WorldWideScience

Sample records for coulee dams 2002-2003

  1. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The

  2. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven

  3. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  4. Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Grand Coulee Dam: Blue Creek Project, Phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-04-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Spokane Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for partial mitigation for the extensive wildlife and wildlife habitat losses on the Spokane Indian Reservation caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. NPPC`s interim wildlife goal over the next 7 years for the Columbia hydropower system, is to protect, mitigate and enhance approximately 35% basin wide of the lost habitat units. Grand Coulee Dam had the greatest habitat losses of any Dams of the Wildlife Rule.

  5. Grand Coulee Dam Wildlife Mitigation Program : Pygmy Rabbit Programmatic Management Plan, Douglas County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Grand Coulee Dam Mitigation, 1996-1999 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, B.; Singer, Kelly; Abrahamson, Twa-le

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) study was to determine baseline habitat units and to estimate future habitat units for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation projects on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mitigation between BPA and the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI) is for wildlife habitat losses on account of the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the HEP survey data will assist in mitigation crediting and appropriate management of the mitigation lands.

  8. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the third year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

  9. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Brian (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Department of Natural Resources, Wellpinit, WA); Lockwood, Jr., Neil W. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA)

    2001-01-01

    The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, commonly known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (blocked area). The three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the blocked area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information housed in a central location will allow managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP (NWPPC program measure 10.8B.26) is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the blocked area and the Columbia Basin blocked area management plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of blocked area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the blocked area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. The use of common collection and analytical tools is essential to the process of streamlining joint management decisions. In 1999 and 2000 the project

  10. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Planning for Grand Coulee Dam, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creveling, Jennifer

    1986-08-01

    The development and operation of Grand Coulee Dam inundated approximately 70,000 acres of wildlife habitat under the jurisdictions of the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe, and the State of Washington. Under the provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, this study reviews losses to wildlife and habitat, and proposes mitigation for those losses. Wildlife loss estimates were developed from information available in the literature. Habitat losses and potential habitat gains through mitigation were estimated by a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure. The mitigation plan proposes (1) acquisition of sufficient land or management rights to land to protect Habitat Units equivalent to those lost (approximately 73,000 acres of land would be required), (2) improvement and management of those lands to obtain and perpetuate target Habitat Units, and (3) protection and enhancement of suitable habitat for bald eagles. Mitigation is presented as four actions to be implemented over a 10-year period. A monitoring program is proposed to monitor mitigation success in terms of Habitat Units and wildlife population trends.

  11. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2005-11-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The

  12. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Jason M. (Kalispell Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA); O' Connor, Dick (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-01-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). The NPPC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPPC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area and the Columbia Basin Blocked Area Management Plan

  13. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Department of Natural Resources, Wellpinit, WA)

    2003-09-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  15. Israel Seminar 2002-2003

    CERN Document Server

    Milman, Vitali D

    2004-01-01

    The Israeli GAFA seminar (on Geometric Aspect of Functional Analysis) during the years 2002-2003 follows the long tradition of the previous volumes. It reflects the general trends of the theory. Most of the papers deal with different aspects of the Asymptotic Geometric Analysis. In addition the volume contains papers on related aspects of Probability, classical Convexity and also Partial Differential Equations and Banach Algebras. There are also two expository papers on topics which proved to be very much related to the main topic of the seminar. One is Statistical Learning Theory and the other is Models of Statistical Physics. All the papers of this collection are original research papers.

  16. Risk assessment for the reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams, Northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Breyta, Rachel B.; Haskell, Craig A.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hatten, James R.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2017-09-12

    The Upper Columbia United Tribes (UCUT; Spokane, Colville, Kootenai, Coeur d’Alene, and Kalispel Tribes) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife want to reintroduce anadromous salmonids to their historical range to restore ecosystem function and lost cultural and spiritual relationships in the upper Columbia River, northeastern Washington. The UCUT contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to assess risks to resident taxa (existing fish populations in the reintroduction area upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams) and reintroduced salmon associated with reintroduction. We developed a risk assessment framework for reintroduction of anadromous salmonids upstream of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. To accomplish this goal, we applied strategies identified in previous risk assessment frameworks for reintroduction. The risk assessment is an initial step towards an anadromous reintroduction strategy. An initial list of potential donor sources for reintroduction species was developed from previous published sources for Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) donors in the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River, British Columbia; an ecological risk assessment of upper Columbia River hatchery programs on non-target taxa of concern; and a review of existing hatchery programsDuring two workshops, we further identified and ranked potential donor sources of anadromous Redband Trout (steelhead; O. mykiss), Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon (O. nerka), and Coho Salmon (O. kisutch). We also identified resident fish populations of interest and their primary habitat, location, status, and pathogen concerns to determine the potential risks of reintroduction. Species were deemed of interest based on resource management and potential interactions (that is, genetics, competition, and predation) with introduced species. We developed tables of potential donors by species and characterized potential sources (hatchery and natural origins), populations (individual runs

  17. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  18. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a four-year study(a) to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) at the entrance to the forebay of the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). In this report, emphasis is placed on the methodology and results associated with the fourth project year and compared with findings from the previous years to provide an overall project summary. Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River (Figure S.1). A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish, including kokanee and rainbow trout, were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. Because these entrainment rates represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam, they have been judged unacceptable to fishery managers responsible for perpetuating the fishery in Lake Roosevelt. In an effort to reduce fish entrainment rates, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was modified in 2001 to include a multiyear study of the efficacy of using strobe lights to deter fish from entering the third powerplant forebay. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the four-year study in collaboration with Colville

  19. DK SUPERCONDUCTING TAPE TECHNOLOGY 2002-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Eriksen, Morten;

    Report on the work performed by AFM, Risø and IPL, DTU in collaboration with NST A/S and Haldor Topsøe A/S within the Danish Energy Research Program EFP, DK SUPERLEDERE I ELSEKTOREN 2002-2003......Report on the work performed by AFM, Risø and IPL, DTU in collaboration with NST A/S and Haldor Topsøe A/S within the Danish Energy Research Program EFP, DK SUPERLEDERE I ELSEKTOREN 2002-2003...

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted

  1. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly

  2. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock

  3. Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge Biological Review (2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 2002-2003 biological review at Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge with list of priority biological recommendations. These include need for control of invasive aquatic...

  4. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  5. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  6. Heliosphereic Physics Research in China:2002-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chi; FENG Xueshang; WANG Shui

    2004-01-01

    This brief report summarized the latest advances of the heliospheric physics research in China during the period of 2002-2003, made independently by Chinese space physicists and through international collaboration. The report covers all aspects of the heliospheric physics, including theoretical studies, numerical simulation and data analysis.

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation[s]; Stock Status of Burbot, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Hoyle, Genevieve

    2005-09-01

    The Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation Project planned to monitor burbot Lota lota movement in the winter of 2002-2003 and test a hypothesis regarding the relationship of winter flow to upstream spawning migration success. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration were unable to provide the consistent low winter flows needed to meet the experimental design criteria in that monitoring and evaluation plan (approximately 170 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam). Although conditions consistent with management for sustained minimum flows persisted throughout the winter, and stable low flows were maintained below Libby Dam from September 1 through November 24, 2002 (158 m{sup 3}/s average) and from January 1, 2003 until May 1 (144 m{sup 3}/s average), flows in the intervening 37 d period from November 25 to December 31 were increased significantly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. During that important December spawning migration period for burbot, flows were well above those proposed in the monitoring and evaluation plan and peaked at 741 m{sup 3}/s on December 21, 2002. Furthermore, despite the low flow conditions for much of the winter, our capture of 10 burbot was the lowest since this investigation began in 1993, evidence that the stock is extremely depressed and the numbers of burbot are declining. We captured a single burbot in 2002-2003 that provided circumstantial evidence reproduction occurred during the winter of 2000-2001. This burbot of 352 mm TL was among the smallest captured since sampling began in 1993. Seven burbot were monitored with sonic telemetry; two of those were tagged the previous winter. The capture of a female burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period supports results of previous findings that low flows during winter enhances burbot migration and spawning. Sampling for larval burbot was conducted, but no larval burbot were captured.

  8. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  9. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  10. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  11. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  12. European Influenza Surveillance Scheme: annual report: 2002-2003 influenza season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    EISS, de in Nederland gevestigde Europese organisatie die de verspreiding van het griepvirus in Europa in de gaten houdt, is ook alert op het opduiken van de ziekte SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). Dit blijkt uit het onlangs verschenen EISS-jaarrapport voor het griepseizoen 2002-2003. EISS

  13. Estonie 2002-2003 : Au seuil d'une nouvelle ere? / Antoine Chalvin, Juliette Déplanque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Eesti sise- ja välispoliitikast ja majandusarengust aastatel 2002-2003. Eesti ja Prantsusmaa suhted. Tabel: Eesti põhilised majandusnäitajad aastatel 1995-2002. Lisad: Eesti poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2002-2003 juuni; parlamendivalimiste tulemused; valitsuse koosseis

  14. Estonie 2002-2003 : Au seuil d'une nouvelle ere? / Antoine Chalvin, Juliette Déplanque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Eesti sise- ja välispoliitikast ja majandusarengust aastatel 2002-2003. Eesti ja Prantsusmaa suhted. Tabel: Eesti põhilised majandusnäitajad aastatel 1995-2002. Lisad: Eesti poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2002-2003 juuni; parlamendivalimiste tulemused; valitsuse koosseis

  15. Early unusual ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2002/2003 compared to other winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goutail

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone reduction in the Arctic is evaluated each winter since 1993/1994 by the transport method (3-D CTM passive ozone minus measurements. The cumulative loss from 1 December to the end of the season ranges from 5–10% during warm winters like 1998/1999, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 up to 30%–32% during cold winters like 1994/1995 and 1995/1996. The 23% cumulative loss observed during the winter 2002/2003 is similar in amplitude to the 20–24% measured in 1996/1997 and 1999/2000 but the timing is different. It started unusually early in December after the occurrence of very low temperature at all stratospheric levels between 550 K and 435 K allowing PSC formation and thus chlorine activation. The early ozone loss of 2002/2003 is well captured by current 3-D CTM models.

  16. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. This report provides information on PIT tagging of wild chinook salmon parr in 2002 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish. Fish were monitored as they migrated through two in-stream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek and at juvenile migrant traps in 2002 and 2003 as well as through interrogation systems at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during 2003. Fish were also monitored by the PIT-tag trawl in the mouth of the Columbia River in 2003. In 2002-2003, we also continued to collect environmental data for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program, which was developed from 1993 to 1997. The project was designed to collect data for use in conjunction with data on parr and smolt movements to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between these movements and environmental factors. Water quality data collected consist of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH measured at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho.

  17. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  18. [Analysis of individual spending on smoking based on the Brazilian Family Budget Survey, 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeff, Locimara Ramos; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2010-12-01

    In order to discuss new parameters for assessing personal spending on smoking in Brazil, this study aimed to describe the population's socio-demographic characteristics and the proportions of spending on smoking. The sample included individuals that spend money on smoking, according to the Brazilian Family Budget Survey for 2002-2003, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. In the lowest income bracket, the proportion of spending on smoking for expenses greater than the median varied negatively by as much as 10% as compared to the proportion of spending on smoking for income greater than the median. For intermediate income brackets, the two proportions were similar, and in the higher income brackets there was a reversal, with a positive difference of up to 15%. The percentage of spending on smoking doubled for all the groups with low schooling. As income and schooling increased, there was a proportional reduction in spending on smoking.

  19. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting of the energy in the world in 2002-2003; Emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'energie dans le monde en 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This document provides statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions, corrected and not from the climate, for the years 2002-2003. The countries concerned are the following continents: north America, south America, Europe, Africa, Middle-East, Far-East, Oceania. (A.L.B.)

  20. The Impact of Participation in Project Family Read and Kinder Camp on Children's Readiness for School, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, David J.

    This evaluation study examined changes in school readiness among 35 children who participated during the 2002-2003 fiscal year in two programs: (1) Project Family Read, an educational and parent education program operating during the school year for families of children not enrolled in regulated child care in Granville County, North Carolina; and…

  1. Three-dimensional Probabilistic Earthquake Location Applied to 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaccio, A.; Tuve', T.; Zuccarello, L.; Patane', D.; Saccorotti, G.; D'Agostino, M.

    2005-12-01

    Recorded seismicity for the Mt. Etna volcano, occurred during the 2002-2003 eruption, has been relocated using a probabilistic, non-linear, earthquake location approach. We used the software package NonLinLoc (Lomax et al., 2000) adopting the 3D velocity model obtained by Cocina et al., 2005. We applied our data through different algorithms: (1) via a grid-search; (2) via a Metropolis-Gibbs; and (3) via an Oct-tree. The Oct-Tree algorithm gives efficient, faster and accurate mapping of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the earthquake location problem. More than 300 seismic events were analyzed in order to compare non-linear location results with the ones obtained by using traditional, linearized earthquake location algorithm such as Hypoellipse, and a 3D linearized inversion (Thurber, 1983). Moreover, we compare 38 focal mechanisms, chosen following stricta criteria selection, with the ones obtained by the 3D and 1D results. Although the presented approach is more of a traditional relocation application, probabilistic earthquake location could be used in routinely survey.

  2. Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

  3. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  4. Middle Stratospheric Polar Vortex Ozone Budget during the Warming Arctic Winter, 2002-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; LIU Chuanxi; Xuexi TIE; GAO Shouting

    2011-01-01

    The ozone budget inside the middle stratospheric polar vortex (24-36 km) during the 2002 2003 Arctic winter is studied by analyzing Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite data.A comprehensive global chemical transport model (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers,MOZART-3) is used to analyze the observed variation in polar vortex ozone during the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events.Both MIPAS measurement and MOZART-3 calculation show that a pronounced increase (26-28 DU) in the polar vortex ozone due to the SSW events.Due to the weakening of the polar vortex,the exchange of ozone mass across the edge of the polar vortex increases substantially and amounts to about 3.0 × 107 kg according to MOZART-3 calculation.The enhanced downward transport offsets about 80% of polar vortex ozone mass increase by horizontal transport.A “passive ozone” experiment shows that only ~55% of the vertical ozone mass flux in February and March can be attributed to the variation in vertical transport.It is also shown that the enhanced downward ozone above ~32 km should be attributed to the springtime photochemical ozone production.Due to the increase of air temperature,the NOx reaction rate increases by 40%-80% during the SSW events.As a rcsult,NOx catalytic cycle causes another 44% decrease in polar vortex ozone compared to the net ozone changes due to dynamical transport.It is also shown that the largest change in polar vortex ozone is due to horizontal advection by planetary waves in January 2003.

  5. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management.

  6. Desequilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda brasileira por pescados em 2002/2003 e 2008/2009 = Brazilian fishery supply and demand inequality in 2002/2003 and 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de pescados entre 2003 e 2009 aumentou em 250,54 mil t, o déficit da balança comercial bruta de pescados aumentou em 285,48 mil t, porém, não se constatou elevação do consumo domiciliar bruto de pescados no mesmo período. Este trabalho propõe um método de análise baseado no equilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda agregada de pescados nos períodos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009 para verificar se existe a coerência entre o crescimento da oferta e a destinação dos pescados (consumo domiciliar e fora de casa. Os cálculos indicam que enquanto os dados oficiais apontam um crescimento do consumo per capita aparente de 2 kg/hab.ano, os dados corrigidos apresentam um crescimento mais modesto (em torno de 0,6 kg/hab.ano entre os anos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009. = Brazilian fish production between 2003 and 2009 increased by 250.54 t, gross fish trade deficit increased at 285.48t, but the household consumption of fish was flat in the same period. This paper proposes an analysis of fish aggregate supply and demand balance in the periods of 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 to check the consistency between supply growth and allocation of fish (household consumption and eating out. While official data indicate 2 kg/hab.year increases in apparent per capita fishery consumption, the corrected data shows 0.6 kg/hab.year increase between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009.

  7. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted.

  8. Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-03-31

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterized the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL used the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish who are pulled through the pumps and turbines at Grand Coulee Dam's pump generation station and transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the pump generating plant's new 9-bladed turbines was also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The highest pressure experienced by the Sensor Fish was estimated at 157 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of kokanne would be carried through the pump without being struck and most likely without injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish would be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without injury.

  9. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation

  10. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  11. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  12. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. Ice Jam Flood in the Section of Shandong Province of Yellow River during 2002/2003 Winter%2002/2003年度黄河山东河段凌汛特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯新闻; 刘继雪; 刘小红

    2003-01-01

    2002/2003年度黄河山东段凌汛的主要特点是: 下游首封时间早、封河流量小、冰盖低、封河范围大, 这给预报调度增加了很大难度.从凌期的气象、水文两个方面分析了其产生的原因, 预估了其产生的后果, 并提出了相应的对策.

  15. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  16. 1988 narrative report: Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Bowdoin Wetlands Management District, Creedman Coulee, Lake Thibadeau, Black Coulee, Hewitt Lake: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Bowdoin Wetlands Management District, Creedman Coulee, Lake Thibadeau, Black Coulee, and Hewitt...

  17. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and...

  18. Assessement of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002-2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and...

  19. Inspections Report 2002 - 2003; Tillsynsrapport 2002 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viidas, Josefin

    2004-10-01

    The report summarises primarily the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2002 and 2003. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 2002 focused on the investigation and coverage of the mishap related to the transport of iridium from Studsvik. The Studsvik project was initiated and the remaining supervision was temporarily given lower priority. In 2003 SSI performed two theme inspections. One focused on the handling of waste management and the other on the limitation of the effluent. Extensive supervision efforts concentrated also on Ranstad Mineral inc.

  20. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  1. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  2. 2002-2003 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor Country Consulting conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2002-2003 wet season to complete requirements of the Guidelines (USFWS 1996) used to determine the distribution of federally-listed branchiopods within the study area. The first survey was performed during the previous wet season (2001-2002). The 2002-2003 wet season survey, combined with the previous season's survey, is intended to provide LLNL with information that will assist them in determining the effects of the proposed action on federally listed branchiopods and provide information useful in the preparation of the associated environmental documentation. It is also expected to satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS. For the purpose of this report, the term branchiopod refers specifically to phyllopodous branchiopods and not cladocerans. Fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp, and clam shrimp are all categorized as phyllopodous branchiopods and are currently the only members of the Class Branchiopoda that contain species that are listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Although cladocerans are branchiopods and were found on the site, they are only referred to by the Order in this report because they are not the target species of this study.

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  4. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected

  5. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected

  6. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003 Parasitosis intestinales y factores ambientales en una población rural de Argentina, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Basualdo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2% and Giardia lamblia (6.9%, while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%. The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p Hemos evaluado la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en 504 personas y el grado de asociación entre las variables ambientales y los parásitos intestinales hallados en la población, el suelo y el agua de una zona rural de Argentina durante 2002-2003. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para relevar las variables ambientales y se examinaron muestras fecales humanas, de agua y de suelo. La prevalencia parasitaria fue de 45,4%. Los protozoos prevalentes fueron Blastocystis hominis (27,2% y Giardia lamblia (6,9%, mientras que el helminto mas prevalente fue Ascaris lumbricoides (3,8%. Las variables ambientales analizadas que mostraron asociación (p < 0,05 con la presencia de parásitos en la población fueron: casa de cartón-chapa o de madera con piso de tierra, bomba de agua domiciliaria o comunitaria, canilla fuera de la casa o pública y pozo ciego o letrina. Elementos parasitarios fueron hallados en el 82,3% de las muestras de suelo y en el 84,2% de las muestras de agua. En ambas muestras fueron hallados parásitos que también se encontraron en las personas. En este trabajo hemos hallado deficientes condiciones sanitarias asociadas con la presencia de parásitos en las personas y hemos evidenciado que el suelo y el agua contaminada fueron la fuente de esos parasitos.

  7. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    The meridional circulation and transports at 30°S in the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the years 2002-2003 and 2009 are compared, using GO-SHIP hydrographic section data with an inverse box model and several choices of constraints. Southward heat transport across the combined Indian-Pacific sections, reflecting net heating north of these sections, doubled from -0.7 ± 0.2 PW in 2002-2003 to -1.4 ± 0.1 PW in 2009 (negative sign is southward), with the increase concentrated in the Indian Ocean (∼0.6 PW compared with ∼0.2 PW in the Pacific), and was insensitive to model choices for the Indonesian Throughflow. Diagnosed net evaporation also more than doubled in the Indian Ocean, from 0.21-0.27 Sv in 2002-2003 to 0.51-0.58 in 2009, with a smaller but significant increase in net evaporation in the Pacific, from 0.06-0.08 Sv to 0.16-0.32 Sv. These increased heat and freshwater exports coincided with Indian Ocean warming, a shift in the Indian's shallow gyre overturning transport to lower densities, and an increase in southward Agulhas Current transport from 75 Sv in 2002 to 92 Sv in 2009. The Indian's deep overturn weakened from about 11 Sv in 2002 to 7 Sv in 2009. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean overturning circulation was nearly unchanged from 2003 to 2009, independent of model within the uncertainties. The East Australian Current transport decreased only slightly, from -52 Sv to -46 Sv. The southward Pacific Deep Water transport was at a higher density than the southward Indian Deep Water transport in both years and all models, similar to prior results. Estimated diapycnal diffusivity and velocity are strongly enhanced near the ocean bottom and are higher farther up in the water column in the Indian than in the Pacific, likely extending the reach of Indian Ocean overturning up to shallower depths than in the Pacific. The horizontal distribution of transports in the Pacific at all depths changed notably from 2003 to 2009, despite the stability of its meridional

  8. The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria

    2010-01-01

    Due to high prime-age mortality--a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of orphans in Uganda continues to rise. Using the 2002/2003 Uganda National Household Survey, this paper investigates how HIV/AIDS orphan status affects schooling enrolment and grade progression. Our results show that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to…

  9. Structural features of Panarea volcano in the frame of the Aeolian Arc (Italy): Implications for the 2002-2003 unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    Panarea, characterized by gas unrest in 2002-2003, is the volcanic island with the least constrained structure in the eastern-central Aeolian Arc (Italy). Based on structural measurements, we define here its deformation pattern relative to the Arc. The main deformations are subvertical extension fractures (63% of data), normal faults (25%) and dikes (12%). The mean orientation of the extension fractures and faults is ˜N38°E, with a mean opening direction of N135° ± 8°, implying extension with a moderate component of dextral shear. These data, matched with those available for Stromboli volcano (pure opening) and Vulcano, Lipari and Salina volcanoes (predominant dextral motions) along the eastern-central Arc, suggest a progressive westward rotation of the extension direction and an increase in the dextral shear. The dextral shear turns into compression in the western arc. The recent unrest at Panarea, coeval to that of nearby Stromboli, may also be explained by the structural context, as both volcanoes lie along the portion of the Arc subject to extension.

  10. Incidence of low birth weight and associated risk factors during March 2002-2003 in Tonekabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.

  11. Testing our understanding of Arctic denitrification using MIPAS-E satellite measurements in winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gas-phase HNO3 and N2O in the polar stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aboard the ENVISAT satellite (MIPAS-E were made during the cold Arctic winter of 2002/2003. Vortex temperatures were unusually low in early winter and remained favourable for polar stratospheric cloud formation and denitrification until mid-January. MIPAS-E observations provide the first dataset with sufficient coverage of the polar vortex in mid-winter which enables a reasonable estimate of the timing of onset and spatial distribution of denitrification of the Arctic lower stratosphere to be performed. We use the observations from MIPAS-E to test the evolution of denitrification in the DLAPSE (Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation microphysical denitrification model coupled to the SLIMCAT chemical transport model. In addition, the predicted denitrification from a simple equilibrium nitric acid trihydrate-based scheme is also compared with MIPAS-E. Modelled denitrification is compared with in-vortex NOy and N2O observations from the balloon-borne MarkIV interferometer in mid-December. Denitrification was clearly observed by MIPAS-E in mid-December 2002 and reached 80% in the core of the vortex by early January 2003. The DLAPSE model is broadly able to capture both the timing of onset and the spatial distribution of the observed denitrification. A simple thermodynamic equilibrium scheme is able to reproduce the observed denitrification in the core of the vortex but overestimates denitrification closer to the vortex edge. This study also suggests that the onset of denitrification in simple thermodynamic schemes may be earlier than in the MIPAS-E observations.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN FROM 2002 TO 2003%2002-2003年国外不饱和聚酯树脂发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彤

    2004-01-01

    综述了2002-2003年国外不饱和聚酯树脂的基本进展、生产量及市场消费情况;同时对不饱和聚酯及其制品的研究进行了介绍,其中包括改进抗水性、低收缩性、机械性能等.

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. 77 FR 23242 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... the Banks Lake Pumped Storage Project (Banks Lake Project or project) to be located on Banks Lake and... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit... December 1, 2011, the Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority filed an application for a preliminary...

  15. Estimação do sistema quase ideal de demanda para uma cesta ampliada de produtos empregando dados da POF de 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adrian Pintos-Payeras

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são estimadas elasticidades-preço, elasticidades-cruzadas e elasticidades-dispêndio para 27 grupos de produtos a partir dos microdados da POF de 2002-2003. Para tanto, é usada a versão não-linear do sistema quase ideal de demanda (NL-AIDS. Os parâmetros do sistema são obtidos usando uma regressão aparentemente não-relacionada com iteração (ITSUR. A maioria das elasticidades-preço para produtos alimentícios apresentou valor absoluto menor do que 1. Os produtos nãoalimentícios, de uma forma geral, tampouco apresentaram alta elasticidade-preço e as elasticidades-dispêndio foram condizentes com o esperado.This paper aimed to estimate price-elasticities, cross-elasticities and expenditure-elasticities for 27 groups of products in Brazil. Brazilian Household Budgets Research (POF 2002-2003 microdata were used on the estimations of non-linear almost ideal demand systems (NL-AIDS. The parameters used in the NL-AIDS were previously estimated using iterated seemingly unrelated regressions (ITSUR. Most of the estimations showed that price-elasticities for food products are lower than one. On the other hand, non-food products did not show high price-elasticities. Expenditure-elasticities were in accordance with previous assumptions.

  16. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  17. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of the Buzzard Coulee Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, D.; Samson, C.; Herd, R. K.; Fry, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Umoh, J.; Holdsworth, D. W.

    2012-03-01

    This abstract outlines research and some results of X-ray micro-computed tomography imaging of the Buzzard Coulee H4 chondrite. A comparison of bulk density results and an analysis of radio-density profile curves are discussed.

  18. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  19. Three-dimensional model study of the arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere.

    In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55 km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5°×7.5° or 2.8°×2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations.

