter) and inside, the quasi-mode excitations are studied independently for the plasma edge and the main bulk of the plasma, and for two typical regimes in overall density, the low (peak in density, n 0 =1.5x10 14 cm -3 ) and high (n 0 =5x10 14 cm -3 ) density regimes. At the edge of the plasma and for the low-density regime, it is found that higher nsub(z)(nsub(z)=cksub(z)/ω) than those predicted by the linear theory are strongly excited. Inside the plasma, the excitation of higher wave numbers is also significant. These results indicate that a large amount of the RF-power may not penetrate to the plasma centre, but will rather be either Landau-damped on the electrons or mode-converted into thermal modes, close to the plasma edge. Moreover, for sufficiently high peaks in density, it is found that all the RF-power is mode-converted before reaching the plasma centre. Inside the plasma, the power density of the excited sideband fields is shown to be always very small in comparison with their excitation at the plasma edge. (author)
Huang, K.-N.
1977-01-01
A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.
Coulomb blockade induced by magnetic field
Kusmartsev, F.V.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors found that a Coulomb blockade can be induced by magnetic field. The authors illustrated this effect on the example of a ring consisting of two and many Josephson junctions. For the ring with two junctions we present an exact solution. The transition into Coulomb blockade state on a ring transforms into a linear array of Josephson junctions, although in latter case the effect of magnetic field disappears. In the state of Coulomb blockade the magnetization may be both diamagnetic and paramagnetic. The Coulomb blockade may also be removed by external magnetic field
Amundsen, P.A.
1978-08-01
Several investigations have been made on K and L shell ionization of the heavy collision partner in slow asymmetric collisions based on the SCA. The use of the SCA can only be defended for slow collisions if the projectile has a charge much less than the target. Thus this approximation should first be tested for proton impact on very heavy target elements. For these elements the inner shell electrons move sufficiently fast for a relativistic description to be mandatory. These relativistic effects are in themselves of some interest, as they can be quite large. After discussion of the formulation of the SCA used throughout this work, a further introduction is given on relativistic effects in Coulomb ionisation. Two papers on electronic relativistic effects in K and L shell ionization follow. The next two papers discuss calculations with an exact Coulomb projectile path. The latter of these also touches upon the inclusion of corrections to the SCA from terms beyond first order perturbation theory. In the last paper of this thesis it is shown how the theoretical apparatus developed for the SCA- calculations can immediately be used also for making calculations of more symmetric systems with the Briggs model. Thus, at least for direct ionization in very slow collisions a unification of the SA and MO approaches has apparently been reached. (JIW)
Tanmay A Gokhale
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date. Recently, Kirkton and Bursac demonstrated the ability to create biosynthetic excitable tissues from genetically engineered and immortalized HEK293 cells with well-characterized electrical properties and the ability to propagate action potentials. In this study, we developed and validated a computational model of these excitable HEK293 cells (called "Ex293" cells using existing electrophysiological data and a genetic search algorithm. In order to reproduce not only the mean but also the variability of experimental observations, we examined what sources of variation were required in the computational model. Random cell-to-cell and inter-monolayer variation in both ionic conductances and tissue conductivity was necessary to explain the experimentally observed variability in action potential shape and macroscopic conduction, and the spatial organization of cell-to-cell conductance variation was found to not impact macroscopic behavior; the resulting model accurately reproduces both normal and drug-modified conduction behavior. The development of a computational Ex293 cell and tissue model provides a novel framework to perform paired computational-experimental studies to study normal and abnormal conduction in multidimensional excitable tissue, and the methodology of modeling
Evaluation of the Coulomb logarithm using cutoff and screened Coulomb interaction potentials
Ordonez, C.A.; Molina, M.I.
1994-01-01
The Coulomb logarithm is a fundamental plasma parameter which is commonly derived within the framework of the binary collision approximation. The conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm, λ=ln Λ, takes into account a pure Coulomb interaction potential for binary collisions and is not accurate at small values (λ D in place of λ D (the Debye length) in the conventional formula for the Coulomb logarithm
K-shell excitation studied for H- and He-like bismuth ions in collisions with low-z target atoms
Stoehlker, T.; Bosch, F.; Geissel, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Ludziejewski, T.; Mokler, P.H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Stachura, Z.; Warczak, A.
1997-09-01
The formation of excited projectile states via Coulomb excitation is investigated for hydrogen- and helium-like bismuth projectiles (Z=83) in relativistic ion-atom collisions. The excitation process was unambiguously identified by observing the radiative decay of the excited levels to the vacant 1s shell in coincidence with ions that did not undergo charge exchange in the reaction target. In particular, owing to the large fine structure splitting of Bi, the excitation cross-sections to the various L-shell sublevels are determined separately. The results are compared with detailed relativistic calculations, showing that both the relativistic character of the bound-state wave-functions and the magnetic interaction are of considerable importance for the K-shell excitation process in high-Z ions like Bi. The experimental data confirm the result of the complete relativistic calculations, namely that the magnetic part of the Lienard-Wiechert interaction leads to a significant reduction of the K-shell excitation cross-section. (orig.)
Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion
Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-06-01
Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.
Coulomb matrix elements in multi-orbital Hubbard models.
Bünemann, Jörg; Gebhard, Florian
2017-04-26
Coulomb matrix elements are needed in all studies in solid-state theory that are based on Hubbard-type multi-orbital models. Due to symmetries, the matrix elements are not independent. We determine a set of independent Coulomb parameters for a d-shell and an f-shell and all point groups with up to 16 elements (O h , O, T d , T h , D 6h , and D 4h ). Furthermore, we express all other matrix elements as a function of the independent Coulomb parameters. Apart from the solution of the general point-group problem we investigate in detail the spherical approximation and first-order corrections to the spherical approximation.
Electron transport in the presence of a Coulomb field
Burgdoerfer, J.; Gibbons, J.
1990-01-01
We analyze the modifications of the transport behavior of electrons in dense media due to the presence of a strong Coulomb field generated by an ion moving initially in close phase-space correlation with the electrons. These modifications play a profound role in convoy electron emission in ion-solid collisions. The transport behavior is studied within the framework of a classical phase-space master equation. The nonseparable master equation is solved numerically using test-particle discretization and Monte Carlo sampling. In the limit of vanishing Coulomb forces the master equation becomes separable and can be reduced to standard one-dimensional kinetic equations for free-electron transport that can be solved exactly. The comparison to free-electron transport is used to gauge both the reliability of test-particle discretization and the significance of Coulomb distortion of the distribution functions. Applications to convoy-electron emission are discussed
Gruzdev, V.P. (Gosudarstvennyj Opticheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))
1983-12-01
Using some europium (3) ion complexes new possibilities to be opened by application of adjustable pulse lasers for studying rapid reactions of electron-excited metal ion complexing are demonstrated. The 6Zh rhodamine pulse laser is used as a source of nonequilibrium photoexcitation of an array of Eu/sup 3 +/ complexes in the luminescent kinetic spectroscopy method. The following results are obtained: for the first time the rate of reaction of acetate ion substitution for water molecules of an excited (/sup 5/D/sub 0/) ion of Eu/sup 3 +/ was measured to be (0.7+-0.2)x10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/; using direct experiments the lower limit for the rate of transition of one isomeric form of the excited Eu x EDTA complex into another one in an aqueous solution is determined to be 5x10/sup 5/ s/sup -1/ at 295 K; the kinetics of the excitation energy migration beteen aqueous solvates of Eu/sup 3 +/ and EuxEDTA complexes is investigated.
A study on rare gas - oxygen reactions excited by low temperature plasma
Ogawa, Hiroaki; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Saburi, Tei; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2001-03-01
The concentration of radioactive rare gases like Xe and Kr in nuclear fuels on PWRs and BWRs increases promptly with dependent on the burn-up ratio. These gases are affect to the long performance of nuclear fuel elements due to accumulate in gap between cladding and fuel, because it has the low thermal conductivity. It is also required to develop the practical means to correct these gases including in the off-gas in nuclear plants for inhibiting the environmental pollution. On the present study, we carried out the fundamental research to evaluate the chemical reactivity of these gases under heavy irradiation. We proposed the new excitation mechanism of these gases by expecting the formation of low energy plasma under irradiation. The chemical reactivity on rare gas-oxygen system was examined by using the low energy plasma driven reaction apparatus installed the RF excitation source. The density of electrons and lower pressure limit for the RF excitation was depended on the ionization energy of each gas. It is clarified that Xe is easy to form gaseous oxide due to the high excitation efficiency in low energy plasma. (author)
Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation
Esbensen, H.
1994-06-01
We study the effect of higher-order processes in Coulomb dissociation of 11 Li by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the relative motion of a di-neutron and the 9 Li core. Comparisons are made to first-order perturbation theory and to measurements. The calculated Coulomb reacceleration effects improve the agreement with experiment, but some discrepancy remains. The effects are much smaller in the dissociation of 11 Be, and they decrease with increasing beam energy. (orig.)
Sobhy, M. A.
2011-11-07
Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy
Studies on the substrate mediated vibrational excitation of CO/Si(100) by means of SFG spectroscopy
Han, Xu; Lass, Kristian; Balgar, Thorsten; Hasselbrink, Eckart [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fachbereich Chemie, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2009-07-01
Vibrational excitations of adsorbates play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics. In the past decade CO on solid surfaces was chosen as adequate model system for studying vibrational relaxation dynamics. Our work is focused on the energy dissipation of vibrationally excited CO adsorbed on a silicon surface by means of IR/Vis sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. Here we present studies on substrate mediated excitation of vibrational modes of CO on Si(100) induced by UV radiation. We suppose the observation of highly excited internal stretch vibrations of CO caused by hot electrons generated within the silicon substrate.
Testing the Predictive Power of Coulomb Stress on Aftershock Sequences
Woessner, J.; Lombardi, A.; Werner, M. J.; Marzocchi, W.
2009-12-01
Empirical and statistical models of clustered seismicity are usually strongly stochastic and perceived to be uninformative in their forecasts, since only marginal distributions are used, such as the Omori-Utsu and Gutenberg-Richter laws. In contrast, so-called physics-based aftershock models, based on seismic rate changes calculated from Coulomb stress changes and rate-and-state friction, make more specific predictions: anisotropic stress shadows and multiplicative rate changes. We test the predictive power of models based on Coulomb stress changes against statistical models, including the popular Short Term Earthquake Probabilities and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequences models: We score and compare retrospective forecasts on the aftershock sequences of the 1992 Landers, USA, the 1997 Colfiorito, Italy, and the 2008 Selfoss, Iceland, earthquakes. To quantify predictability, we use likelihood-based metrics that test the consistency of the forecasts with the data, including modified and existing tests used in prospective forecast experiments within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). Our results indicate that a statistical model performs best. Moreover, two Coulomb model classes seem unable to compete: Models based on deterministic Coulomb stress changes calculated from a given fault-slip model, and those based on fixed receiver faults. One model of Coulomb stress changes does perform well and sometimes outperforms the statistical models, but its predictive information is diluted, because of uncertainties included in the fault-slip model. Our results suggest that models based on Coulomb stress changes need to incorporate stochastic features that represent model and data uncertainty.
The structure of small molecules with the Coulomb Explosion method
Vager, Z.; Kanter, E.P.
1987-01-01
The content of this paper is divided into two parts: (1) achievements of the last two years in studying molecular ion structure with the aid of the newly developed Coulomb-Explosion (CE) method, and (2) the understanding of the modern CE data in terms of an invariant density of nuclear coordinates of the studied molecule
Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange
Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A
1996-01-01
Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The
Coulomb Effects in Few-Body Reactions
Deltuva A.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The method of screening and renormalization is used to include the Coulomb interaction between the charged particles in the momentum-space description of three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The necessity for the renormalization of the scattering amplitudes and the reliability of the method is demonstrated. The Coulomb eﬀect on observables is discussed.
Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21
Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Rigollet, Catherine; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Van de Walle, J.
2016-01-01
Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a
Lutgen, S.; Kaindl, R.A.; Woerner, M.; Elsaesser, T.; Hase, A.; Kuenzel, H.; Gulia, M.; Meglio, D.; Lugli, P.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of electrons in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum wells is studied after excitation from the n=1 to the n=2 conduction subband. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments demonstrate for the first time athermal distributions of n=1 electrons on a surprisingly long time scale of 2ps. Thermalization involves intersubband scattering of excited electrons via optical phonon emission with a time constant of 1ps and intrasubband Coulomb and phonon scattering. Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations show that the slow electron equilibration results from Pauli blocking and screening of carrier-carrier scattering. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
On rate-state and Coulomb failure models
Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.; Blanpied, M.
2000-01-01
We examine the predictions of Coulomb failure stress and rate-state frictional models. We study the change in failure time (clock advance) Δt due to stress step perturbations (i.e., coseismic static stress increases) added to "background" stressing at a constant rate (i.e., tectonic loading) at time t0. The predictability of Δt implies a predictable change in seismicity rate r(t)/r0, testable using earthquake catalogs, where r0 is the constant rate resulting from tectonic stressing. Models of r(t)/r0, consistent with general properties of aftershock sequences, must predict an Omori law seismicity decay rate, a sequence duration that is less than a few percent of the mainshock cycle time and a return directly to the background rate. A Coulomb model requires that a fault remains locked during loading, that failure occur instantaneously, and that Δt is independent of t0. These characteristics imply an instantaneous infinite seismicity rate increase of zero duration. Numerical calculations of r(t)/r0 for different state evolution laws show that aftershocks occur on faults extremely close to failure at the mainshock origin time, that these faults must be "Coulomb-like," and that the slip evolution law can be precluded. Real aftershock population characteristics also may constrain rate-state constitutive parameters; a may be lower than laboratory values, the stiffness may be high, and/or normal stress may be lower than lithostatic. We also compare Coulomb and rate-state models theoretically. Rate-state model fault behavior becomes more Coulomb-like as constitutive parameter a decreases relative to parameter b. This is because the slip initially decelerates, representing an initial healing of fault contacts. The deceleration is more pronounced for smaller a, more closely simulating a locked fault. Even when the rate-state Δt has Coulomb characteristics, its magnitude may differ by some constant dependent on b. In this case, a rate-state model behaves like a modified
Excited neutral atomic fragments in the strong-field dissociation of N2 molecules
Nubbemeyer, T; Eichmann, U; Sandner, W
2009-01-01
Excited neutral N* fragments with energies between 3 eV and 15 eV have been observed from the dissociation of N 2 molecules in strong laser fields. The kinetic energy spectrum of the excited neutral atoms corresponds to Coulomb explosion processes involving N + ions. This supports the assumption that the production of excited neutral fragments stems from a process in which one of the participating ions in the Coulomb explosion captures an electron into a Rydberg state.
Theoretical studies of atomic and quasiatomic excitations by electron and ion impact
Kam, K.F.
1999-09-01
Electron emission from ion induced excitations of Ca, Sc, Ti and V metal surfaces and from electron impact on transition metal oxides CoO and TiO 2 has been studied in this thesis. Both the autoionising emission from sputtered atoms and the 3p→3d and 3s→3d excitations in the oxides reveal strong atomic features. The work has involved explaining these spectra in an atomic approach, via the use of atomic structure calculations, cross section studies and empirical/semi-empirical analyses. The other aspect of this work involves extension of current theories of electron-atom scattering in the high electron energy impact regime. Overall it is shown that much can be learned about some solid-state spectra by relating them to atomic phenomena. (author)
Neutron-scattering study of low-energy excitations in triphenyl phosphite
Mayer, J; Massalska-Arodz, M; Janik, J A; Natkaniec, I; Steinsvoll, O
2002-01-01
The low-energy excitations in crystalline and glassy triphenyl phosphite were studied by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering with two different instruments. The results - the incoherent dynamic structure factor S(2 theta,omega) and the density of states G(omega) - were obtained using direct and inverted geometry time-of-flight spectrometers, respectively. The probable origin of the excess density of states in the glass (boson peak) is discussed. (orig.)
Neutron-scattering study of low-energy excitations in triphenyl phosphite
Mayer, J.; Krawczyk, J.; Massalska-Arodz, M.; Janik, J.A.; Natkaniec, I.; Steinsvoll, O.
2002-01-01
The low-energy excitations in crystalline and glassy triphenyl phosphite were studied by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering with two different instruments. The results - the incoherent dynamic structure factor S(2θ,ω) and the density of states G(ω) - were obtained using direct and inverted geometry time-of-flight spectrometers, respectively. The probable origin of the excess density of states in the glass (boson peak) is discussed. (orig.)
Studies of photoionization processes from ground-state and excited-state atoms and molecules
Ederer, D.L.; Parr, A.C.; West, J.B.
1982-01-01
Recent triply-differential photoelectron spectroscopy experiments designed for the study of correlation effects in atoms and molecules are described. Final-state symmetry of the n=2 state of helium has been determined. The non-Franck-Condon behavior of vibrational branching ratios and large variations of the angular asymmetry parameter has been observed for shape resonances and autoionizing resonances in CO and other molecules. Recent observations of the photoionization of excited sodium atoms are also described
Cluster model study of the excited states of /sup 4/He
Furutani, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics
1980-01-01
Excited states of /sup 4/He are studied in the energy region E sub(x) = 20 -- 35 MeV within the framework of a (3N + N)-cluster model. (/sup 3/H + p) - (/sup 3/He + n) coupled channel calculation is carried out and results are compared with /sup 3/H(p, p)/sup 3/H, /sup 3/He(n, n)/sup 3/He and /sup 3/H(p, n)/sup 3/He reactions.
Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain
Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2014-01-01
We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.
Asymptotic coulombic conditions in the electron capture process
Corchs, S.E.; Maidagan, J.M.; Rivarola, R.D.
1990-01-01
Several first order perturbative approximations of the transition amplitude for electronic capture are studied. Different models in which the long range Coulomb potential is represented by different internuclear dependent phases, in the initial and final wave functions, are analysed and compared. (Author). 8 refs., 2 figs
The Coulomb law and atomic levels in a superstrong B
Vysotsky M.I.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The spectrum of atomic levels of hydrogen-like ions originating from the lowest Landau level in an external homogeneous superstrong magnetic field is obtained. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb potential on the values of critical nuclear charges is studied.
Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential
Brandis, S.
1994-04-01
We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)
Keto, J.W.
1988-11-01
The objective of this contract is the study of state-to-state, electronic energy transfer reactions following two-photon laser excitation. We have chosen to study reactions of Xe 5p 5 np because of their relevance to the XeCl excimer laser. We are studying deactivation reactions in collisions with heavy atoms such as Ar, Kr, and Xe and reactive collisions with chlorides. The reactants are excited by multiphoton laser absorption. Product channels are observed by their fluorescence, or by laser induced fluorescence using a second color laser. Reaction rates are measured by observing the time dependent decay of signals from reactant and product channels. In addition we measure interaction potentials of the reactants by laser spectroscopy where the laser induced fluorescence or ionization is measured as a function of laser wavelength (excitation spectra) or by measuring fluorescence spectra at fixed laser frequencies with monochromators. The spectra are obtained in the form of either lineshapes or individual lines from rovibrational transitions of bound states. 11 refs. 4 figs., 3 tabs
Zhan, He-qing; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guo-fa; Zang, Yun-liang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart
2014-01-01
In this study, the effects of cardiac fibroblast proliferation on cardiac electric excitation conduction and mechanical contraction were investigated using a proposed integrated myocardial-fibroblastic electromechanical model. At the cellular level, models of the human ventricular myocyte and fibroblast were modified to incorporate a model of cardiac mechanical contraction and cooperativity mechanisms. Cellular electromechanical coupling was realized with a calcium buffer. At the tissue level, electrical excitation conduction was coupled to an elastic mechanics model in which the finite difference method (FDM) was used to solve electrical excitation equations, and the finite element method (FEM) was used to solve mechanics equations. The electromechanical properties of the proposed integrated model were investigated in one or two dimensions under normal and ischemic pathological conditions. Fibroblast proliferation slowed wave propagation, induced a conduction block, decreased strains in the fibroblast proliferous tissue, and increased dispersions in depolarization, repolarization, and action potential duration (APD). It also distorted the wave-front, leading to the initiation and maintenance of re-entry, and resulted in a sustained contraction in the proliferous areas. This study demonstrated the important role that fibroblast proliferation plays in modulating cardiac electromechanical behaviour and which should be considered in planning future heart-modeling studies. PMID:24599687
Magnetic Coulomb phase in the spin ice Ho2Ti2O7.
Fennell, T; Deen, P P; Wildes, A R; Schmalzl, K; Prabhakaran, D; Boothroyd, A T; Aldus, R J; McMorrow, D F; Bramwell, S T
2009-10-16
Spin-ice materials are magnetic substances in which the spin directions map onto hydrogen positions in water ice. Their low-temperature magnetic state has been predicted to be a phase that obeys a Gauss' law and supports magnetic monopole excitations: in short, a Coulomb phase. We used polarized neutron scattering to show that the spin-ice material Ho2Ti2O7 exhibits an almost perfect Coulomb phase. Our result proves the existence of such phases in magnetic materials and strongly supports the magnetic monopole theory of spin ice.
Observation of a structural transition for coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap
Kjærgaard, N.; Drewsen, M.
2003-01-01
A structural transition for laser cooled ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap just above the stability limit of parametrically resonant excitation of bulk plasma modes has been observed. In contrast to the usual spheroidal shell structures present below the stability limit, the ions arrange...... in a "string-of-disks" configuration. The spheroidal envelopes of the string-of-disks structures are in agreement with results from cold fluid theory usually valid for ion Coulomb crystals if the ion systems are assumed to be rotating collectively....
Observation of a structural transition for Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap
Kjaergaard, Niels; Drewsen, Michael
2003-01-01
A structural transition for laser cooled ion Coulomb crystals in a linear Paul trap just above the stability limit of parametrically resonant excitation of bulk plasma modes has been observed. In contrast to the usual spheroidal shell structures present below the stability limit, the ions arrange in a 'string-of-disks' configuration. The spheroidal envelopes of the string-of-disks structures are in agreement with results from cold fluid theory usually valid for ion Coulomb crystals if the ion systems are assumed to be rotating collectively
[Study on relationship between emotional stability in flight and nerve system excitability].
Liu, Fang; Huang, Wei-fen; Jing, Xiao-lu; Zhang, Ping
2003-06-01
To study the related factors of emotional stability in flight. Based on the operable definition of emotional stability in flight and the related literature review, 63 experienced pilots and flight coaches were investigated and the other-rating questionnaire of emotional stability in flight was established. To test the senior nerve system, Uchida Kraeplin (UK) test was administrated on 153 19-21 years old male student pilots of the second grade in the department of flight technique in China Civil Aviation College, who were selected through 13 h flight, 35 h solo flight, and acted as the standardization group. In the end, the correlation was explored between the testing results and their emotional behavioral characteristics in flight. Significant positive correlation was found between emotional feature indexes of emotional stability in flight and excitability in UK test. The excitability in UK test are good predictors for emotional stability in flight.
Study of the excitation bands in 75Br and 77Rb
Luehmann, L.
1985-01-01
Via the compound-nucleus reactions 62 Ni( 16 O,p2n) 75 Br, 66 Zn( 12 C,p2n) 75 Br, and 40 Ca( 40 Ca,3p) 77 Rb the excitation behaviour of the nuclei 75 Br and 77 Rb was studied. By the application of different gamma-spectroscopic methods as the measurement of γ angular anisotropies, nγ-spectra, excitation functions, and γγ-coincidences the known level schemes could be extended by 10 respectively 16 transitions. Recoil-distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation measurements served for the determination of the lifetimes of 42 nuclear states in the range 0.1 ps [de
Generating functions and stability study of multivariate self-excited epidemic processes
Saichev, A. I.; Sornette, D.
2011-09-01
We present a stability study of the class of multivariate self-excited Hawkes point processes, that can model natural and social systems, including earthquakes, epileptic seizures and the dynamics of neuron assemblies, bursts of exchanges in social communities, interactions between Internet bloggers, bank network fragility and cascading of failures, national sovereign default contagion, and so on. We present the general theory of multivariate generating functions to derive the number of events over all generations of various types that are triggered by a mother event of a given type. We obtain the stability domains of various systems, as a function of the topological structure of the mutual excitations across different event types. We find that mutual triggering tends to provide a significant extension of the stability (or subcritical) domain compared with the case where event types are decoupled, that is, when an event of a given type can only trigger events of the same type.
Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na
Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.
2016-08-01
Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our
Non-typical fluorescence studies of excited and ground state proton and hydrogen transfer
Gil, Michał; Kijak, Michał; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Herbich, Jerzy; Waluk, Jacek
2017-01-01
Fluorescence studies of tautomerization have been carried out for various systems that exhibit single and double proton or hydrogen translocation in various environments, such as liquid and solid condensed phases, ultracold supersonic jets, and finally, polymer matrices with single emitters.We focus on less explored areas of application of fluorescence for tautomerization studies, using porphycene, a porphyrin isomer, as an example. Fluorescence anisotropy techniques allow investigations of self-exchange reactions, where the reactant and product are formally identical. Excitation with polarized light makes it possible to monitor tautomerization in single molecules and to detect their three-dimensional orientation. Analysis of fluorescence from single vibronic levels of jet-isolated porphycene not only demonstrates coherent tunneling of two internal protons, but also indicates that the process is vibrational mode-specific. Next, we present bifunctional proton donoracceptor systems, molecules that are able, depending on the environment, to undergo excited state single intramolecular or double intermolecular proton transfer. For molecules that have donor and acceptor groups located in separate moieties linked by a single bond, excited state tautomerization can be coupled to mutual twisting of the two subunits.
Numerical study of aero-excitation of steam-turbine rotor blade self-oscillations
Galaev, S. A.; Makhnov, V. Yu.; Ris, V. V.; Smirnov, E. M.
2018-05-01
Blade aero-excitation increment is evaluated by numerical solution of the full 3D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations governing wet steam flow in a powerful steam-turbine last stage. The equilibrium wet steam model was adopted. Blade surfaces oscillations are defined by eigen-modes of a row of blades bounded by a shroud. Grid dependency study was performed with a reduced model being a set of blades multiple an eigen-mode nodal diameter. All other computations were carried out for the entire blade row. Two cases are considered, with an original-blade row and with a row of modified (reinforced) blades. Influence of eigen-mode nodal diameter and blade reinforcing on aero-excitation increment is analyzed. It has been established, in particular, that maximum value of the aero-excitation increment for the reinforced-blade row is two times less as compared with the original-blade row. Generally, results of the study point definitely to less probability of occurrence of blade self-oscillations in case of the reinforced blade-row.