    The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8°×2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally

  20. Evolution of stratospheric ozone during winter 2002/2003 as observed by a ground-based millimetre wave radiometer at Kiruna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raffalski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present ozone measurements from the millimetre wave radiometer installed at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (Institutet för rymdfysik, IRF in Kiruna (67.8° N, 20.4° E, 420 m asl. Nearly continuous operation in the winter of 2002/2003 allows us to give an overview of ozone evolution in the stratosphere between 15 and 55 km. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the Arctic winter 2002/2003. By means of a methodology using equivalent latitudes we investigate the meteorological processes in the stratosphere during the entire winter/spring period. During the course of the winter strong mixing into the vortex took place in the middle and upper stratosphere as a result of three minor and one major warming event, but no evidence was found for significant mixing in the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere during this winter was estimated by measurements on those days when Kiruna was well inside the Arctic polar vortex. The days were carefully chosen using a definition of the vortex edge based on equivalent latitudes. At the 475 K isentropic level a cumulative ozone loss of about 0.5 ppmv was found starting in January and lasting until mid-March. The early ozone loss is probably a result of the very cold temperatures in the lower stratosphere in December and the geographical extension of the vortex to lower latitudes where solar irradiation started photochemical ozone loss in the pre-processed air. In order to correct for dynamic effects of the ozone variation due to diabatic subsidence of air masses inside the vortex, we used N2O measurements from the Odin satellite for the same time period. The derived ozone loss in the lower stratosphere between mid-December and mid-March varies between 1.1±0.1 ppmv on the 150 ppbv N2O isopleth and 1.7±0.1 ppmv on the 50 ppbv N2O isopleth.

  1. Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere. In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5° x 7.5° or 2.8° x 2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations. The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8° x 2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally much smaller, except above 620K where

  2. Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Davies, S.; Sen, B.; Toon, G.; Blavier, J. F.; Webster, C. R.; Volk, C. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; von der Gathen, P.; Jost, H.; Richard, E. C.; Claude, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM) to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere. In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5° x 7.5° or 2.8° x 2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations. The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8° x 2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally much smaller, except above 620K where large losses occurred

  3. Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method, based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index, has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good correspondence in PSC sighting and cloud altitude between MIPAS detections and those of other instruments is found for cloud index values less than four. Comparisons with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III are used to show further that the sensitivity of the MIPAS detection method for this threshold value of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10−3 km−1 at 1022 nm, a wavelength used by solar occultation experiments. The MIPAS cloud index data are subsequently used to examine, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude of 90° north on a near-daily basis. We find that the winter of 2002/2003 is characterised by three phases of very different PSC activity: First, an unusual, extremely cold phase in the first three weeks of December resulted in high PSC occurrence rates. This was followed by a second phase of only moderate PSC activity from 5–13 January, separated from the first phase by a minor warming event. Finally there was a third phase from February to end of March where only sporadic and mostly weak PSC events took place. The composition of PSCs during the winter period has also been examined, exploiting particularly an infra-red spectral signature which is probably characteristic of NAT. The MIPAS observations show the presence of these particles on a number of occasions in December but very rarely in January. The PSC type differentiation from MIPAS indicates that future

  4. Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground-based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good correspondence in PSC sighting and cloud altitude between MIPAS detections and those of other instruments is found for cloud index values of less than four. Comparisons with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III are used to further show that the sensitivity of the MIPAS detection method for this threshold value of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10-3km-1 at 1022nm, a wavelength used by solar occultation experiments. The MIPAS cloud index data are subsequently used to examine, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude close to 90° north on a near-daily basis. We find that the winter of 2002/2003 is characterised by three phases of very different PSC activity. First, an unusual, extremely cold phase in the first three weeks of December resulted in high PSC occurrence rates. This was followed by a second phase of only moderate PSC activity from 5-13 January, separated from the first phase by a minor warming event. Finally there was a third phase from February to the end of March where only sporadic and mostly weak PSC events took place. The composition of PSCs during the winter period has also been examined, exploiting in particular an infra-red spectral signature which is probably characteristic of NAT. The MIPAS observations show the presence of these particles on a number of occasions in December but very rarely in January. The PSC type differentiation from MIPAS indicates that future comparisons of PSC

  5. American Library Directory[TM], 2002-2003. Vol. 1: Libraries in the United States [and] Vol. 2: Libraries in Canada, Library Networks, Consortia & Schools, Organization Index, Personnel Index. 55th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The "American Library Directory[TM] 2002-2003," in two volumes, provides access to comparative data, additional resources, and sales prospects for the United States and Canadian library communities. Containing full profiles on public, academic, government, and special libraries, the totally updated 55th edition is organized by state and city. Each…

  6. Re-emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002-2003: identification of new vectors and epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Sall, A A; Diallo, D; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2012-09-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a threat that must not be neglected, as the consequences of RVFV are dramatic, both for human and animal health. This virus is a zoonotic virus that already has demonstrated a real capacity for re-emerging after long periods of silence, as observed in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002. In this article we present the 2nd emergence in Barkedji after the 1st manifestation in 1993, and for the 1st time the circulation of RVFV during 2 consecutive years among mosquito populations in Senegal. As part of the entomological surveillance program undertaken since 1990 to detect circulation of the RVFV in Barkedji, 108,336 mosquitoes belonging to 34 species and 5 genera were collected in 2002-2003. Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, previously known to be vectors of RVFV in Senegal, comprised 88.7% of the total collection. In 2002, Ae. vexans was the most abundant mosquito, followed by Cx. poicilipes; the opposite situation was observed in 2003. In 2002, 29 and 10 RVFV isolates were obtained from Cx. poicilipes (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.13%) and Ae. vexans (MIR = 0.02%) pools, respectively and the MIR for the 2 species were significantly different (chi2 = 34.65; df = 1, P Senegal. A significant decrease in MIR was observed from 2002 to 2003 (chi2 6.28; df = 1, P = 0.01) for Cx. poicilipes, the only species involved in the transmission during the 2 sampling years.

  7. 2002 - 2003 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    1st TERM : November - December 2002   LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 November 2002 Telling the Truth with Statistics by R. Barlow / Univ. of Manchester, UK 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500     REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME 2, 3, 4, 5 December 2002 Introduction to String Theory by W. Lerche / CERN-TH 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc.) will be published in the CERN bulletin, the WWW, and by Notices before each term and for each series of lectures. Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  8. 2002-2003年陕西国力足球队运动损伤情况的分析与研究%Analysis and Research on Sports Injury of Soccer Players from Shaanxi Guoli Club during 2002-2003 Soccer Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建华; 毛杰

    2004-01-01

    采用文献资料调研、运动员伤病跟踪调查、数理统计等方法,对陕西国力足球队2002-2003赛季运动损伤情况进行研究,结果表明:在两个赛季内,共有17名运动员发生了128例不同部位的损伤,占被观察人数的65.3%,78.7%的损伤发生在下肢.通过对足球运动员损伤机制的研究,旨在提出足球运动致损因素,寻找措施,减少运动员在比赛与训练中的损伤发生.

  9. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2012-02-01

    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  10. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  11. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  12. Dams (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (NTAD 2015). The map layer was created by extracting dams...

  13. The dams of the Columbia river; Staustufen des Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueb, L.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Columbia river and its tributaries in the north-western part of the USA form one of the largest river systems of the world. Its development was started during the economic crisis of the thirties with the construction of the Bonneville, Rock Island, and Grand Coulee dams. Another eight dams were realized between the fifties and the beginning of the seventies. As a terraced lake system the Columbia yields more than 90 terawatt hours of electric power annually and provides irrigation to 200 000 hectares of cultivated land. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Columbia und seine Nebenfluesse im Nordwesten der USA bilden eines der groessten Flusssysteme der Welt. Seine Erschliessung begann waehrend der Wirtschaftskrise der dreissiger Jahre mit dem Bau der Talsperren Bonneville, Rock Island und Grand Coulee. Weitere acht Staustufen wurden von den fuenfziger Jahren bis Anfang der siebziger Jahre verwirklicht. Als Treppe von Seen liefert der Columbia jaehlich ueber 90 TWh elektrische Energie und ermoeglicht die Bewaesserung von 200 000 Hektar Kulturland. (orig.)

  14. THE COLLECTION OF 4448 METEORITES IN GROVE MOUNTAINS,ANTARCTICA,IN 2002-2003:CONFIRMATION OF A NEW METEORITE CONCENTRATION%南极格罗夫山于2002-2003年搜集4448块陨石:新陨石富集区的证实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚宜太; 缪秉魁

    2005-01-01

    我国第19次南极考察队于2002-2003年在格罗夫山地区寻找陨石,共搜集了4448块陨石,其中石陨石2892块、球粒陨石1524块、碳质球粒陨石25块、无球粒陨石6块和石铁陨石1块.这次陨石调查主要沿阵风悬崖南段、中段、北段蓝冰区进行,在上述地区分别发现了41块、2684块、1721块陨石.本次考察中,在已搜寻的蓝冰区,尽管其富集程度有很大差异,但均发现了陨石,因此,格罗夫山其它尚未搜寻的蓝冰区也可能富集陨石.大部分陨石可能是风从阵风悬崖或其上方吹来的,因这些陨石质量小,分布在蓝冰的凹地或冰碛的迎风坡.而另一些质量大的陨石可能受冰川搬运至收集地点,因冰的消融而露出蓝冰表面.这些陨石的发现充分证明格罗夫山地区为南极最富集陨石的地区之一.

  15. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  16. The 2002/2003 radionuclide concentration in the marine environment at various distances from the Barseback nuclear power plant; La concentration de radionucleides - en 2002/2003 - dans l'environnement marin, a diverses distances de la centrale electronucleaire de Barseback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Raaf, C.L.; Mattsson, S. [Lund Univ., Malmo Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmo (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 58}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 40}K were determined in samples of brown seaweed (Fucus) and some other marine plants using low background high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. The algae were mainly sampled in the bay just north of the Barsebaeck NPP (55.4 N, 12.6 E) in the south of Sweden to study the contamination levels in the nearest shallow waters. One aim of the study was to investigate whether the levels were high enough to expect environmental effects. Some samples were also taken at longer distances up to 130 km from the Barsebaeck NPP. Measurable levels of the neutron activation products {sup 65}Zn (up to 17 Bq/kg dw), {sup 60}Co (100-600 Bq/kg dw), {sup 58}Co (1-160 Bq/kg dw) and {sup 54}Mn (12-90 Bq/kg dw) were found in the algae samples within a distance of 5 km from the plant. The decrease in activity concentration with distance from the plant could be described by a power function with an exponent ranging from 1.4 to 2.4. This was in fair agreement with the value for a true two-dimensional dispersion model. The present-day concentrations were found to be considerably lower than in earlier studies made in the late 1970, especially for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 58}Co. The activity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus from the bay just north of Barsebaeck in the period 2002-2003 was dominated by (in order of decreasing concentration): natural {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co from the plant, {sup 137}Cs mainly from the Chernobyl debris, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Co from the plant. It is not likely that any effects from the very marginal absorbed dose contribution from the Barsebaeck NPP releases can be found even in the nearest environment. The study has also shown that the eel grass Zostera marina may be a bio indicator to use in further studies of the radiation environment in shallow water, especially for {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn. (author)

  17. Prevalencia de síntomas de dermatitis atópica en niños y adolescentes en La Habana (2002-2003 Prevalence of symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children and adolescents in La Habana (2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Varona Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar la prevalencia de eczema atópico y describir sus características en niños y adolescentes de La Habana, así como su relación con el asma y la rinitis. Métodos: estudio transversal que aplicó la metodología ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in the Childhood adaptada al contexto nacional. Incluyó 1 803 niños (6-7 años y 3 023 adolescentes (13-14 años de población escolar urbana en los municipios Playa y Marianao, durante los años 2002-2003. La información se obtuvo a partir de entrevistas a los padres de los niños y a los adolescentes. En el análisis se utilizaron estadígrafos de frecuencia absoluta y relativa en porcentajes, odds ratio y sus intervalos de confianza al 95 %. Resultados: la prevalencia acumulada de síntomas de eczema, fue referida en aproximadamente 4 de cada 10 niños: 38,3 % (IC 33,8-42,7 y en 2 de cada 10 adolescentes: 22,5 % (IC 20,1-25,0; la prevalencia actual en los niños y adolescentes fue 22,2 % (IC 19,0-25,5 y 14,1 % (IC 12,4-16,1 respectivamente. En los primeros 2 años de vida, el 50 % de los niños inició los síntomas, que fueron más severos en 2 de cada 10 escolares. Los niños con síntomas de eczema, tuvieron hasta 4 veces más riesgo de padecer rinitis (OR 1,9 IC 95 % 1,1-3,5 o asma (OR 2,4 IC 95 % 1,6-3,6; en los adolescentes el riesgo de padecer rinitis se elevó hasta 5 (OR 2,6 IC 95 % 1,4-4,9. Conclusiones: se evidenció una alta prevalencia de dermatitis atópica y su relevancia como problema de salud. Los resultados constituyeron una línea de base para la comparación con los de otras ciudades del país y con los de otras latitudes; permitieron documentar tendencias a escala poblacional y evaluar el impacto de futuras intervenciones.Objectives: to determine the prevalence of atopic eczema and to describe its features in children and adolescents of La Habana, as well as its relation to asthma and rhinitis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was

  18. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  19. Transient excitation boosting at Grand Coulee third power plant: Power system application and field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.W.; Mechenbier, J.R.; Matthews, C.E. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Transient excitation boosting (TEB) has been installed on the Grand Coulee Third Power Plant hydrogenerators (three 600 MVA units and three 700 MVA units). TEB is initiated for outages of the 3100 MW Pacific HVDC Intertie, and results in a decaying pulse input to the generator voltage regulators. TEB temporarily raises Pacific Northwest transmission voltages which increases voltage-sensitive loads. The increased load brakes Northwest generators which are accelerating because of the loss of HVDC Intertie power. Transient stability of the parallel Pacific AC Intertie is thus improved. Power system-wide commissioning tests were conducted on May 7, 1991. The authors describe the tests and compare test results with simulation results.

  20. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  1. Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.; Richmond, M.; Coleman, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-06-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been applied. This model uses field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data varied in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors were small and within expected ranges, although, as additional 2003 field data becomes available, model parameters may be improved to minimize differences between observed and simulated values. A two-dimensional, laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible; however, vertical thermal variations were quite large (see USACE 2003). The numerical

  2. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced techno

  3. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  4. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced techno

  5. 内蒙古赤峰市兴隆沟聚落遗址2002~2003年的发掘%2002-2003 Excavation on the Settlement-site at Xinglonggou in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古第一工作队

    2004-01-01

    In 2002- 2003, the First Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, carried out two seasons of excavation on the Xinglonggou site. The work resulted in the confirmation of the first locality as a large-sized settlement of the middle Xinglongwa culture (8000-7500 BP). The significant findings in dwelling form, settlement layout, burial custom, primitive religion, economic formation and environmental archaeology represent a new type in the Xinglongwa culture. The second locality is left over from a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Hongshan culture (5500-5000 BP). Its discovery made up the gap of late Hongshan Culture sites in the prehistoric data. The third locality remains of a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (4000-3500BP), which offers new material for studying the civilizing course and early state form of the West Liaohe River valley. The excavation of the Xinglonggou site will forcefully promote the deep-going study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in Northeast China and exert active influence upon the research on Sino-Japanese cultural relations in prehistoric times.

  6. de residuos. Buenos Aires, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Paiva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la problemática de la gestión de los residuos sólidos domiciliarios de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Dicha gestión está regulada por un marco jurídico muy antiguo que impide la recuperación o el reciclaje en casi todas las fases del circuito de recolección, transporte y disposición final. En forma paralela a la gestión oficial, se ha extendido una vía de recolección y recuperación informal, que ha llevado a cabo algunas personas pertenecientes a los sectores más pobres de nuestra sociedad, quienes encuentran en la venta de los residuos recuperados un camino para su supervivencia diaria. En el presente artículo describimos las características de este circuito informal en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, las rutas, calles, horarios y tipos de residuos recogidos, y analizamos el fenómeno no solamente como una manifiestación de la pobreza, sino como un camino alternativo para la recolección diferenciada de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad.

  7. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  8. Circumpolar polynya regions and ice production in the Arctic: results from MODIS thermal infrared imagery from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015 with a regional focus on the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußer, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Willmes, Sascha; Paul, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 17 prominent coastal polynya regions over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness (TIT) distributions (≤ 20 cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures, combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for 13 winter seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available MODIS swath data, daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic (i.e., potential) ice production. A gap-filling approach is applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. All polynya regions combined cover an average thin-ice area of 226.6 ± 36.1 × 103 km2 in winter. This allows for an average total winter-accumulated ice production of about 1811 ± 293 km3, whereby the Kara Sea region, the North Water polynya (both 15 %), polynyas on the western side of Novaya Zemlya (20 %), as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined 12 %) are the main contributors. Other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions and range between 2 and 5 %. We notice distinct differences to earlier studies on pan-Arctic polynya characteristics, originating in some part from the use of high-resolution MODIS data, as the capability to resolve small-scale (> 2 km) polynyas and also large leads are increased. Despite the short record of 13 winter seasons, positive trends in ice production are detected for several regions of the eastern Arctic (most significantly in the Laptev Sea region with an increase of 6.8 km3 yr-1) and the North Water polynya, while other polynyas in the western Arctic show a more pronounced variability with varying trends. We emphasize the role of the Laptev Sea polynyas as being a major influence on Transpolar Drift characteristics through

  9. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  10. Physical characterization of a suite of Buzzard Coulee H4 chondrite fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Melanson, D.; Samson, C.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Herd, R. K.; Ernst, R. E.; Umoh, J.; Holdsworth, D. W.

    2013-06-01

    On November 20, 2008, the Buzzard Coulee H4 chondrite fell to Earth outside of Lloydminster, Alberta, Canada. Eighteen fresh samples obtained by the National Meteorite Collection of Canada, ranging from 8.80 to 109.14 g, were investigated in this study. Physical properties of the samples were first obtained using a suite of nondestructive techniques. The bulk density (Archimedean bead method: 3.48 ± 0.04 g cm-3; 3-D laser imaging: 3.46 ± 0.03 g cm-3; micro-computed tomography: 3.44 ± 0.03 g cm-3), porosity (6.2 ± 0.1%), bulk magnetic susceptibility (log χ: 5.364 ± 0.056 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at 825 Hz; 5.329 ± 0.052 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at 19,000 Hz), and other derived magnetic properties (frequency dependence: 8.7 ± 6.2%; degree of anisotropy A%: 22.0 ± 2.0%; ellipsoid shape B%: -18.7 ± 8.7%) are typical of H chondrites. The coefficient of variation associated with the properties measured directly was low (0.10-1.15%), indicating that the samples are homogenous at the interfragment scale. The study then proceeded with detailed analyses at the intrafragment scale. Visual inspection of micro-computed tomographic images allowed the identification of an anomalous large clast with low metal content in a fragment. Another fragment exhibited macroscopic shock veins that warranted further examination. These fragments were cut and polished thin sections prepared for petrological analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Based on mineralogical and textural similarities with several chondrules, the large clast was interpreted to be a macrochondrule. In a larger context, this study proposes a protocol for the systematic investigation of extraterrestrial material that can be exported to other new meteorite falls and finds, and specimens from sample return mission.

  11. Iran funds dam completion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  12. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  13. Artificial cooling of the Columbia River by dam regulation: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, H.A.

    1959-05-25

    In early July 1958, it appeared that Columbia River temperatures at HAPO would be near 24--50{degree}C by the end of August. River temperatures were averaging 40 to 50{degree}C above 1957 figures and were 3{degree} to 4{degree} above the ten year highs. It seemed desirable to examine the problem to determine if any corrective measure could be taken, since it was apparent that production losses were imminent. The large storage of cold water behind Grand Coulee Dam, normally untapped, was a source of possible relief. A plan for use was proposed for the peak high temperature period and agreed to by the Bureau of Reclamation.

  14. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (methods in the U.S.

  15. Performance of a surface bypass structure to enhance juvenile steelhead passage and survival at Lower Granite Dam, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Plumb, John M.; Perry, Russell W.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of efforts to recover stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss in Pacific Northwest rivers is to increase passage efficacy and survival of juveniles past hydroelectric dams. As part of this effort, we evaluated the efficacy of a prototype surface bypass structure, the removable spillway weir (RSW), installed in a spillbay at Lower Granite Dam, Washington, on the Snake River during 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2006. Radio-tagged juvenile steelhead were released upstream from the dam and their route of passage through the turbines, juvenile bypass, spillway, or RSW was recorded. The RSW was operated in an on-or-off condition and passed 3–13% of the total discharge at the dam when it was on. Poisson rate models were fit to the passage counts of hatchery- and natural-origin juvenile steelhead to predict the probability of fish passing the dam. Main-effect predictor variables were RSW operation, diel period, day of the year, proportion of flow passed by the spillway, and total discharge at the dam. The combined fish passage through the RSW and spillway was 55–85% during the day and 37–61% during the night. The proportion of steelhead passing through nonturbine routes was 95% when the RSW was on during the day. The ratio of the proportion of steelhead passed to the proportion of water passing the RSW was from 6.3:1 to 10.0:1 during the day and from 2.7:1 to 5.2:1 during the night. Steelhead passing through the RSW exited the tailrace about 15 min faster than fish passing through the spillway. Mark–recapture single-release survival estimates for steelhead passing the RSW ranged from 0.95 to 1.00. The RSW appeared to be an effective bypass structure compared with other routes of fish passage at the dam.

  16. Dam to the Rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Three Gorges Dam relieves the summer drought in south and central China,but may contribute to other problems The Three Gorges Dam played an important role in relieving China’s drought in central and eastern prov-inces that had been using increased water discharges from the Dam to irrigate dry farmlands facing the worst drought int he last 60 years in 2011.

  17. Living with dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. Saeijs (Henk); K.D. Schuijt (Kirsten)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDams have proven their usefulness in preventing and mitigating floods, and water scarcity and generating electricity. They are indispensable in present society. But at the same time, they cause serious ecological, social and economical problems. Consequently we have to live with a dams

  18. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  19. Dams: Pros and Cons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steve

    The Dam was built for the main purpose of water supply to university community. Data on .... The decision on who is to participate in a full EIA on a water ... METHOD AND MATERIALS ..... Development”, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems,.

  20. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-99-Olympia-Grand Coulee No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermeston, Mark W. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-29

    Vegetation Management along the Olympia-Grand Coulee No. 1, 287 kV transmission line from structure 53/4 through structure 64/1. Corridor width is 125 feet. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. Approximately 163 acres will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1 of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  2. Como o grau de desigualdade afeta a propensão marginal a consumir? Distribuição de renda e consumo das famílias no Brasil a partir dos dados das POF 2002-2003 e 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Pitombo Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo visa investigar a relação entre mudanças na distribuição de renda e seus impactos na propensão marginal a consumir para a economia como um todo. Para tal, utiliza os dados das duas últimas pesquisas de orçamentos familiares (POF realizadas no Brasil, 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, tomando a renda familiar total e calculando uma variável de despesa familiar total para as duas pesquisas. São apresentados os índices de Gini para a renda familiar total e estimativas, por meio dos microdados e dos centésimos da população, para a propensão marginal a consumir agregada. É efetuado ainda o ajuste de poligonais no intuito de captar diferenças entre as propensões marginais a consumir de dois grandes grupos de renda e procede-se a manipulações contrafactuais na busca pela mensuração do impacto de efeitos redistributivos livre de outras influências sobre a propensão marginal a consumir agregada.

  3. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  4. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002/2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Keith Dunker

    2004-10-26

    Brief introduction to Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and the application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized. PSB is the only meeting in the bioinformatics field with sessions defined dynamically each year in response to specific proposals from the participants. Sessions are organized by leaders in emerging areas to provide forums for publication and for discussion of research in biocomputing ''hot topics''. PSB therefore enables discussion of emerging methods and approaches in this rapidly changing field. PSB has been designated as one of the major meetings in this field by the recently established International Society for Computational Biology (see www.iscb.org). Papers and presentations are peer reviewed typically with 3 reviews per paper plus editorial oversight from the conference organizers. The accepted papers are published in an archival proceedings volume, which is indexed by PubMed, and electronically (see http://psb.stanford.edu/). Finally, given the tight schedule from submission of papers to their publication, typically 5 to 5 1/2 months, the PSB proceedings each year represents one of the most up-to-date surveys of current trends in bioinformatics.

  5. France, Italy and the 2002/2003 Iraq Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    l’Assemblée général, avec un double mandate: faire le bilan de la politique de non-prolifération et lui donner un nouvelle impulsion decisive...http://www.elysee.fr/cgi- bin/auracom/aurweb/search/file?aur_file= discours /2002/0208AM 12 White House Press Release, “President Bush, Prime...2002. http://www.elysee.fr/cgi-bin/auracom/aurweb/search/file?aur_file= discours /2002/0210AL0 15 dangerous precedent, and declared that such military

  6. Lake Pend Oreille Predation Research, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassista, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    During August 2002 we conducted a hydroacoustic survey to enumerate pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. The purpose of this survey was to determine a collective lakewide biomass estimate of pelagic bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and lake trout S. namaycush and compare it to pelagic prey (kokanee salmon O. nerka) biomass. By developing hydroacoustic techniques to determine the pelagic predator to prey ratio, we can annually monitor their balance. Hydroacoustic surveys were also performed during December 2002 and February 2003 to investigate the effectiveness of autumn and winter surveys for pelagic predators. The inherent problem associated with hydroacoustic sampling is the inability to directly identify fish species. Therefore, we utilized sonic tracking techniques to describe rainbow trout and lake trout habitat use during our winter hydroacoustic survey to help identify fish targets from the hydroacoustic echograms. During August 2002 we estimated there were 39,044 pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille (1.84 f/ha). Based on temperature and depth utilization, two distinct groups of pelagic fish >406 mm were located during August; one group was located between 10 and 35 m and the other between 40 and 70 m. The biomass for pelagic fish >406 mm during August 2002 was 73 t (metric ton). This would account for a ratio of 1 kg of pelagic predator for every 2.63 kg of kokanee prey, assuming all pelagic fish >406 mm are predators. During our late fall and winter hydroacoustic surveys, pelagic fish >406 mm were observed at lake depths between 20 and 90 m. During late fall and winter, we tracked three rainbow trout (168 habitat observations) and found that they mostly occupied pelagic areas and predominantly stayed within the top 10 m of the water column. During late fall (one lake trout) and winter (four lake trout), we found that lake trout (184 habitat observations) utilized benthic-nearshore areas 65% of the time and were found in the pelagic area only 35% of the time. Lake trout were found at depths between 10 and 90 m (average was approximately 30 m). Based on hydroacoustic surveys of pelagic fish >406 mm and habitat use of sonic tagged rainbow trout and lake trout during late fall and winter, we conclude that hydroacoustic sampling during those times would be ineffective at acquiring an accurate pelagic predator population estimate and recommend conducting abundance estimates for pelagic predators when Lake Pend Oreille is thermally stratified (i.e. August).

  7. Ice Engineering: Ice Jams, Winter 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    freezeup jams occurring in January. On 21 January, the National Weather Service reported a long freezeup jam on the Allegheny River that extended from... freezeup jam. Another freezeup jam, reported on 24 January, extended from Brady’s Bend up the Allegheny River about five miles to Hillville. This...large freezeup jam was still in place on 28 January (NWS 2003d). Again on 28 January, another freezeup jam was reported from Reno north for two miles

  8. District Composite Report: Sabine Parish. 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables…

  9. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  10. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a result, restoration work is in the planning stages for Canadian tributaries that flow into the Moyie River in northern Idaho and the Yaak River in northwest Montana.