Non-typical fluorescence studies of excited and ground state proton and hydrogen transfer
Gil, Michał
2017-02-03
Fluorescence studies of tautomerization have been carried out for various systems that exhibit single and double proton or hydrogen translocation in various environments, such as liquid and solid condensed phases, ultracold supersonic jets, and finally, polymer matrices with single emitters.We focus on less explored areas of application of fluorescence for tautomerization studies, using porphycene, a porphyrin isomer, as an example. Fluorescence anisotropy techniques allow investigations of self-exchange reactions, where the reactant and product are formally identical. Excitation with polarized light makes it possible to monitor tautomerization in single molecules and to detect their three-dimensional orientation. Analysis of fluorescence from single vibronic levels of jet-isolated porphycene not only demonstrates coherent tunneling of two internal protons, but also indicates that the process is vibrational mode-specific. Next, we present bifunctional proton donoracceptor systems, molecules that are able, depending on the environment, to undergo excited state single intramolecular or double intermolecular proton transfer. For molecules that have donor and acceptor groups located in separate moieties linked by a single bond, excited state tautomerization can be coupled to mutual twisting of the two subunits.
Magnetic excitations of layered cuprates studied by RIXS at Cu L{sub 3} edge
Ghiringhelli, G., E-mail: giacomo.ghiringhelli@fisi.polimi.it [CNR/SPIN, CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Braicovich, L. [CNR/SPIN, CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ► We have developed very high resolution RIXS instrumentation. ► Cu L{sub 3} RIXS is ideal for studying magnetic excitations in layered cuprates. ► RIXS has been used to map magnon and paramagnon dispersion in HTcS. ► We have developed the first partial polarization analyzer for RIXS in the soft X-rays. -- Abstract: The inelastic scattering of X-rays is becoming a powerful alternative to better established techniques, based on neutrons or low energy photons, for the study of low- and medium-energy excitations in solids. When performed in the soft range the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is ideal for strongly correlated electron systems based on 3d transition metals. The remarkable evolution of Cu L{sub 3} RIXS has been boosted by the steady improvement of experimental energy resolution, and by the fortunate fact that cuprates give intense and richly featured spectra. Over the last 8 years several key results were obtained using the AXES (ESRF) and the SAXES (SLS) spectrometers. This initial success is now supporting several new projects for soft X-ray RIXS worldwide. We briefly present here the case of spin excitation dispersion in insulating and superconducting cuprates and the first RIXS spectra with partial polarization analysis of the scattered photons.
Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise
2017-01-13
Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.
Realisation and crossed molecular beams study of H2/O chemical reactions at several excited states
Marx, Jacqueline
1986-01-01
This work is devoted to the study of the reactive collision O + H 2 OH + H in a crossed beam experiment. This process including several channels taken a part in the chemistry of the upper atmosphere as well as in the combustion of hydrogen. According to the electronic or vibrational state of the reactants, the OH radical is produced in its ground electronic state OH (X 2 π) or in its first excited state OH (A 2 Σ + ). When the reactants are in their ground state, the reaction is endothermic in the conditions of the experiment (center of mass kinetic energy ≅ 0.12 eV). The following reactions have been obtained: O( 1 D) +H 2 (v=O) → OH (X 2 π) +H( 2 S) and O( 1 D) +H 2 (v≥5) → OH (A 2 Σ + ) +H( 2 S). The atomic oxygen is produced in its excited state O( 1 D) in a radio-frequency discharge which dissociates the molecular oxygen seeded in a carrier gas (He or Ar) and the hydrogen molecules are excited vibrationally by electron bombardment. The first reaction is studied by time-of-flight measurements. In this way, it has been possible to observe the different vibrational levels on which the OH radical is produced. The analysis of this vibrational distribution shows the competition between the abstraction and insertion-dissociation mechanisms. In the second reaction, the analysis of the spontaneous fluorescence of OH (A 2 Σ + ) reveals a very hot and non-Boltzmann rotational excitation. (author) [fr
Interplay between superconductivity and Coulomb blockade
Lorenz, Thomas; Sprenger, Susanne; Scheer, Elke [Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)
2016-07-01
Studying the interplay between superconductivity and Coulomb blockade (CB) can be achieved by investigating an all superconducting single electron transistor (SSET) consisting of an island coupled to the leads by two tunneling contacts. The majority of experiments performed so far were using superconducting tunnel contacts made from oxide layers, in which multiple Andreev reflections (MAR) can be excluded. Using a mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ) made of aluminum enables tuning the contributions of MAR in one junction continuously and thereby addressing different transport regimes within the same sample. Our results offer the possibility to attribute particular features in the transport characteristics to the transmission probabilities of individual modes in the MCBJ contact. We discuss our findings in terms of dynamical CB, SSET behaviour and MAR when continuously opening the MCBJ from the fully closed state to a tunneling contact.
The ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge
Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2011-01-01
We present results for a numerical study of the ghost propagator in Coulomb gauge whereby lattice results for the spatial gluon propagator are used as input to solving the ghost Dyson-Schwinger equation. We show that in order to solve completely, the ghost equation must be supplemented by a boundary condition (the value of the inverse ghost propagator dressing function at zero momentum) which determines if the solution is critical (zero value for the boundary condition) or subcritical (finite value). The various solutions exhibit a characteristic behavior where all curves follow the same (critical) solution when going from high to low momenta until 'forced' to freeze out in the infrared to the value of the boundary condition. The boundary condition can be interpreted in terms of the Gribov gauge-fixing ambiguity; we also demonstrate that this is not connected to the renormalization. Further, the connection to the temporal gluon propagator and the infrared slavery picture of confinement is discussed.
Renormalizable Non-Covariant Gauges and Coulomb Gauge Limit
Baulieu, L
1999-01-01
To study ``physical'' gauges such as the Coulomb, light-cone, axial or temporal gauge, we consider ``interpolating'' gauges which interpolate linearly between a covariant gauge, such as the Feynman or Landau gauge, and a physical gauge. Lorentz breaking by the gauge-fixing term of interpolating gauges is controlled by extending the BRST method to include not only the local gauge group, but also the global Lorentz group. We enumerate the possible divergences of interpolating gauges, and show that they are renormalizable, and we show that the expectation value of physical observables is the same as in a covariant gauge. In the second part of the article we study the Coulomb-gauge as the singular limit of the Landau-Coulomb interpolating gauge. We find that unrenormalized and renormalized correlation functions are finite in this limit. We also find that there are finite two-loop diagrams of ``unphysical'' particles that are not present in formal canonical quantization in the Coulomb gauge. We verify that in the ...
Study of the neutron-photon competition during fission fragment de-excitation
Min, Dong Pil.
1976-01-01
A program was developed to study in detail the competition between neutron and photon emissions during the different stages of the nucleus de-excitation. The main conclusions of this work are the following: the neutron-photon competition fairly depends of the initial spin of the primary fragment. It has a strong effect on the mean number of emitted neutrons, on the photon energy, and to a lower degree, on the mean energy per neutron. A relation between the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for the almost symmetrical fission, the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for a very asymmetric fission and the corresponding values of the mean number of emitted neutrons is given. The mean initial excitation energy must increase of about 9MeV for the nucleus to emit one more neutron. Two reasons are given to explain the fact that the measured neutron multiplicity variance is higher for the heavy fragment than for the light one: either the existence of a covariance between spin and excitation energy distribution, or a dispersion of the values of the mean number of emitted neutrons due to the mass and charge distribution resulting from experimental incertitudes. The mean energy per neutron calculated with the program is in good agreement with measured values [fr
Experimental study of relative level populations in beam-foil excited Ar+7 and Kr+7
Bashkin, S.; Oona, H.; Veje, E.
1981-01-01
The relative level populations in beam-foil excited sodium-like argon (Ar VIII) and copper-like krypton (Kr VIII) have been studied at 2 MeV projectile energy. In Ar VIII, the 3p and the 3d terms are strongly excited. The level population decreases rapidly with increasing value of the principal quantum number n, reaches a minimum for levels with n = 5 or 6, but increases then and reaches a strong maximum for levels with n approximately 11. Also the Kr VIII data show a population maximum for levels with n = 11. The strong 3p and 3d level excitations in Ar VIII are explained as selective inner-shell processes which can be understood in the molecular-orbital electron-promotion picture. The preferential population of high-flying Rydberg states is explained as resulting from a near-resonance electron transfer from the valence band of the carbon foil to the projectile. This process takes place when the projectile leaves the back of the foil. (Auth.)
Cadez, I.; Markelj, S.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.
2006-01-01
We are currently conducting a series of different laboratory experimental studies of processes involving vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are relevant to fusion edge plasma. A general overview of our activities is presented together with results of studies of hydrogen recombination on surfaces. This includes vibrational spectroscopy of molecules formed by recombination on metal surfaces exposed to the partially dissociated hydrogen gas and recombination after hydrogen permeation through metal membrane. The goal of these studies is to provide numerical parameters needed for edge plasma modelling and better understanding of plasma wall interaction processes. (author)
Charge transfer excitations from exact and approximate ensemble Kohn-Sham theory
Gould, Tim; Kronik, Leeor; Pittalis, Stefano
2018-05-01
By studying the lowest excitations of an exactly solvable one-dimensional soft-Coulomb molecular model, we show that components of Kohn-Sham ensembles can be used to describe charge transfer processes. Furthermore, we compute the approximate excitation energies obtained by using the exact ensemble densities in the recently formulated ensemble Hartree-exchange theory [T. Gould and S. Pittalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 243001 (2017)]. Remarkably, our results show that triplet excitations are accurately reproduced across a dissociation curve in all cases tested, even in systems where ground state energies are poor due to strong static correlations. Singlet excitations exhibit larger deviations from exact results but are still reproduced semi-quantitatively.
Calculation of nuclear excitation in an electron transition
Pisk, K. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Kaliman, Z. (Rijeka Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Pedagogics); Logan, B.A. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Ottawa-Carleton Centre for Physics)
1989-11-06
We have made a theoretical investigation of nuclear excitation during an electron transition (NEET). Our approach allows us to express the NEET probabilities in terms of the excited nuclear level width, the energy difference between the nuclear and electron transition, the Coulomb interaction between the initial electron states, and the electron level width. A comparison is made with the available experimental results. (orig.).
Selfconsistent theory of Coulomb mixing in nuclei
Pyatov, N.I.
1978-01-01
The theory of isobaric states is considered according to the Coulomb mixing in nuclei. For a given form of the isovestor potential the separable residual interactions are constructed by means of the isotopic invariance principle. The strength parameter of the force is found from a selfconsistency condition. The charge dependent force is represented by the Coulomb effective potential. The theory of the isobaric states is developed using the random phase approximation. The Coulomb mixing effects in the ground and isobaric 0 + states of even-mass nuclei are investigated
The eikonal phase of supersymmetric Coulomb partners
Lassaut, M; Lombard, R J
1998-01-01
We investigate the eikonal phase and its systematic corrections for the two supersymmetric Coulomb partners V sub 1 and V sub 2 derived by Amado. Apart from a constant shift of -pi for V sub 1 and -2 pi for V sub 2 , the eikonal phase decay to the eikonal phase of the Coulomb potential as 1/kb. For the potential V sub 2 , which is phase equivalent to the Coulomb potential, this result is only valid at b approx =0 and asymptotically; in the intermediate range, it constitutes a lower limit. (author)
Lantri, T. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bentata, S., E-mail: sam_bentata@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouadjemi, B.; Benstaali, W. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Abbad, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Zitouni, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria)
2016-12-01
Using the first-principle calculations, we have investigated the structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler alloy. Based on the density functional theory (DFT) and hiring the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, we have used five approaches: the Hybrid on-site exact exchange, the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), the LSDA+U, the Generalized Gradient Approximation GGA and GGA+U; where the Hubbard on-site Coulomb interaction correction U is calculated by constraint local density approximation for Co and Mn atoms. Our results show that the highly-ordered Co{sub 2}MnSi alloy is a ductile, stiff and anisotropic material. It has a half-metallic ferromagnetic character with an integer magnetic moment of 5 µB which is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. - Highlights: • Each approach gives a half magnetic compound. • EECE gives the largest gap. • Elastic properties show a stiff, ductile and anisotropic material. • Electronic properties are similar for the five approaches. • Total magnetic moment is the same for the five approaches (5 µB).
Electromagnetic excitation of the two-phonon giant dipole resonance
Emling, H.
1994-03-01
It is the aim of this article to summarize our present knowledge on the double isovector giant dipole resonance (DGDR) and our understanding of the electromagnetic excitation mechanism in heavy ion collisions in the relativistic energy regime. In the following chapter, a brief resume on the history of giant resonances is given and, based on their understanding, conclusions on the expected properties of multi-phonon resonances are drawn. In chapter 2, the essential features of electromagnetic heavy ion interactions at (near) relativistic velocities will be illuminated and the theoretical framework is presented, which describes such processes. New experimental methods were required for an appropriate study of Coulomb dissociation processes, which are discussed in chapter 3 together with the experimental results. Chapter 4 is dedicated to summarize the results from electromagnetic excitation studies, to compare with those from alternative methods and, in particular, to contrast experimental findings with theoretical predictions and to address open problems. (orig.)
Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons
Hussain, A.
2010-06-17
There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.
Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons
Hussain, A.; Andrews, S. R.
2010-01-01
There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.
It is proposed to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations, the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs), an effect called shell stabilization of MSSs. This aim will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The first steps of this program have been undertaken in two subsequent REX-ISOLDE experiments (IS496) in which we have measured the B(E2; 2$^{+}_{1}$$\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}_{1}$) transition strengths in the radioactive nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. By using these data and the higher beam energy of HIE-ISOLDE we propose now to identify the MSSs of these nuclei by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions.
Yuan Wujie; Luo Xiaoshu; Jiang Pinqun
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new model of weighted small-world biological neural networks based on biophysical Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with side-restrain mechanism. Then we study excitement properties of the model under alternating current (AC) stimulation. The study shows that the excitement properties in the networks are preferably consistent with the behavior properties of a brain nervous system under different AC stimuli, such as refractory period and the brain neural excitement response induced by different intensities of noise and coupling. The results of the study have reference worthiness for the brain nerve electrophysiology and epistemological science.
A contribution to the study of excited states of Neon 22 and Sodium 22
Chambon, Bernard.
1976-01-01
The experimental study of 22 Ne has been performed. A differentially pump gas target has been used, in conjunction with E+ΔE detectors. Angular distribution measurements have been performed on the 21 Ne(d,p) 22 Ne reaction in the Esub(d) energy range from 3 to 3.6MeV. Angular momentum has been identified and spectroscopic factors extracted for 18 levels by comparison with DWBA predictions. Spin and parities of some excited levels were deduced. The study of the 21 Ne(t,d) 22 Ne reaction corroborates the results concerning the first excited state (2 + ). Experimental results are compared with the predictions of the unified rotational model and of the shell-model. The 20 Ne(t,p) 22 Ne reaction was studied at 3MeV and 3.4MeV bombarding energies. The total cross-section of most groups was analyzed in terms of Hauser-Feshbach theory and several final-state spin predictions are made. The angular distribution of the 20 Ne(t,p) 22 Ne (Esub(x)=6.24MeV) reaction was analyzed by double stripping DWBA theory and indicates 0 + for this state, the isobaric analog of which has been identified at 6.83MeV in 22 Na. Furthermore, several new isobaric analog pairs in 22 Na and 22 Ne are identified via the study of excitation functions for the reactions 21 Ne(p,p) 21 Ne and 21 Ne(p,p') 21 Ne for Esub(p)=0.6-2MeV. Implications of the present results with regard to the identification of band structure in 22 Na are discussed [fr
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-01
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression.
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-26
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Experiments on Coulomb ionization by charged particles
Andersen, J.U.; Laegsgaard, E.; Lund, M.
1978-01-01
Inner-shell ionization by light projectiles, i.e., in very asymmetric collisions, is often denoted 'Coulomb ionization' because it is caused by the Coulomb interaction between the electron and the projectile. Although with little justification, the term is also used to distinquish such processes, in which the projectile Coulomb field is a small perturbation, from ionization in more violent, nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions. A discussion of Coulomb ionization of atomic K shells is given, with emphasis on experimental methods and results. The discussion is not intended as a review of the field but rather as a progress report on the anthor's work on the subject. A more detailed account was recently presented at the ICPEAC meeting in Paris. (Auth.)
Classical- and quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering
Gratzl, W.
1987-01-01
Because in textbooks the quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering is either ignored or treated unsatisfactory, the present work attempts to present a physically plausible, mathematically correct but elementary treatment in a way that it can be used in textbooks and lectures on quantum mechanics. Coulomb scattering is derived as a limiting case of a screened Coulomb potential (finite range) within a time dependent quantum scattering theory. The difference in the asymptotic conditions for potentials of finite versus infinite range leads back to the classical Coulomb scattering. In the classical framework many concepts of the quantum theory can be introduced and are useful in an intuitive understanding of the quantum theory. The differences between classical and quantum scattering theory are likewise useful for didactic purposes. (qui)
Coulomb effect in the tri nucleon system in an optical potential model
Adhikari, S.K.; Delfino, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD
1993-02-01
A Saxon-Woods type nucleon-deuteron optical potential in suggested and applied numerically to the study of the static Coulomb effect in the low-energy tri nucleon system. In particular, the observed correlations between the static Coulomb energy of 3 He and the triton binding energy, and that between the neutron-deuteron and the proton-deuteron scattering lengths are simulated with this optical potential. In view of this study and a previous one employing two other effective potentials its is unlikely that a a study of the usual static Coulomb effect in the tri nucleon system will reveal new and meaningful physics. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs
Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements of hexadecapole deformations in 168Yb and 178,180Hf
Nettles, W.G.; Mississippi Coll., Clinton; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.
1988-01-01
Coulomb-nuclear interference studies of 168 Yb and 178,180 Hf have been carried out with alpha particles from the Pittsburgh tandem. From coupled channel fits to the data at 18 MeV for 168 Yb and 19.5 MeV for 178,180 Hf, β 4 c values of -0.030(20), -0.166(18), and -0.180(6) were obtained, respectively. These data agree with the positive M 04 value from sub-Coulomb studies of 168 Yb but with the large negative M 04 values from sub-Coulomb studies of 178,180 Hf. (author)
Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
2012-03-13
The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.
Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals
Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan
2009-01-01
Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....
Monotonicity of energy eigenvalues for Coulomb systems
Englisch, R.
1983-01-01
Generalising results by earlier workers for a large class of Hamiltonians (among others, Hamiltonians of Coulomb systems) which can be written in the form H(α) = H 0 + αH' the present works shows that their eigenvalues decrease with increasing α. This result is applied to Coulomb systems in which the distances between the infinitely heavy particles are varying and also is used to obtain a completion and simplification of proof for the stability of the biexciton. (author)
Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime
Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington
2009-09-01
The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.
Radiative capture studies of the electromagnetic decays of highly excited states
Snover, K. A. [Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics
1980-01-01
Selected examples of interesting E1, M1 and E2 resonance studies in (p, ..gamma..) and (..cap alpha.., ..gamma..) reactions are discussed. These include a unique determination of E1 amplitudes in the /sup 12/C(p,..gamma..sub(o))/sup 13/N reaction, E2 strength in light nuclei, M1 decays to the ground states and to the excited O/sup +/ states of the doubly magic /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ca nuclei, ''second harmonic'' E1 resonances in (p, ..gamma..), and M1 ..gamma..-decay of stretched particle-hole states in /sup 16/O and /sup 28/Si.
Analytical and experimental study of two delay-coupled excitable units.
Weicker, Lionel; Erneux, Thomas; Keuninckx, Lars; Danckaert, Jan
2014-01-01
We investigate the onset of time-periodic oscillations for a system of two identical delay-coupled excitable (nonoscillatory) units. We first analyze these solutions by using asymptotic methods. The oscillations are described as relaxation oscillations exhibiting successive slow and fast changes. The analysis highlights the determinant role of the delay during the fast transition layers. We then study experimentally a system of two coupled electronic circuits that is modeled mathematically by the same delay differential equations. We obtain quantitative agreements between analytical and experimental bifurcation diagrams.
Search for higher excited states of $^{8}$Be* to study the cosmological $^{7}$Li problem
We would like to study the unresolved $^{7}$Li abundance anomaly by carrying out experiments that destroy the rare isotope $^{7}$Be, the main source of $^{7}$Li. Utilizing a 35 MeV $^{7}$Be beam from HIE-ISOLDE, we would like to measure the (d,p) and (d,d) reactions with T-REX. The higher beam energy, for the first time, would allow us to measure higher excitation energies in $^{8}$Be up to about 20 MeV. With a wider angular coverage, we can make improved average cross-section measurement without assuming isotropy done in earlier works.
Wavelet-Based Frequency Response Function: Comparative Study of Input Excitation
K. Dziedziech
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Time-variant systems can be found in many areas of engineering. It is widely accepted that the classical Fourier-based methods are not suitable for the analysis and identification of such systems. The time-variant frequency response function—based on the continuous wavelet transform—is used in this paper for the analysis of time-variant systems. The focus is on the comparative study of various broadband input excitations. The performance of the method is tested using simulated data from a simple MDOF system and experimental data from a frame-like structure.
Study of self-excited ion acoustic waves in a plasma
Ghoranneviss, M.H.; Agashe, V.V.
1985-01-01
Plasma oscillation were studied in spherical discharge system of different sizes: with diameters of 10, 20 and 40 cm. The self-excited ion-acoustic waves were observed, and the oscillation amplitudes were measured at different radial distances. If the discharge conditions were varied, the oscillation frequency was found varying discontinuously from mode to mode. The method used is suggested for application in plasma diagnostics as a very reliable tool for the investigation of stationary dc. low pressure plasma in the absence of external magnetic fields. (D.Gy.)
Hurst, G.S.; Judish, J.P.; Nayfeh, M.H.; Parks, J.E.; Payne, M.G.; Wagner, E.B.
1974-01-01
The use of a pulsed 3-MV accelerator to study energy pathways in the noble gases is described. The objectives of pathways research are to obtain (1) information on the spectrum of excited states produced by a charged particle in a noble gas, (2) the rate of decay of the various states through various channels as a function of gas pressure, and (3) the modification of the decay channels due to the introduction of foreign species. A new energy pathways model is presented for helium as a general illustration. A method for the study of excited states, using a laser ionization technique is reported. Use is made of a laser which is tuned to a resonance transition between the desired excited state and some higher excited state. Photons in the same pulse photoionize the higher excited state; thus the ionization current vs photon wavelength has a resonance structure. Absolute yields of selected excited states can be obtained whenever the photon fluence per pulse is large enough to saturate the ionization current. A general summary is given of experimental facilities which include a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, electronics for measuring radiation lifetimes, vacuum ultraviolet spectrometers, and a pulsed laser facility for direct study of excited states. Finally, the relevance of pathways research to (1) the interaction of radiation with matter, (2) the development of gas lasers, and (3) methods of ultrasensitive elemental analysis is pointed out
Tur\\'an type inequalities for regular Coulomb wave functions
Baricz, Árpád
2015-01-01
Tur\\'an, Mitrinovi\\'c-Adamovi\\'c and Wilker type inequalities are deduced for regular Coulomb wave functions. The proofs are based on a Mittag-Leffler expansion for the regular Coulomb wave function, which may be of independent interest. Moreover, some complete monotonicity results concerning the Coulomb zeta functions and some interlacing properties of the zeros of Coulomb wave functions are given.
Trinucleon asymptotic normalization constants including Coulomb effects
Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Lehman, D.R.; Payne, G.L.
1982-01-01
Exact theoretical expressions for calculating the trinucleon S- and D-wave asymptotic normalization constants, with and without Coulomb effects, are presented. Coordinate-space Faddeev-type equations are used to generate the trinucleon wave functions, and integral relations for the asymptotic norms are derived within this framework. The definition of the asymptotic norms in the presence of the Coulomb interaction is emphasized. Numerical calculations are carried out for the s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published results is made. The first estimate of Coulomb effects for the D-wave asymptotic norm is given. All theoretical values are carefully compared with experiment and suggestions are made for improving the experimental situation. We find that Coulomb effects increase the 3 He S-wave asymptotic norm by less than 1% relative to that of 3 H, that Coulomb effects decrease the 3 He D-wave asymptotic norm by approximately 8% relative to that of 3 H, and that the distorted-wave Born approximation D-state parameter, D 2 , is only 1% smaller in magnitude for 3 He than for 3 H due to compensating Coulomb effects
Statistics of excitations in the electron glass model
Palassini, Matteo
2011-03-01
We study the statistics of elementary excitations in the classical electron glass model of localized electrons interacting via the unscreened Coulomb interaction in the presence of disorder. We reconsider the long-standing puzzle of the exponential suppression of the single-particle density of states near the Fermi level, by measuring accurately the density of states of charged and electron-hole pair excitations via finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation and zero-temperature relaxation. We also investigate the statistics of large charge rearrangements after a perturbation of the system, which may shed some light on the slow relaxation and glassy phenomena recently observed in a variety of Anderson insulators. In collaboration with Martin Goethe.
Experimental study on the kinetically induced electronic excitation in atomic collisional cascades
Meyer, S.
2006-01-01
the present thesis deals with the ion-collision-induced electronic excitation of metallic solids. For this for the first time metal-insulator-metal layer systems are used for the detection of this electronic excitation. The here applied aluminium/aluminium oxide/silver layer sytems have barrier heights of 2.4 eV on the aluminium respectively 3.3 eV on the silver side. With the results it could uniquely be shown that the electronic excitation is generated by kinetic processes, this excitation dependenc on the kinetic energy of the colliding particles, and the excitation dependes on the charge state of the projectile
Salmon, G A [Leeds Univ. (UK). Cookridge High Energy Radiation Research Centre
1976-01-01
This paper reviews the work of the author and his co-workers on the radiation-induced formation of excited states of aromatic compounds in solution. The experimental methods used are surveyed and in particular the method of measuring the yields of triplet and singlet excited states of the solute are described. The problems discussed are: (1) the effect of solvent on the yields of excited states, (2) formation of excited states in cyclohexane and other alicyclic hydrocarbons, (3) the formation of excited states in benzene and (4) the identification of T-T absorption spectra.