  11. Zimni son festivalja 2002-2003 / Niina Kotsarenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotsarenko, Niina

    2003-01-01

    Teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" lavastustest - L. Noréni "Vaikne muusika" L. Hjulströmi lavastuses, V. Langose "Agamemnon ja Tyndareuse tütar" Kreeka teatri Actoriones esituses ja Tai teatri Patravardi tantsuetendus "Kogu tõde peamisest"

  12. [Enterobiasis during 2002-2003 in Perugia province: beyond diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L

    2006-06-01

    Between 2002 and 2003 we examined cellophane tapes of 119 children, both symptomatic and apparently asymptomatic. Eggs of Enterobius vermicularis were observed in 13.4% of children. This helminth is the most frequent in Italy, but it is as yet unrecognized, probably due to parasitological laboratories not being consulted, resulting in incomplete epidemiological data. We recall the biological aspects of this nematode and suggest the need for sound diagnosis to ensure proper surveillance of this exclusively human infection.

  13. Land Combat Systems Industry Report, Academic Year 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    technological gap currently existing between American and European capabilities. Despite considerable consolidation, the U.S. LCS industry stands...program will serve to increase the technological gap between the United States and its allies. This widening gap will continue to create

  14. Zimni son festivalja 2002-2003 / Niina Kotsarenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotsarenko, Niina

    2003-01-01

    Teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" lavastustest - L. Noréni "Vaikne muusika" L. Hjulströmi lavastuses, V. Langose "Agamemnon ja Tyndareuse tütar" Kreeka teatri Actoriones esituses ja Tai teatri Patravardi tantsuetendus "Kogu tõde peamisest"

  15. The Bill of Rights in Action, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2003-01-01

    This document includes the following issues of this journal: volume 18, number 3, Summer 2002; volume 18, number 4, Fall 2002; volume 19, number 2, Spring 2003; and volume 19, number 3, Summer 2003. The summer 2002 issue of "The Bill of Rights in Action" views problems related to victims of war. It focuses on the internment of Japanese…

  16. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-11-01

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences is becoming increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than hydrocarbons and the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) are critical to the future energy needs and environmental safety of this planet. In addition, the cleanup of many contaminated sites in the U.S., along with the preservation and management of our water supply, remain key challenges for us as well as future generations. Addressing these energy, climate change, and environmental issues requires the timely integration of earth sciences' disciplines (such as geology, hydrology, oceanography, climatology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics, ecology, and environmental sciences). This integration will involve focusing on fundamental crosscutting concerns that are common to many of these issues. A primary focus will be the characterization, imaging, and manipulation of fluids in the earth. Such capabilities are critical to many DOE applications, from environmental restoration to energy extraction and optimization. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is currently addressing many of the key technical issues described above. In this document, we present summaries of many of our current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, it is representative of the nature and breadth of our research effort. We are proud of our scientific efforts, and we hope that you will find our research useful and exciting. Any comments on our research are appreciated and can be sent to me personally. This report is divided into five sections that correspond to the major research programs in the Earth Sciences Division: (1) Fundamental and Exploratory Research; (2) Nuclear Waste; (3) Energy Resources; (4) Environmental Remediation Technology; and (5) Climate Variability and Carbon Management. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Microbial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Geomechanics, Geochemistry, and Hydrogeology and Reservoir Dynamics. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. A list of publications for the period from January 2002 to June 2003, along with a listing of our personnel, are appended to the end of this report.

  17. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir

  18. USGS Dam Removal Science Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.

  19. The dam design of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaomao; Xu Linxiang; Liao Renqiang

    2011-01-01

    The dam of Three Gorges Project is a concrete gravity dam with the crest elevation of 185 m, the maximum height of 181 m and dam axis length of 2 309.5 m. The dam consists of spillway, powerhouse, non-over flow, ship-lift, temporary ship-lock, left diversion wall and longitudinal cofferdam blocks. Some key techniques relating to dam structure design are presented, including hydraulics of flood discharge structure, dam joint design, layout and structural type of penstock, deep anti-sliding stability of dam foundation, reconstruction of temporary ship-lock and closed drainage and pumping of dam foundation.

  20. Tarbela Dam Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, B.A. [WAPDA Tarbela Dam Project (Pakistan); Ahmad, W. [Siemens Pakistan Ltd., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1999-07-01

    Construction of one of the world's largest water resource development project is discussed. The Tarbela project is built on the Indus River, (itself one of the largest rivers of the world) and consists of a 9,000 feet long and 465 feet high earth and rockfill embankment across the entire width of the river with two spillways cutting through the left bank. On the left bank valley there are two auxiliary embankment dams to close the gap. A total of five tunnels, each a mile long, have been constructed for irrigation releases and power generation. Electricity is being generated by two power generating plants constructed on three of these tunnels. They have a generating capacity of 3,478 MW, supplying 40 per cent of all Pakistani demand. Several 'firsts' are identified. For example, the dam is the world's largest, containing over 200 million cubic yards of earth and rock, as are the five tunnels (14 meters in diameter), as well as the outlet gates. The energy release by the water gushing through the five tunnels at maximum level is more than 13 million KW, approximately equivalent to 10 million horsepower. 1 ref.

  1. Determination of Seepage and Analysis of Earth Dams (Case Study: Karkheh Dam)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kamanbedast; M. Shahosseini

    2011-01-01

    Because of the increasing trend of building dam throughout Iran; it is necessary to optimize dam buildings and operations. Dam or Hydropower industry has two types of buildings; normally: (1) Concrete dams (2) Embankment (earth) dams. Generally, scientists and engineers use different methods to enhance safety and decrease any errors in calculation due to maintenance of water storage especially hydro structure of the dam. It is necessary to investigate the dam seepage control; commonly use...

  2. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, van W.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and

  3. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Schoorl, Jeroen M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and la

  4. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing.... Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the... analysis at this time. n. The Crocker Dam Hydro Project would consist of: (1) The existing...

  5. FORMATION AND FAILURE OF NATURAL DAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

  6. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  7. Conflicts Associated with Dam Removal in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. C. Lejon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of deteriorating old dams that need renovation or have lost their function make dam removal a viable management option. There are at least four major reasons for dam removal: safety, law and policy, economy, and ecology. Here we discuss 17 Swedish dams that were recently considered for removal. Because dam removal usually causes controversy, dam removal initiatives may succeed, fail, or result in a compromise such as a bypass channel for migrating fish. We identify and discuss three major obstructions to dam removal: funding, cultural-historical values, and threatened species. To facilitate dam removal, the reasons for, and the effects of, dam removal must be carefully explained, and the public and stakeholders must be kept informed. In complicated cases in which compromise solutions may be the most feasible outcome, the integration of the knowledge of different stakeholders is crucial. The involvement of diverse stakeholders increases their willingness to find compromises, thus avoiding conflicts and failures.

  8. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  9. Dam risk assistant analysis system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the labor intensity and task difficulty of dam risk analysis and to meet the actual requirement of dam risk analysis,it is necessary to establish a dam risk assistant analysis system.The program structure and the implementation ways of the dam risk assistant analysis system are analyzed,and a procedural framework with "three-tier and multi-database" structure and "level structure" is established.The concept of dam risk assessment system modular development is proposed and the coupled mode of function module and data is improved.Finally,the dam risk assistant analysis system is developed using Delphi visual programming language.

  10. Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan JIANG; Jun XIA; Gang-sheng WANG; Chang-sen ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the model simulation of a portion of the Huaihe Basin upstream of the river mouth at Hongze Lake,with an area of 130 520 km2.The MIKE 11 modeling system was used to assess the flows and water quality in the Huaihe,Shayinghe,Honghe,Guohe,and Pihe rivers.The hydraulic part of the model was used to study the propagation of flows in the Huaihe River,which was calibrated with data from 2002-2003 and verified with data from 2004-2005.In general,there was agreement between measured and simulated discharges at all the hydrological stations.Except for some places close to large gates,there was reasonable agreement between measured and simulated water levels in the simulated rivers.The MIKE 11 WQ (water quality)model was used to study general sanitary parameters describing the river water quality in areas influenced by human activities.The water quality model simulated dissolved oxygen (DO),chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N).The difference between the simulated and observed concentrations was within the range that could be expected from water quality modeling,taking into account uncertainties such as pollution loads,and monitoring and sampling frequency.This model setup was also suitable for the subsequent scenario modeling of periods of water project operation.In the simulation of the Pihe River,increasing the discharge at Hengpaitou Dam was shown to cause a significant improvement in water quality downstream of Lu'an City.In the Shayinghe and Huaihe rivers,the effect was less visible.This suggests that the poor water quality in the Huaihe Basin is mainly caused by extensive discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  11. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  12. VT High Risk Dam Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Preliminary release Storm-Day dam inundation areas digitized from various source Emergency Action Plans. These dams were prioritized for...

  13. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  14. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee... preferred alternative in its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of availability (NOA) of the...

  15. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  16. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  17. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  18. The formation and failure of natural dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J.E.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches, rock and soil slumps and slides, and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Landslide dams can be classified into six categories based on their relation with the valley floor. Type I dams (11%) of the 81 landslide dams around the world that were classifed do not reach from one valley side to the other. Type II dams (44%) span the entire valley flood, occasionally depositing material high up on opposite valley sides. Type III dams (41%) move considerable distances both upstream and downstream from the landslide failure. Type IV dams (1%) are rare and involve the contemporaneous failure of material from both sides of a valley. Type V dams (1%) are also rare, and are created when a single landslide sends multiple tongues of debris into a valley forming two or more landslide dams in the same surfaces, that extend under the stream or valley and emerge on the opposite valley side. Many landslide dams fail shortly after formation. Overtopping is by far the most common cause of failure. Glacial ice dams can produce at least nine kinds of ice-dammed lakes. The most dangerous are lakes formed in main valleys dammed by tributary glaciers. Failure can occur by erosion of a drainage tunnel under or through the ice dam or by a channel over the ice dam. Cold polar ice dams generally drain supraglacially or marginally by downmelting of an outlet channel. Warmer temperate-ice dams tend to fail by sudden englacial or subglacial breaching and drainage. Late neoglacial moraine-dammed lakes are located in steep mountain areas affected by the advances and retreats of valley glaciers in the last several

  19. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin CAI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  20. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  1. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  2. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  3. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  4. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  5. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  6. Dam Inventory, dams, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'dams'. Data...

  7. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  8. Study on dynamic anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-hong CHEN; Cheng-bin DU

    2011-01-01

    There existed some limitations when analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation system by traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method. The dynamic strength reduction method was used to study on the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation under strong earthquake-induced ground action. The static analysis was firstly carried out by reducing the shear strength parameters of the dam foundation’s rock mass with equal...

  9. 78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of..., Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Hollow Dam Project, FERC No. 6972, located on the West Branch...

  10. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  11. Debris Flow Dam Formation in Southeast Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zunlan; WU Jishan; GENG Xueyong

    2005-01-01

    Glaciers with their deposits abound in the alpine areas of Southeast Tibet. Large debris flows occur frequently from these deposits and form dams that block streams. In this paper, 3 events of large debris flows reported in Peilong Valley located in Southeast Tibet, and which resulted 2 blocking dams resulted, are discussed in details, focusing on the major factors controlling dam formation. The results shows that the first surge group caused by snow and ice avalanches, ice-lake breaks, and large-scale landslides, with a high peak discharge and high velocity, and an abundance of boulders, are most likely to form blocking dams.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation methods for dam service status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongRu; XU Bo; GU ChongShi; LI ZhanChao

    2012-01-01

    More than 87000 dams have been built in China,and about one third of them are risky projects.A number of high and ultra-high dams are being constructed in China's western region.The current dam construction practice tends to focus on socio-economic benefits and neglect the environment and ecology.Furthermore,periodic examinations are intended to ensure the structural safety of dams.This paper proposes a general evaluation principle for dam service.This principle stipulates that dam projects should have maximum socio-economic benefits and minimum negative effects on the environment and ecology.To satisfy the general principle of mutual harmony,socio-economic benefits,dam safety,environment,and ecology are analyzed,and the evaluation methods for dam service status are discussed.Then,a fusion algorithm of interlayer assessment is proposed on the basis of evidence theory and the fuzzy comprehensive analysis method.Finally,a comprehensive evaluation model is established.Example analysis shows that the proposed theories and methods can fulfill scientific assessment of the service status of dams.

  13. Breakup and reestablishment of the armour layer in a large gravel-bed river below dams: The lower Ebro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Damia; Batalla, Ramon J.; Garcia, Celso

    2006-06-01

    Changes in armour layer during floods under supply limited conditions are little known. This paper describes the breakup and the reestablishment of the bed armour layer in the regulated gravel-bed Ebro River during a flooding period. The study was conducted over a 28-km study reach from 2002 to 2004. The surface, subsurface and bed load grain size distribution constitute the bases for the analysis of bed-armouring dynamics. The results indicate that the magnitude of floods controlled the degree of armouring of the river bed. The initial mean armouring ratio was 2.3, with maximum values reaching 4.4. Floods in the winter of 2002-2003 ( Q8) caused the breakup of the armour layer in several sections. This resulted in the erratic bed load pattern observed during the December 2002 flushing flow and in the increase in bed load transport during successive events. Most grain size classes were entrained and transported, causing river bed incision. The mean armouring ratio decreased to 1.9. In contrast, during low magnitude floods in 2003-2004 ( Q2), the coarsest fractions (64 mm) did not take part in the bed load while finer particles were winnowed, thus surface deposits coarsened. As a result, the armour layer was reestablished (i.e., the mean armouring ratio increased to 2.3), and the supply of subsurface sediment decreased. The supply and transport of bed material appear to be in balance in the river reach immediately below the dam. In contrast, the transport of medium and finer size classes in the downstream reaches was higher than their supply from upstream, a phenomenon that progressively reduced their availability in the river bed surface, hence the armour layer reworking.

  14. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  15. Mechanical effects of excavation rebound of arch dam bedrock and better concreting time of dam body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In high ground stress zone, rebound deformation of excavation of arch dam bedrock has a significant impact on the structural behavior, design and construction of arch dam. Based on the analysis of mechanical effects of excavation rebound, with both stress and deformation as two constraint conditions and deformation modulus as a controlling condition, the method to determine a better concreting time of dam body was put forward. All of these play an important guiding role in the excavation of dam bedrock and the construction of dam body.

  16. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  17. Adaptability to geological faulted foundation of Hardfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun XIONG; Yunlong HE; Yunfeng PENG

    2008-01-01

    Hardfill dam is a new type of dam which has the advantages of low stress level and even stress distri-bution in a dam body, resulting in low demands to foun-dations. Based on 2D linear elastic and elasto-plastic calculations of gravity dam and Hardfill dam using finite element method (FEM), the stress distribution in a dam body and anti-sliding stabilization is analyzed on the geo-logical faulted foundations with weak weathered rock and soft interlayers. It is concluded that Hardfill dams have better adaptability to geological faulted foundations than gravity dams and is more secure and economically sound.

  18. Vulnerability of aged concrete gravity dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, I. [Assam Engineering Institute, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Maity, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented an analysis procedure to predict the effects of aging on the behavior of concrete gravity dams. A time dependent isotropic damage index was determined, presenting the performance of the dam with increasing age. Results revealed that the degradation process is dependent on the design life of the structure. The influence of damage along the dam height was greater than damage observed along its width. In order to consider the time dependent degradation of concrete owing to environmental factors and mechanical loading, an algorithm was presented in order to forecast the behavior of existing dams and to assess the necessity of retrofitting or decommissioning. It was concluded that dam behavior during seismic excitation is influenced by the effects of both the dam reservoir system and initial earthquake damage. With increasing age, dam displacement increases, but hydrodynamic pressures and stresses exerted by reservoirs decrease. It was recommended that more accurate behavior could be determined if further research into the coupled effect of foundation-dam-reservoir interaction with material non-linearity was considered. 15 refs.,15 figs.

  19. Upgrading of Boundary Dam spillway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhail, Gordon; MacMillan, Dave; Smith, Bert [KGS Group, Winnipeg, (Canada); Lacelle, Justin [SaskPower, Regina, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    An initial dam safety review was performed in 2005 and identified a number of concerns; the most critical were insufficient spillway capacity and deficiencies in the condition of the existing spillways. This paper described the challenges faced by the upgrading operation on the 50 year old Boundary Dam spillway started in 2008. SaskPower retained the KGS Group to increase the design spillway capacity to 1200 m3/s and remedy observed defects. The construction project involved maintaining the reservoir at full supply level while the 20m long spillway chute and stilling basin below were completely replaced. The difficulties came from the need to complete each year's construction such that the spillway could potentially pass spring flood flows. This paper showed that the upgrade measures selected for implementation were developed through close dialogue between the owner and the designer, with valuable input provided by a panel of external experts as well as from contractors participating in the design process.

  20. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  1. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Do we need construct more dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  3. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun XIONG; Yong-hong WENG; Yun-long HE

    2013-01-01

    Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  4. Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C R

    2002-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to perform nonlinear dynamic earthquake time history analyses on Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado. This project poses many significant technical challenges, one of which is to model the entire Morrow Point Dam/Foundation Rock/Reservoir system which includes accurate geology topography. In addition, the computational model must be initialized to represent the existing dead loads on the structure and the stress field caused by the dead loads. To achieve the correct dead load stress field due to gravity and hydrostatic load, the computer model must account for the manner in which the dams were constructed. Construction of a dam finite element model with the correct as-built geometry of the dam structure and simply ''turning on'' gravity in the computer model will generally lead to an incorrect initial stress field in the structure. The sequence of segmented lifts typical of dam construction has a significant impact on the static stress fields induced in the dam. In addition, the dam model must also account for the interaction between the adjacent dam segments across the dam contraction joints. As a result of these challenges, it was determined that a significant amount of code development was required in order to accurately simulate the motion of the dam structure. Modifications to the existing slide surfaces are needed to allow for appropriate modeling of the shear keys across the contraction joints. Furthermore, a model for hydrodynamic interaction was also implemented into NIKE3D and DYNA3D for fluid representation in the 3D dam system finite element model. Finally, the modeling of the 3D dam system results in a very large computational model, which makes it difficult to perform a static initialization using an implicit code. Traditionally, for these large models, the model has been initialized over a long time scale using an explicit code. However, recent advancements

  5. TYPOLOGY OF LARGE DAMS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dams represent hydrotechnical constructions meant to ensure a judicious use of water resources. The international literature is extremely rich in data regarding the large dams on Earth. In this context, a hierarchy of the main dams is attempted and the role they play in the economic development of the regions they were built in is underlined. The largest dams are built on the big rivers in Asia, North America, South America and Africa. The reservoirs have multiple roles: electricity production, drinking or industrial water supply, irrigations, recreation, etc. High costs and land fragility do not allow the construction of dams in the places most affected by drought or flood. This is why they are usually built in mountainous areas, at great distance from the populated centres. On the Romanian territory, there are 246 large dams, built in the hydrographical basins of Siret, Olt, Arges, Somes, etc. The largest rivers on Earth, by discharge, (Amazon and Zair do not also include the largest dams because the landform and the type of flow have not allowed such constructions.

  6. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  7. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755-1290 Stephen Hall and Jeremy Giovando US Army Engineer District, Walla Walla 201 North Third Avenue Walla Walla...11/2013 at 0330 2/12/2013 at 1410 10120114 95th St. (1) 10120115 55th St. (2) 2/11/2013 at 1010 2/12/2013 at 2120 10120111 55th St. (1) 9737377...Ririe Dam 2/10/2013 at 1440 0 hr 64,700 N 95th E 2/12/2013 at 1410 47 hr 30 min 0.32 0.32 33,020 55th St. Bridge 2/12/2013 at 2120 54 hr 40 min

  8. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  9. Mechanical analysis of a gravity dam

    OpenAIRE

    Bergant, Urša

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of our work we will present the water supply project in Obala and backend Karst regions. The use of the river Reka and its tributary Suhorka is essential, since an amassment is going to be built on it. We decided to build the dam from rolled concrete, which is economically and environmentally better than a paved barrier or a classic concrete dam. The second part of our work includes tension and stability program calculations. The primary dimensions of the dam-taken from a te...

  10. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  11. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail: davydov-va@yandex.ru; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail: badikek@mail.ru; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail: vitalaa@yandex.ru; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: alex.mal.1986@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  12. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  13. Discussion on construction and type selection of China high dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jianping; Yang Zeyan; Chen Guanfu

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 21st century, with the rapid and steady development of China economy, a lot of large scale hydropower projects with large dams from 200 m to 300 m high are being or to be buih. China dam constructions are reaching the level of 300 m high arch dam, 250 high CFRD (concrete face rockfill dam) and 200 m high RCC (roller compacted concrete) gravity dam. Due to the safety and the economy, the type selection for high dams has become the key issue during the argumentation for the hydropower projects, and further efforts are still needed in this aspect for high dams. After reviewing the high dam constructions in China and abroad, authors proposed some advices for the selection of dam types, and hope that it can provide some helpful information for the researches and the design of high dams.

  14. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN AGENCY... various alternatives for permanent modifications to the existing dam facilities at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar dams in Tennessee. The level of review will be determined after the public...

  15. Determination of Seepage and Analysis of Earth Dams (Case Study: Karkheh Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kamanbedast

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing trend of building dam throughout Iran; it is necessary to optimize dam buildings and operations. Dam or Hydropower industry has two types of buildings; normally: (1 Concrete dams (2 Embankment (earth dams. Generally, scientists and engineers use different methods to enhance safety and decrease any errors in calculation due to maintenance of water storage especially hydro structure of the dam. It is necessary to investigate the dam seepage control; commonly used by several methods. Seepage is one of the important issues for design, build and maintenance of dams awareness. Seepage problem and its rules helps scientist to select a suitable method of monitoring and solving such problem. These methods of analysis were carried out at civil and construction project. In this study, one of latest method of investigation of seepage behavior were analytically evaluated and compared with the actual rules. Based on determine results; several suggestions and optimization method were suggested. Therefore, an optimum method was scientifically selected. Besides that, flow condition of porous environment with application of numeric program was analyzed. Finally, all the results were lunched out from seep/w soft which is the most significant program about this matter; use of finite elements method is specified for saturated and unsaturated environment. Thus; leakage and seepage were defined as function of (time and position. Subsequently, the best seepage solutions for the dam constructing were scientifically identified.

  16. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

    2014-06-01

    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  17. Long-term dam safety monitoring of Punt dal Gall arch dam in Switzerland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.WIELAND[1; G.F.KIRCHEN[2

    2012-01-01

    The 130 m high Punt dal Gall dam is located at the Swiss-Italian border in the South-eastern part of Switzerland and was completed in 1969.The dam is founded on highly folded and partially crushed dolomite and limestone formations.A grout curtain with an area of 120,000 m 2 was provided for controlling seepage.For the monitoring of the dam deformations five inverted pendulums were installed in the dam and three in the rock foundation of the right abutment outside of the dam.For a seasonal water level fluctuation in the reservoir of about 60 m the maximum amplitude of the radial displacement is 25 mm,which includes both the effects of the water load and temperature effects.Furthermore a comprehensive geodetic network was established,57 joint meters were installed and cracks in the crest gallery are monitored by crack meters.There are also thermometers,piezometers and rocmeters.Springs at the left and right banks of the dam are monitored and chemical analyses of the seepage water and springs are performed regularly.The dam is equipped with strong motion instruments and several near-field earthquakes have been recorded in the past.The paper describes the long-term safety monitoring of this 42 years old arch dam.A short description of the Swiss practice in dam safety monitoring and emergency planning is also given.

  18. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.

  19. Research on Dam Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kairong; Wang, Juanni; Zuo, Kui; Yun, Jian

    Dam, not only has great ability to alleviate water shortages especially during the dry season which improve hydropower capacity, but also plays an imporant rule in the river ecosystem. Dam has significant effect in improving our water environment and protecting ecological system.This paper copes with the three-dimensional model of dams and discusses OpenGL modeling, lighting, material, model transformation, perspective transformation technologies to achieve visualization of the dam, and eventually we visualize the dam through concrete examples.

  20. European energy markets deregulation observatory. Winter 2002/2003 period; Observatoire europeen de la liberalisation des marches de l'energie Periode hiver 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-02-01

    Launched in 2002, the European energy markets deregulation observatory (EEMDO/OELME) aims at actualizing the main energy market indicators and at observing the advance of deregulation within the European countries. While for most of these markets, the deregulation of electricity has preceded the deregulation of gas, the natural gas market is at the evidence a key-market in Europe. For this reason, the 4. edition of the observatory (October 2003) takes into consideration for the first time the specific elements of gas markets, in addition to those of electricity markets. This article presents some excerpts of this last edition, published by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young, and synthesizes the present day situation of gas supplies and the conditions of network access by third parties. The informations reported in the EEMDO come from organizations like UCTE, Nordel, Eurelectric or from energy stock exchanges. (J.S.)

  1. Final Design Analysis : Lake Ladora Dam Repair

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to present Rocky Mountain Arsenal with details concerning the remedial repair for Ladora Dam to meet the geotechnical concerns and hydrologic...

  2. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  3. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  4. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  5. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  6. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  7. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  8. Stability and performance of older dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardene, W.; Herbig, A.; Morrison, J. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada); Chan, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2003-07-01

    There are 1300 licensed dams in Alberta. Most were designed and constructed between the late 1940s and the early 1960s. As a rule, compacted earthfill in preglacial and interglacial valleys in southern Alberta was used to construct all dams of moderate height. At these dam sites, the foundations are of valley infill alluvial soils underlain by weak rocks. The best prevailing engineering practices at the time were used to design these dams. It included drilling, soil testing prior to and during construction, and some stability analyses. Despite these measures, a number of the dams built on soft clays suffered significant deformations and cracking of the embankment during construction. A re-examination of the stability of some of the older dams in Alberta, owned by the provincial department of the Environment, was undertaken six years ago using currently accepted design practices. Allowance was made in the new analyses for the presence of shear zones and fissures in the foundation soils, as well as softening caused by wetting. Despite many years of apparently satisfactory service, Factors of Safety that were marginal or deficient were discovered at many dams. The authors presented case histories of three older dams (North and South McGregor, and North Ridge, all located in southern Alberta) for which the long term Factors of Safety were marginal under normal loading. A number of criteria, such as deformation, stress strain curves of foundation materials and the consequence of failure were taken into consideration in assessing and confirming the requirement for repair before any structural modifications were undertaken. Some of the repairs that were carried out were also briefly described. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Walter Bouldin Dam failure and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Walter Bouldin is one of several hydroelectric developments of Alabama Power Company. On February 10, 1975, an earth embankment section of Walter Bouldin Dam was breached, causing total evacuation of the forebay reservoir and rendering the 225-MW power plant inoperable. The Federal Power Commission instituted an investigation of the dam failure, and a report on the investigation was published in February 1976. Subsequently, an evidentiary hearing was held before an administrative law judge who issued his initial decision on August 19, 1976. The Commission, on April 21, 1977, issued its Opinion No. 795 in which it adopted the initial decision with modifications and terminated the investigation of failure of Walter Bouldin Dam. Opinion No. 795 directs the staff of the Bureau of Power to prepare, for the future guidance of the Commission, a report on the deficiencies which were found in its investigation, together with advice as to how such deficiencies have been and should be remedied. Also, it directs the staff of the Bureau of Power to address certain general recommendations included in the initial decision. This report was prepared in response to that directive and summaries information on the dam failure and its investigation; the evidentiary hearing; the judge's recommendations, the reconstruction of the Bouldin Dam; and the evalution and status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dam safety program. (LCL)

  10. Reliability Analysis of High Rockfill Dam Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A program 3DSTAB combining slope stability analysis and reliability analysis is developed and validated. In this program, the limit equilibrium method is utilized to calculate safety factors of critical slip surfaces. The first-order reliability method is used to compute reliability indexes corresponding to critical probabilistic surfaces. When derivatives of the performance function are calculated by finite difference method, the previous iteration’s critical slip surface is saved and used. This sequential approximation strategy notably improves efficiency. Using this program, the stability reliability analyses of concrete faced rockfill dams and earth core rockfill dams with different heights and different slope ratios are performed. The results show that both safety factors and reliability indexes decrease as the dam’s slope increases at a constant height and as the dam’s height increases at a constant slope. They decrease dramatically as the dam height increases from 100 m to 200 m while they decrease slowly once the dam height exceeds 250 m, which deserves attention. Additionally, both safety factors and reliability indexes of the upstream slope of earth core rockfill dams are higher than that of the downstream slope. Thus, the downstream slope stability is the key failure mode for earth core rockfill dams.