Xia, D.; Xia, Z.
2017-12-01
The ability for the excitation system to adjust quickly plays a very important role in maintaining the normal operation of superconducting machines and power systems. However, the eddy currents in the electromagnetic shield of superconducting machines hinder the exciting magnetic field change and weaken the adjustment capability of the excitation system. To analyze this problem, a finite element calculation model for the transient electromagnetic field with moving parts is established. The effects of three different electromagnetic shields on the exciting magnetic field are analyzed using finite element method. The results show that the electromagnetic shield hinders the field changes significantly, the better its conductivity, the greater the effect on the superconducting machine excitation.
Read, K.; Karlsson, H. S.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Haight, R.
2001-01-01
In this work, we use excite-probe photoelectron spectroscopy to study the decay of electronic excitation in tris(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq) doped with the organic dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). Ultrashort laser pulses are used to photoexcite electrons into unoccupied molecular orbitals, and the ensuing decay rate is directly observed using photoelectron spectroscopy. Decay of the electronic excitation is studied as a function of DCM doping percentage and excitation intensity. The decay rate is seen to increase with both doping percentage and excitation intensity. These data are explained using a model including Foerster transfer, stimulated emission, concentration quenching, and bimolecular singlet - singlet exciton annihilation. In this model, we find that it is necessary to include a very fast (faster than predicted in standard Foerster transfer theory) excitation transfer of a fraction of the excitation from the Alq to the DCM, where that fraction corresponds to the approximate nearest-neighbor population. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Wu, Guorong; Neville, Simon P.; Schalk, Oliver; Sekikawa, Taro; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Worth, Graham A.; Stolow, Albert
2016-01-01
The dynamics of N-methylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range 241.5-217.0 nm were studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES), ab initio quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, as well as high-level photoionization cross section calculations. Excitation at 241.5 and 236.2 nm results in population of the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state, in agreement with previous studies. Excitation at 217.0 nm prepares the previously neglected B 1 (π3p y ) Rydberg state, followed by prompt internal conversion to the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state. In contrast with the photoinduced dynamics of pyrrole, the lifetime of the wavepacket in the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state was found to vary with excitation wavelength, decreasing by one order of magnitude upon tuning from 241.5 nm to 236.2 nm and by more than three orders of magnitude when excited at 217.0 nm. The order of magnitude difference in lifetimes measured at the longer excitation wavelengths is attributed to vibrational excitation in the A 2 (πσ ∗ ) state, facilitating wavepacket motion around the potential barrier in the N–CH 3 dissociation coordinate
Wu, Guorong [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schalk, Oliver [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Sekikawa, Taro [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ashfold, Michael N. R. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Worth, Graham A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Stolow, Albert, E-mail: astolow@uottawa.ca [National Research Council Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)
2016-01-07
The dynamics of N-methylpyrrole following excitation at wavelengths in the range 241.5-217.0 nm were studied using a combination of time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES), ab initio quantum dynamics calculations using the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, as well as high-level photoionization cross section calculations. Excitation at 241.5 and 236.2 nm results in population of the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, in agreement with previous studies. Excitation at 217.0 nm prepares the previously neglected B{sub 1}(π3p{sub y}) Rydberg state, followed by prompt internal conversion to the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state. In contrast with the photoinduced dynamics of pyrrole, the lifetime of the wavepacket in the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state was found to vary with excitation wavelength, decreasing by one order of magnitude upon tuning from 241.5 nm to 236.2 nm and by more than three orders of magnitude when excited at 217.0 nm. The order of magnitude difference in lifetimes measured at the longer excitation wavelengths is attributed to vibrational excitation in the A{sub 2}(πσ{sup ∗}) state, facilitating wavepacket motion around the potential barrier in the N–CH{sub 3} dissociation coordinate.
Photo-Hall-effect study of excitation and recombination in Fe-doped GaN
Look, David C.; Leach, Jacob H.; Metzger, Robert
2017-02-01
The photo-Hall-effect was applied to the study of electron dynamics in semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN. High-powered light-emitting diodes of wavelengths λ = 940, 536, 449, 402, and 365 nm were used to excite steady-state free-electron volume concentrations Δn = 105-108 cm-3, depending on λ and intensity I0. Electron lifetime τ was determined from the energy E dependence of the excited sheet electron concentration Δns through the relationship Δns = I0τA(E), where the absorbance A(E) is a known function of sample thickness d and absorption coefficient α, and the energy dependence of α is taken from a theory of deep-center photoionization. The major sample impurities were Fe, Si, and C, with [Fe] ≫ [Si] and [C]. Fitted lifetimes τ ranged from 15 to 170 ps, depending on [Fe]. It was found that Δns ∝ I0 for [Si] > [C] and ∝ I01/2 for [Si] [C], some of the neutral Fe3+ is converted to Fe2+ with ground state Fe2+(5E) and excited state Fe2+(5T2); a fit of n vs. temperature T over the range of 290-325 K in the dark establishes E5E with respect to the conduction band: ECB - E5E = 0.564 eV - β5ET, where β5E = 3.6 × 10-4 eV/K. At room temperature, 294 K, ECB - E5E = 0.46 eV and ECB - E5T2 = 0.07 eV.
Djerad, M.T.
1987-01-01
This study concerns mainly ionising collisions involving excited states in a saturated mixture of K-Rb vapours, at thermal energy. The experimental method consists into continuous resonant two steps laser excitation of the atoms (n ≤ 10) and mass spectrometry of ion currents. Radiative and collisional relaxation of the atoms create a complex medium. The most efficient collisional processes are Penning ionisation and Hornbeck-Molnar ionisation. In the heteronuclear system Rb(n1) + K(4P), the following exit channels may be operative: Rb(n1) + K(4P) → Rb + + e - + K Rb(n1) + K(4p) → K + + e - + Rb Rb(n1) + K(4P) → KRb + + e - . The measurements show that the first channel has an average cross section ∼ 10 -13 cm 2 . Those of the other channels are at least three orders of magnitude smaller and thus comparatively negligible. The data obtained from 5D to 10S allow to conclude that the flux in the entrance channel ionises at large separation between Rb(n1) and K(4P). The process of ionisation is dominated by polarisation forces, exchange forces being negligible. In the present mixture, Hornbeck-Molnar ionisation leads to homonuclear molecular ions K 2 + , Rb 2 + as well as the heteronuclear one KRb + . We have measured the rate coefficients for the systems: K(n1) + Rb → KRb + + e - Rb(n1) + K → KRb + + e - . The rate coefficients increase with the excitation energy of the level n1; they do not exhibit fundamental differences with those measured in pure alkali vapours [fr
Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with the use of N, O, F, Ne, Na, Cl, and Ar projectiles
Jensen, H.K.; Veje, E.
1985-01-01
Solid magnesium has been bombarded with 80 keV ions of N, O, F, Ne, Na, Cl, and Ar, and excitation of sputtered magnesium atoms and ions has been studied. Relative level excitation probabilities depend strongly on the projectile, the dependences for Mg I levels being different from those for Mg II levels. With all projectiles, the resonance level in Mg II is excited stronger than the resonance level in Mg I. Very little radiation is observed from the projectiles except for sodium. The results are discussed. (orig.)
Engel, A.
1995-01-01
Delta excitation plays a prominent role in intermediate heavy reactions. In this paper, comment is made on the calculations done for pion-, photon- and nucleon-nucleus reactions using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model and the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) model. First, it is recalled how to include delta degrees in microscopic models in general. Then, the comparison of the microscopic calculation performed by the author with the experimental data is presented. Deltas in microscopic models are discussed. Pion-nucleus reactions have been studied since pion beams became available, especially for exploring the delta resonance in a nuclear medium. The dependence of pion absorption cross section on incident pion energy is shown. The photon-induced pion production in the resonance energy region was studied with the BUU model. The calculated results of neutral pion photo-production are shown. In both inelastic proton scattering and (p,n) charge exchange reaction, the excitation of delta resonance can be observed clearly in the experimental data. The results of the AMD calculation for 12 C(p,p') reaction are shown. (K.I.)
Excitation of chiral molecules and their hydrated by clusters by R2PI studies
Satta, M.; Piccirillo, S.; Scuderia, D.; Paladini, A.; Della Vedova, L.; Filippi, A.; Speranza, M.; Giardini, A.
2002-01-01
Molecular clusters play a key role in the molecular scale explanation of macroscopic phenomena, being in between the isolated gas phase and the condensed phase. Thus, allowing to obtain information on intermolecular forces simply by studying the physicochemical properties of isolated clusters and to extend them macroscopic systems. A comprehensive study of the short-range forces operating in the molecular complexes between several chiral aromatic alcohols (M) and water (solv), through the application of mass resolved REMPI technique is reported. The experimental setup was composed by a supersonic molecular beam, two Nd-YAG pumped dye lasers and a time of flight mass spectrometer. The photoionization efficiency curves were obtained as follows: a) the first exciting laser (hv 1 ) was tuned on the S 1 0 transition of the species of interest; b) the laser intensity is lowered to about 1 % of the initial fluence to minimize the hv 1 absorption; c)a second laser (hv 2 ) is scanned through the cluster ionization and fragmentation threshold regions. The binding energy of the M-solv adduct was computed from the differences between its dissociative ionization threshold and the ionization threshold of bare M. The mass-resolved one colour R2PI excitation spectra of l-tetralol (THN R ), THN R -H 2 O, l i ndanol (I R ) and I R -H 2 O are given. (nevyjel)
Mukhopadhyay, A. K.
1978-01-01
A description is presented of six simulation cases investigating the effect of the variation of static-dynamic Coulomb friction on servo system stability/performance. The upper and lower levels of dynamic Coulomb friction which allowed operation within requirements were determined roughly to be three times and 50% respectively of nominal values considered in a table. A useful application for the nonlinear time response simulation is the sensitivity analysis of final hardware design with respect to such system parameters as cannot be varied realistically or easily in the actual hardware. Parameters of the static/dynamic Coulomb friction fall in this category.
Wenbo Duan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided waves are widely used to inspect and monitor the structural integrity of plates and plate-like structures, such as ship hulls and large storage-tank floors. Recently, ultrasonic guided waves have also been used to remove ice and fouling from ship hulls, wind-turbine blades and aeroplane wings. In these applications, the strength of the sound source must be high for scanning a large area, or to break the bond between ice, fouling and plate substrate. More than one transducer may be used to achieve maximum sound power output. However, multiple sources can interact with each other, and form a sound field in the structure with local constructive and destructive regions. Destructive regions are weak regions and shall be avoided. When multiple transducers are used it is important that they are arranged in a particular way so that the desired wave modes can be excited to cover the whole structure. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for generating particular wave mode patterns in finite-width rectangular plates whose length is assumed to be infinitely long with respect to its width and thickness. The wave modes have displacements in both width and thickness directions, and are thus different from the classical Lamb-type wave modes. A two-dimensional semi-analytical finite element (SAFE method was used to study dispersion characteristics and mode shapes in the plate up to ultrasonic frequencies. The modal analysis provided information on the generation of modes suitable for a particular application. The number of point sources and direction of loading for the excitation of a few representative modes was investigated. Based on the SAFE analysis, a standard finite element modelling package, Abaqus, was used to excite the designed modes in a three-dimensional plate. The generated wave patterns in Abaqus were then compared with mode shapes predicted in the SAFE model. Good agreement was observed between the
Pluchery, Olivier; Caillard, Louis; Dollfus, Philippe; Chabal, Yves J
2018-01-18
Single charge electronics offer a way for disruptive technology in nanoelectronics. Coulomb blockade is a realistic way for controlling the electric current through a device with the accuracy of one electron. In such devices the current exhibits a step-like increase upon bias which reflects the discrete nature of the fundamental charge. We have assembled a double tunnel junction on an oxide-free silicon substrate that exhibits Coulomb staircase characteristics using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as Coulomb islands. The first tunnel junction is an insulating layer made of a grafted organic monolayer (GOM) developed for this purpose. The GOM also serves for attaching AuNPs covalently. The second tunnel junction is made by the tip of an STM. We show that this device exhibits reproducible Coulomb blockade I-V curves at 40 K in vacuum. We also show that depending on the doping of the silicon substrate, the whole Coulomb staircase can be adjusted. We have developed a simulation approach based on the orthodox theory that was completed by calculating the bias dependent tunnel barriers and by including an accurate calculation of the band bending. This model accounts for the experimental data and the doping dependence of Coulomb oscillations. This study opens new perspectives toward designing new kind of single electron transistors (SET) based on this dependence of the Coulomb staircase with the charge carrier concentration.
Coulomb corrections to nuclear scattering lengths and effective ranges for weakly bound systems
Mur, V.D.; Popov, V.S.; Sergeev, A.V.