  11. OVERVIEW OF DAM GULLY EROSION RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally gully erosion has been identified with the dissection of the landscape in agricultural settings but it is also recognized as a prevalent erosion feature in earthen dam auxiliary spillways and embankments. Flows through earthen spillways and over dam embankments, due to large rainfall events, have the potential to erode and breach the dam or spillway and result in catastrophic releases from the reservoir. The gully erosion process in an earthen spillway or on an embankment can be characterized by stages of initiation, development, and migration of a headcut. A headcut is defined as a near vertical drop at the upstream end of a gully. The rate of headcut migration is important in determining the breach potential of an earthen spillway and dam embankment. A research program is being conducted to examine the gully erosion processes of earthen dam auxiliary spillways and embankments. This paper describes: 1) the unique test facilities constructed to examine the dominant factors affecting the erosion of earthen spillways and embankments; 2) the observations of the erosion processes and results to date; and 3) the predictive relationships that have been developed for dam gully erosion research at the ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit laboratory in Stillwater, OK.

  12. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  13. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Use and application of inflatable dam seals in large concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickes, G. [Structural Preservation Systems Inc., Hanover, MD (United States)

    2001-10-01

    The successful installation of inflatable dam seals has been accomplished at several large concrete dams in the United States. This accomplishment was recently realized for the first time in Canada. The minimization of water intrusion caused by failed water stops in monolithic dams by a small diameter inflatable seal is one of the many uses for the device. Many problems encountered at large concrete dams are related to stress control of alkali-aggregate or alkali silica reaction (AAR, ASR), and the inflatable dam seal fits in as part of this control system. Many of the problems with concrete dams are due to AAR which causes concrete to expand, resulting in cracking of concrete and misalignment of equipment as two of the most important issues. A transverse vertical saw cut through the upper section of the concrete structure was one of the methods used to alleviate the stresses brought about by AAR. This method has been used on a number of occasions in both Canada and the United States. Once the saw cut is complete, from the upstream face to the downstream face, controlling the water flow in the kerf (13-19 millimeter) presents a major challenge. Successfully sealing failed water stops and saw cuts was accomplished by installing inflatable dam seals with vertical heights in excess of 38 meters. A specific seal must be designed in each case. Several elements of the composite construction seal meet the engineering requirements set forth by Dam Safety Officials and Engineers and Owners. Some case histories were presented, namely the Harry S. Truman Dam in Missouri, the Tennessee Valley Authority at several sites, the Hiwassee Dam in North Carolina, the Fontana Dam in Tennessee, and the Mactaquac Generating Station in New Brunswick. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Game model of safety monitoring for arch dam deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Arch dam deformation is comprehensively affected by water pressure,temperature,dam’s structural behavior and material properties as well as other factors.Among them the water pressure and temperature are external factors(source factors) that cause dam deformation,and dam’s structural behavior and material properties are the internal factors of deformation(resistance factors).The dam deformation is the result of the mutual game playing between source factors and resistance factors.Therefore,resistance factors of structure and materials that reflect resistance character of arch dam structure are introduced into the traditional model,where structure factor is embodied by the flexibility coefficient of dam body and the maximum dam height,and material property is embodied by the elastic modulus of dam.On the basis of analyzing the correlation between dam deformation and resistance factors,the game model of safety monitoring for arch dam deformation is put forward.

  16. The interplay of activists and dam developers : the case of Myanmar’s mega-dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; J. Charles, Katrina; Walton, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars investigating activism against large dam developments in Asia usually focus on those campaigning, but not on those the campaigns are aimed at–the dam developers. Yet the developers’ perspective is crucial to comprehensively understand the dynamics of social and environmental activism in

  17. Challenges of high dam construction to computational mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuhan

    2007-01-01

    The current situations and growing prospects of China's hydro-power development and high dam construction are reviewed,giving emphasis to key issues for safety evaluation of large dams and hydro-power plants,especially those associated with application of state-of-the-art computational mechanics.These include but are not limited to:stress and stability analysis of dam foundations under external loads;earthquake behavior of dam-foundation-reservoir systems,mechanical properties of mass concrete for dams,high velocity flow and energy dissipation for high dams,scientific and technical problems of hydro-power plants and underground structures,and newly developed types of dam-Roll Compacted Concrete (RCC) dams and Concrete Face Rock-fill (CFR)dams.Some examples demonstrating successful utilizations of computational mechanics in high dam engineering are given,including seismic nonlinear analysis for arch dam foundations,nonlinear fracture analysis of arch dams under reservoir loads,and failure analysis of arch dam-foundations.To make more use of the computational mechanics in high dam engineering,it is pointed out that much research including different computational methods,numerical models and solution schemes,and verifications through experimental tests and filed measurements is necessary in the future.

  18. Design and construction of Nemiscau-1 Dam, the first asphalt core rockfill dam in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicescu, V.; Tournier, J.P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Vannobel, P. [Societe d' Energie de la Baie James, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The concept of asphalt as a waterproofing medium inside embankment dams was originally developed in Germany in the 1960s. More than 100 asphalt core rockfill (ACRD) dams have been completed or are under construction. They all have a strong record without any seepage problems or required maintenance. After using the glacial till as waterproofing material for its embankment dams for more than 50 years, Hydro-Quebec is now looking to develop new dam concepts, mainly for the zones where natural waterproofing materials do not exist. In order to do so, the company has decided to design and construct the Nemiscau-1 Dam as a prototype ACRD. This paper presented the detailed design criteria, technical specifications as well as some information concerning the construction of the dam such as asphalt mix design. The given dam site, geology and materials is well suited for a dam with an asphalt core and the chosen core thickness of minimum 400 mm was found to be appropriate, given the small net water head. The main reservoir levels as well as the characteristics of the dam were also listed. Information on the general construction of the dam was provided. It was concluded that the longitudinal profile of the rock excavation and concrete plinth must be optimized, with an optimum balance between the rock excavation, the volume and shape of the concrete plinth and finally, the placement of the asphalt core with the manual method. Several combinations of these 3 elements must be analyzed at the design stage and the most cost effective one should be applied on site. 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FAILURE OF CASCADE LANDSLIDE DAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhi-pan; XU Wei-lin; LI Nai-wen; XUE Yang; CHEN Hua-yong

    2012-01-01

    This paper preseuts results of model tests for the landslide dam failure of a single dam and cascade dams in a sloping channel.The dams were designed to be regular trapezoid with fine sand.A new measuring method named the labeled line locating method was used to digitalize the captured instantaneous pictures.Under two differem inflow discharges,the morphological evolution and the flow patterns during one dam failure and the failure of cascade dams were investigated.The results indicate that when the inflow discharge is large,the deformation pattern of the downstream dam is similar to that of the upstream dam,and both dams are characterized with the overtopping scour throughout the dam failure process.When the inflow discharge is small,the upstream dam is scoured mainly through a sluice slot formed by the longitudinal incision,and the downstream dam is characterized with the overtopping scour.The data set presented in this paper can be used for the validation of numerical models and provide a reference for the flood risk management of cascade landslide dams.

  20. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H

    2003-04-01

    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  1. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  2. Re-grouting of Maroon Dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Maroon dam, built on the Maroon River in the Khoozestan province (southwest) of Iran, has a height of 176 metres and a 1.2 billion cubic metre reservoir. It is one of the largest embankment dams in Iran. A number of unpredicted inflows of water into tunnels and other underground openings occurred during the first impoundment of the Maroon dam. Impoundment was halted and the reservoir was emptied to correct the problem. This paper reviews the measures that were implemented during the remediation process, and presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. The foundation treatment involved placing concrete in the caverns, constructing a concrete lining, and extending the grout curtain. The grouting procedure was also described. The overall effectiveness of the concrete work and grouting resulted in a reduction in leakage from 8.5 cubic metres per second to a more acceptable 10 litres per second. 8 figs.

  3. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  4. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  5. Study on dynamic anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-hong CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There existed some limitations when analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation system by traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method. The dynamic strength reduction method was used to study on the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation under strong earthquake-induced ground action. The static analysis was firstly carried out by reducing the shear strength parameters of the dam foundation’s rock mass with equal proportion. Then, the time-history seismic analysis was carried out based on the static analysis. It was proposed as one of dynamic instability criterions that the peak values of the dynamic displacements and plastic strain energy change suddenly with increasing strength reduction coefficient. The elasto-plastic behavior of the dam foundation was idealized using Drucker–Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Through the static, dynamic strength reduction analysis and dynamic linear elastic analysis of the overflow dam monolith of a high gravity dam, the results’ reliability of elastic-plastic time history analysis was confirmed. The results also showed that the rock mass strength of the high gravity dam foundation has higher strength reserve coefficient. The instability criterions of dynamic strength reduction method proposed were feasible. Although the static anti-slide analysis methods and standards of gravity dam based on the numerical methods are being discussed at present, the dynamic calculation method and instability criterions proposed in this paper would provide some meaningful suggestions for the dynamic analysis of the similar projects.

  6. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  7. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks. ... The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water levels at Kainji Dam, which supplies water to Nigeria's largest ... Article Metrics.

  8. Inventory of Dams in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Permitted dams in Iowa and associated attributes, as recorded by the Floodplain Section of the DNR. The dams regulated are those with the parameters listed below: a....

  9. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  10. Research review of the cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam is a new style of dam that owes the advantages both of the concrete faced rock-fill dam (CRFD) and roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dam,because of which it has attracted much attention of experts home and abroad.At present,some researches on physic-mechanical property of CSG material and work behavior of CSG dam have been done.This paper introduces the development and characteristics of CSG dam systematically,and summarizes the progress of the study on basic tests,constitutive relation of CSG material and numerical analysis of CSG dam,in addition,indicates research and application aspect of the dam.

  11. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  12. Harvesting river water through small dams promote positive environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chaudhary, Sunita; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Hsu, Minna J

    2016-11-01

    While deliberations relating to negative consequences of large dams on the environment continue to dominate world attention, positive benefits provided by small dams, also known as check dams, go unobserved. Besides, little is known about the potential of check dams in mitigating global warming impacts due to less data availability. Small dams are usually commissioned to private contractors who do not have clear mandate from their employers to post their work online for public scrutiny. As a result, statistics on the design, cost, and materials used to build check dams are not available in public domain. However, this review paper presents data for the first time on the often ignored potential of check dams mitigating climate-induced hydrological threats. We hope that the scientific analysis presented in this paper will promote further research on check dams worldwide to better comprehend their eco-friendly significance serving society.

  13. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  14. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jason [Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, WI (United States); Meyers, Amy [Kiser Hydro, LLC, Norway, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  15. Research on Dam Perspective Based on Numerical Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZi-ru; ZHOUHui-cheng; LIMing-qiu

    2005-01-01

    The numerical solution of dam toe line is solved based on the dam data and topographic map of dam located. The display of dam perspective is also realized by programming of using VC++ and OpenGL. The research results above provide the foundation of construction design, construction lofting and information inquiry, which avoids the drawbacks of only using blueprints to do the same work in the past. The method used is useful in practical engineering.

  16. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  17. Major dams of the United States, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2006) [dams00x020_USGS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  18. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River...

  19. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  1. SEISMIC RESPONSE OF DAM WITH SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycroft, G.N.; Mork, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical solution to the response of a long trapezoidal-section dam on a foundation consisting of an elastic half-space and subjected to simulated earthquake motion is developed. An optimum seismic design is achieved when the cross section of the dam is triangular. The effect of soil structure interaction is to lower the strain occurring in the dam.

  2. The expected collapse of a large dam Saddam Dam in Iraq; Un grand barrage a haut risque Saddam Dam en Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesny, M. [Conseil general du genie rural, des eaux et des forets, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Saddam dam is a very large dam in Iraq on the Tigris River, 80 kilometres upstream from the city of Mosul. It is a fill dam with a clayey silt core. The height of the dam is 120 meters and the capacity of the reservoir is 11 billions m3. But this dam has been built on foundations of gypsum that is a rock soluble in water. The impounding of the reservoir in 1986 has shown that, in spite of the grout curtain, substantial seepage has occurred (up to 1.4 m{sup 3}/s), as well as the dissolution of minerals from foundations (up to 80 tons per day). The substantial increase in permeability and seepage through the dam foundations results in a severe concern about the stability of the dam. The program of injection has been stopped in 1991, due to the circumstances. So there is a real risk that this dam would collapse through a quickly developing leak in the dike, resulting in the devastation of the rich agricultural valley of the Tigris River and in potential human losses at Mosul. A 10 to 20-meter high submersion wave would reach this town 3 to 4 hours after the collapse of the dam. An international action is urgently required to check the conditions of the dam and to propose remedial solutions, which may be a 120-meter deep concrete wall down to the calcareous floor existing below the soluble layers of the foundations. (author)

  3. Dams life. Dams in operation; La vie des barrages. Barrages en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  4. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  5. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... result from encountering unanticipated or unusual conditions during construction. (5) The independent review of construction shall include: (i) Foundation preparation and treatment. When the foundation has... construction. The reviewer must have demonstrated experience in the design and construction of dams of...

  6. Aquifer performance under the Mactaquac Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, A.H. [Acres International, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Harriman, F.B. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    The highest dam in the whole of the Maritimes and New Brunswick in particular is the Mactaquac Dam, with a height of 58 m above the foundation. It forms an integral part of the Mactaquac Hydroelectric Development and the construction of the dam was completed in 1967. Composed of a central core of clay till and external shells of rockfill, it is a zoned embankment. The high artesian pressure rising 6 m above the Saint John River dominates, and the foundation under the dam is composed of a stratum of stiff glacial till underlain with a thick, water bearing aquifer. The aquifer needed to be depressurized during the construction phase and in the long term, and special measures were required to accomplish this. Measurements obtained over a period exceeding 30 years were used to describe the performance of the aquifer, which is discussed in this presentation. A continuous reduction in the yield from the six permanent relief wells in the aquifer was indicated by the instrumentation data. The outflow from the wells diminished by two-thirds over the thirty-four years since first filling the reservoir. The piezometric pressure in the aquifer remained constant over the same period. The sparse results of a two-hour pump test had formed the basis for the design decision not to install a costly foundation seepage cut-off to bedrock, as the conclusions drawn from the pump test were that the aquifer was hydrogeologically confined. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Increasing dam safety with multi beam sonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, M. [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Cederstrom, M.O. [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Deborg, J. [SwedPower AB, Alvkarleby (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Multi-beam sonar technology has been introduced to Vattenfall's dam safety program. Vattenfall is the major energy producer in Sweden and the third largest utility in Europe. Embankment dams are subject to processes such as erosion, settlement and sinkholes. The new portable multi-beam echo sounder system is an important tool to detect minor damages and to intervene before they evolve into expensive or hazardous situations. A first survey of the upstream slope of a rockfill dam with this method provides a topographic map indicating the location of anomalies such as internal erosion or piping. Multi-beam sonar works by combining GPS-RTK positioning, gyro motion sensing, a multi-beam sonar and 3-dimensional digital terrain programs. Vattenfall is using the system to verify and monitor all high hazard rockfill dams in Sweden to ensure long-term stability. The data will be stored as a fingerprint for comparison with future surveys in 15 to 20 years as part of routine safety evaluation. This new technology can also be used to survey breakwaters, erosion of rivers and to locate submerged debris in harbours. 6 figs.

  8. A Final Test for the Big Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The water level at the Three Gorges Dam,the world's largest water control and utilization project,reached its designed highest mark on October 26,which will enable the project to fulfill its functions of flood control,power generation,navigation and water diversion.

  9. Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

  10. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  11. Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C

    2014-11-01

    Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.

  12. Modelling approach for gravity dam break analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussekine Mourad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can provide considerable benefits such as the supply of drinking and irrigation water; however the consequences which would result in the event of their failure could be catastrophic. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk.

  13. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, M.D. [Tonkin and Taylor International Ltd., Auckland, (New Zealand)

    1999-07-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs.

  15. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

    1998-05-01

    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  16. River restoration by dam removal: Enhancing connectivity at watershed scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Magilligan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prolonged history of industrialization, flood control, and hydropower production has led to the construction of 80,000 dams across the U.S. generating significant hydrologic, ecological, and social adjustments. With the increased ecological attention on re-establishing riverine connectivity, dam removal is becoming an important part of large-scale river restoration nationally, especially in New England, due to its early European settlement and history of waterpower-based industry. To capture the broader dimensions of dam removal, we constructed a GIS database of all inventoried dams in New England irrespective of size and reservoir volume to document the magnitude of fragmentation. We compared the characteristics of these existing dams to the attributes of all removed dams over the last ∼25 years. Our results reveal that the National Inventory of Dams significantly underestimates the actual number of dams (4,000 compared to >14,000. To combat the effects of these ecological barriers, dam removal in New England has been robust with 127 dams having been removed between ca. 1990–2013. These removed dams range in size, with the largest number (30% ranging between 2–4 m high, but 22% of the removed dams were between 4–6 m. They are not isolated to small drainage basins: most drained watersheds between 100–1,000 km2. Regionally, dam removal has re-connected ∼3% (3,770 river km of the regional river network although primarily through a few select dams where abundant barrier-free river lengths occur, suggesting that a more strategic removal approach has the opportunity to enhance the magnitude and rate of river re-connection. Given the regional-scale restoration of forest cover and water quality over the past century, dam removal offers a significant opportunity to capitalize on these efforts, providing watershed scale restoration and enhancing watershed resilience in the face of significant regional and global anthropogenic

  17. RESEARCH ON SEEPAGE MONITORING MODEL OF EARTH-ROCK DAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the characteristics of seepage flow in earth-rock dams, a seepage monitoring model was established based on the finite element method for 3-D seepage flow together with observed data and was used to analyze and monitor the seepage of dams. In order to find out and monitor the seepage status of the whole dam, the separation of seepage amount for dam body, dam foundation and side banks was made theoretically by using the model. Practical example shows that the accuracy of computed results is satisfactory and the separation results are more objective.

  18. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  19. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun XIONG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  20. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  1. Gabcikovo dam and Liptovska Mara dam - statistical analysis of measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakac, J.; Sabo, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Water level in the observation wells is measured regularly and one of the reasons is evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. In this paper we are exploring the reliability of the measuring devices that are responsible for evaluation of the safety of the two largest and the most important dams in Slovakia. We test ability of selected statistical methods to detect early inaccuracies of measuring devices and thus improve the evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. As a follow-up study, we used the time series model (Neural network) to predict water levels in the observation wells that were considered to be without defects. Neural Network is also able to show dynamics of the filtration stability of the observational well. Methods: On the Liptovska Mara dam weekly data was used as a monitoring tool. On the Gabcikovo dam five minute time series of the measurements of the water level in observation wells around the right lock chamber were used. Data from the measuring devices of the dams were explored with boxplots, correlations, neural network, etc. The mentioned statistical tools analyze time series and detect the errors that measuring devices make when generating data and can be used to predict errors even in real time. In the second step, agreement between predicted data from neural network and measured data in the real time was evaluated. We used grid search for finding the optimal number of neurons and then predicted errors by using this model. The ability of the neural network in evaluation of the sealing of the dilatation joints on the filtration stability in the years 2009 - 2011 is presented. Results: From the 18 selected measuring devices on the Liptovska Mara dam there are only 3 devices which can be considered as reliable. On the Gabcikovo dam, 8 of 9 measuring devices (observation wells around right lock chamber) were considered as a reliable. There was very good agreement between the predicted and measured data at the

  2. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was collected with a PLGR government-issue GPS, and through manual measurement in the field. Points were gathered while canoeing along the North Fork...

  3. Contrôle des Circuits Auxiliaires des PFW (arrêt machines 2002/2003)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2003-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d aimant et constituées d un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brasés sur les enroulements). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, boucles ouvertes ou en court-circuit, déf...

  4. Reconstruyendo redes, repensando espacios: experiencias migrantes de argentinos en Madrid (2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los proyectos migratorios implican importantes cambios en la articulación de los espacios sociales. No sólo porque las redes se amplían a nuevos contactos y amistades en el lugar de radicación sino también porque las antiguas relaciones con quienes se quedan en el lugar de procedencia entran en un proceso de transformación. En esta contribución utilizamos la historia oral para acercarnos a las experiencias de un grupo de argentinos que vino a establecerse a Madrid a raíz de la crisis de 2001. Indagamos en la reconstrucción de sus redes sociales en destino y en la manera en que comienzan a repensar sus vínculos con Argentina.___________________ABSTRACT:The migratory projects carry important changes in the articulation of the social spaces. Not only because the networks widen to include new contacts and friendships, also because the old relations in the origin country begin a transformation process. This paper uses the oral history to examine the experiences of a group of Argentines settled in Madrid as a result of the crisis of 2001. It investigates the reconstruction of their social networks in destination and how they rethink their links to Argentina.

  5. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  6. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

  7. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  8. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  9. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Digital Elevation Model (NAVD88)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  11. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project : Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring and Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  12. Encuesta nacional sobre emigración internacional de guatemaltecos 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, Víctor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la Encuesta nacional de hogares para medir la emigración internacional de guatemaltecos de la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM, la cual interrelaciona a todos los elementos que intervienen y explican las causas y las consecuencias del fenómeno migratorio en Guatemala. El tema central de la investigación se refiere a la cuantificación de los flujos migratorios, en términos de volumen de estos flujos, identificación del lugar de origen de los migrantes y el lugar de destino en el extranjero, sus características socioeconómicas, con especial énfasis en el empleo que tenían antes de migrar y su inserción en el mercado laboral externo. El estudio empieza con la presentación de un perfil sociodemográfico de los hogares que tienen familiares en el extranjero. Un hallazgo importante en este ámbito, es que se rompe el paradigma que siempre se ha sostenido: que los hogares expulsores de migrantes son los que generalmente se encuentran en estado de pobreza. O que son los más pobres de los pobres los que emigran. El presente estudio demuestra lo contrario. De acuerdo con el análisis, afirma que la magnitud de las remesas anuales estimadas para el año 2003, representan el 8 % del Producto interno bruto -PIB-. Su importancia económica para el país en comparación con los ingresos de divisas por exportaciones, según los volúmenes reportados por el Banco de Guatemala, es innegable. El volumen de las remesas representa 86% del ingreso de divisas por concepto de todas las exportaciones FOB del país. Concluye que la información de la Encuesta nacional representará sin duda una valiosa herramienta para la gestión migratoria principalmente por ser un país emisor, así como de tránsito y destino de migrantes internacionales. Además es un instrumento que le permitirá dar respuesta a las exigencias de información en el ámbito nacional e internacional.

  13. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  14. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2004-02-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of June 2002-September 2003. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2002 and 2003 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. In 2002, 27 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored until they nested. Four more females carrying old transmitters were also monitored; only one of these transmitters lasted through the nesting season. In 2003, 30 females were monitored. Twenty-three of the females monitored in 2002 nested and produced 84 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in fall 2002 and reared in captivity at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in the head-start program. Twenty-seven of the turtles monitored in 2003 nested. Six of the turtles nested twice, producing a total of 33 nests. The nests will be checked in September and October 2003 for hatchlings. Of 121 head-started juvenile western pond turtles collected in the Columbia Gorge during the 2001 nesting season, 119 were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2002, and 2 held over for additional growth. Of 86 turtles reared in the head-start program at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos fall 2002 through summer 2003, 67 were released at sites in the Columbia Gorge in summer of 2003, and 15 held over for more growth. Fifty-nine juveniles were released at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge in July 2002, and 51 released there in July 2003. Sixteen of those released in 2002 and 16 released in 2003 were instrumented with radio transmitters and monitored for varying amounts of time for survival and habitat use between the time of release and August 2003, together with juveniles from the 2001 release which were monitored from June 2001 through August 2003, and juveniles from the 2000 release which were monitored from August 2000 through August 2003. The number of functioning transmitters varied due to transmitter failures and detachments, and availability of replacement transmitters, as well as opportunities to recapture turtles. By August 15, 2003, a total of 39 turtles were being monitored: 6 from the 2000 release, 8 from the 2001 release, 10 from the 2002 release, and 15 from the 2003 release. During the 2002 field season trapping effort, 280 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 236 previously head-started turtles. During the 2003 trapping season, 349 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge; 304 of these had been head-started. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual re-sightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 160 individual painted turtles captured in 2002 and 189 painted turtles captured in 2003 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Eight female painted turtles were monitored by telemetry during the 2002 nesting season; 4 nests were recorded for these animals, plus 35 nests located incidentally. Preferred habitat for nesting was identified based on the telemetry results, to be considered in anticipating future turtle habitat needs and in management planning at Pierce NWR. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding supported activities in the Columbia River Gorge from June 2002 through September 2003.

  15. Keck Observations of the 2002-2003 Jovian Ring Plane Crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pater, I; Showalter, M R; Macintosh, B A

    2007-11-29

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 {micro}m obtained with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a {approx} 5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8 x 10{sup -6}, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a {approx}> 5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, {tau} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -6}, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining {tau} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} to grains tens to hundreds of {micro}m in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized (a {approx}< 10 {micro}m) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r = 122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over {approx} 5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7}, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  16. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management efforts to increase rainbow trout recruitment. North and South Callahan creeks support the largest spawning population of bull trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Idaho, so management of the watershed should consider bull trout as high priority.

  17. Health care provider knowledge and practices regarding folic acid, United States, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Abelman, Stephen M; Fassett, Elizabeth M; Stone, Cheryl E; Petrini, Joann R; Damus, Karla; Mulinare, Joseph

    2006-09-01

    To assess health care providers (HCP) knowledge and practices regarding folic acid (FA) use for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. Two identical surveys were conducted among 611 obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) and family/general physicians (FAM/GENs) (2002), and 500 physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and registered nurses (2003) to ascertain knowledge and practices regarding FA. For analysis, T-tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used. Universally, providers knew that FA prevents birth defects. Over 88% knew when a woman should start taking folic acid for the prevention of NTDs; and over 85% knew FA supplementation beyond what is available in the diet is necessary. However, only half knew that 50% of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Women heard information about multivitamins or FA most often during well woman visits in obstetrical/gynecology (ob/gyn) practice settings (65%), and about 50% of the time during well woman visits in family/general (fam/gen) practice settings and 50% of the time at gynecology visits (both settings). Among all providers, 42% did not know the correct FA dosage (400 mug daily). HCPs taking multivitamins were more than twice as likely to recommend multivitamins to their patients (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.27 95%, Confidence Interval [CI] 1.75-2.94). HCPs with lower income clients (OR 1.49, CI 1.22-1.81) and HCPs with practices having more than 10% minorities (OR 1.46, CI 1.11-1.92) were more likely to recommend supplements. NPs in ob/gyn settings were most likely and FAM/GENs were least likely to recommend supplements (OR 3.06, CL 1.36-6.90 and OR 0.64, CL 0.45-0.90 respectively). Knowledge about birth defects and the necessity of supplemental FA was high. Increasing knowledge about unintended pregnancy rates and correct dosages of FA is needed. The strongest predictor for recommending the use of FA supplements was whether the provider took a multivitamin.