1996-01-01
A procedure is considered for extracting the purely nuclear scattering length as and effective range rs (which correspond to a strong-interaction potential Vs with disregarded Coulomb interaction) from the experimentally determined nuclear quantities acs and rcs, which are modified by Coulomb interaction. The Coulomb renormalization of as and rs is especially strong if the system under study involves a level with energy close to zero (on the nuclear scale). This applies to formulas that determine the Coulomb renormalization of the low-energy parameters of s scattering (l=0). Detailed numerical calculations are performed for coefficients appearing in the equations that determine Coulomb corrections for various models of the potential Vs(r). This makes it possible to draw qualitative conclusions that the dependence of Coulomb corrections on the form of the strong-interaction potential and, in particular, on its small-distance behavior. A considerable enhancement of Coulomb corrections to the effective range rs is found for potentials with a barrier
Coulomb thermal properties and stability of the Io plasma torus
Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Eviatar, A.
1983-01-01
Coulomb collisional energy exchange rates are computed for a model of the Io plasma torus consisting of newly created pickup ions, a background of thermally degraded intermediary ions, and a population of cooler electrons. The electrons are collisionally heated by both the pickup ions and background ions and are cooled by electron impact excitation of plasma ions which radiate in the EUV. It is found that a relative concentration of S III pickup ions forbidden S III/electrons = 0.1 with a temperature of 340 eV can deliver energy to the electrons at a rate of 3 x 10 to the -13th erg/cu cm per sec, sufficient to power the EUV emissions in the Io torus. The model predicts a background ion temperature Ti of about 53 eV and an electron temperature Te of about 5.5 eV on the basis of steady-state energy balance relations at Coulomb rates. The model also predicts electron temperature fluctuations at the 30 percent level on a time scale of less than 11 hours, consistent with recent observations of this phenomenon.
The singularity structure of scale-invariant rank-2 Coulomb branches
Argyres, Philip C.; Long, Cody; Martone, Mario
2018-05-01
We compute the spectrum of scaling dimensions of Coulomb branch operators in 4d rank-2 N=2 superconformal field theories. Only a finite rational set of scaling dimensions is allowed. It is determined by using information about the global topology of the locus of metric singularities on the Coulomb branch, the special Kähler geometry near those singularities, and electric-magnetic duality monodromies along orbits of the U(1) R symmetry. A set of novel topological and geometric results are developed which promise to be useful for the study and classification of Coulomb branch geometries at all ranks.
Slow Noncollinear Coulomb Scattering in the Vicinity of the Dirac Point in Graphene.
König-Otto, J C; Mittendorff, M; Winzer, T; Kadi, F; Malic, E; Knorr, A; Berger, C; de Heer, W A; Pashkin, A; Schneider, H; Helm, M; Winnerl, S
2016-08-19
The Coulomb scattering dynamics in graphene in energetic proximity to the Dirac point is investigated by polarization resolved pump-probe spectroscopy and microscopic theory. Collinear Coulomb scattering rapidly thermalizes the carrier distribution in k directions pointing radially away from the Dirac point. Our study reveals, however, that, in almost intrinsic graphene, full thermalization in all directions relying on noncollinear scattering is much slower. For low photon energies, carrier-optical-phonon processes are strongly suppressed and Coulomb mediated noncollinear scattering is remarkably slow, namely on a ps time scale. This effect is very promising for infrared and THz devices based on hot carrier effects.
Inter-grain coupling and grain charge in dusty plasma Coulomb crystals
Smith, M. A.; Goodrich, J.; Mohideen, U.; Rahman, H. U.; Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.
1998-01-01
We have studied the lattice structure and grain charge of dusty plasma Coulomb crystals formed in rectangular conductive grooves as a function of plasma temperature and density. The crystal appears to be made of mutually repulsive columns of grains confined by the walls of the groove. The columns are oriented along the direction of the electrode sheath electric field. A simple phenomenological model wherein the inter-grain spacing results from an attractive electric field induced dipole-dipole force balanced by a repulsive monopole Coulomb force is consistent with observed features of the Coulomb crystal
Coulomb two-body problem with internal structure
Kuperin, Yu.A.; Makarov, K.A.; Mel'nikov, Yu.B.
1988-01-01
The methods of the theory of extensions to an enlarged Hilbert space are used to construct a model of the interaction of the external (Coulomb) and internal (quark) channels in the two-body problem. The mutual influence of the spectra of the corresponding channel Hamiltonians is studied: it leads, in particular, to a rearrangement of the spectra of hadronic atoms. An explicit representation is obtained for the S matrix, and its singularities on the energy shell are studied
Study of orbitally excited $B$ mesons and evidence for a new $B\\pi$ resonance
Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Marchese, Luigi; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; Devoto, Francesco; D'Errico, Maria; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; D'Onofrio, Monica; Donati, Simone; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Feindt, Michael; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kim, Young-Jin; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Heck, Martin; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucà, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Prokoshin, Fedor; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Tecker-Shreyber, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Sorin, Maria Veronica; Song, Hao; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano
2014-07-28
Using the full CDF Run II data sample, we report evidence for a new resonance, which we refer to as B(5970), found simultaneously in the $B^0\\pi^+$ and $B^+\\pi^-$ mass distributions with a significance of 4.4 standard deviations. We further report the first study of resonances consistent with orbitally excited $B^{+}$ mesons and an updated measurement of the properties of orbitally excited $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons. Using samples of approximately 8400 $B^{**0}$, 3300 $B^{**+}$, 1350 $B^{**0}_s$, 2600 $B(5970)^0$, and 1400 $B(5970)^+$ decays, we measure the masses and widths of all states, as well as the product of the relative production rate of $B_1$ and $B_2^*$ states times the branching fraction into a $B^{0,+}$ meson and a charged particle. Furthermore, we measure the branching fraction of the $B_{s2}^{*0} \\rightarrow B^{*+} K^-$ decay relative to the $B_{s2}^{*0} \\rightarrow B^{+} K^-$ decay, the production rate times the branching fraction of the B(5970) state relative to the $B_{2}^{*0,+}$ state, and th...
Autoionization study of the Argon 2p satellites excited near the argon 2s threshold
Wang, H.; Glans, P.; Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
The dynamics of near-threshold photoionization is a complex phenomenon in which the many-electron character of the wavefunctions plays an important role. According to generalized time-independent resonant scattering theory, the transition matrix element from an initial state to a final state is the summation of the amplitudes of direct photoionization and an indirect term in which intermediate states are involved and the resonant behavior is embedded. Studies of the interference effects of intermediate states have been explored in the cases where the direct term is negligible. In the present work, electron time-of-flight spectra of the Ar 2p satellites were measured at two angles (magic and 0{degrees}) in the dipole plane with the exciting photon energy tuned in the vicinity of the Ar 2s threshold. For excitation far below or above the 2s threshold, the 2p satellites spectrum is dominated by 3p to np shakeup contributions upon the ionization of a 2p electron.
Study on the characteristics of sup(163,165,167)Tm excited states
Adam, I.; Alikov, B.A.; Badalov, Kh.N.
1985-01-01
On the basis of analysis of transition intensities, de-excitation nature and systematics of sup(163,1965, 167)Tm nucleus level energy the interpretation of some excited states of studied isotopes is suggested. Results of calculations within the framework of an independent quasiparticle model and quasiparticle-phonon model confirm the suggested interpretation and show that taking account of quasiparticle-phonon interaction improves agreement of theoretical energy values with experimental as compared with the independent quasiparticle model. The calculation of energy of rotational states within the framework of a non adi batic rotational model shows that it is possible to obtain rather good agreement with experiment. It is noted that taking account of correctly the difference in deformations of one-particle states can result in the improvement of agreement of theory and experiment. When calculating rotational spectra for the description of high-lying states it is desirable to consider dependence of collective parameters, for example, inertia momentum, on spin
Autoionization study of the Argon 2p satellites excited near the argon 2s threshold
Wang, H.; Glans, P.; Hemmers, O.
1997-01-01
The dynamics of near-threshold photoionization is a complex phenomenon in which the many-electron character of the wavefunctions plays an important role. According to generalized time-independent resonant scattering theory, the transition matrix element from an initial state to a final state is the summation of the amplitudes of direct photoionization and an indirect term in which intermediate states are involved and the resonant behavior is embedded. Studies of the interference effects of intermediate states have been explored in the cases where the direct term is negligible. In the present work, electron time-of-flight spectra of the Ar 2p satellites were measured at two angles (magic and 0 degrees) in the dipole plane with the exciting photon energy tuned in the vicinity of the Ar 2s threshold. For excitation far below or above the 2s threshold, the 2p satellites spectrum is dominated by 3p to np shakeup contributions upon the ionization of a 2p electron
Amadio, Stefano; Houdayer, Elise; Bianchi, Francesca; Tesfaghebriel Tekle, Habtom; Urban, Ivan Pietro; Butera, Calogera; Guerriero, Roberta; Cursi, Marco; Leocani, Letizia; Comi, Giancarlo; Del Carro, Ubaldo
2014-08-01
Sensory tricks such as touching the face with fingertips often improve cervical dystonia [CD]. This study is to determine whether sensory tricks modulate motor cortex excitability, assessed by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation [p-pTMS]. Eight patients with rotational CD underwent p-pTMS, at rest and when the sensory trick was applied. To test intracortical inhibition [ICI] and facilitation [ICF], the amplitude ratio between conditioned and unconditioned cortical motor evoked potentials was measured at several interstimulus intervals (ISI 1, 3, 15, and 20 ms) and compared with controls mimicking patients' sensory tricks. At rest, a significant ICF enhancement was found at ISIs 15 through 20 in patients compared with controls, whereas no significant ICI changes were observed. Sensory tricks significantly reduced the abnormal ICF in patients and did not induce any change in controls. In our CD patients, sensory tricks seem to improve dystonia through an inhibitory effect on motor cortex excitability. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Alternans and Spiral Breakup in an Excitable Reaction-Diffusion System: A Simulation Study.
Gani, M Osman; Ogawa, Toshiyuki
2014-01-01
The determination of the mechanisms of spiral breakup in excitable media is still an open problem for researchers. In the context of cardiac electrophysiological activities, spiral breakup exhibits complex spatiotemporal pattern known as ventricular fibrillation. The latter is the major cause of sudden cardiac deaths all over the world. In this paper, we numerically study the instability of periodic planar traveling wave solution in two dimensions. The emergence of stable spiral pattern is observed in the considered model. This pattern occurs when the heart is malfunctioning (i.e., ventricular tachycardia). We show that the spiral wave breakup is a consequence of the transverse instability of the planar traveling wave solutions. The alternans, that is, the oscillation of pulse widths, is observed in our simulation results. Moreover, we calculate the widths of spiral pulses numerically and observe that the stable spiral pattern bifurcates to an oscillatory wave pattern in a one-parameter family of solutions. The spiral breakup occurs far below the bifurcation when the maximum and the minimum excited states become more distinct, and hence the alternans becomes more pronounced.
Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment
Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.
1997-01-01
A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40 o . (author)
Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment
Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1997-12-14
A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s{sup 2}){sup 1}S, (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40{sup o}. (author).
Wilson, A.N.; Singh, A.K.; Huebel, H.; Rossbach, D.; Schonwasser, G.; Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Goergen, A.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Kroell, T.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Buforn, N.; Redon, N.
2005-01-01
The excitation energy of the lowest-energy superdeformed band in 196 Pb is established using the techniques of time-correlated γ-ray spectroscopy. Together with previous measurements on 192 Pb and 194 Pb, this result allows superdeformed excitation energies, binding energies, and two-proton and two-neutron separation energies to be studied systematically, providing stringent tests for current nuclear models. The results are examined for evidence of a 'superdeformed shell gap'
Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes
Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Ukita, G.M.
2004-01-01
Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on 104,106,108,110 Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12 0 ≤θ lab ≤64 0 . A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = δ LC /δ LN , the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of (δ LN ) 2 were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For 104 Pd, and preliminary for 108 Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for 106 Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for 110 Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)
Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes
Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia
2004-09-15
Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on {sup 104,106,108,110}Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12{sup 0} {<=}{theta}{sub lab} {<=}64{sup 0}. A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = {delta}{sub LC}/{delta}{sub LN}, the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of ({delta}{sub LN}){sup 2} were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For {sup 104}Pd, and preliminary for {sup 108}Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for {sup 106}Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for {sup 110}Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)
Influence of Coulomb screening on lateral lasing in VECSELs.
Wang, Chengao; Malloy, Kevin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor
2015-12-14
Parasitic lateral lasing in certain optically pumped semiconductor disc lasers drains the gain of the vertical mode and thus causes power scaling degradation and premature rollover in surface emitting operation. We have observed this effect in both multiple quantum wells (MQW) (GaInAs/GaAs) and double heterostructures (DHS) (GaInP/GaAs/GaInP) under pulsed excitation even when the gain chip lateral dimensions are much larger than the diameter of the pump laser. Lateral lasing occurs persistently between cleaved facets at a band-tail wavelength much longer than the peak of the gain. We show that the effect of bandgap renormalization due to Coulomb screening explains this phenomena. Exploiting the simple analytical plasma theory of bulk semiconductors (Banyai & Koch, 1986), we can account for such an effect in double heterostructures.
Many-nucleon transfer reactions at the coulomb barrier
Wegmann, H.
1974-01-01
The aim of the present work was to investigate the many-nucleon transfer with heavy ion radiation near the coulomb barrier. The neutron-rich targets 76 Ge, sup(92,94,96)Zr and 100 Mo were thus irradiated with 32 S and 34 S radiation. By measuring the activity of the back-scattered light reaction products in the transfer, total cross sections were determined for the 3p, 4p, 3pn, 4pn, 3n, 4n and 6n transfer. Excitation functions for the 3p, 4p, 3pn and 4pn transfer were measured for the target-projectile combination 96 Zr- 32 S. Differential cross sections could be determined with 96 Zr and 100 Mo. The results were compared with various theoretical calculations. (orig./LH) [de
Li, Zhong Wei; Min, Chun Gang; Ren, Ai Min; Feng, Ji Kang [Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, Jing Fu [Northeast Normal University, Jilin (China); Goddard, John D. [University of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Zuo, Liang [North China Mineral and Geology Testing Center of CNNC, Tianjin (China)
2010-04-15
In order to find a relationship between firefly luciferases structure and bioluminescence spectra, we focus on excited substrate geometries which may be affected by rigid luciferases. Density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) were employed. Changes in only six bond lengths of the excited substrate are important in determining the emission spectra. Analysis of these bonds suggests the mechanism whereby luciferases restrict more or less the excited substrate geometries and to produce multicolor bioluminescence.
Lee, Ki-Won; Kim, Young-You
2004-01-01
In this research, we used photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) to visualize the electronic band structure in porous silicon (PS). From the combined results of the PLE measurements at various PL emission energies and the PL measurements under excitation at various PLE absorption energies, we infer that three different electronic band structures, originating from different luminescent origins, give rise to the PL spectrum. Through either thermal activation or diffusive transfer, excited carriers are moved to each of the electronic band structures.
Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Torsion of many symmetric structures, which were designed based on the seismic codes, is due to their asymmetricity induced during inelastic behavior. Although the structure was designed symmetrically assuming elastic based criteria, different factors such as material inconsistency in structure, construction details discrepancy and construction errors may result in asymmetric behavior in inelastic deformation range. So far, these considerations have been rarely contemplated in previous published investigations and should be studied regarding the importance of irregularity in increase of seismic demand of structures in the inelastic range. In this paper, as the first step, the asymmetry and irregularity in plan due to non-similar inelastic characteristics with respect to axis passing through center of gravity as well as the effect and importance of each irregularity factors are studied by changing the excitation properties applying to one-storey one-bay steel structures. This simplified structure is chosen due to studying and illustrating the absolute effect of this kind of irregularity in which higher mode effect is eliminated. The results show that the behavior of a structure with inelastic asymmetry is completely different from the structure with elastic asymmetry. As for inelastic asymmetry structure, although the translational and rotational oscillations before yielding were uncouple, these DOFs after yielding become coupled until reaching the terminal rotation point (rotation reaches a constant value and then become uncoupled, i.e., again oscillated symmetrically. This behavior is different from the structures with elastic asymmetricity, in which the translational and rotational movements being coupled during all the excitation time. This effect has not been recognized in previews studies on inelastic behavior of initially elastic symmetry buildings. The study of these behaviors aids the designer to choose the appropriate rehabilitation
Kalmar, Jayne M
2018-04-27
Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory. However, the neural mechanisms that influence corticospinal excitability are both state- and task-dependent. Furthermore, there are many sites of modulation along the pathway from the motor cortex to the muscle; a fact that is somewhat obscured by the all-encompassing and poorly-defined term "corticospinal excitability." Therefore, the tasks we use to assess corticospinal excitability and the conclusions that we draw from such a global measure of the motor pathway must be taken into consideration. The overall objective of this review is to highlight the task-dependent nature of corticospinal excitability and the tools used to assess modulation at cortical and spinal sites of modulation. By weighing the advantages and constraints of conventional approaches to studying corticospinal excitability, and considering some new and novel approaches, we will continue to advance our understanding of the neural control of movement during exercise.
Periodicity and chaos in strongly perturbed classical orbitals for Coulomb interactions
Klar, H
1986-01-01
Within the framework of classical mechanics two prototypes of strongly perturbed orbitals, the diamagnetism in hydrogen and electronic double excitation, are analyzed near critical phase space points (fixed points). The motion of the hydrogen electron under the joint influence of the Coulomb field and the magnetic field is periodic for any field strengths. For a two-electron atom however the author finds a chaotic time evolution of the electron pair correlation, causing presumably irregular spectral patterns. (Auth.).
Excited-State Dynamics of Carotenoids Studied by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy
Lee, Ingu; Pang, Yoonsoo; Lee, Sebok
2014-01-01
Carotenoids, natural antenna pigments in photosynthesis share a symmetric backbone of conjugated polyenes. Contrary to the symmetric and almost planar geometries of carotenoids, excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoids are exceedingly complex. In this paper, recent infrared and visible transient absorption measurements and excitation dependent dynamics of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al and 7',7'-dicyano-7'-apo-β-carotene will be reviewed. The recent visible transient absorption measurements of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al in polar and nonpolar solvents will also be introduced to emphasize the complex excited-state dynamics and unsolved problems in the S 2 and S 1 excited states
Coulomb repulsion in (TMTSF)2X and (TMTTF)2X
Mortensen, Kell; Engler, E. M.
1985-01-01
On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF-salts are ......On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF...
Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Bagatolli, Luis
2013-01-01
' parameters. Specifically, by applying these methods, spatially resolved maps of water dipolar relaxation (generalized polarization function using the 6-lauroyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthale probe), activity of protons (fluorescence lifetime imaging using a proton sensitive fluorescence probe--2,7-bis-(2......-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein) and diffusion coefficients of distinct fluorescence probes (raster imaging correlation spectroscopy) can be obtained from different regions of the tissue. Comparative studies of different tissue strata, but also between equivalent regions of normal and abnormal......This mini-review reports on applications of particular multiphoton excitation microscopy-based methodologies employed in our laboratory to study skin. These approaches allow in-depth optical sectioning of the tissue, providing spatially resolved information on specific fluorescence probes...
Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver
2016-01-01
Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.
Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.
1997-01-01
Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state
Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy
Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others
1997-04-01
Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.
Coulomb reacceleration as a clock for nuclear reactions -- II
Bertulani, C.A.; Bertsch, G.F.
1994-01-01
Reacceleration effects in the Coulomb breakup of nuclei are modeled with the two-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation, extending a previous one-dimensional study. The present model better describes the individual contributions of longitudinal and transverse forces to the breakup and reacceleration. Reacceleration effects are found to preserve a strong memory of the pre-breakup phase of the reaction, as was concluded with the one-dimensional model
Coulomb effects in the deuteron-nucleus interaction
Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.
1990-01-01
The authors develop a consistent theory for calculation of the potential of the deuteron interaction with the Coulomb field of a nucleus. They study the properties of this potential at large distances and give its explicit form at the deuteron-breakup threshold. In the limit of low energies they derive the potential, which includes intermediate off-energy-shell states, and explain the physical nature of its constants. The accuracy of the transition to the polarization interaction is estimated
Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals
Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias
2018-04-01
The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.
A new analysis technique to measure fusion excitation functions with large beam energy dispersions
Figuera, P.; Di Pietro, A.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.
2018-01-01
Peculiar nuclear structures of two colliding nuclei such has clustering, neutron halo/skin or very low breakup thresholds can affect the reaction dynamics below the Coulomb barrier and this may also have astrophysical consequences. In order to have a better understanding of this topic, in the last decade, several experiments were performed. A typical experimental challenge of such studies is the need to measure excitation functions below the Coulomb barrier, having a strong energy dependence, with rather large beam energy dispersions inside the target. This may easily lead to ambiguities in associating the measured cross section with a proper beam energy. In this paper a discussion on this topic is reported and a new technique to deal with the above problem will be proposed.
Spherical harmonic expansion of short-range screened Coulomb interactions
Angyan, Janos G [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, UMR 7036, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Gerber, Iann [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, UMR 7036, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marsman, Martijn [Institut fuer Materialphysik and Center for Computational Materials Science, Universitaet Wien, Sensengasse 8, A-1090, Vienna (Austria)
2006-07-07
Spherical harmonic expansions of the screened Coulomb interaction kernel involving the complementary error function are required in various problems in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, like for the evaluation of Ewald-type lattice sums or for range-separated hybrid density functionals. A general analytical expression is derived for the kernel, which is non-separable in the radial variables. With the help of series expansions a separable approximate form is proposed, which is in close analogy with the conventional multipole expansion of the Coulomb kernel in spherical harmonics. The convergence behaviour of these expansions is studied and illustrated by the electrostatic potential of an elementary charge distribution formed by products of Slater-type atomic orbitals.
Static and dynamic properties of two-dimensional Coulomb clusters.
Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosal, Amit
2017-10-01
We study the temperature dependence of static and dynamic responses of Coulomb interacting particles in two-dimensional confinements across the crossover from solid- to liquid-like behaviors. While static correlations that investigate the translational and bond orientational order in the confinements show the footprints of hexatic-like phase at low temperatures, dynamics of the particles slow down considerably in this phase, reminiscent of a supercooled liquid. Using density correlations, we probe long-lived heterogeneities arising from the interplay of the irregularity in the confinement and long-range Coulomb interactions. The relaxation at multiple time scales show stretched-exponential decay of spatial correlations in irregular traps. Temperature dependence of characteristic time scales, depicting the structural relaxation of the system, show striking similarities with those observed for the glassy systems, indicating that some of the key signatures of supercooled liquids emerge in confinements with lower spatial symmetries.
A Coulomb collision algorithm for weighted particle simulations
Miller, Ronald H.; Combi, Michael R.
1994-01-01
A binary Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particle simulations employing Monte Carlo techniques. Charged particles within a given spatial grid cell are pair-wise scattered, explicitly conserving momentum and implicitly conserving energy. A similar algorithm developed by Takizuka and Abe (1977) conserves momentum and energy provided the particles are unweighted (each particle representing equal fractions of the total particle density). If applied as is to simulations incorporating weighted particles, the plasma temperatures equilibrate to an incorrect temperature, as compared to theory. Using the appropriate pairing statistics, a Coulomb collision algorithm is developed for weighted particles. The algorithm conserves energy and momentum and produces the appropriate relaxation time scales as compared to theoretical predictions. Such an algorithm is necessary for future work studying self-consistent multi-species kinetic transport.
Coulomb artifacts and bottomonium hyperfine splitting in lattice NRQCD
Liu, T. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Penin, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rayyan, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta,11455 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)
2017-02-16
We study the role of the lattice artifacts associated with the Coulomb binding effects in the analysis of the heavy quarkonium within lattice NRQCD. We find that a “naïve” perturbative matching generates spurious linear Coulomb artifacts, which result in a large systematic error in the lattice predictions for the heavy quarkonium spectrum. This effect is responsible, in particular, for the discrepancy between the recent determinations of the bottomonium hyperfine splitting in the radiatively improved lattice NRQCD (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.054502; Arxiv:1309.5797). We show that the correct matching procedure which provides full control over discretization errors is based on the asymptotic expansion of the lattice theory about the continuum limit, which gives M{sub Υ(1S)}−M{sub η{sub b(1S)}}=52.9±5.5 MeV (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.054502).
Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?
Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; Lutz, W.; McMullan, D.
2008-08-01
We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.
Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems
Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2001-01-01
We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means......, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...
Soft X-ray excited colour-centre luminescence and XANES studies of calcium oxide
Ko, J.Y.P.; Heigl, F.; Yiu, Y.M.; Zhou, X.-T.; Regier, T.; Blyth, R.I.R.; Sham, T.-K.
2007-01-01
In this study, we show that colour centres can be produced by irradiating calcium oxide with soft X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source. Using the X-ray excited optical Iuminescence (XEOL) technique, two colour centres, F-centre, and F + -centre can be identified. These colour centres emit photons at characteristic wavelengths. In addition, by performing time-resolved XEOL (TRXEOL), we are able to reveal timing and decay characteristics of the colour centres. We also present X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra collected across oxygen K-edge, calcium L 3,2 -edge, and calcium K-edge. Experimental results are compared with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. (author)
Wibowo,; Zakaria,; Lambang, Lullus; Triyono,; Muhayat, Nurul
2016-01-01
The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.
Wibowo,, E-mail: wibowo-uns@yahoo.com; Zakaria,, E-mail: zakaaria27@gmail.com; Lambang, Lullus, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Triyono,, E-mail: tyon-bila@yahoo.co.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@ymail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57128 (Indonesia)
2016-03-29
The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.
Study on germ toxicity of exciting energy resource 147Pm of fluorescent paint
Zhu Shoupeng; Lun Minyue; Tao Feng
1993-02-01
The germ toxicity of exciting energy resource 147 Pm of fluorescent paint was studied. It was shown that the placenta was a barrier for 147 Pm entering into the fetus. The retention T 1/2 was 105 days in testes. The retention value of 147 Pm in testis was high and hardly to excrete. The results showed that 147 Pm can induce abnormal sperms, most of them were non-hock sperms. The chromosome aberrations in germ cells also can be induced. Among the type of chromosome aberrations of spermatogonia, chromatid breakage was predominant. The 147 Pm can cause the chromosome fragment and translocations of primary spermatocytes, and increasing of lethality. The dominant skeletal aberrations in offspring is proportional to the accumulated radioactivity of 147 Pm in tests
Contribution to the experimental study of excited states of 58,60,62,64Ni
Beuzit, Pierre
1971-01-01
In its experimental part, this research thesis addresses the use of nuclear spectrometry to study electromagnetic properties of excited states of 58,60,62,64 Ni by using coincidence measurements of particles scattered by the nucleus, and of γ lines emitted by the nucleus in reaction. The author also computed energies, wave functions and transition probabilities of levels related to the quasi-particle model according the RPA (random phase approximation) approximation. After a description of the experimental device and a presentation of data reduction methods, the author reports the experimental results. Then, after a recall of theoretical models and calculation approximations, the author discusses the calculated results obtained within the framework of the layer model, and presents those obtained by using the quasi-particle model with the RPA approximation. By using experimental results, a level classification is proposed. The importance of the core configuration and of the proton-neutron interaction is highlighted
Study of the excited levels of 233Pa by the 237Np alpha decay
Gonzalez, J.; Gaeta, R.; Vano, E.; Los Arcos, J. M.