  18. Vortex-averaged Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total ozone depletion of 68±7 Dobson units between 380 and 525K from 10 December 2002 to 10 March 2003 is derived from ozone sonde data by the vortex-average method, taking into account both diabatic descent of the air masses and transport of air into the vortex. When the vortex is divided into three equal-area regions, the results are 85±9DU for the collar region (closest to the edge, 52±5DU for the vortex centre and 68±7DU for the middle region in between centre and collar. Our results compare well with other studies: We find good agreement with ozone loss deduced from SAOZ data, with results inferred from POAM III observations and with results from tracer-tracer correlations using HF as the long-lived tracer. We find a higher ozone loss than that deduced by tracer-tracer correlations using CH4. We have made a careful comparison with Match results: The results were recalculated using a common time period, vortex edge definition and height interval. The two methods generally compare very well, except at the 475K level which exhibits an unexplained discrepancy.

  19. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. ゴシック文学研究書誌 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    金崎, 茂樹; カナサキ, シゲキ; Shigeki, KANASAKI

    2014-01-01

    This is a follow-up to my previous paper, titled "Selected Bibliography of Criticism on Gothic Literature since 2000: Annotation and Commentary," the main aim of which was to select some of the remarkable criticism of the Gothic since 2000, to provide additional commentary, and to show the academic trend in this genre. In this paper the following three books are selected and annotated: Dani Cavallaro's The Gothic Vision: Three Centuries of Horror, Terror and Fear (2002), Avril Horner's Europe...

  1. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Radar Reflectance Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  2. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herrán

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA, las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Mediante regresión lineal y binomial se establecieron las variables relacionadas con el CA y RA. Resultados: El CA (g semanal fue de 83.5 IC (77.6, 89.3, ajustado por edad, escolaridad e índice de masa corporal (IMC de 108.7 IC (100.1, 117.3 para hombres y de 55.5 IC (53.4, 57.6 para mujeres, (p Conclusiones: Las estimaciones del consumo usual de alcohol sirven para establecer equivalencias en futuros estudios. La prevalencia de uso y de abuso aumentó en la última década. Por la frecuencia de consumo y la cantidad consumida, el alcohol se considera como un tóxico en esta población. Son necesarias investigaciones con nuevos métodos para comprender el CA y el RA.

  3. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herrán

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA, las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Mediante regresión lineal y binomial se establecieron las variables relacionadas con el CA y RA. Resultados: El CA (g semanal fue de 83.5 IC (77.6, 89.3, ajustado por edad, escolaridad e índice de masa corporal (IMC de 108.7 IC (100.1, 117.3 para hombres y de 55.5 IC (53.4, 57.6 para mujeres, (p<0.001. Según CAGE, 14.8% IC (8.0, 21.6 de la población, 22.6% IC (11.3, 34.0 de los hombres y 7.3% IC (2.9, 14.2 de las mujeres se clasifican en riesgo alto de alcoholismo (p<0.001. La ingesta de energía asociada con el CA por ocasión es de 778.2 kilocalorías IC (717.5, 838.9. No se encontró relación entre el CA y el IMC. El sexo se relacionó con el CA (p<0.001. Ninguna variable biológica, sociodemográfica o dietaria se relacionó con el RA. Conclusiones: Las estimaciones del consumo usual de alcohol sirven para establecer equivalencias en futuros estudios. La prevalencia de uso y de abuso aumentó en la última década. Por la frecuencia de consumo y la cantidad consumida, el alcohol se considera como un tóxico en esta población. Son necesarias investigaciones con nuevos métodos para comprender el CA y el RA.

  4. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  5. Trade policies and food security: Essays from IFPRI's 2002-2003 Annual Report

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Kevin; von Braun, Joachim; Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Gulati, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Globalization could and should benefit developing countries. But unlike a rising tide that lifts all boats, large and small, globalization is unequal. It has fallen far short of its much-ballyhooed potential to help the world's poorest people out of poverty. Instead, a combination of policies in both rich and poor countries creates conditions for the rich to prosper and many of the poor to fall more deeply into destitution. Agricultural protectionism in rich countries enables them to skew mar...

  6. Identification of Outpatient Urinary Pathogens and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern in Ahwaz, Iran 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed Saraj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common syndrom in community, especially in females. The object of this study is to determine the prevalence of most common Bacteria causing UTI and Antibiogram pattern respectively in Ahwas population. Materials & methods: In this retrospective descriptive study we gathered all urine culture results from lab centers. Results: From 48850 cases, 34360 (70.34% and 14490 (29.66% were females and males, respectively. The most frequent pathogens were E.coli (46.29%, S.saprophyticus (25.8% and Klebsiella (16.93%. Enterobacter, Proteus citrobacter, Pseudomonas and S.epidermidis were consisted the remainder of causes. The most Susceptible Antibiotics for the most prevalent pathogens, were: Nalidixic Acid, Vancomycine, and Nitrofurantoin, respectively. Conclusion: This pattern is similar to that mentioned in textbooks and published reports from other cities in Iran.

  7. Encuesta nacional sobre emigración internacional de guatemaltecos 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares para medir la emigración internacional de guatemaltecos de la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM, la cual interrelaciona a todos los elementos que intervienen y explican las causas y las consecuencias del fenómeno migratorio en Guatemala. El tema central de la investigación se refiere a la cuantificación de los flujos migratorios, en términos de volumen de estos flujos, identificación del lugar de origen de los migrantes y el lugar de destino en el extranjero, sus características socioeconómicas, con especial énfasis en el empleo que tenían antes de migrar y su inserción en el mercado laboral externo. El estudio empieza con la presentación de un perfil sociodemográfico de los hogares que tienen familiares en el extranjero. Un hallazgo importante en este ámbito, es que se rompe el paradigma que siempre se ha sostenido: que los hogares expulsores de migrantes son los que generalmente se encuentran en estado de pobreza. O que son los más pobres de los pobres los que emigran. El presente estudio demuestra lo contrario. De acuerdo con el análisis, afirma que la magnitud de las remesas anuales estimadas para el año 2003, representan el 8 % del Producto interno bruto -PIB-. Su importancia económica para el país en comparación con los ingresos de divisas por exportaciones, según los volúmenes reportados por el Banco de Guatemala, es innegable. El volumen de las remesas representa 86% del ingreso de divisas por concepto de todas las exportaciones FOB del país. Concluye que la información de la Encuesta nacional representará sin duda una valiosa herramienta para la gestión migratoria principalmente por ser un país emisor, así como de tránsito y destino de migrantes internacionales. Además es un instrumento que le permitirá dar respuesta a las exigencias de información en el ámbito nacional e internacional.

  8. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2002-2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    . After ascertaining the distribution of objects, positions were taken by Global Positioning System (GPS). This survey marks systematic approach for exploration of shipwrecks in shallow as well as deep waters off Goa....

  9. The Conceptualisation of the European Union in Polish Public Discourse, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbierska-Sawala, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Based on recent theoretical insights into the conceptual role of metaphors, this paper investigates figurative discourse in the current conceptualisation of the European Union (EU) in Polish. The metaphorical expressions found in the data present a cline of conventionality, and many of them display processes analysed by Lakoff and Turner (1989),…

  10. Formation of solid particles in synoptic-scale Arctic PSCs in early winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larsen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC have been observed in early winter (December 2002 during the SOLVE II/Vintresol campaign, both from balloons carrying comprehensive instrumentation for measurements of chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties of the particles, as well as from individual backscatter soundings from Esrange and Sodankylä. The observations are unique in the sense that the PSC particles seem to have formed in the early winter under synoptic temperature conditions and not being influenced by mountain lee waves. A sequence of measurements during a 5-days period shows a gradual change between liquid and solid type PSCs with the development of a well-known sandwich structure. It appears that all PSC observations show the presence of a background population of solid particles, occasionally mixed in with more dominating liquid particles. The measurements have been compared with results from a detailed microphysical and optical simulation of the formation processes. Calculated extinction(indices are in good agreement with SAGE-III measurements from the same period. Apparently the solid particles are controlled by the synoptic temperature history while the presence of liquid particles is controlled by the local temperatures at the time of observation. The temperature histories indicate that the solid particles are nucleated above the ice frost point, and a surface freezing mechanism for this is included in the model. Reducing the calculated freezing rates by a factor 10–20, the model is able to simulate the observed particle size distributions and reproduce observed HNO3 gas phase concentrations.

  11. Formation of solid particles in synoptic-scale Arctic PSCs in early winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC have been observed in early winter (December 2002 during the SOLVE II/Vintersol campaign, both from balloons carrying comprehensive instrumentation for measurements of chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties of the particles, as well as from individual backscatter soundings from Esrange and Sodankylä. The observations are unique in the sense that the PSC particles seem to have formed in the early winter under synoptic temperature conditions and not being influenced by mountain lee waves. A sequence of measurements during a 5-days period shows a gradual change between liquid and solid type PSCs with the development of a well-known sandwich structure. It appears that all PSC observations show the presence of a background population of solid particles, occasionally mixed in with more optically dominating liquid particles. The measurements have been compared with results from a detailed microphysical and optical simulation of the formation processes. Calculated extinctions are in good agreement with SAGE-III measurements from the same period. Apparently the solid particles are controlled by the synoptic temperature history while the presence of liquid particles is controlled by the local temperatures at the time of observation. The temperature histories indicate that the solid particles are nucleated above the ice frost point, and a surface freezing mechanism for this is included in the model. Reducing the calculated freezing rates by a factor 10-20, the model is able to simulate the observed particle size distributions and reproduce observed HNO3 gas phase concentrations.

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream and 22.9 acres of habitat; (2) Conducting instream work activities in 3 streams to enhance habitat and/or restore natural channel dimensions, patterns or profiles; (3) Planting 31,733 plants along 3.7 stream miles, (4) Establishing 71 new photopoints and retaking 254 existing photopoint pictures; (5) Monitoring stream temperatures at 12 locations on 6 streams; (6) Completing riparian fence, water gap and other maintenance on 100.5 miles of project fences. Since initiation of the project in 1984 over 68.7 miles of anadromous fish bearing streams and 1,933 acres of habitat have been protected, enhanced and maintained.

  13. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Fernando Herrán; María Fernanda Ardila

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA), las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA) según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Med...

  14. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Klickitat Only Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Melvin; Evenson, Rolf

    2003-12-01

    The monitoring and evaluation activities described in this report were determined by consensus of the scientists from the Yakama Nation (YN). Klickitat Subbasin Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities have been subjected to scientific and technical review by members of YKFP's Science/Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) as part of the YKFP's overall M&E proposal. Yakama Nation YKFP project biologists have transformed the conceptual design into the tasks described. This report summarizes progress and results for the following major categories of YN-managed tasks under this contract: (1) Monitoring and Evaluation - Accurately characterize baseline available habitat and salmonid populations pre-habitat restoration and pre-supplementation. (2) EDT Modeling - Identify and evaluate habitat and artificial production enhancement options. (3) Genetics - Characterize the genetic profile of wild steelhead in the Klickitat Basin. (4) Ecological Interactions - Determine the presence of pathogens in wild and naturally produced salmonids in the Klickitat Basin and develop supplementation strategies using this information.

  15. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Rotterdam 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MG van; Beuker RJ; Brito O de; Goetz H; Koster M de; Al Taqatqa W; Zwart O de; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2005-01-01

    Er bestaat een potentieel risico op verspreiding van HIV en SOA vanuit hoog-risicogroepen naar de rest van de bevolking in Nederland. Dit blijkt uit de eerste HIV-survey die is uitgevoerd in Rotterdam. Hierbij is gevonden dat de HIV-prevalentie onder prostituees 7% is, onder injecterende druggeb

  16. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Rotterdam 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MG van; Beuker RJ; Brito O de; Goetz H; Koster M de; Al Taqatqa W; Zwart O de; Laar MJW van de; GGD Rotterdam e.o.; CIE

    2005-01-01

    There is a potential risk for further spread of HIV and STI from high risk groups into the general population in the Netherlands. These are the main conclusions of the first HIV survey among high risk groups in Rotterdam. Among commercial sex workers (CSW) the HIV prevalence is 7%, 10% among injecti

  17. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  18. Income and Employment in the United States, 2002-2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 2002 and 2003 per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part-time jobs, average wage per job in dollars, population, and per...

  19. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  20. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Affanni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  1. Damned If You Do, Dammed If You Don't: Debates on Dam Removal in the Swedish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Jørgensen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dam removal is an increasingly common practice. Dams are removed for various reasons, with safety, economics, and ecosystem restoration being the most common. However, dam removals often cause controversy. Riparian land owners and local communities often have a negative view of removal, and their reasons vary. It may be the loss of recreational benefits such as swimming and boating, loss of cultural and historical context tied to the dam, or fear that removal may have a negative effect on aesthetic values. Because controversies are often picked up by local media, and media in itself is an important channel to build support around a cause, the way in which dam removals are reported and discussed in the media is likely to influence the debate. Here, we examine the ways in which proponents and opponents of dam removal frame the services provided by two contrasting ecosystems, i.e., an existing dam and the potential stream without a dam, by performing a media discourse analysis of the reasons given for removal and the reasons presented for the dam to remain in place. Our source material includes Internet-based newspaper articles and their associated public comments in four dam removal controversies in Sweden. Our analysis indicates that public opposition is not based on knowledge deficiency, where more information will lead to better ecological decision-making, as is sometimes argued in dam removal science; it is instead a case of different understandings and valuation of the environment and the functions it provides.

  2. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  3. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike (CT 00026 and CT 01714). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Housatonic River, Derby-Shelton, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    8217;’,.-+-.-. ""’"" . .•• "•;. - NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT Identification No.: CT 00026, CT 01714 N *~ Name of Dam: Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike " Town...approach was used between 1868 and 1870 to strengthen the Holyoke dam. The dam that existed there at the time was a timber crib dam, 1,017 feet long and 30

  5. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jane S; Mather, Martha E; Costigan, Katie H; Daniels, Melinda D

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0-15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136-437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach that has been applied to larger dams.

  6. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  7. Augmented Reality to Access Dam Cracks Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Frata Furlan Peres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality technology is a tool with great potential for application in several areas, including engineering. During the early phases of the enterprise life cycle, as design and construction, augmented reality has been widely used. Concrete dams, during operation and maintenance phase, require regular inspections as part of the necessary activities to keep their structural safety. Cracks are common pathology in these structures that must be detected, mapped and measured as their evolution may evidence structure compromising, need for maintenance or intervention. In this context this paper aims to present a prototype to access in situ the dam cracks information through the use of augmented reality, thus giving a contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of inspections

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of dam failure events in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Y.HE; Z.Y.WANG; J.C.HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs play a vital role in economic development and flood control.Nevertheless,both human and natural factors may lead to dam failures with catastrophic consequences.Analyzing the data of dam failure events from 1954 to 2003 and using the method of energy spectrum analysis,this paper studies the periodicity of dam failures.The rate of failure of different dam ages is analyzed.The climate is the main factor affecting the rate of dam failure.Climate diagrams are used to analyze the spatial distribution of dam failure events in China.High rate of dam failure occurs with 25-year and 12.5-year periods.The distribution of the percentage of dam failure shows an L-shape as a function of service age.The first 5 years of operation is known as the "infant period",during which,the probability of dam failure is much higher than during any other periods.The failure rate in areas near or north to the 400 mm annual isopluvial line is notably higher than other areas.In areas with high temperature difference among seasons have a high annual average dam failure rate.

  9. Crack status analysis for concrete dams based on measured entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU BangBin; WU ZhongRu; CHEN Bo; SU HuaiZhi; BAO TengFei; WANG ShaoWei

    2016-01-01

    The integrity and safety of concrete dams are seriously affected by the existing cracks in dam bodies,and some serious cracks may cause dam failure or disaster.The propagation of cracks in concrete dams is accompanied by changes in energy distribution,which can be represented by changes in the structure's system entropy.Therefore,the entropy theory can be used in analyzing the behavior of dam cracks.Due to the randomness and locality of crack propagation,it is difficult to predict the location of cracks by traditional monitoring methods.To solve this problem,the influence of spatial positions of monitoring points on inspection zones is represented by a weight index,and the weight index is determined by the distance measure method proposed in this paper.Through the weighted linear fusion method,the entropy of multiple monitoring points is obtained for analyzing the behavior of dam cracks in the selected zones.Meanwhile,the catastrophe theory is used as the variation criterion of an entropy sequence in order to predict the instability time of dam cracks.Case studies are put forward on a high arch dam,and the fusion entropy is calculated according to the monitoring data from strain gauges.Results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the occurrence time and location of dam cracks regardless of the layout of monitoring instruments,and it is a new way to analyze the occurrence and propagation of dam cracks.

  10. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  11. Will Dam Removal Increase Nitrogen Flux to Estuaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Gold

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To advance the science of dam removal, analyses of functions and benefits need to be linked to individual dam attributes and effects on downstream receiving waters. We examined 7550 dams in the New England (USA region for possible tradeoffs associated with dam removal. Dam removal often generates improvements for safety or migratory fish passage but might increase nitrogen (N flux and eutrophication in coastal watersheds. We estimated N loading and removal with algorithms using geospatial data on land use, stream flow and hydrography. We focused on dams with reservoirs that increase retention time at specific points of river reaches, creating localized hotspots of elevated N removal. Approximately 2200 dams with reservoirs had potential benefits for N removal based on N loading, retention time and depth. Across stream orders, safety concerns on these N removal dams ranged between 28% and 44%. First order streams constituted the majority of N removal dams (70%, but only 3% of those were classified as high value for fish passage. In cases where dam removal might eliminate N removal function from a particular reservoir, site-specific analyses are warranted to improve N delivery estimates and examine alternatives that retain the reservoir while enhancing fish passage and safety.

  12. Impulsive force of debris flow on a curved dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chjeng-Lun SHIEH; Chia-Hsien TING; Hung-Wen PAN

    2008-01-01

    Although Sabo dams are an efficient method for river and basin management,traditional Sabo dams have a great impact on ecology and landscape.Moreover,such dams are hit and often damaged by great impulsive force when they block the debris flow.Therefore,alternative shapes for Sabo dam deserve thorough investigation.In this investigation,a curved dam was designed by changing the upstream-dam-surface geometric shape to reduce the impulsive force of the debris flow,with enhanced stability and reduced concrete mass being the anticipated outcomes.In this study,the flume and laboratory facilities simulated the impulsive force of the debris flow to the Sabo dams.Three geometric forms,including vertical,slanted and curved Sabo dams,were used to determine the impulsive force.Impulsive force theories of the debris flow were derived from the momentum equation and the Bernoulli equation.In these,the impulsive force was balanced by the friction force of the Sabo dam and the opposite force of the load cell behind the dam as it was hit by the debris flow.Positive correlations were found when comparing the experimental data with the theoretical results.These findings suggest that our impulsive force theory has predictive validity with regard to the experimental data.The results from both theory and experimental data clearly show that curved dams were sustained less force than the other dams under the same debris flow.This comparison demonstrates the importance of curved geometry for a well-designed Sabo dam.

  13. A climate impact of dam lake and Recep Yazicioglu Gokpinar dam lake sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülker Güner BACANLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dams have both positive and negative effects on the environment. The most important effect can be defined as the regional climate change. In this study, the impact on Denizli city climate of Vali Recep Yazıcıoğlu Gökpınar Dam Lake was determined. In this study, Denizli city meteorological station (maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, total precipitation and wind speed data were used. Before and after from the dam construction; absolute changes are examined. After the dam construction; maximum, minimum and average temperature increase was observed in all months. A rainfall was observed to be increased in January, February and October on after dam construction, but another times was observed to be decreased. The evaporation and wind speed parameter has been little change. Linear regression, the Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Method for trend analysis were used. All techniques considered here consistently reveal that there are upward trend in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, wind speed, no trend in precipitation and evaporation.

  14. Seismic performance evaluation of concrete gravity dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Kanenawa, K. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba City (Japan); Hall, R.; Yule, D. [United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Matheu, E. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Chudgar, A. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper addresses technical issues related to seismic design practices and current evaluation methods in Japan and the United States. Nonlinear analysis procedures can identify the ultimate capacity of existing concrete dams, taking into account the most critical nonlinear phenomena controlling the response. A numerical model of a non-overflow monolith of Koyna Dam, subject to earthquake motion, is used as a case study to compare the different approaches for seismic evaluation of concrete gravity dams currently employed in the two countries. The complexity of nonlinear analysis procedures and the scarcity of appropriate calibration strategies force analysts to frequently interpret results using their own judgment. It was concluded that the influence of the input parameters and ground excitation on the nonlinear dynamic response should be investigated in order to identify the most critical conditions. It was also suggested that methodologies for qualitative damage estimation based on results from linear analyses could be used to develop a systematic assessment tool and reference framework for the adequate interpretation of results. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  15. Simulating dam-breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw = 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the earthquake affected area with an estimated volume of 3 × 108 m3, and the potential catastrophic dam breach posed a serious threat to more than 2.5 million people in downstream towns and Mianyang city, located 85 km downstream. Chinese authorities had to evacuate parts of the city until the Tangjiashan landslide dam was artificially breached by a spillway, and the lake was drained. We propose an integrated approach to simulate the dam-breach floods for a number of possible scenarios, to evaluate the severity of the threat to Mianyang city. Firstly, the physically-based BREACH model was applied to predict the flood hydrographs at the dam location, which were calibrated with observational data of the flood resulting from the artificial breaching. The output hydrographs from this model were inputted into the 1-D–2-D SOBEK hydrodynamic model to simulate the spatial variations in flood parameters. The simulated flood hydrograph, peak discharge and peak arrival time at the downstream towns fit the observations. Thus this approach is capable of providing reliable predictions for the decision makers to determine the mitigation plans. The sensitivity analysis of the BREACH model input parameters reveals that the average grain size, the unit weight and porosity of the dam materials are the most sensitive parameters. The variability of the dam material properties causes a large uncertainty in the estimation of the peak flood discharge and peak arrival time, but has little influence on the flood inundation area and flood depth downstream. The effect of cascading breaches of smaller dams downstream of the Tangjiashan dam was

  16. Do Hydroelectric Dams Mitigate Global Warming? The Case of Brazil's Curuna Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)

    2005-10-15

    Hydroelectric dams in tropical forest areas emit greenhouse gases, as illustrated by the Curuna dam in the Amazonian portion of Brazil. Emissions include carbon dioxide from decay of the above-water portions of trees that are left standing in the reservoir and methane from soft vegetation that decays under anaerobic conditions on the bottom of the reservoir, especially macrophytes (water weeds) and vegetation that grows in the drawdown zone and is flooded when the reservoir water level rises. Some methane is released from the reservoir surface through bubbling and diffusion, but larger amounts are released from water passing through the turbines and spillway. Methane concentration in the water increases with depth, and the turbines and spillway draw water from sufficient depth to have substantial methane content. In 1990 (13 years after filling), the Curuna Dam emitted 3.6 times more greenhouse gases than would have been emitted by generating the same amount of electricity from oil.

  17. Assessment model of dam operation risk based on monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although the dams produce remarkable social and economic benefits,the threat made by unsafe dams to the life and property of people who live in the lower river area is un-negligible.Based on the monitoring data which reflect the safety condition of dams,the risk degree concept is proposed and the analysis system and model for evaluating risk degree (rate) are established in this paper by combining the reliability theory and field monitoring data.The analysis method for risk degree is presented based on Bayesian approach.A five-grade risk degree system for dam operation risk and corresponding risk degree is put forward according to the safety condition of dams.The operation risks of four cascade dams on some river are analyzed by the model and approach presented here and the result is adopted by the owner.

  18. Predicting surfacing internal erosion in moraine core dams

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dams that comprise broadly and widely graded glacial materials, such as moraines, have been found to be susceptible to internal erosion, perhaps more than dams of other soil types. Internal erosion washes out fine-grained particles from the filling material; the erosion occurs within the material itself or at an interface to another dam zone, depending on the mode of initiation. Whether or not internal erosion proceeds depend on the adequacy of the filter material. If internal erosion is allo...

  19. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrich, C. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaakir-Ali, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  20. Stochastic Boundary Element Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 吴清高

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic boundary integral equations for analyzing large structures are obtained from the partial derivatives of basic random variables. A stochastic boundary element method based on the equations is developed to solve engineering problems of gravity dams using random factors including material parameters of the dam body and the foundation, the water level in the upper reaches, the anti-slide friction coefficient of the dam base, etc. A numerical example shows that the stochastic boundary element method presented in this paper to calculate the reliability index of large construction projects such as a large concrete gravity dam has the advantages of less input data and more precise computational results.

  1. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B

    2016-01-01

    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  2. Monitoring health in African dams : the Kamburu dam (Kenya) as a test case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.V. Oomen

    1981-01-01

    textabstractDams are among the obvious efforts to improve the economic situation in a developing country. They aim at using locally available natural resources. At present they are among the most popular means for promoting socio-economic development. A significant number of these programmes have be

  3. Advanced numerical simulation of collapsible earth dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Farias, M.M.; Cordao Neto, M.P. [Brasilia Univ., Federal District (Brazil). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This paper discussed a systematic methodology for the hydromechanical coupled numerical analysis of earth dams constructed with unsaturated collapsible soil. Every design stage was considered, including construction, reservoir filling, and advance of saturation front until the steady-state flow condition is attained. A transient analysis of safety factors applicable to 3-dimensional conditions was presented, giving consideration to unsaturated materials and the interrelation between hydraulic and mechanical phenomena by solving equilibrium and continuity conditions at the same time. The finite element method was used to formulate equilibrium and continuity conditions for both soil skeleton and pore water, which necessitated a realistic mechanical model for the stress-strain-suction relation in unsaturated porous material and adequate constitutive models related to water flow and storage, giving special consideration to imposing appropriate boundary conditions for each simulation stage. The methodology was applied to the analysis of earth dams composed of soils at optimum, dry of optimum, and mixed compaction conditions. The dry section simulated dams constructed using poorly compacted, dry material, which are prone to collapse. By strategically placing the optimum materials in the areas of the earth fill that are most stressed, the mixed section could be designed less expensively with the same or better performance as the homogenous section at optimum conditions. The coupled analysis provides a higher safety factor than uncoupled analysis and a realistic picture of end-of-construction pore pressure distribution. The simulation of reservoir filling and saturation front advance permitted clear identification of the initialization, development, and evolution of internal failure mechanisms. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs.

  4. Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake

  5. Evaluation Model of Life Loss Due to Dam Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongjing

    2016-04-01

    Dam failure poses a serious threat to human life, however there is still lack of systematic research on life loss which due to dam failure in China. From the perspective of protecting human life, an evaluation model for life loss caused by dam failure is put forward. The model building gets three progressive steps. Twenty dam failure cases in China are preferably chosen as the basic data, considering geographical location and construction time of dams, as well as various conditions of dam failure. Then twelve impact factors of life loss are selected, including severity degree of flood, population at risk, understanding of dam failure, warning time, evacuation condition, number of damaged buildings, water temperature, reservoir storage, dam height, dam type, break time and distance from flood area to dam. And through principal component analysis, it gets four principal components consisting of the first flood character principle component, the second warning system principle component, the third human character principle component and the fourth space-time impact principle component. After multivariate nonlinear regression and ten-fold validation in combination, the evaluation model for life loss is finally established. And the result of the proposed model is closer to the true value and better in fitting effect in comparison with the results of RESCDAM method and M. Peng method. The proposed model is not only applied to evaluate life loss and its rate under various kinds of dam failure conditions in China, but also provides reliable cause analysis and prediction approach to reduce the risk of life loss.

  6. Earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Based on research studies currently being carried out at Dalian University of Technology, some important aspects for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete dams are reviewed and discussed. First, the rate-dependent behavior of concrete subjected to earthquake loading is examined, emphasizing the properties of concrete under cyclic and biaxial loading conditions. Second, a modified four-parameter Hsieh-Ting-Chen viscoplastic consistency model is developed to simulate the rate-dependent behavior of concrete. The earthquake response of a 278m high arch dam is analyzed, and the results show that the strain-rate effects become noticeable in the inelastic range. Third, a more accurate non-smooth Newton algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional frictional contact problems is developed to study the joint opening effects of arch dams during strong earthquakes. Such effects on two nearly 300m high arch dams have been studied. It was found that the canyon shape has great influence on the magnitude and distribution of the joint opening along the dam axis. Fourth, the scaled boundary finite element method presented by Song and Wolf is employed to study the dam-reservoir-foundation interaction effects of concrete dams. Particular emphases were placed on the variation of foundation stiffness and the anisotropic behavior of the foundation material on the dynamic response of concrete dams. Finally, nonlinear modeling of concrete to study the damage evolution of concrete dams during strong earthquakes is discussed. An elastic-damage mechanics approach for damage prediction of concrete gravity dams is described as an example. These findings are helpful in understanding the dynamic behavior of concrete dams and promoting the improvement of seismic safety assessment methods.

  7. The World Commission on Dams + 10: Revisiting the Large Dam Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD was an experiment in multi-stakeholder dialogue and global governance concerned with a subject area – large dams – that was fraught with conflict and controversy. The WCD Report, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, was published in 2000 and accompanied by hopes that broad-based agreements would be forged on how to better manage water and energy development. Ten years later, this special issue of Water Alternatives revisits the WCD and its impacts, exploring the question: Is the WCD still relevant? The editorial team and the Guest Editors of this special issue of Water Alternatives have selected a range of 20 papers, 6 viewpoints, and 4 book reviews that help to illustrate the evolution in the dams debate. The goal of this special issue is to examine the influence and the impacts of the WCD on the dam enterprise, in general, and on the policies and practices of key stakeholders and institutions, and on the development outcomes for affected communities and environments, in particular. In this introduction, the Guest Editors provide an overview of the special issue, exploring the new drivers of dam development that have emerged during the last decade, including climate change and new financiers of dams, and describing the themes emerging from this diverse set of papers and viewpoints. This special issue demonstrates the need for a renewed multi-stakeholder dialogue at multiple levels. This would not be a redo of the WCD, but rather a rekindling and redesigning of processes and forums where mutual understanding, information-sharing, and norm-setting can occur. One of the most promising developments of the last decade is the further demonstration, in case studies described here, that true partnership amongst key stakeholders can produce transformative resource-sharing agreements, showing that many of the WCD recommendations around negotiated decision making are working in practice. We hope

  8. Minimum Reservoir Water Level in Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Vortex formation over the intakes is an undesirable phenomenon within the water withdrawal process from a dam reservoir. Calculating the minimum operating water level in power intakes by empirical equations is not a safe way and sometimes contains some errors. Therefore, current method to calculate the critical submergence of a power intake is construction of a scaled physical model in parallel with numerical model. In this research some proposed empirical relations for prediction of submergence depth in power intakes were validated with experimental data of different physical and numerical models of power intakes. Results showed that, equations which involved the geometry of intake have better correspondence with the experimental and numerical data.

  9. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.

  10. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  11. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management – Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR. The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  12. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  13. Numerical Modeling of Sliding Stability of RCC dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughieda, O.; Hazirbaba, K.; Bani-Hani, K.; Daoud, W.

    2017-06-01

    Stability and stress analyses are the most important elements that require rigorous consideration in design of a dam structure. Stability of dams against sliding is crucial due to the substantial horizontal load that requires sufficient and safe resistance to develop by mobilization of adequate shearing forces along the base of the dam foundation. In the current research, the static sliding stability of a roller-compacted-concrete (RCC) dam was modelled using finite element method to investigate the stability against sliding. A commercially available finite element software (SAP 2000) was used to analyze stresses in the body of the dam and foundation. A linear finite element static analysis was performed in which a linear plane strain isoperimetric four node elements was used for modelling the dam-foundation system. The analysis was carried out assuming that no slip will occur at the interface between the dam and the foundation. Usual static loading condition was applied for the static analysis. The greatest tension was found to develop in the rock adjacent to the toe of the upstream slope. The factor of safety against sliding along the entire base of the dam was found to be greater than 1 (FS>1), for static loading conditions.

  14. Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-09-01

    Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ⩾ 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

  15. Research advance in safety analysis methods for high concrete dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; QingWen; XU; LanYu; WAN; YunHui

    2007-01-01

    High tensile stresses occurred in high concrete dams and in their foundation lead to the growing importance of their safety with the increase of concrete dam height.Without any exiting specification or successful experiences of concrete dams up to 300 m at home and abroad for reference,experts feel obliged to figure out how to perform safety analysis on high concrete dam.This paper involves the main contents and mechanical features of the safety analysis on high concrete dam and shows the current state and progress of the analysis methods.For the insufficiency and problems existing in normative methods,study on modern numerical method such as finite element method must be strengthened to find out the stress control criterion which is in accordance with the methods.Two aspects of the safety analysis of high dam--local damage from material level and integral destruction from structure level--should be considered.For the local damage,we should consider the non-homogeneity of material and strengthen the research of meso-damage mechanics.While for integral destruction of the system of high dam and its foundation,a study on non-strength theory should receive enough concerns.Further,attention should be paid to the research on the failure modes and criterions of high concrete dam failure analysis and safety evaluation,and the effect of uncertainty and classification of safety should be considered too.

  16. Measures of struggle against appearance of cracks in earth dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method calculation of the basic parameters of the transverse rows of pile of simple printed or precast dam. As well, in this article have been shown all the necessary formulas for this calculation and have been proposed solutions to prevent cracking in the dams.

  17. Geophysical methods for the assessment of earthen dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...

  18. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  19. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  20. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  1. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  2. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  3. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  4. Institutionalizing the option of dam removal: the New Hampshire initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindloff, S D

    2003-01-01

    For two years, the State of New Hampshire has worked to institutionalize the option of dam removal. The high gradient streams that flow through the granite hills and mountains of this small northeastern state provided ideal conditions for dam construction, particularly during America's Industrial Revolution of the 1800s when mills were constructed throughout the area. With more than 4,800 dams in the state's database, there are many opportunities for the removal of dams that no longer serve a useful purpose, have become a public safety hazard and impact the river environment. Efforts to facilitate removal of dams in New Hampshire include the formation of a River Restoration Task Force and the creation of a dam removal program within the state agency responsible for regulating dams. This has led to the removal of two dams in the past year, with approximately ten additional projects in various stages of planning. A history of this agency-led initiative, as well as a discussion of the program's strengths, challenges and goals for the future are presented.

  5. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... Sustainable Law and Engineering Group, Centre for Accounting, Governance and Sustainability, ... associated with small-dam safety and practical feedback from ... catchment dams nor the supervision over the management of .... same time in an extreme design flood event of only 1-in-200 ..... These guide-.

  6. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Netizens have collected several ar-ticles about the flood-control capacity of the Three Gorges Dam. In these articles, its capacity was differently described as tackling flooding "once-in-10,000-years" "once-in- l,O00-years" or "once-in-a-century" Can you give the specifics of the flood control capacity of the dam?

  7. INTRODUCTION All earth dams in their natural state experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earth Dam constructed within the Precambrian Basement Complex terrain of Southwestern Nigeria. The study was aimed at ... The 2-D resistivity structure revealed that the core of the dam embankment is .... within the rain forest region of Nigeria. The ..... (citrus Sinensis Osbeck) Stored at Ambient Tropical Condition. 251.

  8. Seepage problem in Papan dam and the treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Papan dam in the Krygyz Republic is 97 metres high. It is located in the Osh Oblast, within a narrow and steep sided gorge on the Ak-Bura River, approximately 20 kilometres south of the City of Osh. The impoundment of the dam revealed large inflows of water to the downstream dam through the upper half of the dam and through the joints in the right abutment. A number of options were considered before a treatment method was selected. The causes of the leakage were poor grouting, and joints and fissures in the abutment. The remedial process involved the use of a plastic concrete cutoff wall extended from the crest of the dam to a depth of approximately 70 metres, in addition to the use of a grouting curtain in the right abutment. 2 figs.

  9. Sediment settling in the Latian Dam in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhang BEHRANGI; Mohammad Ali BANIHASHEMI; Shayesteh MAHANI; Mohammad Reza RAHMANIAN

    2014-01-01

    Among the difficulties that influence future dam operations, reservoir sedimentation is the most problematic for engineers. This study predicted the amount and pattern of sedimentation for use in estimation of the useful lifespan of reservoirs and identification of optimal locations for outlets and intakes at the initial stages of dam design. Hydrographic surveys of different dams can provide better insight into this phenomenon. Latian Dam in Iran has conducted hydrographic surveys during 7 time periods. The amount and process of sedimentation in this reservoir were determined, and predictions of distribution of sediments were validated by well-known, common methods. The formation of a delta in the reservoir was investigated for different time periods after operation. Future problems due to the impacts of sedimentation on dam operation and the useful lifespan of the reservoir were predicted. In addition, the study results may be used for developing empirical methods to predict sedimentation patterns in other reservoirs.

  10. Management of dam safety at BC Hydro: the database tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswell, Terry [BC Hydrom Burnaby, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    BC Hydro has a wide range of dams, which raises a wide range of issues at many unique sites. A dam safety database was developed in 2000 to deal with the complexity and volume of information provided by deficiency investigations and surveillances. The database contains all documented deficiencies and non-conformances identified in the past 10 years. It records the risk ratings assigned to each issue. This paper described the implementation of the database tool, from the characterization of a dam safety issue to the use of the database itself. The dam safety database is now a key tool in managing the dam safety program at BC Hydro and has been useful for the last 10 years or so in prioritizing the program of deficiency investigations and capital projects. The development of a process to rate non-conformances is currently under study and will be implemented soon to aid in more efficient prioritization of maintenance activities.

  11. Modeling Experiment of Break of Debris-Flow Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zunlan; GENG Xueyong; DANG Chao; LIU Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    Glaciers are extensively developed in the southwest of Tibet and the moraines are widely distributed with large depth. Large-scale debris flows are often reported which blocked rivers and formed dams. In this paper, seven large debris flows in four valleys are discussed, among which five dams developed. 13 sets of experiments have been conducted in laboratory to simulate the formation and failure of the dam. Finally, a model of dam failure is proposed and a formula is established to calculate the flood discharge:Q = kbhhk/T (B)/LG0.41, where bk is the outlet width of the dam atthe original water level, ht the erosive depth, T the time fromoverflow to final state of failure, the average width of lake; L thelength of the lake, and G the total potential energy of the water inthe lake.

  12. Dam Inventory - DAMS_1996_EPA_IN: Inventory of Dams in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — DAMS_1996_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and clipped by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Clips were performed using the...

  13. Channel evolution on the dammed Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, A.E.; Logan, J.B.; Mastin, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Like many rivers in the western U.S., the Elwha River, Washington, has changed substantially over the past century in response to natural and human forcing. The lower river is affected by two upstream dams that are slated for removal as part of a major river restoration effort. In preparation for studying the effects of dam removal, we present a comprehensive field and aerial photographic analysis of dam influence on an anabranching, gravel-bed river. Over the past century with the dams in place, loss of the upstream sediment supply has caused spatial variations in the sedimentary and geomorphic character of the lower Elwha River channel. Bed sediment is armored and better sorted than on the naturally evolving bed upstream of the dams. On time scales of flood seasons, the channel immediately below the lower dam is fairly stable, but progresses toward greater mobility downstream such that the lowermost portion of the river responded to a recent 40-year flood with bank erosion and bed-elevation changes on a scale approaching that of the natural channel above the dams. In general, channel mobility in the lowest 4 km of the Elwha River has not decreased substantially with time. Enough fine sediment remains in the floodplain that – given sufficient flood forcing – the channel position, sinuosity, and braiding index change substantially. The processes by which this river accesses new fine sediment below the dams (rapid migration into noncohesive banks and avulsion of new channels) allow it to compensate for loss of upstream sediment supply more readily than would a dammed river with cohesive banks or a more limited supply of alluvium. The planned dam removal will provide a valuable opportunity to evaluate channel response to the future restoration of natural upstream sediment supply.

  14. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2013-11-15

    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction.

  15. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California Flow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Ikard, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Numerical flow modeling and analysis of observation-well data at Hidden Dam are carried out to supplement recent geophysical field investigations at the site (Minsley and others, 2010). This work also is complementary to earlier seepage-related studies at Hidden Dam documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam was documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a sub-drain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren (1980a, b) suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain in the downstream portion of the dam. The current modeling study is aimed at quantifying how variability in dam and foundation hydrologic properties influences seepage as a function of reservoir stage. Flow modeling is implemented using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, which solves the partially saturated flow equations in a two-dimensional (2D) cross-section of Hidden Dam that also incorporates true downstream topography. Use of the COMSOL software package provides a more quantitative approach than the flow net analysis by Cedergren (1980a, b), and allows for rapid evaluation of the influence of various parameters such as reservoir level, dam structure and geometry, and hydrogeologic properties of the dam and foundation materials. Historical observation-well data are used to help validate the flow simulations by comparing observed and predicted water levels for a range of reservoir elevations. The flow models are guided by, and

  16. Safety and coping strategy for high dam under complex natural conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xinqiang

    2012-01-01

    In respect to current situation and new challenges for high dam construction in China, safety problems are an- alyzed for high dam construction under complex natural conditions such as high elevation, cold area, high seismic inten- sity, large-seale landslide and high dam and huge reservoirs with dam types such as concrete surface rock-fill, asphalt concrete core, roller compacted concrete (RCC) arch dam and so on. From several aspects, including risk response measures for high dam, strengthening safety awareness for high dam design and construction, improving high dam con- struetion technique, intelligent dam safety management system based on IT, developing dam rehabilitation and mainte- nance technologies, useful dam safety and coping strategy is proposed.

  17. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  18. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  19. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh G. Tali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  20. Dam overtopping risk using probabilistic concepts – Case study: The Meijaran Dam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Goodarzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic risk assessment and uncertainty analysis by mathematical and statistical methods provide useful information for decision makers. This study presents the application of risk and uncertainty analysis to dam overtopping due to various inflows and wind speeds for the Meijaran Dam in the north of Iran. The procedure includes univariate flood and wind speed frequency analyses, reservoir routing, and integration of wind set-up and run-up to calculate the reservoir water elevation. Afterwards, the probability of overtopping was assessed by applying two uncertainty analysis methods (Monte Carlo simulation and Latin hypercube sampling, and considering the quantile of flood peak discharge, initial depth of water in the reservoir, and spillway discharge coefficient as uncertain variables. The results revealed that rising water level in the reservoir is the most important factor in overtopping risk analysis and that wind speed also has a considerable impact on reservoirs that are placed in windy areas.

  1. Fosfortab fra det dyrkede areal til Stevning Dam, Hindemaj og Haderslev Dam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Heckrath, Goswin; Thodsen, Hans;

    Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P-indeks-kortlægni......Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P...

  2. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  3. Estimates o the risks associated with dam failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaswamy, P.; Hauss, B.; Hseih, T.; Moscati, A.; Hicks, T.E.; Okrent, D.

    1974-03-01

    The probabilities and potential consequences of dam failure in California, primarily due to large earthquakes, was estimated, taking as examples eleven dams having a relatively large population downstream. Mortalities in the event of dam failure range from 11,000 to 260,000, while damage to property may be as high as $720 million. It was assumed that an intensity IX or X earthquake (on the Modified Mercalli Scale) would be sufficient to completely fail earthen dams. Predictions of dam failure were based on the recurrence times of such earthquakes. For the dams studied, the recurrence intervals for an intensity IX earthquake varied between 20 and 800 years; for an intensity X between 50 and 30,000 years. For the Lake Chabot and San Pablo dams (respectively 20, 30 years recurrent earthquake times for a intensity X) the associated consequences are: 34,000 (Lake Chabot) and 30,000 (San Pablo) people killed; damage $140 million and $77 million. Evaculation was found to ameliorate the consequences slightly in most cases because of the short time available. Calculations are based on demography, and assume 10 foot floodwaters will drown all in their path and destroy all one-unit homes in the flood area. Damage estimates reflect losses incurred by structural damage to buildings and do not include loss of income. Hence the economic impact is probably understated.

  4. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  5. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  6. The collapse of the Sella Zerbino gravity dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaccia, G; Lai, C G; Milazzo, C; Natale, L

    2016-08-23

    When a severe flood wave completely filled the Ortiglieto reservoir on August 13, 1935, the 14 m high "Sella Zerbino" secondary dam failed catastrophically causing > 100 casualties. Both of the dams, Sella Zerbino-Zerbino Saddle and Bric Zerbino-Zerbino Peak (Fig. 1) were overtopped but only the Sella Zerbino failed whereas the main barrage did not suffer any damage. The lawsuit that followed this tragic event ended with a full acquittal of the dam's designers since the plaintiff experts succeeded in demonstrating that the collapse was due to an extreme rainfall storm of unpredictable intensity. The case was then officially closed and still today the failure of the Sella Zerbino dam is attributed to the unpredictable hydrological event. Recently, Natale and Petaccia (2013) re-examined the case assessing the capacity of the flood spillways which equipped the Bric Zerbino dam. This paper thoroughly reviews the mechanics of the collapse of the Sella Zerbino dam focusing on the stability of the structure. The water pressure underneath the dam and the poor quality of the foundation rock is believed to have played a major role in the sequence of events that ended in the collapse of the barrage.

  7. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (pcolostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission.

  8. Safety of small and medium dams in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudolf V.Zhang; Sergey A.Velikin

    2014-01-01

    Safe operation and performance of dams is one of the key issues in permafrost regions. At present, the existing dams are 40 45 years old and they are reaching their design life limit. Intensive geocryological processes (thermokarst, thermal erosion, frost heaving, suffosion, concentrated seepage along the voids left by melt ice and others) begin to develop at the early stages of construction. These processes are even more intensive under severe climatic conditions of the permafrost zone due to the large thermal and moisture gradients and the resulting complex thermal stress strain state in the structures. Determining safety criteria is a critical and difficult task in dam safety management. The existing procedures need to be continuously refined and improved depending on dam importance class. Some researchers recommend introducing process development criteria (stability, destabilization, and extremality) for more objective assessment of dam safety, in addition to the existing two condition criteria. In other words, they call for a multi factor dam environment interaction system. A case study of safety declaration for an existing dam is presented.

  9. Deformation reinforcement theory and its application to high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the deformation reinforcement theory(DRT) proposed by the authors is elaborated with a new definition of instability that an elasto-plastic structure is not stable if it cannot satisfy simultaneously equilibrium condition,kinematical admissibility and constitutive equations under the prescribed loading.Starting from the definition,a proof is established to the principle of minimum plastic complementary energy for failured structures.It is revealed that the principle of mini-mum plastic complementary energy results in relaxed constitutive equations,especially,yield conditions.It is demonstrated with case studies that many key issues in arch dam design,e.g.,global stability,dam-toe reinforcement,dam-toe cracking,dam-abut-ment reinforcement,can be well solved within the framework of the deformation reinforcement theory.The structural global stability can be described by the curve of the plastic complementary energy vs overloading factor.The unbalanced-forces obtained by elasto-plastic FEM can be used as the basis of analysis of global stability,dam-heel cracking,dam-toe anchorage and reinforcement of faults of high arch dams and their foundations.

  10. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  12. On monolithic stability and reinforcement analysis of high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic stability safety and reinforcement based on monolithic stability are very important for arch dam design.In this paper,the issue is addressed based on deformation reinforcement theory.In this approach,plastic complementary energy norm can be taken as safety Index for monolithic stability.According to deformation reinforcement theory,the areas where unbalanced force exists require reinforcement,and the required reinforcement forces are just the unbalanced forces with opposite direction.Results show that areas with unbalanced force mainly concentrate in dam-toes,dam-heels and faults.

  13. River turbidity and sediment loads during dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Curran, Chris A.

    2012-01-01

    Dam decommissioning has become an important means for removing unsafe or obsolete dams and for restoring natural fluvial processes, including discharge regimes, sediment transport, and ecosystem connectivity [Doyle et al., 2003]. The largest dam-removal project in history began in September 2011 on the Elwha River of Washington State (Figure 1a). The project, which aims to restore the river ecosystem and increase imperiled salmon populations that once thrived there, provides a unique opportunity to better understand the implications of large-scale river restoration.

  14. Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Fu; Xiangwu Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudostatic slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

  15. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ridolfi; Giulia Buffi; Sara Venturi; Piergiorgio Manciola

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a...

  16. Geodetic and Non-Geodetic Methods for Deformation Monitoring of Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk DAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Water resources have to be controlled and supplied for agricultural uses, drinking and industrial purposes by the countries having limited water resources. This situation is also considerable for Turkey which has a location in the middle zone of World and having limited water sources. Dams are among the most important engineering structures which are used for these purposes. However, the functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Deformation measurements have an important status among various engineering surveying. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the horizontal and vertical small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. Ataturk Dam in Turkey is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Deformation of Ataturk Dam is being monitoring yearly since 2006 by Istanbul Technical University Department of Geomatics Engineering. We apply both GPS and conventional techniques. In this study, we present the result of radial deformations on Ataturk Dam between 2006 and 2010. The results show significant horizontal movements among the 72% of object points. Maximum movement is found as 14.12 cm (with a radial component of 14.08 cm) in 4.5 years.

  17. The Effects of the Anti-Dam Movement on the Environmental Protection in American West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the far - reaching influence of anti - dam movement on the protection of environment in the second half of the 20th century in American West. It first introduces the historical background of dams built along the Colorado Biver - the most important river in the West, especially the construction of Hoover Dam and Glen Canyon Dam. Then, the criticism of dams on the Colorado is examined with the emphasis on the anti - dam movement resulting from the awareness of the negative ecological impacts on the Colorado. In the conclusion, the author demonstrates the unparallel historical significance of the anti -dam movement in the en-vironmentalism in developing the American West.

  18. Lessons learned from Wenchuan earthquake for seismic safety of large dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Houqun

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes some special features of the Wenchuan earthquake that affected dam safety. Damage and performance of dams, primarily for four dams over 100 m high located in the affected earthquake area, are briefly described.Lessons learned related to dam safety from this devastating earthquake are preliminarily drawn. As the seismic safety of high dams during strong earthquakes has gained more attention around the world, some critical issues related to dam construction in China are considered and extensively discussed. Questions such as "Why is dam construction necessary in earthquake prone countries such as China?", "Can we accurately evaluate the seismic safety of high dams in China?", "Did reservoir impounding of the Zipingpu and Three Gorges Projects trigger the Wenchuan Earthquake in some way?" and "What is the strategic priority of dam safety for large dams in China?" are discussed. Finally, the corresponding tactics with response to the challenge are suggested and recent preliminary progress mainly achieved in IWHR is briefly introduced.

  19. Dam design can impede adaptive management of environmental flows: a case study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, JoAnna; Hicks, D Murray; Snelder, Ton H; Arscott, David B; Larned, Scott T; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M

    2013-02-01

    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m(3) s(-1) only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m(3) s(-1) (compared to 19 times >100 m(3) s(-1) and 6 times >203 m(3) s(-1) in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  20. National Dam Inspection Program. Converse Lake Dam (CT 00044). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Greenwich, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Rosenstiel Estate. S-: f. Operator - Mr. Fredrick Jansen (Estate Superintendent) (203)661-9168 -’ .g. Purpose of Dam - Recreational - The dam was originally...cut from the downstream slope of the dam by Mr. Jansen , the estate superintendent. N 4.3 MAINTENANCE OF OPERATING FACILITIES ft There is no known...a bre in the blooi’pn.Ts cn o esosn ,71 ncut drainn theo lake or e;: v.atng7 oac C" t J C n o -2 alor A’J 1 Ian toWld that a considerable flow

  1. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  2. Intelligent compaction theory of high roller compacted concrete dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Donghai

    2012-01-01

    The concept and realization process of intelligent compaction for the construction of high roller compacted concrete dam were presented, as well as the theory of monitoring and intelligent feedback control. Based on the real-time analysis of the compaction index, a multiple regression model of the dam compactness was established and a realime estimation method of compaction quality for the entire work area of roller compacted concrete dam was proposed finally. The adaptive adjustment of the roiling process parameters was achieved, with the speed, the exciting force, the roller pass and the compaction thickness meeting the standards during the whole construction process. As a result, the compaction quality and construction efficiency can be improved. The research provides a new way for the construction quality control of roller compacted concrete dam.

  3. Study on Rock Bolt Reinforcement for a Gravity Dam Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.; Wang, W. M.; Shahrour, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the rock bolt reinforcement mechanism is discussed, and the gravity method as well as the finite element method for the bolted rock is presented. These methods are applied to study the gravity dam foundation of the Xiaoxi Hydropower Project, which is influenced by the presence of a large fault with a cracked zone over 180 m wide. Rock bolt reinforcement was used to improve the stability of the dam foundation, and the reinforcement parameters were determined from a semi-empirical equation controlled by in situ test. The stability analysis was conducted using the above methods, and the improvement in terms of deformation and stress as well as stability of the dam foundation due to the reinforcement is assessed. Rock bolt reinforcement was completed successfully, and the dam started normal operations in January 2008.

  4. Parallel computation of seismic analysis of high arch dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Houqun; Ma Huaifa; Tu Jin; Cheng Guangqing; Tang Juzhen

    2008-01-01

    Parallel computation programs are developed for three-dimensional meso-mechanics analysis of fully-graded dam concrete and seismic response analysis of high arch dams (ADs), based on the Parallel Finite Element Program Generator (PFEPG). The computational algorithms of the numerical simulation of the meso-structure of concrete specimens were studied. Taking into account damage evolution, static preload, strain rate effect, and the heterogeneity of the meso-structure of dam concrete, the fracture processes of damage evolution and configuration of the cracks can be directly simulated. In the seismic response analysis of ADs, all the following factors are involved, such as the nonlinear contact due to the opening and slipping of the contraction joints, energy dispersion of the far-field foundation, dynamic interactions of the dam-foundation-reservoir system, and the combining effects of seismic action with all static loads. The correctness, reliability and efficiency of the two parallel computational programs are verified with practical illustrations.