1978-01-01
The excited levels in 233 P a following the 237 N p alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha-gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha-particles have been made. These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the 233 P a radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. (Author) 60 refs
Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1, J=0 states of A=42 nuclei
Sato, H.
1978-01-01
Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1, J=0 + and 6 1 + states of A=42 nuclei are analyzed with previously known charge dependent forces and effects, and with the available Hartree-Fock single-particle wave functions. From the study of the Coulomb displacement energies of the 6 1 + states it is found that the present knowledge on the charge dependence, including a phenomenological charge symmetry breaking force previously introduced so as to help explain the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, gives a sufficient and consistent explanation for both single-particle and two-particle systems. From the study of the 0 + states, it is found that the Coulomb displacement energies of the second 0 2 + states can be explained with a compensation between the smaller Coulomb energies of the second lowest two-particle state and larger ones of the deformed 4p-2h state. (Auth.)
A density matrix renormalization group study of low-lying excitations ...
Symmetrized density-matrix-renormalization-group calculations have been carried out, within Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian, to explore the nature of the ground and low-lying excited states of long polythiophene oligomers. We have exploited 2 symmetry and spin parity of the system to obtain excited states of ...
Study of the light emission from hydrogen atoms excited by the beam-foil technique
Broll, Norbert.
1976-01-01
Zero-field and Stark-induced quantum beat measurements have been performed for beam foil excited hydrogen (H + and H 2 + beam). Experimental evidence of coherent excitation of S and P states of Lyman α line has been demonstrated [fr
Coulomb states in atoms and solids
Ortalano, D.M.
1988-05-01
In this dissertation, an empirical quantum defect approach to describe the valence excitons of the rare gas solids is developed. These Coulomb states are of s-symmetry and form a hydrogen-like series which converges to the bottom of the lowest conduction band. A non-zero quantum defect is found for all of the excitons of neon, argon and xenon. For these systems, then, there exists, in addition to the screened Coulombic component, a non-Coulombic component to the total exciton binding energy. The Wannier formalism is, therefore, inappropriate for the excitons of Ne, Ar and Xe. From the sign of the quantum defect, the non-Coulombic potential is repulsive for Ne and Ar, attractive for Xe, and nearly zero for Kr. This is opposite to that for the Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms, where the non-Coulombic potential between the electron and the cation is attractive for all of the atoms. The excitons then, are not simply perturbed Rydberg states of the corresponding rare gas atoms (i.e., the excitons do not possess atomic parentage). Interatomic term value/band gap energy correlations and reduced term value/reduced band gap correlations were performed. These correlations were exploited to provide further evidence against both the Wannier formalism and the atomic parentage view point. From these correlations, it was also discovered that the non-Coulombic potential varies smoothly across the valence isoelectronic series of solids, and that it becomes more attractive (or less repulsive) in going from neon to xenon. In order to address the atomic parentage controversy, it was necessary to compare the excitons to the low-n Rydberg states of the rare gas atoms. A review of the quantum defect description of the atomic Rydberg states is, therefore, presented. Also, Rydberg term value/ionization energy correlations are discussed and compared with the analogous exciton correlations. 7 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs
Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators
Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2017-01-24
We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.
Shakeoff Ionization near the Coulomb Barrier Energy
Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.
2017-11-01
We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.
Sine-Gordon mean field theory of a Coulomb gas
Diehl, Alexandre; Barbosa, Marcia C.; Levin, Yan
1997-12-31
Full text. The Coulomb gas provides a paradigm for the study of various models of critical phenomena. In particular, it is well known that the two dimensional (2 D). Coulomb gas can be directly used to study the superfluidity transition in {sup 4} He films, arrays of Josephson junctions, roughening transition, etc. Not withstanding its versatility, our full understanding of the most basic model of Coulomb gas, namely an ensemble of hard spheres carrying either positive or negative charges at their center, is still lacking. It is now well accepted that at low density the two dimensional plasma of equal number of positive and negative particles undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) metal insulator transition. This transition is of an infinite order and is characterized by a diverging Debye screening length. As the density of particles increases, the validity of the KT theory becomes questionable and the possibility of the KT transition being replaced by some kind of first order discontinuity has been speculated for a long time. In this work sine-Gordon field theory is used to investigate the phase diagram of a neutral Coulomb gas. A variational mean-field free energy is constructed and the corresponding phase diagrams in two and three dimensions are obtained. When analyzed in terms of chemical potential, the sine-Gordon theory predicts the phase diagram topologically identical to the Monte Carlo simulations and a recently developed Debye-Huckel-Bjerrum theory. In 2D, we find that the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless line terminates in a tricritical point, after which the metal-insulator transition becomes first order. However, when the transformation from chemical potential to the density is made the whole insulating phase is mapped onto zero density. (author)
Mcpeak, W. L.
1975-01-01
A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...
Critical behavior in graphene with Coulomb interactions.
Wang, Jianhui; Fertig, H A; Murthy, Ganpathy
2010-05-07
We demonstrate that, in the presence of Coulomb interactions, electrons in graphene behave like a critical system, supporting power law correlations with interaction-dependent exponents. An asymptotic analysis shows that the origin of this behavior lies in particle-hole scattering, for which the Coulomb interaction induces anomalously close approaches. With increasing interaction strength the relevant power law changes from real to complex, leading to an unusual instability characterized by a complex-valued susceptibility in the thermodynamic limit. Measurable quantities, as well as the connection to classical two-dimensional systems, are discussed.
Observation of a Coulomb flux tube
Greensite, Jeff; Chung, Kristian
2018-03-01
In Coulomb gauge there is a longitudinal color electric field associated with a static quark-antiquark pair. We have measured the spatial distribution of this field, and find that it falls off exponentially with transverse distance from a line joining the two quarks. In other words there is a Coulomb flux tube, with a width that is somewhat smaller than that of the minimal energy flux tube associated with the asymptotic string tension. A confinement criterion for gauge theories with matter fields is also proposed.
Perturbative ambiguities in Coulomb gauge QCD
Doust, P.
1987-01-01
The naive Coulomb gauge Feynman rules in non-abelian gauge theory give rise to ambiguous integrals, in addition to the usual ultraviolet divergences. Generalizing the work of Cheng and Tsai, these ambiguities are resolved to all orders in perturbation theory, by defining a gauge that interpolates smoothly between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge. The extra terms V 1 +V 2 of Christ and Lee are identified with certain two-loop ambiguous terms. However, there still seem to be unsolved problems connected with renormalisation. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc
Critical opalescence in the pure Coulomb system
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.
2011-04-01
Based on the dielectric formalism and quantum field theory methods, the phenomenon of critical opalescence is explained for light scattering in pure matter as a two-component electron-nuclear system with Coulomb interaction. A similar phenomenon is shown to occur in the case of neutron scattering in pure substances as well. The obtained results are valid for quantum case and arbitrary strong Coulomb interaction. Thus, the relations between structure factors derived for the electron-nuclear system are the exact result of the quantum statistical mechanics.
Rekha, Pachaiappan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu
2016-03-01
Many research works based on fluorescence spectroscopy have proven its potential in the diagnosis of various diseases using the spectral signatures of the native key fluorophores such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin. These fluorophores distribution, concentration and their conformation may be changed depending upon the pathological and metabolic conditions of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt to characterize the blood plasma of normal subject and oral cancer patients by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed by employing the multivariate statistical method - linear discriminant analyses (LDA) using leaves one out cross validation method. The results illustrate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy technique in the diagnosis of oral cancer using blood plasma.
Efficient evaluation of the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method.
Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Takeshi; Hirao, Kimihiko
2010-06-28
We propose an efficient method for evaluating the Coulomb force in the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method, which is a linear-scaling approach for evaluating the Coulomb matrix and energy in large molecular systems. The efficient evaluation of the analytical gradient in the GFC is not straightforward as well as the evaluation of the energy because the SCF procedure with the Coulomb matrix does not give a variational solution for the Coulomb energy. Thus, an efficient approximate method is alternatively proposed, in which the Coulomb potential is expanded in the Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions as done in the GFC. To minimize the error in the gradient not just in the energy, the derived functions of the original auxiliary functions of the GFC are used additionally for the evaluation of the Coulomb gradient. In fact, the use of the derived functions significantly improves the accuracy of this approach. Although these additional auxiliary functions enlarge the size of the discretized Poisson equation and thereby increase the computational cost, it maintains the near linear scaling as the GFC and does not affects the overall efficiency of the GFC approach.
Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV
Suemmerer, K; Boue, F; Baumann, T; Geissel, H; Hellstroem, M; Koczon, P; Schwab, E; Schwab, W; Senger, P; Surowiecz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Iwasa, N; Ozawa, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan); Surowka, G [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Blank, B; Czajkowski, S; Marchand, C; Pravikoff, M S [Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 (France); Foerster, A; Lauer, F; Oeschler, H; Speer, J; Sturm, C; Uhlig, F; Wagner, A [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Gai, M [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Grosse, E [Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kohlmeyer, B [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Kulessa, R; Walus, W [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Motobayashi, T [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Teranishi, T [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)
1998-06-01
As an alternative method for determining the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction we have measured the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV. From our preliminary results, we obtain good agreement with both the accepted direct-reaction measurements and the low-energy Coulomb dissociation study of Iwasa et al. performed at about 50 A MeV. (orig.)
Vacuum structure of the SU(3) gauge field theory in the Coulomb gauge
Yee, J.H.; Viswanathan, K.S.
1978-01-01
The SU(3) gauge field is studied in the Coulomb gauge. The Gribov ambiguities arising in the Coulomb gauge are analysed. Restricting to a class of spherically symmetric vacua it is shown that there exist non-trivial vacua characterized by a topological number eta=0, +-1/2, and +-2. This must be contrasted with the spherically symmetric SU(2) vacua which are characterized by eta=0, +-1/2. (Auth.)
Quasineutral Limit of the Schrödinger-Poisson System in Coulomb Gauge
Lin, Chi-Kun; Wong, Yau-Shu; Wu, Kung-Chien
2012-01-01
The zero Debye length asymptotic of the Schrödinger-Poisson system in Coulomb gauge for ill-prepared initial data is studied. We prove that when the scaled Debye length λ → 0, the current density defined by the solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson system in the Coulomb gauge converges to the solution of the rotating incompressible Euler equation plus a fast singular oscillating gradient vector field.
Negative differential resistance in nanoscale transport in the Coulomb blockade regime
Parida, Prakash; Lakshmi, S; Pati, Swapan K
2009-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we have studied the transport behavior of coupled quantum dot systems in the Coulomb blockade regime using the master (rate) equation approach. We explore how electron-electron interactions in a donor-acceptor system, resembling weakly coupled quantum dots with varying charging energy, can modify the system's response to an external bias, taking it from normal Coulomb blockade behavior to negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage characteristics.
Picosecond excitation energy transfer of allophycocyanin studied in solution and in crystals.
Ranjbar Choubeh, Reza; Sonani, Ravi R; Madamwar, Datta; Struik, Paul C; Bader, Arjen N; Robert, Bruno; van Amerongen, Herbert
2018-03-01
Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis with the use of large light-harvesting antennae called phycobilisomes (PBSs). These hemispherical PBSs contain hundreds of open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores bound to different peptides, providing an arrangement in which excitation energy is funnelled towards the PBS core from where it can be transferred to photosystem I and/or photosystem II. In the PBS core, many allophycocyanin (APC) trimers are present, red-light-absorbing phycobiliproteins that covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores. APC trimers were amongst the first light-harvesting complexes to be crystallized. APC trimers have two spectrally different PCBs per monomer, a high- and a low-energy pigment. The crystal structure of the APC trimer reveals the close distance (~21 Å) between those two chromophores (the distance within one monomer is ~51 Å) and this explains the ultrafast (~1 ps) excitation energy transfer (EET) between them. Both chromophores adopt a somewhat different structure, which is held responsible for their spectral difference. Here we used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study EET in these APC trimers both in crystallized and in solubilized form. We found that not all closely spaced pigment couples consist of a low- and a high-energy pigment. In ~10% of the cases, a couple consists of two high-energy pigments. EET to a low-energy pigment, which can spectrally be resolved, occurs on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. This transfer turns out to be three times faster in the crystal than in the solution. The spectral characteristics and the time scale of this transfer component are similar to what have been observed in the whole cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for which it was ascribed to EET from C-phycocyanin to APC. The present results thus demonstrate that part of this transfer should probably also be ascribed to EET within APC trimers.