  5. Geologic and field investigations Dorris Dam Modoc National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a. geologic and field investigation of Dorris Dam performed to evaluate embankment and foundation conditions. The work included...

  6. Elwha Master Datafile - Elwha Dam Removal - Nearshore monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington will help restore natural sediment processes to the coastal environment near the river mouth. We are interested in...

  7. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  8. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After successfully containing the biggest flood this century, the Three Gorges Dam,on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, has encountered another flood, that of public opinion:Will this dam be able to hold floods that are "once-in-10,000-years" or "once-in-1,000-years" or "once-in-a-century"? Should numerous hazards this year, including land and mudslides and mountain torrents,be blamed on accumulation of sediment caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam? To get answers to these questions,journalists from Xinhua News Agency interviewed Cao Guangjing, Board Chairman of the China Three Gorges Corp., the operator of the Three Gorges Dam.

  9. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... the dam wall coincided with the end of a drought that lasted .... was estimated by dividing the mean annual runoff by the res- ...... column was approximately holomictic. There was ... Alternatively, internal N loss associated with.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  11. Evaluating segregation in granular filters for earth dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grabinsky, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presented some case studies to illustrate the relationship between seepage problems encountered with earth dams and segregation of the dams' granular filters during construction. A literature review of segregation mechanisms was presented along with a laboratory investigation. The case studies showed that the current understanding of the impact of a given degree of segregation is relatively poor. The literature reveals that although segregation mechanisms are identified and analyzed, very few are likely to be predominant during earth dam construction. Laboratory studies show that a mathematical relationship can be established between the filter's grain size distribution curve and the potential degree of segregation. Therefore, a mathematical relationship can also be established with the potential for adverse dam performance. The authors proposed a field procedure which allows for the monitoring of segregation during construction by contractors and engineers. It also helps in deciding whether any segregated zones require replacement. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. DESIGN OF SLIT DAMS FOR CONTROLLING STONY DEBRIS FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Pang LIEN

    2003-01-01

    A new method to a slit dam for controlling the stony debris flow has been derived based on the mass conservation law of the stony debris flow passing through a slit dam and the laboratory experiment results.This new method is then combined with three primary efficiency expressions: the dimensionless sediment outflow ratio,the sediment concentration ratio,and the sediment storage rate to develop a simple module,with which the height and the spacing of the posts,as well as the total spacing of slit dam are determined.Furthermore,these expressions can also be applied to check those slit dams that have already been constructed with their effectiveness against various magnitudes of the debris flow. The comparison between these expressions and laboratory data is in reasonable agreement.

  13. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  14. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain (www.ign.es) and the Statistical Institute (www.madrid.org/nomecalles/Inicio.icm) from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  15. Dam Inventory, Dams in 9 county region in South Georgia, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'Dams...

  16. Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daeseok; Park, Seok Soon

    2002-11-01

    The 'emergy' concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developed countries. Even though its monetary balance of payments was negative in 1997, the economy of Korea showed positive balance in trade when exports and imports were expressed in emergy. The emergy evaluation showed that the Korean economy places a large stress on its environment. Water supply and generation of electricity were the most important contributions of the proposed dam in terms of emergy; 46.5 and 45.1% of the total benefit, respectively. Flood control contributed 8.4% of the total benefit. Major costs associated with the proposed dam were from sediments (33.2% of the total cost), construction services (22.8%), and social disruption of the region (21.6%). In terms of emergy, the ratio of benefits to costs of the proposed dam was 2.78 if sediments are not included, and 1.86 if sediments are included, which result in more benefits than costs in both cases. The benefit to cost ratio of the dam was larger than that of the current system (1.42) without the dam whether sediments are included in the total cost or not. The environmental stress of the proposed dam was considerably lower than that of the Korean economy, but the dam might increase stress on local environment.

  17. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Xing Wei; Hanlong Liu

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Compr...

  18. The Changing Political Dynamics of Dam Building on the Mekong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hirsch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores political dynamics surrounding dam building in the Mekong river basin, prior to, and following, the World Commission on Dams (WCD. Since the 1950s, dam building in the Mekong river basin has been enmeshed in a complex and shifting geopolitical and eco-political landscape. The broad geopolitical sweep of US hegemony, Cold War, regional rapprochement and the rise of China has been superimposed on eco-political shifts between modernist belief in progress as mastery over nature, concerns of global and national environmental movements over dams and their impacts, and a galvanised Mekong environmentalism. During the first decade of the 21st century, mainstream dams on the Lower Mekong have returned to the agenda after having almost disappeared in favour of tributary projects. The growing strength and assertiveness of regional economic players has fundamentally altered the context of energy demand, planning and investment. New sources of finance have relocated the points of political leverage. Environment has been mustered in favour of, as well as in opposition to, dam construction in the contexts of climate-change discourses, protected-area linkage with dam projects, and an industry push for sustainability protocols and certification. Despite the Mekong being one of its focal basins, WCD has not played a prominent role in this transformed arena, yet many of the social and environmental concerns, stakeholder-based processes and safeguard-oriented approaches to hydropower planning that WCD brought to the fore have persisted in the wider ethos of politics around dams in the region.

  19. Analysis of irreversible displacements of Daniel-Johnson dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouinard, L.; Zhao, W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lariviere, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Cote, P. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Baie-Comeau, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Irreversible displacements in dams are associated with alkali-aggregate reaction, creep, and other damaging effects that compromise the safety of dams. An identification of the nature of irreversible displacements is needed to predict the future behaviour of dams as well as to select appropriate remedial measures. This paper provided details of a principal component analysis (PCA) used to investigate swelling and small irreversible displacements observed at the Daniel-Johnson dam in Quebec. PCA is a multivariate statistical method that performs the analysis of correlations or covariances between several random variables simultaneously. Three datasets were used: (1) reservoir water level; (2) air temperature; and (3) pendulum displacements. Standard linear regression analyses (HST) were performed for each variable in order to eliminate outliers and replace missing values. The multivariate dataset was then used to perform PCA on the entire dataset as well as on subsets from the original data. Displacement data from pendulums were used in the multivariate statistical analysis in which each component was treated as a separate variable. The comparison of irreversible displacements of the dam from HST analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that results were consistent with the data. The PCA analysis identified dominant patterns of behaviour and detected 2 distinct components of irreversible deformations arising from creep and swelling of concrete. Results of the study showed that the PCA analysis led to a better understanding of the overall behaviour of the dam and of individual arches and buttresses. It was concluded that the PCA analysis method will help to improve dam safety in addition to more accurately predicting the future behaviour of dams. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake, Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Yilmaz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake was studied at 5 sampling sites between December 2003 - November 2005. A total of 67 taxa were recorded, representing Bacillariophyta (31, Chlorophyta (18, Cyanophyta (9, Chrysophyta (1, Cryptophyta (1, Dinophyta (3 and Euglenophyta (4. Bacillariophyta members constituted the dominant phytoplankton group in terms of species number. Nygaard’s compound index value and composition of phytoplankton indicate that the trophic state of Sazlidere Dam lake was changing from oligotrophic to mesotrophic.

  1. Water resource management in Japan: Forest management or dam reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and journalists in Japan recently proposed forest management as an alternative to dam reservoir development for water resource management. To examine the validity of the proposal, we compared the potential low-flow increase due to forest clearcutting with the increase due to dam reservoir development. Here, we focused on forest clearcutting as an end member among various types of forest management. We first analyzed runoff data for five catchments and found a positive correlation between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation. We then examined the increase in low-flow rates due to dam reservoir development (dQ(d)) using inflow and outflow data for 45 dam reservoirs across Japan. Using the relationship between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation, we estimated the potential increase in the low-flow rate for each dam reservoir watershed if forests in the watershed were clearcut (dQ(f)). Only 6 of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)>dQ(d), indicating that the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than the increase due to dam reservoir development in most cases. Twenty-five of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)<0.2 dQ(d), indicating the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than 20% of the increase due to dam reservoir development in more than half the cases. Therefore, forest management is far less effective for water resource management than dam reservoir development is in Japan.

  2. Seismic stability analysis of concrete gravity dams with penetrated cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-yan JIANG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The seismic stability of a cracked dam was examined in this study. Geometric nonlinearity and large deformations, as well as the contact condition at the crack site, were taken into consideration. The location of penetrated cracks was first identified using the concrete plastic-damage model based on the nonlinear finite element method (FEM. Then, the hard contact algorithm was used to simulate the crack interaction in the normal direction, and the Coloumb friction model was used to simulate the crack interaction in the tangential direction. After verification of numerical models through a case study, the seismic stability of the Koyna Dam with two types of penetrated cracks is discussed in detail with different seismic peak accelerations, and the collapse processes of the cracked dam are also presented. The results show that the stability of the dam with two types of penetrated cracks can be ensured in an earthquake with a magnitude of the original Koyna earthquake, and the cracked dam has a large earthquake-resistant margin. The failure processes of the cracked dam in strong earthquakes can be divided into two stages: the sliding stage and the overturning stage. The sliding stage ends near the peak acceleration, and the top block slides a long distance along the crack before the collapse occurs. The maximum sliding displacement of the top block will decrease with an increasing friction coefficient at the crack site.

  3. Back analysis of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In view of the diversity and complexity of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam(RCCD),the uniform design method,partial least-squares regression(PLS)and least squares support vector machine(LSSVM)were applied to the back analysis of RCCD with the use of the complex nonlinear relationship between dam mechanical parameters and dam displacements.During the process of back analysis,the initial samples of parameters were designed with uniform design method.Then,a transversely isotropic model of RCCD was established by MSC.Marc software.Through this model,training samples of LSSVM model could be obtained.And then,the complex nonlinear relationship between relative values of hydraulic components of dam displacements and mechanical parameters was established.Finally,actual relative values of dam hydraulic components are isolated from the measured data of dam displacements by using PLS.By inputting the isolated relative values into LSSVM model,the back analysis values of RCCD mechanical parameters can be obtained.The example analysis showed that mechanical parameters obtained by the above-mentioned back analysis method are reasonable,and the back analysis method is feasible.

  4. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  5. Assessing Otter Presence In Dams: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Santos-Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard otter survey methodology proposed by the IUCN Otter Specialist Group enables comparisons in present/absence data in different countries or in different regions. However, otter presence and distribution assessment in dry areas, such as the Mediterranean region, which are characterized by highly marked seasonal climate with intermittent water flow coupled with different types of habitats or systems such as dams, may gain from adjustment to the methodology. Pressure for dam building still occurs in these regions and the need for studies on ecological communities and species protection is increasing. Dams are very different from usual otter riverine habitat and we need to understand their influence on otter populations. Variation of dam location, reservoir characteristics and season will all influence spraint detectability. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and ecological studies are frequently limited by both budget and time requiring field researchers to apply more efficient methodologies. Based on experience from studies conducted in Portugal we propose adjustments to the standard survey methodology (using spraints surveying otter presence in dams to be applied specifically to Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We define aspects to be considered regarding survey season, survey length and width, number and location of survey sites, among others. This paper will allow researchers to plan more effective field surveys based on standard otter survey methodology for the purpose of dam surveys, be that to detect otter presence/absence, a more in-depth comparative studies of otter presence, or simply improving the collecting of fresh spraints for molecular spraint analysis.

  6. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Sneddon, C. S.; Fox, C. A.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  7. Ecosystem Response During the Removal of the Elwha River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pess, G. R.; McHenry, M.; Liermann, M. C.; Moses, R.; Denton, K.; McMillan, J.; Brenkman, S.; Duda, J.; Peters, R.; Anderson, J.; Quinn, T.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last century, the two dams blocked the upstream movement of anadromous fish to over 90% of the Elwha River watershed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. These dams also restricted the downstream movement of sediment, wood, and other organic materials to the lower river and estuary. Populations of all Pacific salmon species and steelhead in the Elwha became critically low, habitat complexity decreased below the dams, and downstream coastal habitats became sediment starved. Simultaneous deconstruction of the two dams began in September 2011 was completed in September of 2014. The recent removal of the dams has been an opportunity to explore linkages among changes in sediment supply, salmonid populations, and ecosystem attributes. Preliminary findings focus on the delivery of millions of metric tonnes of sediment to the main river, its floodplain, and nearshore, the re-establishment of a natural wood delivery regime, the re-colonization of the upper watershed by anadromous fish, insights into functional relationships among salmonid populations and life history strategies, and the associated effects of all these elements on the aquatic and terrestrial foodwebs. This talk will provide an overview of the Elwha restoration project, and highlight recent changes observed during dam removal.

  8. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F J; Sneddon, C S; Fox, C A

    2017-02-25

    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  9. Effect of rubber dam on mercury exposure during amalgam removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, L; Halbach, S; Willruth, H; Mehl, A; Welzl, G; Wack, F X; Hickel, R; Greim, H

    1999-06-01

    It was the aim of this investigation to treat 20 volunteers with maximally 5 amalgam fillings by the same comprehensive protocol in which all removals with (n = 8) and without (n = 12) rubber dam had been performed within a few months. Nine amalgam-related parameters indicated a close matching of both groups before removal. In the group without rubber dam, mercury (Hg) levels in plasma increased significantly above preremoval values at days 1 and 3 after removal; they decreased significantly below preremoval values at day 30 in the rubber-dam group and at day 100 in both groups. Excretion rates did not increase significantly in either group, but decreased significantly at day 100 in the protected group. Peak plasma-Hg was 0.6 ng/mL on average at day one and decreased with halftimes of 3 and 43 d in subjects protected by rubber dam. The results indicated that concentrations of total mercury in plasma responded rapidly to changes in the amalgam status and reflected the actual absorption most reliably. Notably, plasma-Hg levels were sensitive enough to detect a transient attenuation of the additional exposure by using rubber dam during the removal of only a few fillings. However, being small in magnitude and lasting 100 d at best, the rubber-dam effect had minor toxicological relevance.

  10. Elwha River dam removal-Rebirth of a river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    After years of planning for the largest project of its kind, the Department of the Interior will begin removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, in September 2011. For nearly 100 years, the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams have disrupted natural processes, trapping sediment in the reservoirs and blocking fish migrations, which changed the ecology of the river downstream of the dams. All five Pacific salmon species and steelhead-historically present in large numbers-are locally extirpated or persist in critically low numbers. Upstream of the dams, more than 145 kilometers of pristine habitat, protected inside Olympic National Park, awaits the return of salmon populations. As the dams are removed during a 2-3 year project, some of the 19 million cubic meters of entrapped sediment will be carried downstream by the river in the largest controlled release of sediment into a river and marine waters in history. Understanding the changes to the river and coastal habitats, the fate of sediments, and the salmon recolonization of the Elwha River wilderness will provide useful information for society as future dam removals are considered.

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Warren County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    KASKASKIA. ST. LOUIS BAS WOODRIDGE LAKE DAM WARREN COUNTY, MISSOURI MO 11005 (9) Final rept., DACW43-79-C.-#A)75 J (i) Sep 79 (10) Walter G. /Shifrin...Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program Final Report Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Warren County, Missouri 7...Norvell Construction of 3320 Hermoso St., St. Louis, MO. After the structure was completed, a 2 inch water- line with a water faucet was installed on the

  12. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed a hydrologic and hydraulic study to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam, located within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí. The hydrologic study yielded outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago de Matrullas and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation (PMP) event, (2) a 24-hour PMP event, and (3) a 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated the hypothetical dam failure of Lago de Matrullas using hypothetical flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study and selected dam breach parameters. The flood wave resulting from the failure was downstream-routed through the lower reaches of the Río Matrullas, the Río Toro Negro, and the Río Grande de Manatí for determination of water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” (no precipitation) conditions. The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and the River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was performed using the unsteady-state flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.

  13. Dam Inventory, diversion dams, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'diversion...

  14. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  15. Dam that social networking: connecting South Africa's major dams to social media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available , embarrassingly so, a marital bed. 2. Research Question and Methodology The data provided by the South African Department of Water Affairs is excellent and accurate [4, 5]. Unfortunately, the majority of South Africans are not aware of the data which... provides a nice fly-in approach to viewing the Vaal Dam. The data provided in the description field of the KML is reproduced in the side bar. 5. Twitter All communication with Twitter was done via the Twitter4J library. Twitter4J is a Java...

  16. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Nichols Pond Dam (VT 00184), Richelieu River Basin, Woodbury, Vermont. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    on pages B-12 through B-14. A letter report by ’fr. Barranco describes some of the history on page B-15. 3. Plans and sketches prepared by DuBois...Peter Barranco , Jr., P.E., Dam Safety Engineer I Subject: Nichols Pond Dam - Woodbury (252-1) The writer inspected subject dam, obtained dimensions and

  17. 5. decennial inspection of Tignes dam. Draining of the higher french dam; 5. inspection decennale du barrage de Tignes. Vidange du plus haut barrage de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document deals with the 5. decennial inspection of the Tignes dam. The Tignes dam has been drained to allow EDF and the public authorities to verify the dam wall, of 180 m high, in order to validate the next decade. The four steps of the drainage are described as the maintenance policy of such building. (A.L.B.)

  18. Simulation of the thermal behaviour of a concrete dam using in situ measurements : case of Daniel-Johnson dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibeault, N. [Tecsult Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lariviere, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Daniel-Johnson Dam is the largest multiple-arch dam in the world. It was completed in 1969 at a height of 214 metres. The dam has faced many challenges related to severe thermal conditions, presence of plunging cracks in many arches and opening at the rock-concrete interface. Major concerns lie with the shear resistance in the plane of the plunging cracks. It has been determined that the main cause of arch degradation is related to the thermal behaviour of the dam. A thermal shelter was therefore constructed in the lower part of the arches. This protection has proved to be very effective. A decision was later taken to grout the plunging cracks of some arches. This involved the verification of the structural stability of the arch base. To accomplish this, the shear safety factor during the proposed injection had to be validated. This paper discussed the complex challenge of simulating the thermal behaviour of a concrete dam. It presented an alternative to the conventional methods to implement a thermal profile in a finite element model. Synthetic curves of the thermal profile were used for different thicknesses and boundary conditions. The curves were then interpolated for intermediate thicknesses. A numerical model developed for this project has been verified according to the recommendations of Bulletin 94 of ICOLD (Computer Software for Dams). The loads to consider within the framework study of the Daniel-Johnson Dam gravity; thermal gradient in summer and winter; thermal protection; hydrostatic pressure; uplift pressure in cracks; hydrostatic pressure at upstream on the grout curtain; rock-concrete contact opening; and grout pressures. The proposed method has proven to be simple, efficient and easily implemented to rapidly determine the thermal behaviour of the structures. It is also particularly well suited for multiple-arch dams. The thermal structure analysis was used to determine deformation which was compared with measurements of the pendulums. 8 refs

  19. Combating Poverty by Irrigation from Large Dams in Arid Countries: A Case Study of Minab Dam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI ASGHAR IRAJ POOR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A set of indicators for sustainable development were identified to be employed in developing countries. The selected indicators provided a good understanding of social and engineering outputs of a water resources project. Results of the study revealed that there are significant positive impacts of dam construction but they were not same as the targeted objectives envisaged in the feasibility report of the project. It means that after construction of the dam and irrigation system, development didn?t match with the targeted goals of the project. This study argues the world-wide controversy against construction of dam in arid zone which is ill-founded and based on a few short term, mitigable negative impacts, ignoring many positive long term inputs alleviating chronic poverty in arid regions. The study meticulously looks into the pre dam bio-physical and socio-economic conditions in one of the arid region of Iran under the area commanded by Minab dam. This dam was constructed in Hormozgan province of Iran in 1983 and its irrigation system was completed in 1986 which was followed by progressive expansion of irrigated agriculture which almost doubled in year 2006. Literacy rate has increased from 41% (pre-project to 74% in 2006. Similarly, significant improvements were observed in health care, sanitation, education, and other disciplines.

  20. Case Study of the Chaq-Chaq Dam Failure: Parameter Estimation and Evaluation of Dam Breach Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. KawaZedanAbdulrahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available On 4th of February, 2006 at about 10:00 pm.Chaq-Chaq dam failed due to overtopping. The fall of 131.2 mm of rain over a 24-hour period was recorded at Sulaimani metrological gage station, which is located about 7.5Kmsouth-east of the dam. As a result, the reservoir level rose, the dam has been overtopped and finally breached near the spillway at the right abutment. Fortunately no human lives loss nor important structure destruction were reporteddue to the dam failure. The aim of this paper is to estimate the flood hydrograph passing through Chaq-Chaq dam breach using measured breach geometry as input to unsteady option of HEC RAS 4.1.0 and calibrating the breach formation time to obtain the measured maximum water surface at Chaq-Chaq Bridge (1.36 km downstream of dam axis. In addition the recent breach prediction models were evaluated to check their accuracy in predicting the breach geometry, breach formation time and peak breach discharge.

  1. Geophysical evaluation of the Success Dam foundation, Porterville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, L.E.; Powers, M.H.; Haines, S.; Asch, T.; Burton, B.L.; Serafini, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Success Dam is a zonedearth fill embankment located near Porterville, CA. Studies of Success Dam by the recent Dam Safety Assurance Program (DSAP) have demonstrated the potential for seismic instability and large deformation of the dam due to relatively low levels of earthquake shaking. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted several phases of investigations to determine the properties of the dam and its underlying foundation. Detailed engineering studies have been applied using a large number of analytical techniques to estimate the response of the dam and foundation system when subjected to earthquake loading. Although a large amount of data have been acquired, most are 'point' data from borings and results have to be extrapolated between the borings. Geophysical techniques were applied to image the subsurface to provide a better understanding of the spatial distribution of key units that potentially impact the stability. Geophysical investigations employing seismic refraction tomography, direct current (DC) resistivity, audio magnetotellurics (AMT) and self-potential (SP) were conducted across the location of the foundation of a new dam proposed to replace the existing one. Depth to bedrock and the occurrence of beds potentially susceptible to liquefaction were the focus of the investigations. Seismic refraction tomography offers a deep investigation of the foundation region and looks at compressional and shear properties of the material. Whereas resistivity surveys determines conductivity relationships in the shallow subsurface and can produce a relatively high-resolution image of geological units with different electrical properties. AMT was applied because it has the potential to look considerably deeper than the other methods, is useful for confirming depth to bedrock, and can be useful in identifying deep seated faults. SP is a passive electrical method that measures the electrical streaming potential in the subsurface that responds to the movement of

  2. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  3. ONE- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL COUPLED HYDRODYNAMICS MODEL FOR DAM BREAK FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1-D and 2-D mathematical models for dam break flow were established and verified with the measured data in laboratory. The 1-D and 2-D models were then coupled, and used to simulate the dam break flow from the reservoir tail to the dam site, the propagation of dam break waves in the downstream channel, and the submergence of dam break flow in the downstream town with the hydrodynamics method. As a numerical example, the presented model was employed to simulate dam break flow of a hydropower station under construction. In simulation, different dam-break durations, upstream flows and water levels in front of dam were considered, and these influencing factors of dam break flow were analyzed, which could be referenced in planning and designing hydropower stations.

  4. Microtremor response of the Cheongcheon dam in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Young; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Microtremors were analysed using the reference-dependent horizontal spectral (H/H) method and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method to estimate site effects of the Cheongcheon earthen dam in Korea. Seismic vibrations were recorded on the dam's crest, at the toe of the dam, and in a downstream borehole using three-component accelerometers. The H/H peaks for crest versus toe-of-dam accelerations occurred at 3.1, 6.7 and 13.1 Hz with ratios of 6.9, 11.4 and 8.9, respectively. The H/V peaks for the crest of the dam occurred at 3.0, 7.0 and 13.4 Hz with ratios of 6.7, 7.8 and 5.6, respectively. The peak near 3 Hz may correspond to depth to bedrock, whereas the other peaks at higher frequencies may reflect the geometrical effect of the dam or overtone responses to the thickness of dam fill overlying the clay core. For the toe data, from the H/V spectral ratio method, the basement boundary appeared as double peaks near 8 and 10 Hz with corresponding amplification factors of 5.2 and 6.2. These may indicate a gradual change in velocity across the basement boundary at ~10 m depth. The third resonance, which occurred at 15 Hz, may correlate with the refraction boundary at 5-6 m depth in the overburden layer. Both the frequencies and magnitudes of resonance derived from the H/H and H/V methods are reasonably well matched to the theoretical response curves computed by the reflection and transmission matrix and the two-dimensional finite difference methods.

  5. The behaviour of a large dam at severe frost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesizing the problem, the action of the thrusts in the
    behaviour of t h e dam of Pieve di Cadore, makes itself conspicuous expecially
    during three periods of the year:
    1. - About the end of June, the air temperature, 011 t h e average, overcomes
    the water one in the watershed upstream the dam: the bending of
    t h e dam upstream increases from the bottom to the top.
    2. - About the end of October, the thermal conditions change; the
    mean air temperature grows lower than the mean water temperature; the
    dam begins her bending dowstream.
    3. - When the air temperature is distinctly below 0 °C, the action of
    t h e t h r u s t s grows more complexe; t h e rocky waterlogged system downstream
    of t h e dam, while cooling, swells and pushes t h e bottom of t h e dam upstream;
    at t h e higher quote, on the contrary, the t h r u s t downstream continues.
    When the strenght limit of the medium is surpassed, arises a contrast
    between the rocky system and the concrete structure: this contrast can origin
    a t e very small fractures, revealed from seismic station installed into the
    central ashlar (XIV a t 660 metres height of t h e dam, under t h e form of microshocks
    which energy is of about 10I0-10U erg.

  6. Dam foundation excavation techniques in China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Zhang; Wenbo Lu; Ming Chen; Peng Yan; Yingguo Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective layer (PL) is commonly reserved above foundation surface to protect the underlying rock mass during dam foundation excavation. In China, the PL of dam foundation is conventionally subdivided into two or three thin layers and excavated with the shallow-hole blasting method, even by pneumatic pick method in case of soft rock mass. The aforementioned layered excavation of the PL delays the con-struction of the whole project. After nearly 30-year practices, several safe and efficient methods for the PL excavation of dam foundation are gradually developed. They include shallow-hole bench blasting with cushion material (SBC) at the bottom of the hole, and horizontal smooth blasting (HSB). The PL is even can-celled on the condition that horizontal pre-split technique is employed during dam foundation excavation. This paper introduces the aforementioned two PL excavation methods (shallow-hole blasting and bench blasting) and horizontal pre-split technique of dam foundation without protective layer (HPP). The basic principles of blasting method, blasting geometry, charge structure, drill-and-blast parameters of typical projects are examined. Meanwhile, the merits and limitations of each method are compared. Engineering practices in China show that HSB is basically the optimal method for dam foundation PL excavation in terms of foundation damage control and rapid construction. Some new problems for dam foundation PL excavation arising, such as strong unloading and relaxation phenomenon that encountered in the gorge region of southwest China, are needed to be addressed; and the corresponding countermeasures are discussed as well.

  7. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Dams bulletin reports on technical news concerning big French dams in operation. This issue comprises 5 papers. Two of them are examples of granting problems which led to the dismantling of the dams of Kernansquillec (Cotes d`Armor, France) and Maisons-Rouges (Indre-et-Loire, France) for economical and environmental reasons. The 3 other papers concern the life of French dams (technical control reports of the French dams in operation), the activities of the control service (annual inspections, preparation of draining operations, renewing of granting), and some general information (organisation of competent authorities, colloquium reports, hydro-power production during the first quarter of 1997). (J.S.)

  8. Large Dam Effects on Flow Regime and Hydraulic Parameters of river (Case study: Karkheh River, Downstream of Reservoir Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Azarang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The critical role of the rivers in supplying water for various needs of life has led to engineering identification of the hydraulic regime and flow condition of the rivers. Hydraulic structures such dams have inevitable effects on their downstream that should be well investigated. The reservoir dams are the most important hydraulic structures which are the cause of great changes in river flow conditions. Materials and Methods: In this research, an accurate assessment was performed to study the flow regime of Karkheh river at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam as the largest dam in Middle East. Karkheh River is the third waterful river of Iran after Karun and Dez and the third longest river after the Karun and Sefidrud. The Karkheh Dam is a large reservoir dam built in Iran on the Karkheh River in 2000. The Karkheh Reservoir Dam is on the Karkheh River in the Northwestern Khouzestan Province, the closest city being Andimeshk to the east. The part of Karkheh River, which was studied in this research is located at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam. This interval is approximately 94 km, which is located between PayePol and Abdolkhan hydrometric stations. In this research, 138 cross sections were used along Karkheh River. Distance of cross sections from each other was 680m in average. The efficient model of HEC-RAS has been utilized to simulate the Karkheh flow conditions before and after the reservoir dam construction using of hydrometric stations data included annually and monthly mean discharges, instantaneous maximum discharges, water surface profiles and etc. Three defined discharges had been chosen to simulate the Karkheh River flow; maximum defined discharge, mean defined discharge and minimum defined discharge. For each of these discharges values, HEC-RAS model was implemented as a steady flow of the Karkheh River at river reach of study. Water surface profiles of flow, hydraulic parameters and other results of flow regime in

  9. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  10. Experiences from the small historical dams failures during heavy floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníček, I.; Vaníček, M.; Jirásko, D.; Pecival, T.

    2015-09-01

    Roughly between 400 and 600 years ago many small earth dams were constructed mainly in the south part of the Czech Republic. They were used for fish production and flood protection. To our days roughly one third survived, which means about 25 000 of them. During catastrophic floods in 2002 many of them had some problems but less than 0.3% failed. Experiences gained from the failure evaluation are presented. Firstly from the view of limit states of failures, when limit states of internal erosion and surface erosion played most important role and were the main reason of failures. Secondly, from the view of so called domino effect of failure, when the most important dam on the catchment basin failed and after that the other ones, situated below, had limited chance to survive. The failures are described for catchment basin of the small river Lomnice in south part of the Czech Republic close to the town Blatna. The experiences obtained there led to the evaluation of other catchment basins where domino effect of failure can play also very important role. For the evaluation of potential risk, the numerical modelling was used to study the flood wave propagation below the critical dam, especially at the moment when this wave is reaching the dam situated below the critical one. Finally, the recommendations are specified, not only for individual dams but also for catchment basin, where the risk of domino effect failure is very high.

  11. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone.

  12. Applying Mechanistic Dam Breach Models to Historic Levee Breaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risher Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina elevated levee risk in the US national consciousness, motivating agencies to assess and improve their levee risk assessment methodology. Accurate computation of the flood flow magnitude and timing associated with a levee breach remains one of the most difficult and uncertain components of levee risk analysis. Contemporary methods are largely empirical and approximate, introducing substantial uncertainty to the damage and life loss models. Levee breach progressions are often extrapolated to the final width and breach formation time based on limited experience with past breaches or using regression equations developed from a limited data base of dam failures. Physically based embankment erosion models could improve levee breach modeling. However, while several mechanistic embankment breach models are available, they were developed for dams. Several aspects of the levee breach problem are distinct, departing from dam breach assumptions. This study applies three embankments models developed for dam breach analysis (DL Breach, HR BREACH, and WinDAM C to historic levee breaches with observed (or inferred breach rates, assessing the limitations, and applicability of each model to the levee breach problem.

  13. A Method for Probabilistic Stability Analysis of Earth Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Mafioleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new probabilistic methodology for analyzing the stability of Earth Dams, based on the technique of the First Order Reliability Method for Structural Reliability. Differently from others methodologies present in literature, the proposed method interprets the involved variables as random ones. So, three results are provided here: the Structural Reliability Index, the Probability of Rupture and the most probable values of the random variables for the occurrence of a dam break. In order to illustrate it, real data from a cross section of the Left Bank Earthfill Dam of Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant (IHPP, located on the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil were used. The numerical results achieved by the proposed methodology evidence that IHPP dam has currently good structural conditions, confirming that the safety procedures adopted in Itaipu Dam may be considered as appropriate. The use of the proposed method enables to complement the previously existing knowledge about the structural conditions, improving the process of risk management.

  14. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-wu FAN; Shu-hai JIANG; Ming ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  15. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of five reservoirs in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has identified hazard concerns for areas downstream from five Colorado dams on Forest Service land. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Forest Service, initiated a flood hydrology analysis to estimate the areal extent of potential downstream flood inundation and hazard to downstream life, property, and infrastructure if dam breach occurs. Readily available information was used for dam-breach assessments of five small Colorado reservoirs (Balman Reservoir, Crystal Lake, Manitou Park Lake, McGinnis Lake, and Million Reservoir) that are impounded by an earthen dam, and no new data were collected for hydraulic modeling. For each reservoir, two dam-breach scenarios were modeled: (1) the dam is overtopped but does not fail (break), and (2) the dam is overtopped and dam-break occurs. The dam-breach scenarios were modeled in response to the 100-year recurrence, 500-year recurrence, and the probable maximum precipitation, 24-hour duration rainstorms to predict downstream flooding. For each dam-breach and storm scenario, a flood inundation map was constructed to estimate the extent of flooding in areas of concern downstream from each dam. Simulation results of the dam-break scenarios were used to determine the hazard classification of the dam structure (high, significant, or low), which is primarily based on the potential for loss of life and property damage resulting from the predicted downstream flooding.

  16. Vortices in dam reservoir: A case study of Karun III dam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maryam Azarpira; Hamed Sarkardeh; Sasan Tavakkol; Reza Roshan; Hossein Bakhshi

    2014-10-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of vortex formation on plane velocities in a reservoir. Velocity measurements are performed in the hydraulic model of Karun III dam and hydropower plant. Different vortices were produced at the horizontal intake by changing the submerged depth. Tangential velocities were measured on a rectangular mesh in the reservoir. The results were then processed to plot the contour lines of the plane velocities and study the effect of vortex formation on the flow condition in the reservoir. Contour lines in different submerged depths show that circulation zones are formed in different potential locations over the intakes causing vortex formation. These results were correlated with the location of the appearing vortices observed in the experiments. Experimental data of this study could be useful for numerical modelling of vortex in the reservoirs.

  17. Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeck, A.; Delsontro, T.; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Inland waters transport and transform substantial amounts of carbon and account for similar to 18% of global methane emissions. Large reservoirs with higher areal methane release rates than natural waters contribute significantly to freshwater emissions. However, there are millions of small dams...... worldwide that receive and trap high loads of organic carbon and can therefore potentially emit significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. We evaluated the effect of damming on methane emissions in a central European impounded river. Direct comparison of riverine and reservoir reaches, where...... sedimentation in the latter is increased due to trapping by dams, revealed that the reservoir reaches are the major source of methane emissions (similar to 0.23 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1) vs similar to 19.7 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1), respectively) and that areal emission rates far exceed previous estimates for temperate...

  18. Social Discounting of Large Dams with Climate Change Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jeuland

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the recent discounting controversy and examines its implications for the appraisal of an illustrative hydropower project in Ethiopia. The analysis uses an integrated hydro-economic model that accounts for how the dam’s transboundary impacts vary with climate change. The real value of the dam is found to be highly sensitive to assumptions about future economic growth. The argument for investment is weakest under conditions of robust global economic growth, particularly if these coincide with unfavourable hydrological or development factors related to the project. If however long-term growth is reduced, the value of the dam tends to increase. There may also be distributional or local arguments favouring investment, if growth in the investment region lags behind that of the rest of the globe. In such circumstances, a large dam can be seen as a form of insurance that protects future vulnerable generations against the possibility of macroeconomic instability or climate shocks.

  19. Roles for Dam methylation in bacterial chromosome replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Koch, Birgit; Skovgaard, Ole;

    GATC sequences in the DNA of Escherichia coli and related species are methylated at the adenine residue by DNA adenine methyltransferase (DamMT). These methylated residues and/or the level of DamMT influence initiation of chromosome replication from the replication origin, oriC, which contain...... an over-representation of GATC sites, in at least two ways. First, full methylation of oriC promotes duplex opening and hence certain oriC mutants are dependent on Dam methylation for initiation. Second, newly replicated and hemimethylated origins, are bound by SeqA (‘sequestered’) and remain inactive...... for initiation is not affected by additional SeqA whereas DnaA binding to sites outside the origin is inhibited by increased sequestration and/or hemimethylation....

  20. EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANE BEAMS OF AN OVERFLOW DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure of the overflow dam are in a serviceable operating condition, according to their opinion issued upon completion of examination and testing procedures. The recommendation is to regularly tighten screw nuts and to install high-strength bolts in the points of missing rivets. The authors also recommend applying a rust-proofing coating to all metal structures of the dam spans.

  1. A Hidden-Removal Model of Dam Perspective Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ru; ZHOU Hui-cheng; LI Ming-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Aming at water conservancy project visualization, a hidden-removal method of dam perspective drawings is realized by building a hidden-removal mathematical model for overlapping points location to set up the hidden relationship among point and plane, plane and plane in space. On this basis, as an example of panel rockfill dam, a dam hidden-removal perspective drawing is generated in different directions and different visual angles through adapting VC++ and OpenGL visualizing technology. The results show that the data construction of the model is simple which can overcome the disadvantages of considerable and complicated calculation. This method also provides the new means to draw hidden-removal perspective drawings for those landforms and ground objects.

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  3. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  4. Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO TengFei; YU Hong

    2009-01-01

    Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term,which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper,with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.

  5. Analysis of the behaviour of the Toulnoustouc CFRD Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaiene, H.; Chartrand, C. [RSW Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hammamji, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Concrete-face rockfill dams (CFRD) are typically designed using empirical methods which occasionally lead to leakage problems and the need for remedial measures. This paper argued that the application of numerical simulations in dam design may provide a greater understanding of CFRD dam behaviour. A 3D finite element method was used for the basic design of the Toulnustouc dam in Quebec. The interaction between the face concrete slabs, rockfill, and the rigid foundation was modelled with a specific emphasis on discontinuities of the concrete slabs. Data from a topographical survey was used to consider the rock excavation, dental concrete and the plinth alignment discontinuities. The rockfill modulus was calibrated using a 2D non-linear elastic model with plane deformation. Results of the modelling study were used to confirm the location of compression and tension joints for water stops design. The study showed that most of the joint sealing defects of CFRD dams were located at joints between slabs and at the plinth perimeter joint. Various analyses were then conducted to evaluate stress concentration in the reinforced concrete slabs and the variation of stresses with the rockfill deformation modulus as well as the contact points between the slab and the fill. It was observed that changes in plinth alignment introduced important tension stresses in the upstream face of the slabs within a band of 12 meters along the perimeter joint. Stresses were governed by the difference of rigidity of the fill and the developed friction forces between the fill and the slabs. It was concluded that the finite element model was useful in determining the behaviour of the CFRD dam. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Environmental risk assessment of a dam during construction phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the possible risks induced by construction of Gavi Dam in Ilam Province; western part of Iran, using MIKE-11 model and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. For this purpose, vulnerable zone of the dam site against the flooding risk of Gavi River was calculated for different return periods. The flooding zones were stimulated by MIKE-11 model. In order to check whether or not the dam construction could affect the quality of the Gavi River, the physicochemical quality of the river water was also tested. Afterwards, a questionnaire was prepared containing an inventory of possible risks supposed to be induced by construction of Gavi Dam. The questionnaires were placed at disposal of experts to score the items based on their importance. The questionnaires were then analyzed using SPSS Software, version 16. According to which, a total number of 12 risk factors were identified. The dam construction risks were qualitatively assessed by preliminary hazard analysis. Based on the results, 3 of 12 identified risks were recognized unacceptable. The shortlisted risks were prioritized at final step using technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. "Habitat fragmentation" with a weight of 0.3002, "water pollution" with a weight of 0.295, and "impacts on aquatics" with a weight of 0.293 were identified as three top priority flooding risks. Among the most important corrective measures for mitigation of the risks at construction phase can be pointed to "restoration of the land cover", “conservation of areas surrounding the dam as a new wildlife habitat", “prevention of water contamination”, and "conservation of fish spawning sites".

  7. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  8. Crucial technologies in High the design of Xiluodu Super Arch Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Renkun

    2012-01-01

    Some super high arch dams ( SHADs), like Xiluodu Arch Dam, after their heights reaching the magnitude of 300 m, confront lots of technical challenges in design and construction. Several crucial technologies of 6 SHADs will be reviewed and discussed in this and consecutive papers, including Xiluodu, Jinping I in China, Baktiary in Iran, ete. , on the topics of the research method, criterion for evaluation and engineering application of dam safety analysis and evaluation, reasonable dam base interface, dam shape optimization, comprehensive treatments of complex foundation, anti-seismic engineering, dam construction material, concrete placement and temperature control, instrumentation and monitoring of dam operation, etc. This paper will mainly focus on the overall safety of SHADs, reasonable dam base interface analysis and evaluation and their engineering application.

  9. Wear and Thermal Stress Analysis of Side Dam for Twin Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao-feng; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Xiao-ming; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The side dam technology for twin roll strip casting was discussed. The effect of pre-heating temperature, material and design of side dam on the process stability and surface quality of products was analyzed. The wear and erosion of side dam for different steel grades were described. Two types of side dam designs, namely integral type and combined type, were used in the experiment, and the suitable position of side dam was determined by experiment. The results show that the combined side dam is better than the integral one in process stability and long service life. The temperature fields and thermal stress fields in side dam during strip casting were analyzed using the finite element analysis software, and the causes of side dam cracking were explained.

  10. Prediction of downstream geomorphological changes after dam construction: A stream power approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    physical geography, hydrology, reservoirs, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, fluvial geomorphology, dams, river channel geometry......physical geography, hydrology, reservoirs, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, fluvial geomorphology, dams, river channel geometry...

  11. EnviroAtlas - National Inventory of Dams for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of the National Dams Inventory data from 2009 survey. The file contains counts of inventoried dams by 12-digit hydrologic...

  12. Thermal margin comparison between DAM and simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeonghun; Yook, Daesik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The nuclear industry in Korea, has considered using a detail analysis model (DAM), which described each rod, to get more thermal margin with the design a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel (NSF). A DAM is proposed and a thermal analysis to determine the cladding integrity is performed using test conditions with a homogenized NSF assembly analysis model(Simple model). The result show that according to USA safety criteria, temperature of canister surface has to keep below 500 K in normal condition and 630 K in excess condition. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) called ANSYS Fluent version 14.5 was used.

  13. Merowe Dam and the inundation of paleochannels of the Nile

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The course of the Nile in northern Sudan follows a contorted path through bedrocks, creating the Great Bend. Few years ago, the satellite images showed a fertile strip of land with villages, where paleochannels of the river hosted many fields with cultivations and archaeological sites. Now, a huge part of this valley is under the waters of Merowe Dam reservoir. Comparing the images of the region before and after the dam gates were closed, we can see that the reservoir created itself through flooding the paleochannels.

  14. Rollers in low-head dams - Challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan, Piroz

    2012-12-01

    Low-head dams exist in many rivers for the purposes of diverting water for open-channel irrigation and providing power plants with cooling water. Flow over low-head dams is quite complex and dangerous rollers often develop down-stream that tend to trap and submerge floating objects. This paper presents an analysis of the problem based on physical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and the result of this analysis in the form of design suggestions intended to diminish the hazards associated with rollers.

  15. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  17. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Lin; Wenwei Zheng; Bo Huang; Haichao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1) under n...

  18. Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of a Small Southeastern River: A Pre-Dam Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Paul M.; Miller, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Riverine dams alter both the physical environment and water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments. In the United States, dam construction is on the decline and there is a growing trend for dam removal. The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR), a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River. The purpose of the proposed reservoir w...

  19. PRI: transport and distribution networks of the electric power. Research program 2002/2003 (one year); PRI: Reseaux de transport de et de distribution de l'energie electrique. Programme de recherche 2002 / 2003 (1 an)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This program proposes two actions. The first one deals with the energy transfers in networks. The study presents the control of networks in the new context of the deregulation which will imply a massive insertion of a decentralized production and the research of new tools of networks simulation using the new analysis methods by order reduction and fractals. The second one is devoted to the high voltage electronic and the energy transfer. (A.L.B.)

  20. The market of the activities bound to the wastes situation 2002-2003 and perspectives 2004; Le marche des activites liees aux dechets situation 2002-2003 et perspectives 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    This study presents the different activities bound to the wastes, evaluates the economical stakes, the short-dated development perspectives, identifies the new markets and analyzes the regulations impact on the short-dated markets. It concerns the non hazardous and hazardous wastes. (A.L.B.)

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Deuxieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 2.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Premier annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 1.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  3. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Quatrieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 4.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Septieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 7.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  5. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Sixieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 6.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  6. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Huitieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 8.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  7. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Cinquieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 5.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  8. Ce que mon enfant apprend l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Troisieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 3.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2002-2003: Neuvieme annee. (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2002-2003: Grade 9.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  10. A continous Bayesian network for earth dams' risk assessment: methodology and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Napoles, O.; Delgado-Hernadez-D.J.; De-Leon-Escobedo, D.; Arteaga-Arcos, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dams’ safety is highly important for authorities around the world. The impacts of a dam failure can be enormous. Models for investigating dam safety are required for helping decision-makers to mitigate the possible adverse consequences of flooding. A model for earth dam safety must specify clearly p

  11. The Cemented Material Dam: A New, Environmentally Friendly Type of Dam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinsheng Jia Michel Lino Feng Jin Cuiying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The first author proposed the concept of the cemented material dam (CMD) in 2009. This concept was aimed at building an environmentally friendly dam in a safer and more economical way for both the dam and the area downstream...

  12. Characteristics of stress distribution in trapezoid-shaped CSG dam during earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M.; Kawasaki, H. [Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan). Water Management and Dam Division; Sasaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan). Hydraulic Engineering Research Group

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a shortage of dam sites with optimal conditions in Japan. Dam design and construction technologies must also respond to a growing demand for cost reductions and environmental concerns. Cemented Sand and Gravel (CSG) is a new dam construction material that reduces the costs of material production. However, it is not as strong as concrete. The trapezoid shape was proposed to resolve this problem, as a trapezoidal cross section can minimize stress inside the dam body and reduce fluctuations during earthquakes. This paper examines the effects of dam size and the deformability of the foundation ground on the dynamic behavior of a trapezoid-shaped CSG dam during an earthquake, as well as examining the differences between the dynamic behaviors of trapezoid-shaped CSG dams and conventional concrete gravity dams. Finite element models of both dams were used to conduct the comparison. Analysis results included stress distribution during usual loading conditions. It was concluded that stress generated inside the dam body of trapezoid-shaped CSG during earthquakes is considerably lower than concrete gravity dams with a conventional triangle shape. In addition, stress distribution inside the dam body is affected largely by the relative deformability of the foundation to CSG. 4 refs., 2 tabs.,12 figs.

  13. Landscape context and the biophysical response of rivers to dam removal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Magilligan, Francis J.; Torgersen, Christian; Major, Jon J.; Anderson, Chauncey; Connolly, Patrick J.; Wieferich, Daniel; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Evans, James E.; Infante, Dana M.; Craig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Dams have been a fundamental part of the U.S. national agenda over the past two hundred years. Recently, however, dam removal has emerged as a strategy for addressing aging, obsolete infrastructure and more than 1,100 dams have been removed since the 1970s. However, only 130 of these removals had any ecological or geomorphic assessments, and fewer than half of those included before- and after-removal (BAR) studies. In addition, this growing, but limited collection of dam-removal studies is limited to distinct landscape settings. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the landscape context of existing and removed dams and assessed the biophysical responses to dam removal for 63 BAR studies. The highest concentration of removed dams was in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, and most have been removed from 3rd and 4th order streams, in low-elevation (landscape settings, which limits predictive capacity in other environmental settings. Biophysical responses to dam removal varied by landscape cluster, indicating that landscape features are likely to affect biophysical responses to dam removal. However, biophysical data were not equally distributed across variables or clusters, making it difficult to determine which landscape features have the strongest effect on dam-removal response. To address the inconsistencies across dam-removal studies, we provide suggestions for prioritizing and standardizing data collection associated with dam removal activities.

  14. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's Gibson dam on...

  15. 75 FR 81464 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Columbia River in the vicinity of The Dalles Lock and Dam while... Dalles Lock and Dam (a) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia...

  16. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project....

  17. 75 FR 30805 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final Terms and Conditions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final... Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of Application: Major Project--Existing Dam. b. Project No.: P-12478-003. c. Date filed: August 28, 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric...

  18. 78 FR 35630 - Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings In... reviewed the application for license for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 349), located...

  19. 76 FR 26718 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's, Gibson dam on the Sun River...

  20. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  1. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  2. A continous Bayesian network for earth dams' risk assessment: methodology and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Napoles, O.; Delgado-Hernadez-D.J.; De-Leon-Escobedo, D.; Arteaga-Arcos, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Dams’ safety is highly important for authorities around the world. The impacts of a dam failure can be enormous. Models for investigating dam safety are required for helping decision-makers to mitigate the possible adverse consequences of flooding. A model for earth dam safety must specify clearly p

  3. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  4. Examination of physical and regulatory variables leading to small dam removal in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Cailin H; Roth, Brian M; Forshay, Kenneth J; Gonzales, James D; Papenfus, Michael M; Wassell, Rebecca D G

    2004-01-01

    The decision to remove or repair a dam depends on multiple variables, many of which encompass both physical and social factors. In Wisconsin, the Department of Natural Resources is mandated to inspect small dams every ten years. A safety inspection often acts as a trigger event to a dam removal or repair decision. Although the issues surrounding a dam removal decision are often couched as ecological, these decisions are influenced by their social and regulatory context. In this work, we examine descriptive variables of Wisconsin dams that were inspected and consequently removed or maintained between 1985 and 1990. We hypothesize that geographic location, height of dam, size of impoundment, age of dam, and type of ownership determine the likelihood of a safety inspection, and the subsequent likelihood of removal. Using a logistic model, we find that publicly owned dams had the greatest probability of inspection after 1985. Of these dams, older dams and those with smaller impoundments were most likely to be removed. We were unable to build a strong predictive model for dam removal with our suite of variables, suggesting that a community's decision to remove or maintain a dam is complex and heterogeneous.

  5. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  6. Geotechnical sounding of the UTE-Uruguay dams; La auscultacion geotecnica de las presas de UTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrone Matteo, Julio C.; Rosriguez Pastorino, Sandra; Mandia Bica, Magdalena [Administracion Nacional de Usinas e Transmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: gsgh@ute.com.uy

    1998-07-01

    This paper addresses specifically to the soil dams, and soil dikes of the Constitucion Dam, which is presently the most instrumented, considering that the set of inspection routine and instrumentation data, including the interpretation and behaviour evaluation, are the basis for the dam sounding.

  7. Dam-induced and natural channel changes in the Saskatchewan River below the E.B. Campbell Dam, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.

    2016-09-01

    The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal

  8. Plugs or flood-makers? The unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E. B.; O'Connor, J. E.; Ely, L. L.; House, P. K.; Grant, G.; Harrity, K.; Croall, K.; Jones, E.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4-33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40-70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide data sets

  9. Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'connor, James; Ely, Lisa L.; House, Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4–33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40–70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide

  10. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments III. Roodeplaat Dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, DJ

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal bioassays indicated that the waters of Roodeplaat dam are severely eutrophied since algal growth potentials (AGP) of up to 200 mg/l and batch culture algal growth rate of up to 2,2 d were registered with selemastrm capricornutum as test alga...

  11. Modelling autogenous expansion for magnesia concrete in arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng JIN; Guoxin ZHANG; Xiaoqing LUO; Chuhan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Magnesia Concrete is a kind of expansive con-crete used in Chinese hydraulic engineering more and more widely. To evaluate the effects of autogenous expan-sion on the stresses of arch dams, a simple model of auto-genous expansion for Magnesia Concrete in dam engineering is presented. This model is based on three assumptions: 1) the total amount of autogenous expan-sion of Magnesia Concrete is related only to the properties of materials and mixing of concrete; 2) the autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete is irreversible due to the irreversibility of hydration reaction of Magnesia in the concrete; 3) the autogenous expansion strain rates of Magnesia Concrete bear a relation between temperature and residual Magnesia per unit volume of concrete. The model is verified by some experimental data of autogen-ous expansion of Magnesia Concrete and field-measured data of an arch dam in China. Embedded into finite ele-ment arch dam simulation software, this model is employed to simulate the effects of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete in hydraulic engineering.

  12. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang a; Xing Wei b; Hanlong Liu a

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic char-acteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  13. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae...Colorado River Basin Progress Report No. 8, 195 pp. Vitt, L.J. and R.D. Ohmart, 1978. Herpetofauna of the Lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the

  14. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic characteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  15. Sliding response of gravity dams including vertical seismic accelerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Constantin Christopoulos; Pierre Léger; André Filiatrault

    2003-01-01

    Seismic safety assessment of gravity dams has become a major concern in many regions of the world while the effects of vertical seismic accelerations on the response of structures remain poorly understood. This paper first investigates the effect of including vertical accelerations in the sliding response analysis of gravity dams subjected to a range of historical ground motion records separated in two groups according to their source-to-site distance. Analyses showed that the incidence of vertical accelerations on the sliding response of gravity dams is significantly higher for near-source records than for farsource records. The pseudo-static 30% load combination rule, commonly used in practice to account for the non-simultaneous occurrence of the peak horizontal and vertical accelerations, yielded good approximations of the minimum safety factors against sliding computed from time-history analyses. A method for empirically estimating the vertical response spectra based on horizontal spectra, accounting for the difference in frequency content and amplitudes between the two components is investigated. Results from analyses using spectrum compatible horizontal and vertical synthetic records also approximated well the sliding response of a gravity dam subjected to series of simultaneous horizontal and vertical historical earthquake records.

  16. Montgomery Point Lock and Dam, White River, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    accurate and economical engineering solutions to coastal and hydraulic problems. This will strengthen and improve design criteria, enhance... Fischer , and J. Mewes. 2011. Montgomery Point Lock and Dam HSR model, White River miles 4.0 – 0.0; Hydraulic sediment response model investigation

  17. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  18. Characterisation of gold tailings dams of the Witwatersrand Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... gen in the Witwatersrand tailings dams is controlled by secondary porosity (i.e. cracks caused .... different properties and characteristics of tailings material. .... Z o n e. O. Z. T. Z. U. Z 1. U. Z 2. O. Z 1. O. Z 2. T. Z. U. Z. O. Z 1. O.

  19. Chromosomal replication incompatibility in Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Ulrik Von

    1996-01-01

    Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells containing minichromosomes were constructed. Free plasmid DNA could not be detected in these cells and the minichromosomes were found to be integrated in multiple copies in the origin of replication (oriC) region of the host chromosome...

  20. The Aswan Dam: A Lesson on Man's Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Burnell

    This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires…