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Sample records for cough motor pattern

  1. Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing helps your body heal or protect itself. Coughs can be either acute or chronic. Acute coughs begin suddenly and usually last no more than 2 to 3 weeks. Acute coughs are the kind you most often get with ...

  2. Provocation of aspiration reflexes and their effects on the pattern of cough and reflex apnea in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, I; Tomori, Z; Simera, M; Barani, H; Visnovcova, N; Halasova, E; Donic, V; Jakus, J

    2009-11-01

    Aspiration reflexes (AspRs) manifesting as reflex spasmodic inspirations and their effects on motor pattern of tracheobronchial cough and reflex apnea were studied on 22 spontaneously breathing pentobarbitone-anesthetized cats. AspRs induced during cough inspiration enhanced peak inspiratory (P<0.01) and expiratory (P<0.02) esophageal pressures, amplitudes of diaphragm (P<0.01) and abdominal muscles (P<0.05) EMG activity, and prolonged the entire expiratory period (P<0.01) and total cycle duration (P<0.05) of cough. Transient inhibitions and splits of cough expiration frequently occurred with AspR within active cough expiratory period; however, cough spatiotemporal characteristics were not altered significantly. Sub-threshold nasopharyngeal stimulation failing to provoke AspR had no significant effects on coughing. Hering-Breuer inflation apnea was moderately prolonged by AspRs (20%; P<0.05), unlike the apnea produced by continual mechanical laryngeal stimulation. AspRs are inducible during tested behaviors interacting with their motor pattern. Central mechanisms involving pulmonary stretch receptor stimulation is suggested for modulation of cough and inflation apnea by AspR.

  3. Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenleyside Georgina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a common symptom in palliative medicine and the causes may be multifactorial. When problematic it invariably affects quality of life. Evaluation must begin with a detailed history and examination with consideration given to further tests and imaging. Treatment must begin with the identification and correction of any reversible causes in addition to emperic treatment. A logical approach and regular monitoring is advised.

  4. Objective measurement of frequency and pattern of nocturnal cough in children with asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kota; Enseki, Mayumi; Tabata, Hideyuki; Nukaga, Mariko; Matsuda, Shinichi; Kato, Masahiko; Furuya, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    Although a number of patients with asthma report experiencing persistent cough during sleep, it has not yet been objectively investigated. To classify cough severity and evaluate a characteristic pattern of cough frequency in children with asthma using an objective cough monitoring system. An objective cough monitoring system that specialized in children was used to measure cough frequency and nocturnal cough patterns. Coughs were recorded with microphone and accelerometer and analyzed using a customized software program. The number of nocturnal coughs and the pattern of cough frequency in 30-minute intervals were measured along with the severity of each asthma exacerbation, and the results were compared with children without asthma. The total overnight cough count of 34 children with asthma was higher than that of 15 children without asthma (P children with severe asthma exacerbation was higher than that in children with moderate asthma exacerbation (P children without asthma. The total cough counts and cough patterns in children with asthma were not affected by sex, age, cause of asthma exacerbation, or therapy. Our data indicate huge cough counts and characteristic nocturnal cough patterns in children with asthma. Objective and precise cough monitoring is useful for the management of childhood asthma. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurogenic cough.

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    Altman, Kenneth W; Noordzij, J Pieter; Rosen, Clark A; Cohen, Seth; Sulica, Lucian

    2015-07-01

    We review contemporary concepts of the pathophysiology of neurogenic cough, and its evaluation and treatment based on scientific publications addressing neurogenic cough. Neurogenic cough is thought to be the result of sensory neuropathy, most commonly idiopathic. Because it is principally a sensory phenomenon, clinical evaluation is challenging, the diagnosis most often being made by exclusion. Identification of motor paresis, either by laryngoscopy or laryngeal electromyography, may suggest the presence of sensory neuropathy. The utility of amitriptyline and gabapentin has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials, and retrospective series and case reports have suggested efficacy of pregabalin, baclofen, and botulinum toxin. Sensory neuropathy appears to be an important cause of chronic refractory cough, and appears amenable to treatment with a variety of pharmacologic agents.

  6. Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooping cough is an infectious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable coughing. The name comes from the noise you make when you take a breath after you cough. You may have choking spells or may cough ...

  7. Cough Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether you have primary or secondary cough headaches. Primary cough headache If you have a history of primary cough ... inside the skull Other medications used to treat primary cough headache include methysergide, naproxen (Naprosyn), ergonovine, intravenous dihydroergotamine (D. ...

  8. Laryngeal response patterns influence the efficacy of mechanical assisted cough in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tiina; Sandnes, Astrid; Brekka, Anne Kristine; Hilland, Magnus; Clemm, Hege; Fondenes, Ove; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Heimdal, John-Helge; Halvorsen, Thomas; Vollsæter, Maria; Røksund, Ola Drange

    2017-01-01

    Background Most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are treated with mechanical insufflation–exsufflation (MI-E) in order to improve cough. This method often fails in ALS with bulbar involvement, allegedly due to upper-airway malfunction. We have studied this phenomenon in detail with laryngoscopy to unravel information that could lead to better treatment. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy age-matched and sex-matched volunteers. We used video-recorded flexible transnasal fibre-optic laryngoscopy during MI-E undertaken according to a standardised protocol, applying pressures of ±20 to ±50 cm H2O. Laryngeal movements were assessed from video files. ALS type and characteristics of upper and lower motor neuron symptoms were determined. Results At the supraglottic level, all patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms (n=14) adducted their laryngeal structures during insufflation. At the glottic level, initial abduction followed by subsequent adduction was observed in all patients with ALS during insufflation and exsufflation. Hypopharyngeal constriction during exsufflation was observed in all subjects, most prominently in patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms. Healthy subjects and patients with ALS and no bulbar symptoms (n=6) coordinated their cough well during MI-E. Conclusions Laryngoscopy during ongoing MI-E in patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms revealed laryngeal adduction especially during insufflation but also during exsufflation, thereby severely compromising the size of the laryngeal inlet in some patients. Individually customised settings can prevent this and thereby improve and extend the use of non-invasive MI-E. PMID:27174631

  9. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

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    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  10. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  11. Handwriting Error Patterns of Children with Mild Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Miller, Theresa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A test of handwriting legibility and 6 perceptual-motor tests were completed by 66 children ages 7-12. Among handwriting error patterns, execution was associated with visual-motor skill and sensory discrimination, aiming with visual-motor and fine-motor skills. The visual-spatial factor had no significant association with perceptual-motor…

  12. Cough responsiveness in neurogenic dysphagia.

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    Smith, P E; Wiles, C M

    1998-03-01

    In neurogenic dysphagia a good cough is important for airway protection. If triggering of cough, or its effectiveness, is impaired this might result in an increased aspiration risk. Capsaicin, an agent which induces cough through sensory nerve stimulation, was used to test cough sensitivity in groups of patients with and without neurogenic dysphagia. On the basis of swallowing speed (ml/s) in a validated water test 28 alert neurological inpatients (16 women, aged 22-71 years) were classified into 13 with abnormal and 15 with normal swallowing (median swallowing speed 23% and 99%, median volume/swallow 43% and 106% of that predicted for age and sex respectively: pneurogenic dysphagia even after allowing for diagnostic category, the possible presence of a bulbar upper motor neuron lesion, or voluntary respiratory capacity. It is concluded that these patients with neurogenic dysphagia do not have a reduced sensitivity of cough triggering.

  13. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hückesfeld; Andreas Schoofs; Philipp Schlegel; Anton Miroschnikow; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feedin...

  14. What Is Cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Cough A cough is your body’s natural reflex to help clear ... endings in your airways and cause coughing. A cough may be acute, subacute, or chronic depending on ...

  15. Delayed focal involvement of upper motor neurons in the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease.

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    Massa, R; Scalise, A; Iani, C; Palmieri, M G; Bernardi, G

    1998-12-01

    We report the case of a young man from the south of India, initially presenting the typical signs of benign monomelic amyotrophy (BMA) in the left upper limb. After several years, the involvement of other limbs and the appearance of bulbar signs suggested the possible diagnosis of the Madras pattern of motor neuron disease (MMND). Serial motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings allowed detection of the onset of a focal involvement of upper motor neurons (UMN) controlling innervation in the originally amyotrophic limb. Therefore, serial MEP recordings can be useful for the early detection of sub-clinical UMN damage in motor neuron disease presenting with pure lower motor neuron (LMN) signs.

  16. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Iwata

    Full Text Available Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  17. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  18. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  19. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time...

  20. Patterns of molecular motors that guide and sort filaments.

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    Rupp, Beat; Nédélec, François

    2012-11-21

    Molecular motors can be immobilized to transport filaments and loads that are attached to these filaments inside a nano-device. However, if motors are distributed uniformly over a flat surface, the motility is undirected, and the filaments move equally in all directions. For many applications it is important to control the direction in which the filaments move, and two strategies have been explored to achieve this: applying external forces and confining the filaments inside channels. In this article, we discuss a third strategy in which the topography of the sample remains flat, but the motors are distributed non-uniformly over the surface. Systems of filaments and patterned molecular motors were simulated using a stochastic engine that included Brownian motion and filament bending elasticity. Using an evolutionary algorithm, patterns were optimized for their capacity to precisely control the paths of the filaments. We identified patterns of motors that could either direct the filaments in a particular direction, or separate short and long filaments. These functionalities already exceed what has been achieved with confinement. The patterns are composed of one or two types of motors positioned in lines or along arcs and should be easy to manufacture. Finally, these patterns can be easily combined into larger designs, allowing one to precisely control the motion of microscopic objects inside a device.

  1. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

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    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  2. Prescription patterns and appropriateness of antibiotics in the management of cough/cold and diarrhea in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63% and cough and cold (56.4%. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P< 0.05. Cephalosporins (46.2% and penicillins (39.9% were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively. The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05. Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5% in comparison to cough/cold (85% or diarrhea (75% alone. Conclusions: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling

  3. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

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    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis.

  4. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  5. Development of motorized plasma lithography for cell patterning.

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    Deguchi, Shinji; Nagasawa, Yohei; Saito, Akira C; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Yokoyama, Sho; Sato, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    The micropatterning of cells, which restricts the adhesive regions on the substrate and thus controls cell geometry, is used to study mechanobiology-related cell functions. Plasma lithography is a means of providing such patterns and uses a spatially-selective plasma treatment. Conventional plasma lithography employs a positionally-fixed mask with which the geometry of the patterns is determined and thus is not suited for producing on-demand geometries of patterns. To overcome this, we have manufactured a new device with a motorized mask mounted in a vacuum chamber of a plasma generator, which we designate motorized plasma lithography. Our pilot tests indicate that various pattern geometries can be obtained with the control of a shielding mask during plasma treatment. Our approach can thus omit the laborious process of preparing photolithographically microfabricated masks required for the conventional plasma lithography.

  6. Muscular endurance training and motor unit firing patterns during fatigue.

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    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training. Single-motor-unit potentials were recorded from the AdP during the fatigue task with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Twitch force potentiation was measured during single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve before and after MVCs. The training group endurance trained their AdP muscle at 20 % MVC for 4 weeks. Mean motor unit firing rates were calculated every 5 % of endurance time (ET). ET increased by 45.2 ± 8.7 % (p pattern consisted of an initial slowing followed by an increase in firing rate late in fatigue and remained consistent pre-post training. Potentiation did not change following training. These data suggest that the ability of the neuromuscular system to sustain motor unit firing rate may serve as a mechanism to augment the duration of submaximal muscle performance and delay muscular fatigue.

  7. Cough in Sarcoidosis.

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    Tully, Timothy; Birring, Surinder S

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder that frequently affects the lungs. Cough is commonly reported by patients and can significantly reduce health-related quality of life. The mechanism of cough is unknown but airway inflammation, mechanical distortion from pulmonary fibrosis and disruption of the vagus nerve are possible. Recent evidence suggests cough reflex hypersensitivity may also be an important mechanism and predictor of the frequency of cough. The investigation of cough should evaluate common causes such as asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux and rhinitis. In patients with suspected cough due to sarcoidosis, a trial of corticosteroids should be considered. The severity of cough should be evaluated with validated outcome measures such as visual analogue scales, cough severity diary, health-related quality of life questionnaires such as the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and objective cough monitors. Future studies are needed to identify targets for therapeutic development.

  8. Muscle synergy patterns as physiological markers of motor cortical damage.

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    Cheung, Vincent C K; Turolla, Andrea; Agostini, Michela; Silvoni, Stefano; Bennis, Caoimhe; Kasi, Patrick; Paganoni, Sabrina; Bonato, Paolo; Bizzi, Emilio

    2012-09-04

    The experimental findings herein reported are aimed at gaining a perspective on the complex neural events that follow lesions of the motor cortical areas. Cortical damage, whether by trauma or stroke, interferes with the flow of descending signals to the modular interneuronal structures of the spinal cord. These spinal modules subserve normal motor behaviors by activating groups of muscles as individual units (muscle synergies). Damage to the motor cortical areas disrupts the orchestration of the modules, resulting in abnormal movements. To gain insights into this complex process, we recorded myoelectric signals from multiple upper-limb muscles in subjects with cortical lesions. We used a factorization algorithm to identify the muscle synergies. Our factorization analysis revealed, in a quantitative way, three distinct patterns of muscle coordination-including preservation, merging, and fractionation of muscle synergies-that reflect the multiple neural responses that occur after cortical damage. These patterns varied as a function of both the severity of functional impairment and the temporal distance from stroke onset. We think these muscle-synergy patterns can be used as physiological markers of the status of any patient with stroke or trauma, thereby guiding the development of different rehabilitation approaches, as well as future physiological experiments for a further understanding of postinjury mechanisms of motor control and recovery.

  9. Stimulation of the human motor cortex alters generalization patterns of motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Marko, Mollie K; Pekny, Sarah E.; Pastor, Damien; Izawa, Jun; Celnik, Pablo; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the generalization patterns that accompany learning carry the signatures of the neural systems that are engaged in that learning. Reach adaptation in force fields has generalization patterns that suggest primary engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the intrinsic coordinates of joints and muscles, and lesser engagement of a neural system that encodes movements in the extrinsic coordinates of the task. Among the cortical motor areas, the intrinsi...

  10. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered.

  11. Kinematic characteristics of motor patterns in rope skipping

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Henrique da Silva; Ana Maria Pellegrini

    2009-01-01

    Rope skipping seems to be an easy task to be performed. However, careful analysis of this motor skill shows how complex the execution of this task is. The objective of this study was to examine kinematic variables of jump patterns as a function of skipping frequency. Eight male university students performed a sequence of 30 rope jumps using two jump patterns (alternating support of the feet and simultaneous support of the feet) at three skipping frequencies (1.5, 1.7,1.9 Hz). Frequencies were...

  12. Motor patterns during walking on a slippery walkway.

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    Cappellini, Germana; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Poppele, Richard E; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Friction and gravity represent two basic physical constraints of terrestrial locomotion that affect both motor patterns and the biomechanics of bipedal gait. To provide insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output in connection with ground contact forces, we studied adaptation of human gait to steady low-friction conditions. Subjects walked along a slippery walkway (7 m long; friction coefficient approximately 0.06) or a normal, nonslippery floor at a natural speed. We recorded gait kinematics, ground reaction forces, and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) activity of 16 leg and trunk muscles and we mapped the recorded EMG patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron (MN) pools to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of the motor output. The results revealed several idiosyncratic features of walking on the slippery surface. The step length, cycle duration, and horizontal shear forces were significantly smaller, the head orientation tended to be stabilized in space, whereas arm movements, trunk rotations, and lateral trunk inclinations considerably increased and foot motion and gait kinematics resembled those of a nonplantigrade gait. Furthermore, walking on the slippery surface required stabilization of the hip and of the center-of-body mass in the frontal plane, which significantly improved with practice. Motor patterns were characterized by an enhanced (roughly twofold) level of MN activity, substantial decoupling of anatomical synergists, and the absence of systematic displacements of the center of MN activity in the lumbosacral enlargement. Overall, the results show that when subjects are confronted with unsteady surface conditions, like the slippery floor, they adopt a gait mode that tends to keep the COM centered over the supporting limbs and to increase limb stiffness. We suggest that this behavior may represent a distinct gait mode that is particularly suited to uncertain surface

  13. Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M.D. Shields

    2003-01-01

    textabstractChronic cough is a common problem in childhood. Viral infections are the most prevalent cause, but other rarer disorders should be excluded whenever cough appears unusually severe and/or frequent, and when there is evidence of failure to thrive and growth retardation. T

  14. Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M.D. Shields

    2003-01-01

    textabstractChronic cough is a common problem in childhood. Viral infections are the most prevalent cause, but other rarer disorders should be excluded whenever cough appears unusually severe and/or frequent, and when there is evidence of failure to thrive and growth retardation.

  15. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  16. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  17. Coughing up blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  18. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  19. 77 FR 67613 - Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385 and 386 RIN 2126-AB42 Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor Carrier Management AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... would enable the Agency to suspend or revoke the operating authority registration of motor carriers...

  20. Pattern of motor neurone disease in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S P; Das, S K; Gangopadhyay, P K; Roy, T N; Maiti, B

    1997-07-01

    A clinical study about the pattern of motor neurone disease in eastern India was carried out from July 1993 to June 1995 at Bangur Institute of Neurology, Calcutta and SSKM Hospital, Calcutta. A total of 110 cases were studied and they constituted 0.11% of all neurological cases seen in the general OPD. Of 110 cases, amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) constituted 43.6%, progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) 10.9%, post-polio progressive muscular atrophy (PPMA) 1.8%, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) 20%, atypical form Madras pattern of MND (MMND) 0.9% and monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) 22.7% of cases. Disease is more common in males than females and average duration of symptoms before presentation varied from 1 to 12 months. Most of the patients were either agricultural labourers or manual workers in ALS variety whereas MMA variety was evenly distributed in both hard labourers and sedentary workers. Most of the patients in MMA and SMA groups presented before 30 years of age whereas ALS and PMA group presented after 30 years. Trauma was the commonest antecedent event in ALS and MMA followed by electrocution in the same two groups. Family history was found to be absent in SMA group though the disease is considered as a hereditary one. Weakness of the limbs and wasting of the muscles were common presenting symptoms and signs. Bulbar symptoms and signs were found only in the ALS group. EMG showed neurogenic pattern and mixed pattern in most of the patients in all groups. Only a few patients showed myopathic pattern. Neuroimaging study helped in exclusion of compressive lesion excepting two cases of MMA where facetal hypertrophy was present. Monomelic amyotrophy, a special variety of motor neurone disease, is not rare in this part as compared to other parts of India and Asia.

  1. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  2. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  3. Cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinematic characteristics of motor patterns in rope skipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rope skipping seems to be an easy task to be performed. However, careful analysis of this motor skill shows how complex the execution of this task is. The objective of this study was to examine kinematic variables of jump patterns as a function of skipping frequency. Eight male university students performed a sequence of 30 rope jumps using two jump patterns (alternating support of the feet and simultaneous support of the feet at three skipping frequencies (1.5, 1.7,1.9 Hz. Frequencies were determined with a digital metronome and the rope was turned by the student himself. Rope jumping performance was recorded with two digital cameras for 3Danalysis. Passive markers were attached to the rope and to the ankle, knee and hip joints forcollection of the following dependent variables: continuous relative phase, time interval betweenthe loss of contact of the feet with the ground and cross of the rope under the feet of the volunteer,jump height, and rope height. ANOVA showed that for the pattern with alternating support ofthe feet the jump is executed at a lower height. In addition, analysis of the time interval revealeda delay in the withdrawal of the feet for crossing the rope in the case of the jump pattern with simultaneous support of the feet.

  5. Precise temperature compensation of phase in a rhythmic motor pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamont S Tang

    Full Text Available Most animal species are cold-blooded, and their neuronal circuits must maintain function despite environmental temperature fluctuations. The central pattern generating circuits that produce rhythmic motor patterns depend on the orderly activation of circuit neurons. We describe the effects of temperature on the pyloric rhythm of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab, Cancer borealis. The pyloric rhythm is a triphasic motor pattern in which the Pyloric Dilator (PD, Lateral Pyloric (LP, and Pyloric (PY neurons fire in a repeating sequence. While the frequency of the pyloric rhythm increased about 4-fold (Q(10 approximately 2.3 as the temperature was shifted from 7 degrees C to 23 degrees C, the phase relationships of the PD, LP, and PY neurons showed almost perfect temperature compensation. The Q(10's of the input conductance, synaptic currents, transient outward current (I(A, and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h, all of which help determine the phase of LP neuron activity, ranged from 1.8 to 4. We studied the effects of temperature in >1,000 computational models (with different sets of maximal conductances of a bursting neuron and the LP neuron. Many bursting models failed to monotonically increase in frequency as temperature increased. Temperature compensation of LP neuron phase was facilitated when model neurons' currents had Q(10's close to 2. Together, these data indicate that although diverse sets of maximal conductances may be found in identified neurons across animals, there may be strong evolutionary pressure to restrict the Q(10's of the processes that contribute to temperature compensation of neuronal circuits.

  6. The importance of basidiomycetous fungi cultured from the sputum of chronic idiopathic cough: a study to determine the existence of recognizable clinical patterns to distinguish CIC from non-CIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    Recently we have reported 5 cases of allergic fungal cough (AFC), which is intractable and is characterized by sensitization to one of basidiomycetous fungus. Because AFC shows good clinical response to antifungal drugs, diagnosing AFC in patients with CIC may lead to the consequent management of CIC. Therefore, we determined the incidence of CIC among our hospital patients, and the frequency of BM fungi in sputum samples collected from patients with CIC. Furthermore we evaluated whether or not a recognizable clinical pattern that distinguishes CIC from non-CIC exists. The medical records of 70 patients complaining of chronic cough who were referred to our hospital for diagnosis and treatment were analyzed retrospectively. The primary diagnoses were CIC (27.0%), cough-variant asthma (30.0%), atopic cough (24.3%), sinobronchial syndrome (8.6%), cough-predominant asthma (7.1%), gastro-esophageal reflux (1.4%), and others (1.4%). In CIC patients, the median age, proportion of females, and frequency of acute upper respiratory tract infection did not differ significantly from those in non-CIC patients. CIC patients had a longer median duration of cough (11.0 months vs. 3.5 months). The positive ratio of BM cultured from the sputa of CIC patients (62.5%) was significantly (p=0.0061) higher than that of non-CIC patients (16.7%). The existence of BM fungi in induced sputum may be an important factor for distinguishing the clinical manifestation of CIC from that of non-CIC. The clinical approach from the aspect of fungal allergy may serve as a clue that may aid in the successful management of CIC.

  7. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  8. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis.

  9. Predicting the performance of motor imagery in stroke patients: multivariate pattern analysis of functional MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Minji; Kwon, Gyu Hyun; Kim, Laehyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    In a brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation, motor imagery is a preferred means for providing a gateway to an effector action or behavior. However, stroke patients often exhibit failure to comply with motor imagery, and therefore their motor imagery performance is highly variable. We sought to identify motor cortical areas responsible for motor imagery performance in stroke patients, specifically by using a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We adopted an imaginary finger tapping task in which motor imagery performance could be monitored for 12 chronic stroke patients with subcortical infarcts and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We identified the typical activation pattern elicited for motor imagery in healthy controls, as computed over the voxels within each searchlight in the motor cortex. Then we measured the similarity of each individual's activation pattern to the typical activation pattern. In terms of activation levels, the stroke patients showed no activation in the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1); in terms of activation patterns, they showed lower similarity to the typical activation pattern in the area than the healthy controls. Furthermore, the stroke patients were better able to perform motor imagery if their activation patterns in the bilateral supplementary motor areas and ipsilesional M1 were close to the typical activation pattern. These findings suggest functional roles of the motor cortical areas for compliance with motor imagery in stroke, which can be applied to the implementation of motor imagery-based brain-computer interface for stroke rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Update on Pediatric Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cough in children, the topic has been poorly researched. Although pediatricians recognize that chronic cough in children is different from that in adults, this difference seems less recognizable to other health professionals. During childhood, the respiratory tract and nervous system undergo a series of anatomical and physiological maturation processes that influence the cough reflex. Additionally, immunological responses undergo developmental and memorial processes that make infection and congenital abnormalities the overwhelming cause of cough in children. The lack of comprehensive clinical data regarding chronic cough in children has initially required pediatricians to adopt an adult approach to the problem. In the last 10 years, however, research has led to the reconsideration of the etiology of chronic cough in children. Currently, attention has focused on protracted bacterial bronchitis as a major cause of chronic cough in preschool-aged children and as a possible precursor of bronchiectasis. New research horizons are emerging for both the treatment and prevention of particular causes of chronic cough in children.

  11. The importance of coughs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... around the vocal cords, carina and the larger airways, and also the eardrums ... therapy may be worthwhile in any case of chronic persistent cough. ... A simple linctus: honey for children with an acute cough is effective [1]. b.

  12. CHILDREN’S COUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Isaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coughing is one of the most common reasons why parents seek for a pediatrician’s advice. The most frequent cause of cough in children are acute respiratory infections, but it can also appear against the background of non-infectious nature as well as drug side effect or due to alien object aspiration. Thorough examination and differentiation diagnosis are the cornerstones of making anticough treatment choice allowing to achieve maximum results in short terms, avoiding unnecessary use of medications. This review contains descriptions of main cough reasons as well cough treatment pediatric guidelines.Key words: coughing, children, herbal medications. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 186–190

  13. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseljen Ottar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a

  14. 5-HT receptors involved in initiation or modulation of motor patterns: opportunities for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D I

    1994-08-01

    A clearer understanding of the role of descending systems in motor control can be achieved by using in vitro preparations of mammalian spinal cord that display patterned motor output, together with the use of selective pharmacological agents. It has been suggested that 5-HT is involved in either the initiation or the modulation of certain motor behaviours, and that it acts to enhance or regulate the motor pattern. Most attention has been paid to the locomotor rhythms underlying walking or swimming, and in respiratory pattern generation. In this article, David Wallis discusses the involvement of 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors in these processes and the possible therapeutic relevance.

  15. Comparison of atopic cough with cough variant asthma: is atopic cough a precursor of asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, M; Ogawa, H.; Nishizawa, Y; Nishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: We have described a group of patients who present with isolated chronic bronchodilator resistant non-productive cough with an atopic constitution, eosinophilic tracheobronchitis, and airway cough receptor hypersensitivity without bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which we have termed "atopic cough". Although cough variant asthma (in which the cough responds to bronchodilators) is recognised as a precursor of typical asthma, it is not known whether atopic cough is also a precursor of ...

  16. Pharm GKB: Cough [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drocodone may treat Cough hydromorphone may treat Cough May Prevent benzonatate may prevent Cough dextromethorphan...ethorphan may treat Cough guaifenesin may treat Cough hy...g File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) May Treat benzonatate may treat Cough cocaine may treat Cough codeine may treat Cough dextrom

  17. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  18. Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 5 days following the start of antibiotic treatment. Prevention Whooping cough can be prevented with the pertussis vaccine , which is part of the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis) immunization . DTaP immunizations are routinely given ...

  19. Coughing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria Bordetella pertussis . Kids with pertussis will have spells of back-to-back coughs without breathing in ... tears, or peeing less often (or having fewer wet diapers) Reviewed by: Shayan T. Vyas, MD Date ...

  20. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  1. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably “multifactorial” and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF.

  2. Evaluation of EEG oscillatory patterns and cognitive process during simple and compound limb motor imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Yi

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI, sharing similar neural representations to motor execution, is regarded as a window to investigate the cognitive motor processes. However, in comparison to simple limb motor imagery, significantly less work has been reported on brain oscillatory patterns induced by compound limb motor imagery which involves several parts of limbs. This study aims to investigate differences of the electroencephalogram (EEG patterns as well as cognitive process between simple limb motor imagery and compound limb motor imagery. Ten subjects participated in the experiment involving three tasks of simple limb motor imagery (left hand, right hand, feet and three tasks of compound limb motor imagery (both hands, left hand combined with right foot, right hand combined with left foot. Simultaneous imagination of different limbs contributes to the activation of larger cortical areas as well as two estimated sources located at corresponding motor areas within beta rhythm. Compared with simple limb motor imagery, compound limb motor imagery presents a network with more effective interactions overlying larger brain regions, additionally shows significantly larger causal flow over sensorimotor areas and larger causal density over both sensorimotor areas and neighboring regions. On the other hand, compound limb motor imagery also shows significantly larger 10-11 Hz alpha desynchronization at occipital areas and central theta synchronization. Furthermore, the phase-locking value (PLV between central and occipital areas of left/right hand combined with contralateral foot imagery is significantly larger than that of simple limb motor imagery. All these findings imply that there exist apparent intrinsic distinctions of neural mechanism between simple and compound limb motor imagery, which presents a more complex effective connectivity network and may involve a more complex cognitive process during information processing.

  3. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Silverman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI. This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant. Urge to cough (UTC and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs. Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist, and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  4. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Carnaby, Giselle; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Davenport, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant). Urge to cough (UTC) and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs). Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent) projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent) response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist), and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  5. Premature ventricular complex-induced chronic cough and cough syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, S; Dabrowska, M; Zaborska, B; Bielicki, P; Maskey-Warzechowska, M; Tarnowski, W; Chazan, R; Kulakowski, P

    2007-08-01

    The present case study reports a case of chronic cough and cough syncope associated with frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). Careful analysis of cough-related symptoms and ECG monitoring led to the suspicion of PVC-induced cough. A coincidence between PVCs and episodes of cough was also documented by a portable multichannel recorder. Moreover, Doppler echocardiography revealed a PVC-induced transient increase in the pulmonary artery blood flow. After exclusion of other possible aetiologies, complete relief of chronic cough and cough syncope was achieved by radiofrequency ablation of the arrhythmogenic focus located in the right ventricular outflow tract. Premature ventricular complexes should be considered as a cause of chronic cough and cough syncope and an interdisciplinary cooperation can lead to successful diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  6. Patterns of multimorbidity in people with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Timmeren, E. A.; Waninge, A.; Lantman-de, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; van der Putten, A. A. J.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background. People with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) experience multimorbidity and have complex health needs. Multimorbidity increases mortality, decreases functioning, and negatively influences quality of life. Information regarding patterns of multimorbidity in pe

  7. Characterizing the complexity of spontaneous motor unit patterns of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using approximate entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Barkhaus, Paul E.; Zhang, Xu; Zev Rymer, William

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a novel application of the approximate entropy (ApEn) measurement for characterizing spontaneous motor unit activity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. High-density surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record spontaneous motor unit activity bilaterally from the thenar muscles of nine ALS subjects. Three distinct patterns of spontaneous motor unit activity (sporadic spikes, tonic spikes and high-frequency repetitive spikes) were observed. For each pattern, complexity was characterized by calculating the ApEn values of the representative signal segments. A sliding window over each segment was also introduced to quantify the dynamic changes in complexity for the different spontaneous motor unit patterns. We found that the ApEn values for the sporadic spikes were the highest, while those of the high-frequency repetitive spikes were the lowest. There is a significant difference in mean ApEn values between two arbitrary groups of the three spontaneous motor unit patterns (P < 0.001). The dynamic ApEn curve from the sliding window analysis is capable of tracking variations in EMG activity, thus providing a vivid, distinctive description for different patterns of spontaneous motor unit action potentials in terms of their complexity. These findings expand the existing knowledge of spontaneous motor unit activity in ALS beyond what was previously obtained using conventional linear methods such as firing rate or inter-spike interval statistics.

  8. Acupuncture Treatment of Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case History Ms. Wang, 51 years old, a research fellow of a certain academy, paid her first visit on March 10, 2004, with the chief complaint of coughing for two weeks. She had had the problem for 10 years, usually with onset in autumn and winter times. She was once diagnosed to have 'chronic bronchitis', and had been treated with long-term administration of both Chinese and western medicines at several hospitals. The recent onset was induced by sudden change of the cold weather. At the moment, the patient had coughing with expectoration of profuse white watery sputum, chest distress, with coughing worse in the night, which seriously affected her sleep, dry mouth, aversion to cold, the appetite normal, loose stool 2~3 times a day, and the urine normal.

  9. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rigoberto; Bahna, Sami L

    2014-08-01

    Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests.

  10. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  11. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: Implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Christin Wriessnegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 minutes of training are enough to boost motor imagery patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that motor imagery has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.

  12. Assessment of cough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-23

    Feb 23, 2009 ... airways and/or stretch receptors in the distal airways or the lung .... All chronic cough or if suspect pneumonia/cancer .... frequency of drinking days, the number of drinks and the percentage of days classed as heavy drinking.

  13. Acute cough in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen W L Cals; Nick A Francis

    2010-01-01

    @@ A healthy, non-smoking 54 year old woman consults with a severe acute cough. It started two weeks ago with symptoms of a common cold, but she is worried about its duration and would like something to "clear it up. "

  14. First Aid: Coughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or after coughing Think Prevention! Follow the doctor's treatment plan if your child has asthma or allergies . Avoid anyone who smokes or has a cold . Make sure your child gets the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine or combination booster (Tdap) ...

  15. Cough management: a practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the viciou...

  16. Cough management: a practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C.; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the viciou...

  17. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Parents > Cough ... cough and cold medicine. Why Do Kids Abuse Cough and Cold Remedies? Before the U.S. Food and ...

  18. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Van Manen (Mirjam J.G.); S.S. Birring (Surinder S.); C. Vancheri (Carlo); V. Cottin (Vincent); Renzoni, E.A. (Elisabetta A.); Russell, A.-M. (Anne-Marie); M.S. Wijsenbeek (Marlies)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMany patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF,

  19. Updated guidelines on cough launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-li

    2006-01-01

    @@ Cough is the commonest symptom leading patients to consult with their doctor. What is clear is that at some stage, we all suffer from cough and at times, it is distressing and inhibits normal social activities. In a few subjects, chronic cough leads to a severe loss of quality of life.

  20. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Van Manen (Mirjam J.G.); S.S. Birring (Surinder S.); C. Vancheri (Carlo); V. Cottin (Vincent); Renzoni, E.A. (Elisabetta A.); Russell, A.-M. (Anne-Marie); M.S. Wijsenbeek (Marlies)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMany patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF,

  1. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  2. Cough in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Ing, Alvin; Birring, Surinder S

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. Therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, if present, should be optimised. The mechanism of the association between OSA and cough is not clear, but airway inflammation, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, increased cough reflex sensitivity and tracheobronchomalacia are possible explanations. Further studies should identify clinical predictors of OSA-cough, establish mechanisms and the optimal therapy.

  3. Role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group in coughing and swallowing in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Keisuke; Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Toshiro; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) located ventral to the facial nucleus plays a key role in regulating breathing, especially enhanced expiratory activity during hypercapnic conditions. To clarify the roles of the RTN/pFRG region in evoking coughing, during which reflexive enhanced expiration is produced, and in swallowing, during which the expiratory activity is consistently halted, we recorded extracellular activity from RTN/pFRG neurons during these fictive behaviors in decerebrate, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated guinea pigs. The activity of the majority of recorded respiratory neurons was changed in synchrony with coughing and swallowing. To further evaluate the contribution of RTN/pFRG neurons to these nonrespiratory behaviors, the motor output patterns during breathing, coughing, and swallowing were compared before and after brain stem transection at the caudal margin of RTN/pFRG region. In addition, the effects of transection at its rostral margin were also investigated to evaluate pontine contribution to these behaviors. During respiration, transection at the rostral margin attenuated the postinspiratory activity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Meanwhile, the late expiratory activity of the abdominal nerve was abolished after caudal transection. The caudal transection also decreased the amplitude of the coughing-related abdominal nerve discharge but did not abolish the activity. Swallowing could be elicited even after the caudal end transection. These findings raise the prospect that the RTN/pFRG contributes to expiratory regulation during normal respiration, although this region is not an essential element of the neuronal networks involved in coughing and swallowing. PMID:26203106

  4. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  5. Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to "remember" how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state.

  6. Neurogenic and myogenic properties of pan-colonic motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organization in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Better understanding of intrinsic control mechanisms of colonic motility will lead to better treatment options for colonic dysmotility. The aim was to investigate neurogenic and myogenic control mechanisms underlying pan-colonic motor patterns. METHODS: Analysis of in vitro video recordings of whole rat colon motility was used to explore motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organizations and to identify mechanisms of neurogenic and myogenic control using pharmacological tools. RESULTS: Study of the pan-colonic spatiotemporal organization of motor patterns revealed: fluid-induced or spontaneous rhythmic propulsive long distance contractions (LDCs, 0.4-1.5/min, involving the whole colon, rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMCs (0.8-2.5/min, dominant in distal colon, ripples (10-14/min, dominant in proximal colon, segmentation and retrograde contractions (0.1-0.8/min, prominent in distal and mid colon. Spontaneous rhythmic LDCs were the dominant pattern, blocked by tetrodotoxin, lidocaine or blockers of cholinergic, nitrergic or serotonergic pathways. Change from propulsion to segmentation and distal retrograde contractions was most prominent after blocking 5-HT3 receptors. In the presence of all neural blockers, bethanechol consistently evoked rhythmic LDC-like propulsive contractions in the same frequency range as the LDCs, indicating the existence of myogenic mechanisms of initiation and propulsion. CONCLUSIONS: Neurogenic and myogenic control systems orchestrate distinct and variable motor patterns at different regions of the pan-colon. Cholinergic, nitrergic and serotonergic pathways are essential for rhythmic LDCs to develop. Rhythmic motor patterns in presence of neural blockade indicate the involvement of myogenic control systems and suggest a role for the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal as pacemakers.

  7. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  8. Flow-pattern switching in a Motored Spark Ignition Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Preeti S; Gupta, Saurabh; Kuo, Tang-Wei; Reuss, David L; Sick, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic-to-cycle variability, CCV, of intake-jet flow in an optical engine was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV), revealing the possibility of two different flow patterns. A phase-dependent proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis showed that one or the other flow pattern would appear in the average flow, sampled from test to test or sub-sampled within a single test; each data set contained individual cycles showing one flow pattern or the other. Three-dimensional velocity data from a large-eddy simulation (LES) of the engine showed that the PIV plane was cutting through a region of high shear between the intake jet and another large flow structure. Rotating the measurement plane 10{\\deg} revealed one or the other flow structure observed in the PIV measurements. Thus, it was hypothesized that cycle-to-cycle variations in the swirl ratio result in the two different flow patterns in the PIV plane. Having an unambiguous metric to reveal large-scale flow CCV, causes for this variability were ex...

  9. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Krasheninnikova

    Full Text Available String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  10. Patterned-string tasks: relation between fine motor skills and visual-spatial abilities in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals.

  11. Persistent cough: is it asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faniran, A; Peat, J; Woolcock, A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if children in the community with persistent cough can be considered to have asthma. A validated questionnaire was given to the parents of 1245 randomly selected children aged 6-12 years. Atopy was measured with skin prick tests. Children with persistent cough had less morbidity and less atopy compared with children with wheeze. Although the syndrome commonly referred to as "cough variant asthma" could not be shown in this study, a sign...

  12. Interventions for cough in cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Molassiotis, Alex; Bailey, Chris; Caress, Ann; Brunton, Lisa; Smith, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom in patients with malignancies, especially in patients with lung cancer. Cough is not well controlled in clinical practice and clinicians have few management options to treat it. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, (other than chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy) in the management of cough in malignant disease (especially in lung cancer)....

  13. Interventions for cough in cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Molassiotis, Alex; Bailey, Chris; Caress, Ann; Brunton,Lisa; Smith, Jacky

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom in patients with malignancies, especially in patients with lung cancer. Cough is not well controlled in clinical practice and clinicians have few management options to treat it. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, (other than chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy) in the management of cough in malignant disease (especially in lung cancer)....

  14. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  15. Review series: chronic cough: behaviour modification therapies for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigan, A E; Theodoros, D G; Gibson, P G; Winkworth, A L

    2007-01-01

    Chronic cough (CC) can be refractory to medical treatment and newer strategies are required for these patients. Behaviour modification therapies are a potential approach for management of cough that does not respond to medical management. Behaviour modification therapy for CC involves an individually tailored programme teaching individuals to increase control over cough symptoms and includes education, specific strategies to suppress the cough, vocal hygiene training and psychoeducational counselling. Several case series have described speech pathology treatment for CC and a recent randomized control trial has demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms. Possible mechanisms for this improvement include reduced cough reflex sensitivity, increased voluntary control of the cough and reduced stimulation of cough receptors. Respiratory retraining used by physiotherapists may also have potential for use in CC. The validity of psychological therapeutic approaches to CC rests on concepts of CC as a disorder with a psychogenic component, and the ability of cognitive therapies to modify the cough pathway. This work outlines current literature into behavioural management of CC and suggests new directions for practice and research in adults with this condition.

  16. Cough management: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-10-10

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the vicious cycle of cough. There has been a long tradition in acute cough, which is frequently due to upper respiratory tract infections, to use symptom-related anti-tussives. Suppression of cough (during chronic cough) may be achieved by disease-specific therapies, but in many patients it is often necessary to use symptomatic anti-tussives, too. According to the current guidelines of the American College of Chest Physician on "Cough Suppressants and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy" and additional clinical trials on the most frequent anti-tussive drugs, it should be possible to diagnose and treat cough successfully in a majority of cases. Among drugs used for the symptomatic treatment of cough, peripherally acting anti-tussives such as levodropropizine and moguisteine show the highest level of benefit and should be recommended especially in children. By improving our understanding of the specific effects of these anti-tussive agents, the therapeutic use of these drugs may be refined. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant anti-tussive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  17. Eight International London Cough Symposium 2014: Cough hypersensitivity syndrome as the basis for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Canning, Brendan; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-12-01

    At the Eighth International London Cough Conference held in London in July 2014, the focus was on the relatively novel concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) as forming the basis of chronic cough. This concept has been formulated following understanding of the neuronal pathways for cough and a realisation that not all chronic cough is usually associated with a cause. The CHS is defined by troublesome coughing triggered by low level of thermal, mechanical or chemical exposure. It also encompasses other symptoms or sensations such as laryngeal hypersensitivity, nasal hypersensitivity and possibly also symptoms related to gastrooesopahgeal reflux. The pathophysiologic basis of the CHS is now being increasingly linked to an enhancement of the afferent pathways of the cough reflex both at the peripheral and central levels. Mechanisms involved include the interactions of inflammatory mechanisms with cough sensors in the upper airways and with neuronal pathways of cough, associated with a central component. Tools for assessing CHS in the clinic need to be developed. New drugs may be developed to control CHS. A roadmap is suggested from the inception of the CHS concept towards the development of newer antitussives at the Symposium.

  18. Primary motor cortex neurons classified in a postural task predict muscle activation patterns in a reaching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Ethan A; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Omrani, Mohsen; Herter, Troy M; Pruszynski, J Andrew; Scott, Stephen H

    2016-04-01

    Primary motor cortex (M1) activity correlates with many motor variables, making it difficult to demonstrate how it participates in motor control. We developed a two-stage process to separate the process of classifying the motor field of M1 neurons from the process of predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of its motor field during reaching. We tested our approach with a neural network model that controlled a two-joint arm to show the statistical relationship between network connectivity and neural activity across different motor tasks. In rhesus monkeys, M1 neurons classified by this method showed preferred reaching directions similar to their associated muscle groups. Importantly, the neural population signals predicted the spatiotemporal dynamics of their associated muscle groups, although a subgroup of atypical neurons reversed their directional preference, suggesting a selective role in antagonist control. These results highlight that M1 provides important details on the spatiotemporal patterns of muscle activity during motor skills such as reaching.

  19. Afferent roles in hindlimb wipe-reflex trajectories: free-limb kinematics and motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargo, W J; Giszter, S F

    2000-03-01

    The hindlimb wiping reflex of the frog is an example of a targeted trajectory that is organized at the spinal level. In this paper, we examine this reflex in 45 spinal frogs to test the importance of proprioceptive afferents in trajectory formation at the spinal level. We tested hindlimb to hindlimb wiping, in which the wiping or effector limb and the target limb move together. Loss of afferent feedback from the wiping limb was produced by cutting dorsal roots 7-9. This caused altered initial trajectory direction, increased ankle path curvature, knee-joint velocity reversals, and overshooting misses of the target limb. We established that these kinematic and motor-pattern changes were due mainly to the loss of ipsilateral muscular and joint afferents. Loss of cutaneous afferents alone did not alter the initial trajectory up to target limb contact. However, there were cutaneous effects in later motor-pattern phases after the wiping and target limb had made contact: The knee extension or whisk phase of wiping was often lost. Finally, there was a minor and nonspecific excitatory effect of phasic contralateral feedback in the motor-pattern changes after deafferentation. Specific muscle groups were altered as a result of proprioceptive loss. These muscles also showed configuration-based regulation during wiping. Biceps, semitendinosus, and sartorius (all contributing knee flexor torques) all were regulated in amplitude based on the initial position of the limb. These muscles contributed to an initial electromyographic (EMG) burst in the motor pattern. Rectus internus and semimembranosus (contributing hip extensor torques) were regulated in onset but not in the time of peak EMG or in termination of EMG based on initial position. These two muscles contributed to a second EMG burst in the motor pattern. After deafferentation the initial burst was reduced and more synchronous with the second burst, and the second burst often was broadened in duration. Ankle path curvature

  20. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  1. Examining Differences in Patterns of Sensory and Motor Recovery After Stroke With Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2015-12-01

    Developing a better understanding of the trajectory and timing of stroke recovery is critical for developing patient-centered rehabilitation approaches. Here, we quantified proprioceptive and motor deficits using robotic technology during the first 6 months post stroke to characterize timing and patterns in recovery. We also make comparisons of robotic assessments to traditional clinical measures. One hundred sixteen subjects with unilateral stroke were studied at 4 time points: 1, 6, 12, and 26 weeks post stroke. Subjects performed robotic assessments of proprioceptive (position sense and kinesthesia) and motor function (unilateral reaching task and bimanual object hit task), as well as several clinical measures (Functional Independence Measure, Purdue Pegboard, and Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment). One week post stroke, many subjects displayed proprioceptive (48% position sense and 68% kinesthesia) and motor impairments (80% unilateral reaching and 85% bilateral movement). Interindividual recovery on robotic measures was highly variable. However, we characterized recovery as early (normal by 6 weeks post stroke), late (normal by 26 weeks post stroke), or incomplete (impaired at 26 weeks post stroke). Proprioceptive and motor recovery often followed different timelines. Across all time points, robotic measures were correlated with clinical measures. These results highlight the need for more sensitive, targeted identification of sensory and motor deficits to optimize rehabilitation after stroke. Furthermore, the trajectory of recovery for some individuals with mild to moderate stroke may be much longer than previously considered. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2015-03-17

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity

  3. Toward the Autism Motor Signature: Gesture patterns during smart tablet gameplay identify children with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzulewicz, Anna; Sobota, Krzysztof; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder evident from infancy. Yet, its clinical identification requires expert diagnostic training. New evidence indicates disruption to motor timing and integration may underpin the disorder, providing a potential new computational marker for its early identification. In this study, we employed smart tablet computers with touch-sensitive screens and embedded inertial movement sensors to record the movement kinematics and gesture forces made by 37 children 3–6 years old with autism and 45 age- and gender-matched children developing typically. Machine learning analysis of the children’s motor patterns identified autism with up to 93% accuracy. Analysis revealed these patterns consisted of greater forces at contact and with a different distribution of forces within a gesture, and gesture kinematics were faster and larger, with more distal use of space. These data support the notion disruption to movement is core feature of autism, and demonstrate autism can be computationally assessed by fun, smart device gameplay.

  4. Motor unit recruitment pattern during low-level static and dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, K

    1995-03-01

    Motor unit (MU) recruitment patterns were studied during dynamic and static contractions at workloads corresponding to 10% of maximal voluntary contraction force. The dynamic contraction consisted of a 20 degrees flexion and extension of the elbow performed with a velocity of 10 degrees/s. Motor unit potential trains were recorded from the brachial biceps muscle of 6 healthy females using a quadripolar needle electrode and a computerized decomposition program. Properties of the identified MUs were derived from concentric needle EMG. A total of 119 MUs were identified during dynamic contractions, 107 MUs during static anisotonic contractions, and 96 MUs during static isotonic contractions. The main result was that MUs recruited during different contractions showed similar properties and may belong to the same part of the motoneuron pool. This indicates that MU recruitment patterns during dynamic contractions may be almost as stereotypical as during static contractions and may even activate the same MUs.

  5. Perceptual Estimates of Motor Skill Proficiency Are Constrained by the Stability of Coordination Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated that motor skill proficiency ratings are constrained by the same order parameter dynamics that constrain action production and action perception processes. Participants produced rhythmic actions simulated by an animated stick figure of the human arm. The primary finding was that participants' proficiency ratings covaried most with relative phase (φ) variability compared to mean relative phase. In-phase (φ = 0°) was produced with the least variability and received the highest proficiency rating, whereas the patterns φ = ±150° were attempted with the most variability and received the lowest proficiency ratings. A temporal delay in attempting to produce the animated pattern had a large impact on produced relative phase, yet had little impact on the proficiency ratings. Proprioceptive processes provide individuals information on motor skill proficiency. The lead or lag motion of the hand to forearm segment of the animated arm was identified consistently through visual processes and revealed asymmetries in the mapping of visual input to motor output. The results are consistent with concepts from the dynamic pattern theory of coordination and are discussed with regard to relative phase as an informational variable that constraints the perception-action system across many levels.

  6. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marian J; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DCD without LD, children with comorbid DCD and LD performed lower on a standardized assessment of perceptual-motor ability. Furthermore, it appeared that children with combined DCD and LD have particular difficulty performing manual dexterity and balance tasks but not ball-skill tasks. Implications for understanding the relationship between LD and perceptual-motor problems are discussed. We conclude that the comorbidity of DCD and LD not only affects the severity of perceptual-motor dysfunction but also is associated with a distinctive pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction.

  7. Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayas Gustavo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surrounding environment as an aerosol. The objective of the current study was to characterize the human cough aerosol pattern with the aim of developing a standard human cough bioaerosol model for Influenza Pandemic control. Method 45 healthy non-smokers participated in the open bench study by giving their best effort cough. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, time-dependent, quantitative measurements of the size and number of droplets expelled by the cough aerosol. Results Voluntary coughs generated droplets ranging from 0.1 - 900 microns in size. Droplets of less than one-micron size represent 97% of the total number of measured droplets contained in the cough aerosol. Age, sex, weight, height and corporal mass have no statistically significant effect on the aerosol composition in terms of size and number of droplets. Conclusions We have developed a standard human cough aerosol model. We have quantitatively characterized the pattern, size, and number of droplets present in the most important mode of person-to-person transmission of IRD: the cough bioaerosol. Small size droplets ( Study design Open bench, Observational, Cough, Aerosol study

  8. Relationships between motor patterns and intraluminal pressure in the 3-taeniated proximal colon of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiaojing; Yang, Zixian; Xue, Mai; Chen, Ji-Hong; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-02-14

    Manometry is used worldwide to assess motor function of the gastrointestinal tract, and the measured intraluminal pressure patterns are usually equated with contraction patterns. In the colon, simultaneous pressure increases throughout the entire colon are most often called simultaneous contractions, although this inference has never been verified. To evaluate the relationship between pressure and contraction in the colon we performed high-resolution manometry and measured diameter changes reflecting circular muscle contractions in the rabbit colon. We show that within a certain range of contraction amplitudes and frequencies, the intraluminal pressure pattern faithfully resembles the contraction pattern. However, when the frequency is very high (as in fast propagating contractions in a cluster) the consequent intraluminal pressures merge. When the contraction speed of propagation is very fast (above ~5 cm/s), the resulting pressure occurs simultaneous throughout the colon; hence simultaneous pressure is measured as are caused by fast propagating contractions. The very slow propagating, low amplitude haustral boundary contractions show a very characteristic pattern in spatiotemporal contraction maps that is not faithfully reproduced in the pressure maps. Correct interpretation of pressure events in high-resolution manometry is essential to make it a reliable tool for diagnosis and management of patients with colon motor dysfunction.

  9. Common Spatio-Time-Frequency Patterns for Motor Imagery-Based Brain Machine Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Higashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient decoding of brain activities in analyzing brain function with an application to brain machine interfacing (BMI, we address a problem of how to determine spatial weights (spatial patterns, bandpass filters (frequency patterns, and time windows (time patterns by utilizing electroencephalogram (EEG recordings. To find these parameters, we develop a data-driven criterion that is a natural extension of the so-called common spatial patterns (CSP that are known to be effective features in BMI. We show that the proposed criterion can be optimized by an alternating procedure to achieve fast convergence. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively extract discriminative features for a motor imagery-based BMI.

  10. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nausea produced by high doses of the expectorant guaifenesin commonly found in DXM-containing syrups, young people ... or triple-C), which contain DXM but lack guaifenesin. Drinking promethazine-codeine cough syrup mixed with soda ( ...

  11. A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian chewing motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Doherty, Alison H; Crompton, Alfred W; Hylander, William L

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have demonstrated both similarities and differences among species in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994. Since then, new data have been collected and additional hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test for the correlated evolution of specific components of mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be integrated with dietary and morphological data to better understand how feeding and the

  12. Consequences of Comorbidity of Developmental Coordination Disorders and Learning Disabilities for Severity and Pattern of Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmans, Marian J.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined consequences of the comorbidity of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and learning disability (LD) for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with only DCD, those with DCD and LD had poorer perceptual-motor ability, with particular difficulty performing manual dexterity and balance…

  13. Night cough and general practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, L J; Howie, J G; Paxton, F M

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-four children, aged between three and nine years, presenting with nocturnal cough, were studied on successive nights using an automatic voice activated tape recorder system. Children with a family history of atopy coughed significantly more than children without such a family history. A wide variation in cough frequency was found both between and within subjects. No effects of treatment on cough frequency were demonstrated. Some of the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying night cough are discussed.

  14. Phasic bursts of the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep mimic a coordinated motor pattern during mastication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Kato; N. Nakamura; Y. Masuda; A. Yoshida; T. Morimoto; K. Yamamura; S. Yamashita; F. Sato

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, jaw-closing and -opening muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities and jaw movements were quantified to characterize phenotypes of motor patterns during sleep in freely moving and head-restrained guinea pigs...

  15. Local Temporal Correlation Common Spatial Patterns for Single Trial EEG Classification during Motor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common spatial pattern (CSP is one of the most popular and effective feature extraction methods for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI, but the inherent drawback of CSP is that the estimation of the covariance matrices is sensitive to noise. In this work, local temporal correlation (LTC information was introduced to further improve the covariance matrices estimation (LTCCSP. Compared to the Euclidean distance used in a previous CSP variant named local temporal CSP (LTCSP, the correlation may be a more reasonable metric to measure the similarity of activated spatial patterns existing in motor imagery period. Numerical comparisons among CSP, LTCSP, and LTCCSP were quantitatively conducted on the simulated datasets by adding outliers to Dataset IVa of BCI Competition III and Dataset IIa of BCI Competition IV, respectively. Results showed that LTCCSP achieves the highest average classification accuracies in all the outliers occurrence frequencies. The application of the three methods to the EEG dataset recorded in our laboratory also demonstrated that LTCCSP achieves the highest average accuracy. The above results consistently indicate that LTCCSP would be a promising method for practical motor imagery BCI application.

  16. What is chronic cough in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia eIOAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough – but not expiration reflex – appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children. Prolonged acute cough is usually related to the long-lasting effects of a previous viral airway infection or to the particular entity called protracted bacterial bronchitis. Cough pointers and type may orient towards specific aetiologies, such as barking cough in croup or tracheomalacia, paroxystic whooping cough in Pertussis. Cough is productive in protracted bacterial bronchitis, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Cough is usually associated with wheeze or dyspnea on exertion in asthma; however, it may be the sole symptom in cough variant asthma. Thus, paediatric cough has particularities differentiating it from adult cough, so the approach and management should be developmentally specific.

  17. An analysis of motor unit firing pattern during sustained low force contraction in fatigued muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, H B; Christensen, H; Søgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    In the present study motor unit (MU) firing pattern was analysed during long-term static contraction in order to see if fatigue would induce rotation of activity between different MU. Surface as well as intramuscular EMG were obtained from ten subjects during a sustained hand lift for 5 minutes after performance of a 30% MVC fatiguing contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle. A newly developed decomposition program constituted a powerful tool to obtain detailed knowledge of long term activity pattern of MU during low force contractions. Although the muscle was highly fatigued the majority of MU showed a continuous firing pattern after recruitment and no clear incidences of rotation were found for any of the subjects. Therefore, long term, low force contractions, as performed during many occupational work tasks, may involve continuous activation of the low threshold MU and this could have mechanical as well as metabolic implications for these muscle fibers.

  18. Actigraphic registration of motor activity reveals a more structured behavioural pattern in schizophrenia than in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedegaard Ketil J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in motor activity pattern are seen in both schizophrenia and depression. However, this activity has rarely been studied objectively. The purpose of the present study has been to study the complexity of motor activity patterns in these patients by using actigraphy. Findings Motor activity was recorded using wrist-worn actigraphs for periods of 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia and major depression and compare them to healthy controls. Average motor activity was recorded and three non-parametric variables, interdaily stability (IS, intradaily variability (IV, and relative amplitude (RA were calculated on the basis of these data. The motor activity was significantly lower both in patients with schizophrenia (153 ± 61, mean ± SD, p Conclusions Motor activity was significantly reduced in both schizophrenic and depressed patients. However, schizophrenic patients differed from both depressed patients and controls, demonstrating motor activity patterns marked by less complexity and more structured behaviour. These findings may indicate that disturbances in motor activity reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia compared to major depression.

  19. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  20. Interventions for cough in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alex; Bailey, Chris; Caress, Ann; Brunton, Lisa; Smith, Jacky

    2010-09-08

    Cough is a common symptom in patients with malignancies, especially in patients with lung cancer. Cough is not well controlled in clinical practice and clinicians have few management options to treat it. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of interventions, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, (other than chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy) in the management of cough in malignant disease (especially in lung cancer). Databases searched included: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) (The Cochrane Library issue 4, 2009); MEDLINE (1966 to May 2010); EMBASE (1980 to May 2010); CINAHL (1980 to May 2010); PSYCHINFO (1980 to May 2010); AMED (1985 to May 2010); SIGLE (1980 to May 2010); British Nursing Index (1985 to May 2010); CancerLit (1975 to May 2010). We searched for cough suppressants, antitussives and other drugs with antitussive activity as well as non-pharmacological interventions (see Appendices 1-4 for search terms). We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical trials (quasi-experimental trials, and trials where there is a comparison group but no mention of randomisation) in participants with primary or metastatic lung cancer or other cancers. Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of all studies, and extracted data from all selected studies before reaching consensus. A third review author arbitrated with any disagreement. Meta-analysis was not attempted due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria and examined either brachytherapy, laser or photodynamic therapy (eight studies) or a variety of pharmacological therapies (nine studies). Overall, there was absence of credible evidence and the majority of studies were of low methodological quality and high risk of bias. Brachytherapy seemed to improve cough in a variety of doses in selected participants

  1. Cough sensitivity and extrathoracic airway responsiveness to inhaled capsaicin in chronic cough patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced cough response has been frequently observed in chronic cough. Recently, extrathoracic airway constriction to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in some chronic cough patients. However, relation between extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness (EAHR) and cough sensitivity determined by capsaicin inhalation is unclear in each etiological entity of chronic cough. Seventy-seven patients, with dry cough persisting for 3 or more weeks, normal spirometry and chest radiography, and 15 contro...

  2. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  4. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom.

  5. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  6. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M.; Shui, A. M.; Nowinski, L. A.; Golas, S. B.; Ferrone, C.; O'Rourke, J. A.; McDougle, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and…

  7. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhak David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity. Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  8. Cardinality as a highly descriptive feature in myoelectric pattern recognition for decoding motor volition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max

    2015-01-01

    Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins' set) and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy). Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type, and number of movements (single or simultaneous), and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  9. Cardinality as a Highly Descriptive Feature in Myoelectric Pattern Recognition for Decoding Motor Volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eOrtiz-Catalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate descriptors of muscular activity play an important role in clinical practice and rehabilitation research. Such descriptors are features of myoelectric signals extracted from sliding time windows. A wide variety of myoelectric features have been used as inputs to pattern recognition algorithms that aim to decode motor volition. The output of these algorithms can then be used to control limb prostheses, exoskeletons, and rehabilitation therapies. In the present study, cardinality is introduced and compared with traditional time-domain (Hudgins’ set and other recently proposed myoelectric features (for example, rough entropy. Cardinality was found to consistently outperform other features, including those that are more sophisticated and computationally expensive, despite variations in sampling frequency, time window length, contraction dynamics, type and number of movements (single or simultaneous, and classification algorithms. Provided that the signal resolution is kept between 12 and 14 bits, cardinality improves myoelectric pattern recognition for the prediction of motion volition. This technology is instrumental for the rehabilitation of amputees and patients with motor impairments where myoelectric signals are viable. All code and data used in this work is available online within BioPatRec.

  10. Effect of Guaifenesin on Cough Reflex Sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter V. Dicpinigaitis; Yvonne E. Gayle

    2003-01-01

    Background: Guaifenesin, a commonly used agent for the treatment of cough, is termed an expectorant since it is believed to alleviate cough discomfort by increasing sputum volume and decreasing its viscosity...

  11. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  12. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap Two vaccines in the ...

  13. Evidence for neuropathic processes in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Akio; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic cough is a very common symptom for which patients seek medical attention but can often be difficult to manage, because associated causes may remain elusive and treatment of any associated causes does not always provide adequate relief. Current antitussives have limited efficacy and undesirable side-effects. Patients with chronic cough typically describe sensory symptoms suggestive of upper airway and laryngeal neural dysfunction. They often report cough triggered by low-level physical and chemical stimuli supporting the recently emerging concept of 'cough hypersensitivity syndrome'. Chronic cough is a neuropathic condition that could be secondary to sensory nerve damage caused by inflammatory, infective and allergic factors. Mechanisms underlying peripheral and central augmentation of the afferent cough pathways have been identified. Successful treatment of chronic cough with agents used for treating neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin and amitriptyline, would also support this concept. Further research of neuropathic cough may lead to the discovery of more effective antitussives in the future.

  14. Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Whooping Cough and the Pertussis Vaccine Posted under Health Guides . ... Content Key Facts Pertussis is also called Whooping Cough. The best way to protect yourself from Pertussis ...

  15. Overview of the Management of Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia T.; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Gold, Philip M.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan; Chang, Anne Bernadette; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; Gibson, Peter; Gould, Michael K.; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Turner, Ronald B.; Vertigan, Anne; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2014-01-01

    This overview will demonstrate that cough is a common and potentially expensive health-care problem. Improvement in the quality of care of those with cough has been the focus of study for a variety of disciplines in medicine. The purpose of the Cough Guideline and Expert Panel is to synthesize current knowledge in a form that will aid clinical decision-making for the diagnosis and management of cough across disciplines and also identify gaps in knowledge and treatment options. PMID:25080295

  16. Rhythmic patterns evoked in locust leg motor neurons by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebusch, S; Laurent, G

    1993-05-01

    1. When an isolated metathoracic ganglion of the locust was superfused with the muscarinic cholinergic agonist pilocarpine, rhythmic activity was induced in leg motor neurons. The frequency of this induced rhythm increased approximately linearly from 0 to 0.2 Hz with concentrations of pilocarpine from 10(-5) to 10(-4) M. Rhythmic activity evoked by pilocarpine could be completely and reversibly blocked by 3 x 10(-5) M atropine, but was unaffected by 10(-4) M d-tubocurarine. 2. For each hemiganglion, the observed rhythm was characterized by two main phases: a levator phase, during which the anterior coxal rotator, levators of the trochanter, flexors of the tibia, and common inhibitory motor neurons were active; and a depressor phase, during which depressors of the trochanter, extensors of the tibia, and depressors of the tarsus were active. Activity in depressors of the trochanter followed the activity of the levators of the trochanter with a short, constant interburst latency. Activity in the levator of the tarsus spanned both phases. 3. The levator phase was short compared with the period (0.5-2 s, or 10-20% of the period) and did not depend on the period. The interval between the end of a levator burst and the beginning of the following one thus increased with cycle period. The depressor phase was more variable, and was usually shorter than the interval between successive levator bursts. 4. Motor neurons in a same pool often received common discrete synaptic potentials (e.g., levators of trochanter or extensors of tibia), suggesting common drive during the rhythm. Coactive motor neurons on opposite sides (such as left trochanteral depressors and right trochanteral levators), however, did not share obvious common postsynaptic potentials. Depolarization of a pool of motor neurons during its phase of activity was generally accompanied by hyperpolarization of its antagonist(s) on the same side. 5. Rhythmic activity was generally evoked in both hemiganglia of the

  17. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DC...

  18. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGurk Neal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach.

  19. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  20. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Vaccine Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Whooping Cough and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Language: ... and adults is called Tdap. What is whooping cough? Whooping cough—or pertussis—is a very serious ...

  1. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A

    2009-02-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC and the fundamental frequency in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) whose song, unlike that of the cardinal, consists of a series of almost constant frequency notes. Cineradiography of singing sparrows shows that the oropharyngeal cavity and cranial end of the esophagus expand abruptly at the start of each note and maintain a relatively constant volume until the end of the note. Computation of the vocal tract transfer function suggests a major resonance of the OEC follows the fundamental frequency, making sound transmission more efficient. The presence of similar prominent song-related vocal tract motor patterns in two Oscine families suggests that the active control of the vocal tract resonance by varying the volume of the OEC may be widespread in songbirds.

  2. Influence of varied stimuli on development of motor patterns in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J S

    1979-01-01

    The premature infant is at risk for both mortality and morbidity. His writhing contributes to weight loss, and his extrauterine environment does not contain the multi-modality patterned afferent stimuli that impinge upon the developing brain in utero. Sound is the most effective modality to achieve concurrent decrement in motility along with enhancement of cortical activity. It was anticipated that subjects exposed to 5 minutes of patterned sound 6 times a day would, by 36 weeks gestation, evidence: (a) less gross motor activity, (b) the normal predominance of upper over lower limb activity, and (c) beginning laterality. The sample consisted of 80 males and 73 females whose gestational age at birth was 26--33 weeks. By random assignment 52 subjects were exposed to the routine ambient noise of the isolette and nursery, 50 to a tape recording of their mother's voice, and 51 to an orchestral arrangement of Brahm's Lullaby. Limb activity was measured just prior to discharge by accelerometers worn unilaterally for a 24-hour period on the ankle and wrist prior to transfer to the alternate side for an additional 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated among the limb patterns of the 3 groups. Large intragroup variation in gross activity precluded demonstration of between-group differences. The majority of subjects evidenced predominance of upper limb activity and laterality.

  3. Classifying single-trial EEG during motor imagery by iterative spatio-spectral patterns learning (ISSPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo; Gao, Shangkai

    2008-06-01

    In most current motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), machine learning is carried out in two consecutive stages: feature extraction and feature classification. Feature extraction has focused on automatic learning of spatial filters, with little or no attention being paid to optimization of parameters for temporal filters that still require time-consuming, ad hoc manual tuning. In this paper, we present a new algorithm termed iterative spatio-spectral patterns learning (ISSPL) that employs statistical learning theory to perform automatic learning of spatio-spectral filters. In ISSPL, spectral filters and the classifier are simultaneously parameterized for optimization to achieve good generalization performance. A detailed derivation and theoretical analysis of ISSPL are given. Experimental results on two datasets show that the proposed algorithm can correctly identify the discriminative frequency bands, demonstrating the algorithm's superiority over contemporary approaches in classification performance.

  4. Multisubject Learning for Common Spatial Patterns in Motor-Imagery BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Devlaminck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor-imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs commonly use the common spatial pattern filter (CSP as preprocessing step before feature extraction and classification. The CSP method is a supervised algorithm and therefore needs subject-specific training data for calibration, which is very time consuming to collect. In order to reduce the amount of calibration data that is needed for a new subject, one can apply multitask (from now on called multisubject machine learning techniques to the preprocessing phase. Here, the goal of multisubject learning is to learn a spatial filter for a new subject based on its own data and that of other subjects. This paper outlines the details of the multitask CSP algorithm and shows results on two data sets. In certain subjects a clear improvement can be seen, especially when the number of training trials is relatively low.

  5. Somatic Cough Syndrome (Previously Referred to as Psychogenic Cough) and Tic Cough (Previously Referred to as Habit Cough) in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Mohammad H.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B.; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rubin, Bruce K.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W.; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients’ values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality. PMID:25856777

  6. Efficacy of levodropropizine in pediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-10-01

    Cough in children is among the most common problems managed by pediatricians, and occurs more frequently in preschool than in older children. Most acute episodes of cough are due to viral upper respiratory tract infections. The morbidity associated with acute cough in a child extends also to parents, teachers, and other family members and caregivers. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. Agents used in the management of adult cough, such as narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone), the non-narcotic opioid dextromethorphan, first-generation, potentially sedating antihistamines, and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, have all been deemed inadequate for treatment of acute pediatric cough on a risk/benefit basis. A growing body of evidence suggests that the peripherally acting antitussive, levodropropizine, may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of bothersome acute cough in children.

  7. Ineffective cough and mechanical mucociliary clearance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carmona, A; Olivencia-Peña, L; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Peñas-Maldonado, L

    2017-06-12

    Cough is a fundamental defense mechanism for keeping the airway free of foreign elements. Life-threatening situations may arise when cough proves ineffective as a result of muscle weakness or altered mucociliary function. When a patient is unable to cough effectively, techniques are required to either reinforce or replace cough capacity. The use of mechanical systems that facilitate or substitute cough function is increasingly common in Intensive Care Units, where it is relatively frequent to find situations of ineffective cough due to different clinical causes. This review examines the current clinical practice recommendations referred to the indication and use of mechanical cough assist and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of selected primitive reflex patterns with motor development among Nigerian children with cerebral palsy (a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozens Bankole Aiyejusunle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The retention of primitive reflexes (PRs is considered to be one of the primary impairments associated with cerebral palsy (CP. However, little is known about the pattern of retention of PRs across the different classes of CP. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate, identify, and describe selected PRs in children diagnosed with CP and to determine their association with motor development. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted in the physiotherapy departments of four conveniently selected public hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Thirty-one children diagnosed with CP aged between 18-84 months were recruited. A PR profile consisting of 15 PRs were evaluated. The World Health Organization (WHO windows of achievement for six key motor milestones were employed to explore their motor development. Results: The placing reflex presented the highest pattern of persistence (12.96% across all the classes of CP. Children with spastic CP had the highest mean sum of retained PRs (6.24 ± 2.36. There was no significant association between the sum of retained PRs and motor development (P > 0.05. In addition, there were characteristic patterns of responses for specific PRs. Conclusion: The pattern of retained PRs varies for the different classes of CP. There is no significant association between the retention of PRs and motor development for children with CP. There is a need for further, in-depth study of these reflexes, individually, to better understand how they influence the motor development of children with CP.

  9. Effect of guaifenesin on cough reflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Gayle, Yvonne E

    2003-12-01

    Guaifenesin, a commonly used agent for the treatment of cough, is termed an expectorant since it is believed to alleviate cough discomfort by increasing sputum volume and decreasing its viscosity, thereby promoting effective cough. Despite its common usage, relatively few studies, yielding contrasting results, have been performed to investigate the action and efficacy of guaifenesin. To evaluate the effect of guaifenesin on cough reflex sensitivity. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Academic medical center. Fourteen subjects with acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and 14 healthy volunteers. On 2 separate days, subjects underwent capsaicin cough challenge 1 to 2 h after receiving a single, 400-mg dose (capsules) of guaifenesin or matched placebo. The concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C(5)) was determined. Among subjects with URI, mean (+/- SEM) log C(5) after guaifenesin and placebo were 0.92 +/- 0.17 and 0.66 +/- 0.14, respectively (p = 0.028). No effect on cough sensitivity was observed in healthy volunteers. Our results demonstrate that guaifenesin inhibits cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with URI, whose cough receptors are transiently hypersensitive, but not in healthy volunteers. Possible mechanisms include a central antitussive effect, or a peripheral effect by increased sputum volume serving as a barrier shielding cough receptors within the respiratory epithelium from the tussive stimulus.

  10. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  11. Premotor spinal network with balanced excitation and inhibition during motor patterns has high resilience to structural division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter C; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Reveles Jensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurements of synaptic inhibition (I) and excitation (E) to spinal motoneurons can provide an important insight into the organization of premotor networks. Such measurements of flexor motoneurons participating in motor patterns in turtles have recently demonstrated strong concurrent E an...

  12. Effect of thyroid hypofunction on the masseter motor innervation pattern in developing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ganji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The thyroid hormones have profound effects on the development of neuromuscular system. These hormones exert their influence on both muscle fibers and related motoneurons during development. The masseter is one of the most important muscles for mastication in mammals. We attempted to evaluate the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on the morphological characteristics of masseteric motoneurons in the period of alteration from sucking to biting and chewing in the rat. Materials and Methods: To induce hypothyroidism, timed pregnant dams received 50 ppm antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU in their drinking water and PTU was administered to the pups during suckling period. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was injected into the masseter (0.5-5 μlit, 40% of normal and prenatal hypothyroid pups on postnatal days of 1, 7, 15, and 23 (n=24. After 24-48 hours, the 50 μm thick brainstem sections containing trigeminal motor nucleus were processed for TMB histochemical procedure and morphological characteristics of HRP labeled motoneurons and their HRP labeling intensity was evaluated. Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant morphological differences were observed at the end of first week of life. On day 15, hypothyroid labeled masseteric motoneurons consisted of 70% small and 30% medium neurons versus 40% and 60% in normal pups respectively (p<0.05. At the time of weaning, the number of large motoneurons dropped to 30% of normal value (p<0.001 with few, short, and disoriented dendrites. Conclusion: The alteration in particular patterns of masseteric motoneuron morphology and a severe delay in size transition could affect the development and plasticity of oral motor behavior under congenital hypothyroidism.

  13. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%-60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  14. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  15. Glial tumors in brodmann area 6: spread pattern and relationships to motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Komal B; Hayman, L Anne; Chavali, Lakshmi S; Hamilton, Jackson D; Prabhu, Sujit S; Wangaryattawanich, Pattana; Kumar, Vinodh A; Kumar, Ashok J

    2015-01-01

    The posterior frontal lobe of the brain houses Brodmann area 4, which is the primary motor cortex, and Brodmann area 6, which consists of the supplementary motor area on the medial portion of the hemisphere and the premotor cortex on the lateral portion. In this area, safe resection is dependent on accurate localization of the motor cortex and the central sulcus, which can usually be achieved by using thin-section imaging and confirmed by using other techniques. The most reliable anatomic landmarks are the "hand knob" area and the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus. Postoperatively, motor deficits can occur not only because of injury to primary motor cortex but also because of injury to the supplementary motor area. Unlike motor cortex injury, the supplementary motor area syndrome is transient, if it occurs at all. On the lateral hemisphere, motor and language deficits can also occur because of premotor cortex injury, but a dense motor deficit would indicate subcortical injury to the corticospinal tract. The close relationship of the subcortical motor fibers and premotor cortex is illustrated. In contrast to the more constant landmarks of the central sulcus and marginal ramus, which aid in preoperative localization, the variable interruptions in the precentral and cingulate sulci of the posterior frontal lobe seem to provide "cortical bridges" for spread of infiltrating gliomas. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  16. Sensory and motor responses to rectal distention vary according to rate and pattern of balloon inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W M; Read, N W; Prior, A; Daly, J A; Cheah, S K; Grundy, D

    1990-10-01

    rectum is slowly filling. Rectal sensation and concomitant external anal sphincter activity was not associated with anal relaxation during ramp inflation; most subjects felt the sensation long after the pressure reached its lowest level. However, under all circumstances the onset of rectal sensation was associated with an increase of external anal sphincter electrical activity. In conclusion, the rectal sensory and anorectal motor responses to distention depend on the rate and pattern of distention, which may activate a different population of receptors. Results from different laboratories cannot be compared directly unless the pattern and rate of distension are the same.

  17. Treatment of recalcitrant cough with baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dry cough is a debilitating symptom often refractory to standard antitussive therapy. It may result from increased sensitivity of the cough reflex. Baclofen, an agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, has been shown, in animals, to have antitussive activity via a central mechanism. In normal subjects baclofen has been revealed ability to inhibit capsaicininduced cough and cough due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. In addition, chronic therapy with baclofen has been shown to reduce cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury. Clinical cases: We describe two patients with chronic refractory cough who obtained symptomatic improvement after oral baclofen administration. The antitussive effect of baclofen, usually used for treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord lesions, can be explained by central inhibition, but may also involve peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.

  18. Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your throat. Warm liquids, such as broth tea or lemon juice, can soothe your throat. Avoid ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  19. Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor before taking decongestants if you have high blood pressure. Talk to your child's doctor before you give children ages 6 years ... and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child When your baby or infant has a fever Review Date 6/22/2015 Updated by: Denis Hadjiliadis, ...

  20. Coughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... expulsion of air from the lungs through the epiglottis at an amazingly fast speed (estimated at 100 ... to pass through into the lungs. Then the epiglottis closes off the windpipe (larynx), and simultaneously, the ...

  1. Whooping cough in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbiras, M; Shabaka, A; Calvo, N; Martin, L; Moreno, M A; Lopez de la Manzanara, V; Sanchez-Fructuoso, A I

    2016-04-01

    Whooping cough is a respiratory infection with a severity that varies with age, immune status, and probably with other factors such as the degree of exposure and the virulence of the organism. The most frequent microorganism responsible for whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis. We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis.

  2. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dinušová; Torrents, C; M. Castañer; M. T. Anguera

    2010-01-01

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12...

  3. Cough suppression therapy: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sarah; Garrod, Rachel; Birring, Surinder S

    2013-10-01

    Cough suppression therapy (CST), also known as cough suppression physiotherapy and speech pathology management is a promising non-pharmacological therapeutic option for patients with refractory chronic cough. CST may consist of education, improving laryngeal hygiene and hydration, cough suppression techniques, breathing exercises and counselling. It is an out-patient therapy delivered in 2-4 sessions. There is evidence to support the efficacy of CST: a randomised controlled trial reported a significant reduction in cough symptoms and other studies have reported improved cough related quality of life, reduced cough reflex hypersensitivity and cough frequency. The mechanism of action of CST is not clear, but it has been shown to reduce cough reflex sensitivity, paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM) and extrathoracic hyperresponsiveness. Further research is needed to determine the optimal components of CST, the characteristics of patients in whom it is most effective and to increase the understanding of its mechanisms of action. The effectiveness of CST in other respiratory conditions such as asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sarcoidosis should also be investigated.

  4. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  5. The Validity and Precision of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in COPD Patients with Chronic Cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Boom, Lisenka N.; ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated f

  6. The Validity and Precision of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in COPD Patients with Chronic Cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Boom, Lisenka N.; ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated f

  7. The Validity and Precision of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in COPD Patients with Chronic Cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Boom, Lisenka N.; ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated

  8. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M; Shui, A M; Nowinski, L A; Golas, S B; Ferrone, C; O'Rourke, J A; McDougle, C J

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and speech-language deficits in ASD. To this end, we examined data from children with ASD (n = 1781), 2-17 years of age, enrolled in the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) registry who completed a multidisciplinary evaluation that included diagnostic, physical, cognitive and behavioral assessments as part of a routine standard of care protocol. After adjusting for age, non-verbal IQ, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication use, and muscle tone, separate multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations of fine motor skills (FM) with both expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) skills in an impaired FM subgroup; in contrast, the impaired gross motor (GM) subgroup showed no association with EL but a significant negative association with RL. Similar analyses between motor skills and interpersonal relationships across the sample found both GM skills and FM skills to be associated with social interactions. These results suggest potential differences in the contributions of fine versus gross motor skills to autistic profiles and may provide another lens with which to view communication differences across the autism spectrum for use in treatment interventions.

  9. Two independent networks of interstitial cells of Cajal work cooperatively with the enteric nervous system to create colonic motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D. Huizinga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal motility of the colon is critical for quality of life and efforts to normalize abnormal colon function have had limited success. A better understanding of control systems of colonic motility is therefore essential. We report here a hypothesis with supporting experimental data to explain the origin of rhythmic propulsive colonic motor activity induced by general distention. The theory holds that both networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, those associated with the submuscular plexus (ICC-SMP and those associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP, orchestrate propagating contractions as pacemaker cells in concert with the enteric nervous system (ENS. ICC-SMP generate an omnipresent slow wave activity that causes propagating but non-propulsive contractions (rhythmic propagating ripples enhancing absorption. The ICC-MP generate stimulus-dependent cyclic depolarizations propagating anally and directing propulsive activity (rhythmic propulsive motor complexes. The ENS is not essential for both rhythmic motor patterns since distention and pharmacological means can produce the motor patterns after blocking neural activity, but it supplies the primary stimulus in vivo. Supporting data come from studies on segments of the rat colon, simultaneously measuring motility through spatiotemporal mapping of video recordings, intraluminal pressure and outflow measurements.

  10. Motor unit recruitment patterns 2: the influence of myoelectric intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    To effectively meet the force requirements of a given movement an appropriate number and combination of motor units must be recruited between and within muscles. Orderly recruitment of motor units has been shown to occur in a wide range of skeletal muscles, however, alternative strategies do occur. Faster motor units are better suited to developing force rapidly, and produce higher mechanical power with greater efficiency at faster shortening strain rates than slower motor units. As the frequency content of the myoelectric signal is related to the fibre type of the active motor units, we hypothesised that, in addition to an association between myoelectric frequency and intensity, there would be a significant association between muscle fascicle shortening strain rate and myoelectric frequency content. Myoelectric and sonomicrometric data were collected from the three ankle extensor muscles of the rat hind limb during walking and running. Myoelectric signals were analysed using wavelet transformation and principal component analysis to give a measure of the signal frequency content. Sonomicrometric signals were analysed to give measures of muscle fascicle strain and strain rate. The relationship between myoelectric frequency and both intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate was found to change across the time course of a stride, with differences also occurring in the strength of the associations between and within muscles. In addition to the orderly recruitment of motor units, a mechanical strategy of motor unit recruitment was therefore identified. Motor unit recruitment is therefore a multifactorial phenomenon, which is more complex than typically thought.

  11. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  12. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  13. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  14. Effects of iron deficiency in infancy on patterns of motor development over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Calatroni, Agustin; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study of the effects of iron deficiency in infancy assessed motor development over time in 185 healthy Costa Rican children who varied in iron status at 12–23 months. Longitudinal analyses (hierarchical linear modeling) used the Bayley Psychomotor Index before and both 1 week and 3 months after iron treatment in infancy and the Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency – long form at 5 years and short form at 11–14 years. Children with chronic severe iron deficiency in infancy had lower motor scores at the beginning of the study and a lower but parallel trajectory for motor scores through early adolescence. Thus, there was no evidence of catch-up in motor development, despite iron therapy in infancy that corrected iron deficiency anemia in all cases. PMID:17050023

  15. Whooping cough: identification, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jackie; Pinfield, Jenny; Rouse, Jo

    Although there is a high uptake of vaccinations providing protection against Bordetella pertussis, the main cause of whooping cough, there has been an increase in the incidence of notifications of the disease in the UK and other developed countries in recent years. The increase in cases of whooping cough is mainly evident in older children and adults. While these individuals may experience persistent and unpleasant symptoms, most notably prolonged cough, symptoms may be mild, in part, because most older children and adults have been vaccinated against the disease. The most significant public health concern relating to whooping cough is that infected older children and adults may transmit the disease to unvaccinated infants who are most vulnerable to the symptoms. This article aims to develop the reader's understanding of whooping cough, including its prevention and management.

  16. Fictive rhythmic motor patterns produced by the tail spinal cord in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, V; Cabelguen, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Most investigations into the role of the body axis in vertebrate locomotion have focused on the trunk, although in most tetrapods, the tail also plays an active role. In salamanders, the tail contributes to propulsion during swimming and to dynamic balance and maneuverability during terrestrial locomotion. The aim of the present study was to obtain information concerning the neural mechanisms that produce tail muscle contractions during locomotion in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii. We recorded the ventral root activities in in vitro spinal cord preparations in which locomotor-like activity was induced via bath application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (20μM) and d-serine (10μM). Recordings showed that the tail spinal cord is capable of producing propagated waves of motor activity that alternate between the left and right sides. Lesion experiments further revealed that the tail rhythmogenic network is composed of a double chain of identical hemisegmental oscillators. Finally, using spinal cord preparations bathed in a chamber partitioned into two pools, we revealed efficient short-distance coupling between the trunk and tail networks. Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a pattern generator for rhythmic tail movements in the salamander and show that the global architecture of the tail network is similar to that previously proposed for the mid-trunk locomotor network in the salamander. Our findings further support the view that salamanders can control their trunk and tail independently during stepping movements. The relevance of our results in relation to the generation of tail muscle contractions in freely moving salamanders is discussed.

  17. Improved Discriminability of Spatiotemporal Neural Patterns in Rat Motor Cortical Areas as Directional Choice Learning Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei eMao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2-3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats’ behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task.

  18. Cough Suppressant and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cough-suppressant therapy, previously termed nonspecific antitussive therapy, incorporates the use of pharmacologic agents with mucolytic effects and/or inhibitory effects on the cough reflex itself. The intent of this type of therapy is to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing on a short-term basis. Methods Data for this review were obtained from several National Library of Medicine (PubMed) searches (from 1960 to 2004), which were performed between May and September 2004, of the literature published in the English language, limited to human studies, using combinations of the search terms “cough,” “double-blind placebo-controlled,” “antitussive,” “mucolytic,” “cough clearance,” “common cold,” “protussive,” “guaifenesin,” “glycerol,” and “zinc.” Results Mucolytic agents are not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Peripheral and central antitussive agents can be useful in patients with chronic bronchitis, but can have little efficacy in patients with cough due to upper respiratory infection. Some protussive agents are effective in increasing cough clearance, but their long-term effectiveness has not been established. DNase is not effective as a protussive agent in patients with cystic fibrosis. Inhaled mannitol is acutely effective in this patient population, but its therapeutic potential must be investigated further. Conclusions These findings suggest that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Relatively few drugs are effective as cough suppressants. PMID:16428717

  19. Objective measurement of cough in otherwise healthy volunteers with acute cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunger, Kanchan; Powley, William; Kelsall, Angela; Sumner, Helen; Murdoch, Robert; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2013-02-01

    Cough is one of the commonest reasons for medical consultation and acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) is a global problem. In otherwise healthy volunteers complaining of cough associated with symptoms of URTI, we aimed to assess objective and subjective measures of cough and their repeatability and perform power calculations for the design of future studies to test therapies. We studied 54 otherwise healthy volunteers with acute cough (<3 weeks) (median age 22 yrs (interquartile range 21-26 yrs), 64% female, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s 97.6±10.5% predicted). All subjects performed 24-h ambulatory cough monitoring and reported cough frequency and severity using visual analogue scales (VAS) on 2 consecutive days. Sample size calculations were performed for crossover and parallel group study designs. Objective cough frequency was high (session 1: geometric mean 12.1 coughs·h(-1) (95%CI 9.7-15.2)) and fell significantly (session 2: 9.0 coughs·h(-1) (95%CI 6.9-11.6); p<0.001). Repeatability was higher for objective cough frequency (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.94, p<0.001) than reported cough frequency (daytime VAS ICC=0.784, p<0.001). Crossover/parallel studies require <15 and <41 subjects per arm to detect a 50% reduction in cough frequency with 90% power, respectively. Acute cough frequency is highly repeatable over any 48-h period, allowing small sample sizes to be used when investigating the effectiveness of novel anti-tussives.

  20. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2016-10-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to "prime" motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for "task" switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Hatfield, Bradley D; Clark, Jane E

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from "atypical brain development," very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the performance of a visuomotor drawing task. With respect to motor performance, typically developing (TD) children exhibited age-related improvements in key aspects of motor planning and control. Although some children with DCD performed outside this TD landscape (i.e., age-related changes within the TD group), the group developmental trajectory of the children with DCD was similar to that of the TD children. Despite overall similarities in performance, engagement of cortical resources in the children with DCD was markedly different from that in their TD counterparts. While the patterns of activation are stable in TD children across the age range, the young children with DCD exhibited less engagement of motor cortical brain areas and the older children with DCD exhibited greater engagement of motor cortical brain areas than their TD peers. These results suggest that older children with DCD may employ a compensatory strategy in which increased engagement of relevant motor resources allows these children to perform comparably to their TD peers. Moreover, the magnitude of activation was related to several kinematic measures, particularly in children with DCD, suggesting that greater engagement in motor resources may underlie better behavioral performance.

  2. Emission Patterns under Alternative Congestion and Motor Vehicle Pollution Mitigation Policies in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongfeng; Li Fen; Li Xiangling

    2007-01-01

    As a megacity with thriving economy, Shanghai is experiencing rapid motorisation and confronted with traffic congestion problems despite its low car ownership. It is of value to look into the policies on emission control of motor vehicle and congestion reduction in such a city to explore how to reconcile mobility enhancement with the environment. Results of a dynamic simulation displayed time paths of emissions from motor vehicles in Shanghai over the period from 2000 to 2020. The simulation results showed that early policies on emission control of motor vehicle could bring about far-reaching effects on emission reduction, and take advantage of available low-polluting technologies and technical innovation over time. Travel demand management would play an important role in curbing congestion and reducing motor vehicle pollution by calming down car ownership rise and deterring inefficient trips as well as reducing fuel waste caused by congestion.

  3. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  4. Striatal dopamine release and biphasic pattern of locomotor and motor activity under gas narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Norbert; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Blanc, François; Rostain, Jean-Claude; Weiss, Michel

    2003-05-02

    Inert gas narcosis is a neurological syndrome appearing when humans or animals are exposed to hyperbaric inert gases (nitrogen, argon) composed by motor and cognitive impairments. Inert gas narcosis induces a decrease of the dopamine release at the striatum level, structure involved in the regulation of the extrapyramidal motricity. We have investigated, in freely moving rats exposed to different narcotic conditions, the relationship between the locomotor and motor activity and the striatal dopamine release, using respectively a computerized device that enables a quantitative analysis of this behavioural disturbance and voltammetry. The use of 3 MPa of nitrogen, 2 MPa of argon and 0.1 MPa of nitrous oxide, revealed after a transient phase of hyperactivity, a lower level of the locomotor and motor activity, in relation with the decrease of the striatal dopamine release. It is concluded that the striatal dopamine decrease could be related to the decrease of the locomotor and motor hyperactivity, but that other(s) neurotransmitter(s) could be primarily involved in the behavioural motor disturbances induced by narcotics. This biphasic effect could be of major importance for future pharmacological investigations, and motor categorization, on the basic mechanisms of inert gas at pressure.

  5. Growth of primary motor neurons on horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin films and striped patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan J.; Leach, Michelle K.; Bedewy, Mostafa; Meshot, Eric R.; Copic, Davor; Corey, Joseph M.; Hart, A. John

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive for use in peripheral nerve interfaces because of their unique combination of strength, flexibility, electrical conductivity and nanoscale surface texture. Here we investigated the growth of motor neurons on thin films of horizontally aligned CNTs (HACNTs). Approach. We cultured primary embryonic rat motor neurons on HACNTs and performed statistical analysis of the length and orientation of neurites. We next presented motor neurons with substrates of alternating stripes of HACNTs and SiO2. Main results. The neurons survived on HACNT substrates for up to eight days, which was the full duration of our experiments. Statistical analysis of the length and orientation of neurites indicated that the longest neurites on HACNTs tended to align with the CNT direction, although the average neurite length was similar between HACNTs and glass control substrates. We observed that when motor neurons were presented with alternating stripes of HACNTs and SiO2, the proportion of neurons on HACNTs increases over time, suggesting that neurons selectively migrate toward and adhere to the HACNT surface. Significance. The behavior of motor neurons on CNTs has not been previously investigated, and we show that aligned CNTs could provide a viable interface material to motor neurons. Combined with emerging techniques to build complex hierarchical structures of CNTs, our results suggest that organised CNTs could be incorporated into nerve grafts that use physical and electrical cues to guide regenerating axons.

  6. Design and characterization of a cough simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Chao; Ji, Zhiming; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2017-02-23

    Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets. A cough simulator is hence designed to generate transient sprays with such bimodal characteristics. It consists of a pressurized gas tank, a nebulizer and an ejector, connected in series, which are controlled by computerized solenoid valves. The bimodal droplet size distribution is characterized for the coarse droplets and fine droplets, by fibrous collection and laser diffraction, respectively. The measured size distributions of coarse and fine droplets are reasonably represented by the Rosin-Rammler and log-normal distributions in probability density function, which leads to a bimodal distribution. To assess the hydrodynamic consequences of coughing including droplet vaporization and polydispersion, a Lagrangian model of droplet trajectories is established, with its ambient flow field predetermined from a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  7. Inhibition of cough-reflex sensitivity by benzonatate and guaifenesin in acute viral cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Gayle, Yvonne E; Solomon, Gail; Gilbert, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Acute cough due to viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is the most common form of cough and accounts for tremendous expenditure on prescription and non-prescription cough products worldwide. However, few agents have been shown in properly conducted clinical trials to be effective for cough due to URI. The present study evaluated the effect of benzonatate 200mg (B), guaifenesin 600 mg (G), their combination (B+G), and placebo (P) on capsaicin-induced cough in 30 adult nonsmokers with acute URI. On 3 separate days within a 7-day period, 1h after ingesting randomly assigned study drug in a double-blind fashion, subjects underwent capsaicin cough challenge testing, which involved inhalation of incremental doubling concentrations of capsaicin until the concentration of capsaicin inducing 5 or more coughs (C(5)) was attained. Each subject received 3 of 4 possible study drugs. G (p=0.01) but not B (p=NS) inhibited cough-reflex sensitivity (log C(5)) relative to P. The combination of B+G suppressed capsaicin-induced cough to a greater degree than B alone (p<0.001) or G alone (p=0.008). The mechanism by which the combination of B+G causes a potentiation of antitussive effect remains to be elucidated. Our results suggest that B+G may be an effective therapy for acute cough due to the common cold (URI).

  8. Do sex and atopy influence cough outcome measurements in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne B; Gibson, Peter G; Willis, Carol; Petsky, Helen L; Widdicombe, John G; Masters, I Brent; Robertson, Colin F

    2011-08-01

    Despite the commonality of cough and its burden, there are no published data on the relationship between atopy or sex on objectively measured cough frequency or subjective cough scores in children. In 202 children with and without cough, we determined the effect of sex and atopy on validated cough outcome measurements (cough receptor sensitivity [CRS], objective cough counts, and cough scores). We hypothesized that in contrast to adult data, sex does not influence cough outcome measures, and atopy is not a determinant of these cough measurements. We combined data from four previous studies. Atopy (skin prick test), the concentration of capsaicin causing two and five or more coughs (C2 and C5, respectively), objectively measured cough frequency, and cough scores were determined and their relationship explored. The children's (93 girls, 109 boys) mean age was 10.6 years (SD 2.9), and 56% had atopy. In multivariate analysis, CRS was influenced by age (C2 coefficient, 5.9; P = .034; C5 coefficient, 29.1; P = .0001). Atopy and sex did not significantly influence any of the cough outcomes (cough counts, C2, C5, cough score) in control subjects and children with cough. Atopy does not influence important cough outcome measures in children with and without chronic cough. However, age, but not sex, influences CRS in children. Unlike adult data, sex does not affect objective counts or cough score in children with and without chronic cough. Studies on cough in children should be age matched, but matching for atopic status and sex is less important.

  9. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  10. Management of Cough: a practical approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subacute cough symptoms, including lung cancers, pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) ... and patients may complain of symptoms of gastric reflux (e.g. heartburn).7-9 .... Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients. 2. Elevation of ...

  11. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Omar S; Belvisi, Maria G; Patel, Hema J; Crispino, Natascia; Birrell, Mark A; Korbonits, Márta; Korbonits, Dezso; Barnes, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    Cough is a common and protective reflex, but persistent coughing is debilitating and impairs quality of life. Antitussive treatment using opioids is limited by unacceptable side effects, and there is a great need for more effective remedies. The present study demonstrates that theobromine, a methylxanthine derivative present in cocoa, effectively inhibits citric acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Furthermore, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in man, theobromine suppresses capsaicin-induced cough with no adverse effects. We also demonstrate that theobromine directly inhibits capsaicin-induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea-pig and human vagus nerve suggestive of an inhibitory effect on afferent nerve activation. These data indicate the actions of theobromine appear to be peripherally mediated. We conclude theobromine is a novel and promising treatment, which may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs.

  12. Towards understanding and managing chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Imran; Badri, Huda; Al-Sheklly, Bashar; Smith, Jaclyn Ann; Woodcock, Ashley A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic cough is a common and troublesome condition affecting approximately 12% of the general population. It is associated with poor quality of life with psychological, social and physical consequences. Patients typically complain of a dry irritating cough, driven by a strong urge to cough associated with a sensation or irritation located in the throat. Treatment of potential 'causes', ie asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and rhino-sinusitis, may produce a complete or partial response, but the response of some patients to opiates and alpha-2-delta ligand antagonists (gabapentin and pregabalin) supports the concept that this is primarily a neurological disorder, characterised by hyper-responsiveness of the nerves. Novel and highly effective neuronal treatments are in development and offer hope of better symptom control with fewer side effects within a few years. This review focuses on understanding the mechanism of chronic cough, current management approaches and research that may lead to novel therapies.

  13. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  14. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  15. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room ...

  16. Associated factors in children with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshoo, Vikram; Edell, Dean; Mohnot, Sopan; Haydel, Robert; Saturno, Emilio; Kobernick, Aaron

    2009-09-01

    Children presenting with chronic cough are common to the primary care physicians, but data on the etiology are scant. We evaluated 40 children (age range, 5 to 12 years) with chronic cough (> 8 weeks duration) with no obvious cause who were referred by their primary care physicians. All patients underwent an extensive multispecialty workup that included pulmonary, GI, allergy, immunology, and otorhinolaryngology testing. Response to treatment was quantified pretreatment and 8 weeks after treatment by using a visual analog scale. Positive diagnostic test results were noted for gastroesophageal reflux disease (27.5%), allergy (22.5%), asthma (12.5%), infection (5%), aspiration (2.5%), and multiple etiologies (20%). Appropriate treatment for these factors resulted in a significant improvement in cough. Reflux, allergy, and asthma accounted for > 80% of the likely etiologic factors of chronic cough in children and responded to appropriate treatment.

  17. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme;

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  18. Validation of a pediatric cough questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnick, Christopher J; Zurakowski, David; Haver, Kenan

    2009-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine if a five-item pediatric cough questionnaire (PCQ) is a valid and reliable means of measuring cough-specific quality of life in children. The five questions, which are answered by the child's parent or caregiver, cover cough frequency (Q1), sleep disturbance of the child (Q2), sleep disturbance of the parent (Q3), cough severity (Q4), and the degree of bothersomeness to the child (Q5). Each of the five items was scored on a 6-point Likert scale. The PCQ was administered three times. The first occurred when the parent telephoned to schedule an appointment for the child at a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic for a chief complaint of cough. The second PCQ was administered within 2 weeks of the first but before any treatment had been instituted so that test-retest reliability could be assessed. Each child was then diagnosed and treated in accordance with standard care practices. The third PCQ was administered 3 weeks after the second to determine if it would accurately reflect the parent's perception of how the child's cough had changed following treatment. Also, at the second and third encounters, parents were asked to provide their global assessment of whether their child's cough had improved, worsened, or stayed the same since the previous encounter. The parents of 120 children (70 boys and 50 girls; mean age: 6.8 yr) completed all three PCQs. Test-retest reliability was established (p PCQ questions by Spearman correlation analysis (Q1: r = 0.5; Q2: r = 0.38; Q3: r = 0.42; Q4: r = 0.53; Q5: r = 0.5). Other statistical analyses confirmed the PCQ's internal consistency, discriminant validity, and convergent validity. Based on our findings, we conclude that the PCQ is a valid and reliable instrument with which to follow children with chronic cough longitudinally.

  19. Neural correlates of motor dysfunction in children with traumatic brain injury: exploration of compensatory recruitment patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caeyenberghs, K.; Wenderoth, N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Sunaert, S.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common form of disability in children. Persistent deficits in motor control have been documented following TBI but there has been less emphasis on changes in functional cerebral activity. In the present study, children with moderate to severe TBI (n = 9) and control

  20. Circadian pancreatic enzyme pattern and relationship between secretory and motor activity in fasting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2002-08-01

    It is unknown whether nonparallel pancreatic enzyme output occurs under basal conditions in humans. We aimed to determine whether the circadian or wake-sleep cycle influences the relationship among pancreatic enzymes or between pancreatic secretory and jejunal motor activity. Using orojejunal multilumen intubation, we measured enzyme outputs and proximal jejunal motility index during consecutive daytime and nighttime periods in each of seven fasting, healthy volunteers. Enzyme outputs were correlated tightly during daytime phases of wakefulness and nighttime phases of sleep (r > 0.72, P activity was directly correlated with jejunal motility index (r > 0.50, P enzymes dominates throughout the circadian cycle. Nonparallel secretion during nocturnal phases of wakefulness may be due to merely circadian effects or to the coupling of the wake-sleep and the circadian cycle. The association between fluctuations of secretory and motor activity appears to be particularly tight during the night.

  1. Learning discriminative patterns for self-paced EEG-based motor imagery detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong eZhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Detecting motor imagery activities versus non-control in brain signals is the basis of self-paced brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, but also poses a considerable challenge to signal processing due to the complex and non-stationary characteristics of motor imagery as well as non-control. This paper presents a self-paced BCI based on a robust learning mechanism that extracts and selects spatio-spectral features for differentiating multiple EEG classes. It also employs a nonlinear regression and post-processing technique for predicting the time-series of class labels from the spatio-spectral features. The method was validated in the {BCI Competition IV} on {Dataset I} where it produced the lowest prediction error of class labels continuously. This report also presents and discusses analysis of the method using the competition data set.

  2. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  3. Vocal tract motor patterns and resonance during constant frequency song: the white-throated sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2008-01-01

    Bird song is a complex behavior that requires the coordination of several motor systems. Sound is produced in the syrinx and then modified by the upper vocal tract. Movements of the hyoid skeleton have been shown in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to be extensively involved in forming an oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity (OEC), which contributes a major resonance to the vocal tract transfer function. Here we report that a similar relationship exists between the volume of the OEC a...

  4. Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciryam, Prajwal; Lambert-Smith, Isabella A; Bean, Daniel M; Freer, Rosie; Cid, Fernando; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Saunders, Darren N; Wilson, Mark R; Oliver, Stephen G; Morimoto, Richard I; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele; Favrin, Giorgio; Yerbury, Justin J

    2017-05-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous degenerative motor neuron disease linked to numerous genetic mutations in apparently unrelated proteins. These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. Contained within these inclusions are a variety of proteins that do not share obvious characteristics other than coaggregation. However, recent evidence from other neurodegenerative disorders suggests that disease-affected biochemical pathways can be characterized by the presence of proteins that are supersaturated, with cellular concentrations significantly greater than their solubilities. Here, we show that the proteins that form inclusions of mutant SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS are not merely a subset of the native interaction partners of these three proteins, which are themselves supersaturated. To explain the presence of coaggregating proteins in inclusions in the brain and spinal cord, we observe that they have an average supersaturation even greater than the average supersaturation of the native interaction partners in motor neurons, but not when scores are generated from an average of other human tissues. These results suggest that inclusion bodies in various forms of ALS result from a set of proteins that are metastable in motor neurons, and thus prone to aggregation upon a disease-related progressive collapse of protein homeostasis in this specific setting.

  5. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  6. By land or by sea: a modified C-start motor pattern drives the terrestrial tail-flip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Benjamin M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A

    2016-06-15

    Aquatic C-start escape responses in teleost fishes are driven by a well-studied network of reticulospinal neurons that produce a motor pattern of simultaneous contraction of axial muscle on the side of the body opposite the threatening stimulus, bending the fish into the characteristic C shape, followed by a traveling wave of muscle contraction on the contralateral side that moves the fish away from the threat. Superficially, the kinematics of the terrestrial tail-flip resemble the C-start, with the anterior body rolling up and over the tail into a tight C shape, followed by straightening as the fish launches off of the caudal peduncle into ballistic flight. We asked whether similar motor control is used for both behaviors in the amphibious mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus Fine-wire bipolar electrodes were percutaneously inserted into repeatable paired axial locations in five individual fish. Electromyograms synchronized with high-speed video were made of aquatic C-starts, immediately followed by terrestrial tail-flips. Tail-flips took longer to complete than aquatic escapes; correspondingly, muscles were activated for longer durations on land. In the tail-flip, activity was seen in contralateral posterior axial muscle for an extended period of time during the formation of the C shape, likely to press the caudal peduncle against the ground in preparation for launch. Tail-flips thus appear to be produced by modification of the motor pattern driving the aquatic C-start, with differences consistent with the additional requirement of overcoming gravity.

  7. The effect of involuntary motor activity on myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study with chronic stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Yun; Chen, Xiang; Li, Guanglin; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Objective. This study investigates the effect of the involuntary motor activity of paretic-spastic muscles on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals. Approach. Two data collection sessions were designed for 8 stroke subjects to voluntarily perform 11 functional movements using their affected forearm and hand at relatively slow and fast speeds. For each stroke subject, the degree of involuntary motor activity present in the voluntary surface EMG recordings was qualitatively described from such slow and fast experimental protocols. Myoelectric pattern recognition analysis was performed using different combinations of voluntary surface EMG data recorded from the slow and fast sessions. Main results. Across all tested stroke subjects, our results revealed that when involuntary surface EMG is absent or present in both the training and testing datasets, high accuracies (>96%, >98%, respectively, averaged over all the subjects) can be achieved in the classification of different movements using surface EMG signals from paretic muscles. When involuntary surface EMG was solely involved in either the training or testing datasets, the classification accuracies were dramatically reduced (signals with the presence and absence of involuntary EMG interference, high accuracies were still achieved (>97%). Significance. The findings of this study can be used to guide the appropriate design and implementation of myoelectric pattern recognition based systems or devices toward promoting robot-aided therapy for stroke rehabilitation.

  8. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  9. Treatment of Neurogenic Cough with Tramadol: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Gregory R; Teng, Stephanie E; Achlatis, Efstratios; Fang, Yixin; Amin, Milan R

    2017-07-01

    This study employs validated cough assessment tools to prospectively determine the impact of tramadol on cough severity and quality of life in subjects with neurogenic cough. The study was a prospective case series with planned data collection at a tertiary care academic medical center laryngology practice. Sixteen consecutive collected subjects with neurogenic cough prospectively completed pre- and posttreatment validated cough assessment tools, the cough severity index (CSI) and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). All subjects in the study reported at least some improvement in their cough symptoms. In a Wilcoxon signed rank test that compared paired results, CSI scores improved from 23 to 14 and LCQ scores improved from 74 to 103 ( P = .003 and P = .005, respectively). This small preliminary assessment suggests that tramadol warrants additional evaluation as a treatment for neurogenic cough.

  10. Cough in the elderly population: relationships with multiple comorbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Jung Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of cough in the elderly population has not been studied comprehensively. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of cough in a community elderly population, particularly in relation with their comorbidity. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using a baseline dataset from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, a community-based elderly population cohort study. Three types of cough (frequent cough, chronic persistent cough, and nocturnal cough were defined using questionnaires. Comorbidity was examined using a structured questionnaire. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence was 9.3% for frequent cough, 4.6% for chronic persistent cough, and 7.3% for nocturnal cough. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, smoking, asthma and allergic rhinitis were found to be risk factors for cough in the elderly. Interestingly, among comorbidities, constipation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c ≥ 8% were also found to have positive associations with elderly cough. In the Short Form 36 scores, chronic persistent cough was independently related to impairment of quality of life, predominantly in the mental component. CONCLUSIONS: Cough has a high prevalence and is detrimental to quality of life in the elderly. Associations with smoking, asthma and rhinitis confirmed previous findings in younger populations. Previously unrecognised relationships with constipation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus suggested the multi-faceted nature of cough in the elderly.

  11. In vivo trial results of a novel ultrasonic cough stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Nitz, PhD, MPhty, BPhty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of these double-blind in-vivo trials of a prototype ultrasonic cough stimulator (CoughStim™ were to establish (1 whether ultrasound (US stimulation can be safely used to stimulate a cough, (2 the most efficient US frequency and power parameters to reliably stimulate a cough, (3 whether single- or dual-sided stimulation is more effective, and (4 whether a cough can be stimulated in adults unable to cough on demand. Fifteen nondisabled volunteers (18–59 yr and seven volunteers unable to cough on demand (85–102 yr were recruited. Stimulation was applied to the neck unilaterally at eight frequencies and two power levels and bilaterally at two frequencies and three power levels. Vital signs were monitored during testing with no adverse responses. CoughStim stimulated a cough in all nondisabled subjects, 80% of subjects at 0.58 MHz and 9 W unilaterally and 75% of subjects at 0.58 MHz and 6 W bilaterally. Of the subjects unable to cough, 71 percent responded to bilateral stimuli (0.54 MHz and 6 W with a strong cough. The CoughStim regularly and safely produced a moderately strong cough response in subjects with or without ability to cough and produced this effect without causing undue discomfort.

  12. [A new portable monitor for long-term cough recording].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, D; Klauke, M; Schönhofer, B

    1997-06-01

    Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary diseases. For a number of reasons it would be of interest to have information about the frequency of coughs over a given period of time. So far, the cough recorders which are available are either too expensive or unwieldy. Hence, we developed a cough recorder linked to a portable, commercially available actigraph (about the size of a pack of cigarettes) that records coughing as an acoustic signal and ventral thorax movement. The signals are filtered via a band pass and sampled by a peak detektor with different time constants to separate the impulse character of the cough signal from the background noise level. The cough recorder registers coughing cumulatively over a period of one minute and has a storage time of one week. Since the acoustic signals are essential for the interpretation of the recordings, the analogue circuit was subjected to a separate validation programme. For this purpose, the distinction between active coughs of 10 volunteers (total number of coughs 550) and background noises (male and female voices and other defined noises, total number of noises 336) was tested. The complete assembly was then tested over night on 7 hospitalised patients with chronic cough. An infrared video camera system was used to make a reference recording of the overnight coughing. The results show that nearly every cough of the 10 volunteers was recorded (r = 0.99). 97.1% of the background noise was correctly interpreted. The complete recorder assembly correctly recorded 98.9% of the coughs (total 870) in the 7 patients. 4.8% of the background noise was erroneously registered as coughing. Summing up, it can be said that the portable cough recorder affords accurate recording of coughing over a period of one week, correctly distinguishing coughing from background noise.

  13. [Pertussis (Whooping cough)--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.

  14. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components.

  15. Discrimination of Motor Imagery-Induced EEG Patterns in Patients with Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pfurtscheller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG-based discrimination between different motor imagery states has been subject of a number of studies in healthy subjects. We investigated the EEG of 15 patients with complete spinal cord injury during imagined right hand, left hand, and feet movements. In detail we studied pair-wise discrimination functions between the 3 types of motor imagery. The following classification accuracies (mean ± SD were obtained: left versus right hand 65.03% ± 8.52, left hand versus feet 68.19% ± 11.08, and right hand versus feet 65.05% ± 9.25. In 5 out of 8 paralegic patients, the discrimination accuracy was greater than 70% but in only 1 out of 7 tetraplagic patients. The present findings provide evidence that in the majority of paraplegic patients an EEG-based BCI could achieve satisfied results. In tetraplegic patients, however, it is expected that extensive training-sessions are necessary to achieve a good BCI performance at least in some subjects.

  16. Generation of complex motor patterns in american grasshopper via current-controlled thoracic electrical interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, Susan L; Absher, Benjamin F; Bourne, W Tucker; Steves, Lida E; Vodenski, Vassil V; O'Donnell, Peter M; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs) have attracted attention for their potential application to military applications, environmental sensing, and search and rescue missions. While progress is being made toward fabrication of a completely human-engineered MAV, another promising approach seeks to interface to, and take control of, an insect's nervous system. Cyborg insects take advantage of their innate exquisite loco-motor, navigation, and sensing abilities. Recently, several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of radio-controlled flight in the hawkmoth and beetle via electrical neural interfaces. Here, we report a method for eliciting the "jump" response in the American grasshopper (S. Americana). We found that stimulating the metathoracic T3 ganglion with constant-current square wave pulses with amplitude 186 ± 40 μA and frequency 190 ± 13 Hz reproducibly evoked (≥95% success rate) the desired motor activity in N=3 test subjects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an insect cyborg with a synchronous neuromuscular system.

  17. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ePundik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stoke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test (AMAT, collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was an linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke. Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e. increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases or different strategies of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery.

  18. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  19. Flight and seizure motor patterns in Drosophila mutants: simultaneous acoustic and electrophysiological recordings of wing beats and flight muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tethered flies allow studies of biomechanics and electrophysiology of flight control. We performed microelectrode recordings of spikes in an indirect flight muscle (the dorsal longitudinal muscle, DLMa) coupled with acoustic analysis of wing beat frequency (WBF) via microphone signals. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording of direct and indirect flight muscles has been technically challenging; however, the WBF is thought to reflect in a one-to-one relationship with spiking activity in a subset of direct flight muscles, including muscle m1b. Therefore, our approach enables systematic mutational analysis for changes in temporal features of electrical activity of motor neurons innervating subsets of direct and indirect flight muscles. Here, we report the consequences of specific ion channel disruptions on the spiking activity of myogenic DLMs (firing at ∼5 Hz) and the corresponding WBF (∼200 Hz). We examined mutants of the genes enconding: 1) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (cacophony, cac), 2) Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (slowpoke, slo), and 3) voltage-gated K(+) channels (Shaker, Sh) and their auxiliary subunits (Hyperkinetic, Hk and quiver, qvr). We found flight initiation in response to an air puff was severely disrupted in both cac and slo mutants. However, once initiated, slo flight was largely unaltered, whereas cac displayed disrupted DLM firing rates and WBF. Sh, Hk, and qvr mutants were able to maintain normal DLM firing rates, despite increased WBF. Notably, defects in the auxiliary subunits encoded by Hk and qvr could lead to distinct consequences, that is, disrupted DLM firing rhythmicity, not observed in Sh. Our mutant analysis of direct and indirect flight muscle activities indicates that the two motor activity patterns may be independently modified by specific ion channel mutations, and that this approach can be extended to other dipteran species and additional motor programs, such as electroconvulsive stimulation-induced seizures.

  20. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-05-25

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies.

  1. Differential effects of main error correction versus secondary error correction on motor pattern of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Stefano; Cavedon, Valentina; Milanese, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how the run pattern varies as a consequence to main error correction versus secondary error correction. Twenty-two university students were randomly assigned to one of two training-conditions: 'main error' (ME) and 'secondary error' (SE) correction. The rear-foot strike at touchdown was hypothesized as the 'main error', whereas an incorrect shoulder position (i.e., behind the base of support) as the 'secondary error'. In order to evaluate any changes in run pattern at the foot touchdown instant, the ankle, knee and hip joint angles, the height of toe and heel (with respect to the ground), and the horizontal distance from the heel to the projected center of mass on the ground were measured. After the training-intervention, the ME group showed a significant improvement in the run pattern at the foot touchdown instant in all kinematic parameters, whereas no significant changes were found in the SE group. The results support the hypothesis that the main error can have a greater influence on the movement patterns than a secondary error. Furthermore, the findings highlight that a correct diagnosis and the correction of the 'main error' are fundamental for greater run pattern improvement.

  2. Dopamine activates the motor pattern for crawling in the medicinal leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Joshua G; Mesce, Karen A

    2008-04-16

    Locomotion in segmented animals is thought to be based on the coupling of "unit burst generators," but the biological nature of the unit burst generator has been revealed in only a few animal systems. We determined that dopamine (DA), a universal modulator of motor activity, is sufficient to activate fictive crawling in the medicinal leech, and can exert its actions within the smallest division of the animal's CNS, the segmental ganglion. In the entire isolated nerve cord or in the single ganglion, DA induced slow antiphasic bursting (approximately 15 s period) of motoneurons known to participate in the two-step elongation-contraction cycle underlying crawling behavior. During each cycle, the dorsal (DE-3) and ventral (VE-4) longitudinal excitor motoneurons fired approximately 180 degrees out of phase from the ventrolateral circular excitor motoneuron (CV), which marks the elongation phase. In many isolated whole nerve cords, DE-3 bursting progressed in an anterior to posterior direction with intersegmental phase delays appropriate for crawling. In the single ganglion, the dorsal (DI-1) and ventral (VI-2) inhibitory longitudinal motoneurons fired out of phase with each DE-3 burst, further confirming that the crawl unit burst generator exists in the single ganglion. All isolated ganglia of the CNS were competent to produce DA-induced robust fictive crawling, which typically lasted uninterrupted for 5-15 min. A quantitative analysis indicated that DA-induced crawling was not significantly different from electrically evoked or spontaneous crawling. We conclude that DA is sufficient to activate the full crawl motor program and that the kernel for crawling resides within each segmental ganglion.

  3. Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukam Kakmeni, F.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P.O. Box 63, Buea (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: fmoukam@uycdc.uninet.cm; Bowong, S. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: sbowong@uycdc.uninet.cm; Nana, L. [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon)], E-mail: Inana@uycdc.uninet.cm; Kofane, T.C. [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: tkofane@uycdc.uninet.cm

    2009-01-15

    This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm.

  4. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  5. Efficacy of coughing in tetraplegic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Piers, DA; Mulder, GA

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A randomized cross-over design study in six tetraplegic patients. Objectives. To investigate the efficacy of coughing in tetraplegic patients. Summary of Background Data. In tetraplegic patients, pulmonary complications due to insufficient clearance of bronchial mucus frequently are

  6. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments.

  7. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough 2 (Pertussis)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    This podcast encourages everyone to get vaccinated against whooping cough (pertussis), especially those who will have close contact with an infant.  Created: 9/16/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  8. Important drugs for cough in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, J; Walsh, D; Nelson, K A

    2001-11-01

    Cough is a defense mechanism that prevents the entry of noxious materials into the respiratory system and clears foreign materials and excess secretions from the lungs and respiratory tract. In advanced cancer, it is a common symptom that interferes with the patient's daily activity and quality of life. Empiric treatment with antitussive agents is often needed. Two classes of antitussive drugs are available: (1) centrally acting: (a) opioids and (b) non-opioids; (2) peripherally acting: (a) directly and (b) indirectly. Antitussive availability varies widely around the world. Many antitussives, such as benzonatate, codeine, hydrocodone, and dextromethorphan, were extensively studied in the acute and chronic cough settings and showed relatively high efficacy and safety profiles. Benzonatate, clobutinol, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, and levodropropizine were the only antitussives specifically studied in cancer and advanced cancer cough. They all have shown to be effective and safe in recommended daily dose for cough. In advanced cancer the patient's current medications, previous antitussive use, the availability of routes of administration, any history of drug abuse, the presence of other symptoms and other factors, all have a role in the selection of antitussives for prescription. A good knowledge of the pharmacokinetics, dosage, efficacy, and side effects of the available antitussives provides for better management.

  9. Cough-induced electrostimulation in incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, R L; Sansen, W; VanNuland, T; Dhaene, P

    1994-01-01

    A new method for treatment of urinary stress incontinence is described. Through a vaginal plug the pelvic floor muscles receive a series of electric stimulations which are triggered by an increase of abdominal pressure, detected by an inbuilt pressure sensor. In this study the best parameters for the stimuli are determined during three successive coughs, which are the most common course of urine loss.

  10. Efficacy of coughing in tetraplegic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Piers, DA; Mulder, GA

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A randomized cross-over design study in six tetraplegic patients. Objectives. To investigate the efficacy of coughing in tetraplegic patients. Summary of Background Data. In tetraplegic patients, pulmonary complications due to insufficient clearance of bronchial mucus frequently are de

  11. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  12. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  13. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: What happens with exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen ePetsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesised that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise induced broncho-constriction (EIB or atopy. In addition, we hypotheised that FeNO levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy.Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test and wore a 24-hour voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB.Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control, 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, IQR 0.5, 24.5 compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p=0.028 post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  14. TRPV1 and TRPM8 in Treatment of Chronic Cough

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Millqvist

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is common in the population, and among some there is no evident medical explanation for the symptoms. Such a refractory or idiopathic cough is now often regarded as a neuropathic disease due to dysfunctional airway ion channels, though the knowledge in this field is still limited. Persistent coughing and a cough reflex easily triggered by irritating stimuli, often in combination with perceived dyspnea, are characteristics of this disease. The patients have impaired quality of li...

  15. Regulation of two motor patterns enables the gradual adjustment of locomotion strategy in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Ingrid; Riedl, Julia; Mende, Fanny; Kato, Saul; Kaplan, Harris S; Latham, Richard; Sonntag, Michael; Traunmüller, Lisa; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In animal locomotion a tradeoff exists between stereotypy and flexibility: fast long-distance travelling (LDT) requires coherent regular motions, while local sampling and area-restricted search (ARS) rely on flexible movements. We report here on a posture control system in C. elegans that coordinates these needs. Using quantitative posture analysis we explain worm locomotion as a composite of two modes: regular undulations versus flexible turning. Graded reciprocal regulation of both modes allows animals to flexibly adapt their locomotion strategy under sensory stimulation along a spectrum ranging from LDT to ARS. Using genetics and functional imaging of neural activity we characterize the counteracting interneurons AVK and DVA that utilize FLP-1 and NLP-12 neuropeptides to control both motor modes. Gradual regulation of behaviors via this system is required for spatial navigation during chemotaxis. This work shows how a nervous system controls simple elementary features of posture to generate complex movements for goal-directed locomotion strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14116.001 PMID:27222228

  16. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  17. Assessing altered motor unit recruitment patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The advancement of surface electromyogram (sEMG) recording and signal processing techniques has allowed us to characterize the recruitment properties of a substantial population of motor units (MUs) non-invasively. Here we seek to determine whether MU recruitment properties are modified in paretic muscles of hemispheric stroke survivors. Approach. Using an advanced EMG sensor array, we recorded sEMG during isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseous muscle over a range of contraction levels, from 20% to 60% of maximum, in both paretic and contralateral muscles of stroke survivors. Using MU decomposition techniques, MU action potential amplitudes and recruitment thresholds were derived for simultaneously activated MUs in each isometric contraction. Main results. Our results show a significant disruption of recruitment organization in paretic muscles, in that the size principle describing recruitment rank order was materially distorted. MUs were recruited over a very narrow force range with increasing force output, generating a strong clustering effect, when referenced to recruitment force magnitude. Such disturbances in MU properties also correlated well with the impairment of voluntary force generation. Significance. Our findings provide direct evidence regarding MU recruitment modifications in paretic muscles of stroke survivors, and suggest that these modifications may contribute to weakness for voluntary contractions.

  18. Encoding of the cough reflex in anesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Brendan J; Mori, Nanako

    2011-02-01

    We have previously described the physiological and morphological properties of the cough receptors and their sites of termination in the airways and centrally in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS). In the present study, we have addressed the hypothesis that the primary central synapses of the cough receptors subserve an essential role in the encoding of cough. We found that cough requires sustained, high-frequency (≥8-Hz) afferent nerve activation. We also found evidence for processes that both facilitate (summation, sensitization) and inhibit the initiation of cough. Sensitization of cough occurs with repetitive subthreshold activation of the cough receptors or by coincident activation of C-fibers and/or nTS neurokinin receptor activation. Desensitization of cough evoked by repetitive and/or continuous afferent nerve activation has a rapid onset (nervous system-dependent process. The cough reflex can also be actively inhibited upon activation of other airway afferent nerve subtypes, including slowly adapting receptors and pulmonary C-fibers. The sensitization and desensitization of cough are likely attributable to the prominent, primary, and unique role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent signaling at the central synapses of the cough receptors. These attributes may have direct relevance to the presentation of cough in disease and for the effectiveness of antitussive therapies.

  19. The experience of cough in patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alex; Lowe, Matthew; Ellis, Jacqueline; Wagland, Richard; Bailey, Chris; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Tishelman, Carol; Smith, Jaclyn

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the patient experience of cough in a population of patients with lung cancer. A qualitative exploratory study design was developed and elicited the views of 26 patients with lung cancer who had current or past experience with cough. The data's four themes highlight the complex and distressing nature of cough, including its interaction with other symptoms, such as breathlessness, fatigue and sleep disturbance. A theme around descriptions of cough suggests typically a dry tickly cough and highlights mechanical and environmental triggers for cough. The theme around the effects of cough in daily life shows the impact of cough in socialising, the embarrassment from cough and the psychological effects experienced by patients. The last theme focuses on strategies for coping with and managing cough, showing the perceived ineffectiveness of current antitussives and the patients' use of a variety of approaches on an ad hoc basis to try to manage their cough often unsuccessfully. Cough has not received the same attention as other cancer symptoms, which means that patients' experience of a distressing and difficult symptom is often unnoticed by health care professionals. More clinical and research attention in this debilitating symptom is necessary.

  20. Reorganization of finger coordination patterns through motor exploration in individuals after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2017-09-11

    Impairment of hand and finger function after stroke is common and affects the ability to perform activities of daily living. Even though many of these coordination deficits such as finger individuation have been well characterized, it is critical to understand how stroke survivors learn to explore and reorganize their finger coordination patterns for optimizing rehabilitation. In this study, I examine the use of a body-machine interface to assess how participants explore their movement repertoire, and how this changes with continued practice. Ten participants with chronic stroke wore a data glove and the finger joint angles were mapped on to the position of a cursor on a screen. The task of the participants was to move the cursor back and forth between two specified targets on a screen. Critically, the map between the finger movements and cursor motion was altered so that participants sometimes had to generate coordination patterns that required finger individuation. There were two phases to the experiment - an initial assessment phase on day 1, followed by a learning phase (days 2-5) where participants trained to reorganize their coordination patterns. Participants showed difficulty in performing tasks which had maps that required finger individuation, and the degree to which they explored their movement repertoire was directly related to clinical tests of hand function. However, over four sessions of practice, participants were able to learn to reorganize their finger movement coordination pattern and improve their performance. Moreover, training also resulted in improvements in movement repertoire outside of the context of the specific task during free exploration. Stroke survivors show deficits in movement repertoire in their paretic hand, but facilitating movement exploration during training can increase the movement repertoire. This suggests that exploration may be an important element of rehabilitation to regain optimal function.

  1. Independent cough flow augmentation by glossopharyngeal breathing plus table thrust in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlo; Carrara, Raniero; Khirani, Sonia; Tuccio, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the unassisted cough peak flow (CPF) of patients affected by muscular dystrophy with CPF augmented by various techniques, including maximal depth glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) combined with a subsequent self-induced thoracic or abdominal thrust. All of the motorized wheelchair-dependent patients with muscular dystrophy who had previously mastered GPB were trained at home to increase their cough efficacy. This training involved maneuvering their wheelchair against the edge of a specially built table to autonomously produce a thoracic and/or abdominal thrust timed to the opening of the glottis for an independently assisted cough. Both unassisted and variously assisted CPFs were compared. The 18 patients (17 men/1 woman) with muscular dystrophy, aged 21.1 ± 5.4 yrs, achieved variously assisted CPFs that were significantly higher than the spontaneous CPF (P thrust (326.4 ± 79.5 liters/min) or by GPB and thoracoabdominal thrust (326.4 ± 87.5 liters/min) were not significantly different (P = 0.07) from the CPFs independently attained by GPB plus independently maneuvering a wheelchair for a table thrust (310.3 ± 74.7 liters/min). The independently assisted (GPB plus table thrust) CPF was comparable to the CPFs that required personal assistance for air stacking and abdominal thrusts. Therefore, for patients with muscular dystrophy, this physical medicine technique and cough-assisted techniques that require personal intervention are strongly recommended.

  2. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Hirenjal; Upadhyay Umesh; Upadhyay Siddhi; Soni Hardik; Patel Prateek

    2013-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of ...

  4. Motor patterns of the small intestine explained by phase-amplitude coupling of two pacemaker activities: the critical importance of propagation velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D; Parsons, Sean P; Chen, Ji-Hong; Pawelka, Andrew; Pistilli, Marc; Li, Chunpei; Yu, Yuanjie; Ye, Pengfei; Liu, Qing; Tong, Mengting; Zhu, Yong Fang; Wei, Defei

    2015-09-15

    Phase-amplitude coupling of two pacemaker activities of the small intestine, the omnipresent slow wave activity generated by interstitial cells of Cajal of the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) and the stimulus-dependent rhythmic transient depolarizations generated by ICC of the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP), was recently hypothesized to underlie the orchestration of the segmentation motor pattern. The aim of the present study was to increase our understanding of phase-amplitude coupling through modeling. In particular the importance of propagation velocity of the ICC-DMP component was investigated. The outcome of the modeling was compared with motor patterns recorded from the rat or mouse intestine from which propagation velocities within the different patterns were measured. The results show that the classical segmentation motor pattern occurs when the ICC-DMP component has a low propagation velocity (velocity in the same order of magnitude as that of the slow wave activity (∼1 cm/s), cluster type propulsive activity occurs which is in fact the dominant propulsive activity of the intestine. Hence, the only difference between the generation of propagating cluster contractions and the Cannon-type segmentation motor pattern is the propagation velocity of the low-frequency component, the rhythmic transient depolarizations originating from the ICC-DMP. Importantly, the proposed mechanism explains why both motor patterns have distinct rhythmic waxing and waning of the amplitude of contractions. The hypothesis is brought forward that the velocity is modulated by neural regulation of gap junction conductance within the ICC-DMP network.

  5. Two interconnected kernels of reciprocally inhibitory interneurons underlie alternating left-right swim motor pattern generation in the mollusk Melibe leonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2014-09-15

    The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swimming behavior of the nudibranch Melibe leonina (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) has been described as a simple half-center oscillator consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory pairs of interneurons called swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2). In this study, we identified two additional pairs of interneurons that are part of the swim CPG: swim interneuron 3 (Si3) and swim interneuron 4 (Si4). The somata of Si3 and Si4 were both located in the pedal ganglion, near that of Si2, and both had axons that projected through the pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. These neurons fulfilled the criteria for inclusion as members of the swim CPG: 1) they fired at a fixed phase in relation to Si1 and Si2, 2) brief changes in their activity reset the motor pattern, 3) prolonged changes in their activity altered the periodicity of the motor pattern, 4) they had monosynaptic connections with each other and with Si1 and Si2, and 5) their synaptic actions helped explain the phasing of the motor pattern. The results of this study show that the motor pattern has more complex internal dynamics than a simple left/right alternation of firing; the CPG circuit appears to be composed of two kernels of reciprocally inhibitory neurons, one consisting of Si1, Si2, and the contralateral Si4 and the other consisting of Si3. These two kernels interact with each other to produce a stable rhythmic motor pattern.

  6. Survey on attitudes of Italian pediatricians toward cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Morcaldi, Luigi; Cazzato, Salvatore; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Lecchi, Marzia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2017-01-01

    Context Children’s cough is a daily concern for most pediatricians. The management of both acute and chronic cough requires a systematic and comprehensive approach. Despite the approved protocols for management, the pediatric assessment of cough and the corresponding prescribing attitude frequently do not fit these protocols, which can be affected by parental suggestions – sometimes substantially. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate both the perception and the behavior of a representative sample of Italian pediatricians toward cough in real life. Methods A specific questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was prepared. The questionnaire was completed by 300 pediatricians (all members of PAIDOSS: Italian National Observatory on Health of Childhood and Adolescence) who represented ~300,000 children. Results A vast majority of children have cough throughout the year (99.3% of respondents have cough during autumn/winter and 64.7% in spring/summer). Allergic disease is the most frequent suspected cause of chronic cough in children (53%), and this is supported by the high demand for consultations: 73% seek the opinion of allergologists, 62% of otorhinolaryngologists and only 33% of pulmonologists. The majority of pediatricians (92%) reported that they prescribe therapy in acute cough regardless of cough guidelines. Moreover, the survey pointed out the abuse of aerosol therapy (26% in acute cough and 38% in chronic cough) and of antibiotics prescription (22% in acute cough and 42% in chronic cough). Conclusion Our survey suggests that some Italian pediatricians’ therapeutic attitudes should be substantially improved in order to achieve better management of cough in children and to minimize the burden of cough. PMID:28352199

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hirenjal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

  8. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  9. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Similarly, sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). Furthermore, sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P < 0.05). These results suggest that each clinical sign and symptom of sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep.

  10. Pharmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Catania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Antonietta Catania1, Salvatore Cuzzocrea1,21Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina; 2IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, ItalyAbstract: Cough constitutes an impressive expression of the normal defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. Productive cough associated with catarrh is an important protective system for the lung because it favors the upward movement of secretions and foreign bodies to the larynx and mouth. Cough may also appear without bronchial secretions, as dry cough, which may be persistent when inflammatory disease is chronic or when, in the early stages of respiratory disease, bronchial secretions are not yet fluid. Sometimes bronchitis-induced cough does not significantly affect quality of life, whilst in other cases cough may become so intense as to impair daily activities severely, resulting in permanent disability. This type of cough is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical advice. The use of cough suppressants may be appropriate for reaching a precise diagnosis and when dry cough is persistent. Cloperastine has been investigated in various types of cough and, unlike codeine, has been shown to possess dual activity. It also acts as a mild bronchorelaxant and has antihistaminic activity, without acting on the central nervous system or the respiratory center. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of cloperastine.Keywords: cough, cloperastine, inflammation, bronchitis

  11. A A common symptom in primary health care: The cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Akbulut

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the common symptom consulted by primary health care providers. Although treatment of cough is usually simple, healing period could be longer if it diagnosed wrong. Basicly cough divide into two groups; acute and chronic. While the most common cause of acute cough is upper respiratory tract infections, causes of chronic cough are allergic rihinitis, chronic sinusitis, asthma and gastroeosefageal reflux diseases. Nonetheless cough could be the clinical evidence of highly mortal diseases like pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Consequently patients with cough symptom must be evaluated delicately and essential follow up protocol must be planned by primary health care providers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 333-337

  12. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan A Trivedi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed towards the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim-triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  13. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Chintan A; Bollmann, Johann H

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach, and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed toward the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  14. Variability in the effector-specific pattern of motor facilitation during the observation of everyday actions: implications for the clinical use of action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, S; Gagné, M; Jackson, P L; Mercier, C

    2010-10-13

    Action observation is increasingly considered as a rehabilitation tool as it can increase the cortical excitability of muscles involved in the observed movements and therefore produce effector-specific motor facilitation. In order to investigate the action observation mechanisms, simple single joint intransitive movements have commonly been used. Still, how the observation of everyday movements which often are the prime target of rehabilitation affects the observer cortical excitability remains unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulations, we aimed at verifying if the observation of everyday movements made by the proximal or distal upper-limb produces effector-specific motor facilitation in proximal (arm) and distal (hand) muscles of healthy subjects. Results suggest that, similar to simple intransitive movements, observation of more complex everyday movements involving mainly the proximal or distal part of upper limb induces different patterns of motor facilitation across upper limb muscles (P=0.02). However, we observed large inter-individual variability in the strength of the effector-specific motor facilitation induced by action observation. Yet, subjects had similar types of response (strong or weak effector-specific effects) when watching proximal or distal movements indicating that the facilitation pattern was highly consistent within subjects (r=0.83-0.88, Pobserved movements on their motor repertoire and that this type of response holds for various types of everyday actions. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probable warfarin interaction with menthol cough drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Karen; Faria, Claudio; Dyer, Earl

    2010-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used and effective oral anticoagulant; however, the agent has an extensive drug and food interaction profile. We describe a 46-year-old African-American man who was receiving warfarin for a venous thromboembolism and experienced a decrease in his international normalized ratio (INR). No corresponding reduction had been made in his warfarin dosage, and no changes had been made in his concomitant drug therapy or diet. The patient's INR fell from a therapeutic value of 2.6 (target range 2-3) to 1.6 while receiving a weekly warfarin dose of 50 mg. His INR remained stable at 1.6 for 3 weeks despite incremental increases in his warfarin dose. The patient reported that he had been taking 8-10 menthol cough drops/day due to dry conditions at his workplace during the time period that the INR decreased. Five days after discontinuing the cough drops, his INR increased from 1.6 to 2.9. Over the subsequent 5 weeks, his INR was stabilized at a much lower weekly warfarin dose of 40 mg. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that the decreased INR was probably related to the concomitant use of menthol cough drops during warfarin therapy. The mechanism for this interaction may be related to the potential for menthol to affect the cytochrome P450 system as an inducer and inhibitor of certain isoenzymes that would potentially interfere with the metabolism of warfarin. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of an interaction between warfarin and menthol. Patients receiving warfarin should be closely monitored, as they may choose to take over-the-counter products without considering the potential implications, and counseled about a possible interaction with menthol cough drops.

  16. Spontaneous lung herniation after a single cough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tack, D.; Delcour, C. [Dept. of Radiology, C. H. U. de Charleroi (Belgium); Wattiez, A. [Dept. of Pneumology, C. H. U. de Charleroi (Belgium); Schtickzelle, J.C. [Dept. of Emergency Medicine, C. H. U. de Charleroi (Belgium)

    2000-03-01

    Herniation of the lung is commonly caused by congenital rib abnormalities, blunt trauma, or thoracic surgery. Spontaneous hernias are rarely described in the literature. We report a case of a spontaneous intercostal pulmonary hernia following a single cough. In addition, a review of the literature is presented which outlines the classification, causes, and incidence of lung hernias. Some reference is made to possible methods of treatment. (orig.)

  17. Recovery pattern of motor reflex after a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, J; Dousset, E; Carrivale, R; Grélot, L; Decherchi, P

    2012-08-01

    We aimed at determining the recovery pattern of neural properties of soleus muscle after a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) session. Thirteen subjects performed an NMES exercise (75 Hz, 40 contractions, 6.25 s per contraction). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), H-reflex at rest and during voluntary contraction fixed at 60% of MVC (respectively, H(max) and H(sup) ) and volitional (V) wave were measured before and during the recovery period following this exercise [i.e., immediately after, 2 h (H2), 2 days (D2) and 7 days (D7)]. MVC exhibited an immediate and a delayed declines at 2 days (respectively, -29.8±4.6%, PMVC and V-wave occurred concomitantly with muscle soreness peak (PMVC without affecting resting and active H-reflex excitability. These results suggested that spinal circuitry function of larger motoneurons was inhibited by NMES (as indicated by the depressed V-wave responses) contrary to the smaller one (indicated by the unchanged H-reflex responses).

  18. Personal exposure to cough released droplets in quiescent environment and ventilated spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Pantelic, Jovan;

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure of the ma......This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure...... of the manikin exposed to cough released droplets in a calm indoor environment and under uniform air patterns relative to a human body. The findings show that human body orientation relative to the direction and magnitude of invading flow from the surroundings considerably modifies personal exposure. Surrounding...... uniform flows is most of the scenarios decrease the exposure to cough droplets, however not in all scenarios. Study results show that understanding of the air patterns should be prioritized in ventilation design practice....

  19. Effect of Electronic Cigarette Use on the Urge-to-Cough Sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dicpinigaitis, Alis J; Negassa, Abdissa

    2016-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have attained common usage worldwide, yet knowledge of their physiological effects remains minimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on the urge-to-cough (UTC) threshold and C5. Seventeen healthy nonsmokers underwent C5 measurement employing capsaicin cough challenge at baseline, 15 minutes, and 24 hours after e-cig exposure (30 puffs 30 seconds apart). The endpoint of cough challenge is C5, the concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs. The UTC threshold (Cu) is defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin inducing UTC without an associated motor cough. The Cu and C5 were significantly inhibited (Cu and C5 increased) 15 minutes after e-cig use. Mean log Cu rose from -0.035±0.08 (SEM) to 0.21±0.12 (P = .005). Mean log C5 increased from 0.60±0.11 to 0.92±0.16 (P = .001). By 24 hours after e-cig exposure, Cu and C5 had returned to baseline levels. A single session of e-cig use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of the Cu, as well as C5. Previous studies implicate nicotine as the agent responsible for suppression of C5, and we hypothesize a similar role for nicotine in the suppression of the Cu. Given our observation of the effect of a single e-cig exposure, studies of the respiratory physiologic implications of repeated or chronic e-cig use are warranted. This is the first study to demonstrate that a single exposure to an e-cig significantly inhibits the Cu as measured by capsaicin cough challenge testing. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that e-cig vapor is not a physiologically benign substance, and support further investigation of the effects of repeated or chronic use of e-cigs on cough sensitivity and other respiratory parameters. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  20. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  1. A Novel Approach to Locomotion Learning: Actor-Critic Architecture using Central Pattern Generators and Dynamic Motor Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modelling objective is split into two: baseline motion modelling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modelling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a ``reshaping function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the the baseline motion and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal ``reshaping functions. In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good ``reshaping function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: 1 learning to crawl on a humanoid and, 2 learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  2. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, M R; Benson, M K

    1995-01-07

    Cough is a frequent side-effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. We examined the effects of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in 10 patients with ACE-inhibitor cough in a double-blind crossover study. After a 2-week run-in, patients were randomised to either 2 weeks' inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo followed by a further 2 weeks on the other treatment. Patients kept a cough diary during each study period. Cough severity was recorded on a scale from 0 to 12. At the end of each study period the cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin was measured. 9 patients reported a reduction in cough after sodium cromoglycate. Median (range) daily cough scores during run-in and placebo periods were 3.6 (1.9-6.4) and 4.1 (0.6-8.1), respectively (p > 0.05). Median daily cough score after sodium cromoglycate was 1.8 (0.4-3; p sodium cromoglycate; and cough-reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was significantly reduced. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE-inhibitor cough. Its effect may be due to suppression of afferent vagal activity.

  3. TRPV1 and TRPM8 in Treatment of Chronic Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Millqvist

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is common in the population, and among some there is no evident medical explanation for the symptoms. Such a refractory or idiopathic cough is now often regarded as a neuropathic disease due to dysfunctional airway ion channels, though the knowledge in this field is still limited. Persistent coughing and a cough reflex easily triggered by irritating stimuli, often in combination with perceived dyspnea, are characteristics of this disease. The patients have impaired quality of life and often reduced work capacity, followed by social and economic consequences. Despite the large number of individuals suffering from such a persisting cough, there is an unmet clinical need for effective cough medicines. The cough treatment available today often has little or no effect. Adverse effects mostly follow centrally acting cough drugs comprised of morphine and codeine, which demands the physician’s awareness. The possibilities of modulating airway transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels may indicate new ways to treat the persistent cough “without a reason”. The TRP ion channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 and the TRP melastin 8 (TRPM8 appear as two candidates in the search for cough therapy, both as single targets and in reciprocal interaction.

  4. TRPV1 and TRPM8 in Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millqvist, Eva

    2016-07-28

    Chronic cough is common in the population, and among some there is no evident medical explanation for the symptoms. Such a refractory or idiopathic cough is now often regarded as a neuropathic disease due to dysfunctional airway ion channels, though the knowledge in this field is still limited. Persistent coughing and a cough reflex easily triggered by irritating stimuli, often in combination with perceived dyspnea, are characteristics of this disease. The patients have impaired quality of life and often reduced work capacity, followed by social and economic consequences. Despite the large number of individuals suffering from such a persisting cough, there is an unmet clinical need for effective cough medicines. The cough treatment available today often has little or no effect. Adverse effects mostly follow centrally acting cough drugs comprised of morphine and codeine, which demands the physician's awareness. The possibilities of modulating airway transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels may indicate new ways to treat the persistent cough "without a reason". The TRP ion channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the TRP melastin 8 (TRPM8) appear as two candidates in the search for cough therapy, both as single targets and in reciprocal interaction.

  5. Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  6. An update on measurement and monitoring of cough: what are the important study endpoints?

    OpenAIRE

    Spinou, Arietta; Birring, Surinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the development of tools that assess cough. The visual analogue scale (VAS) for cough severity is widely used in clinical practice because it’s simple and practical. The Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) and the cough-specific quality of life questionnaire (CQLQ) are the most widely used health status questionnaires for adults with chronic cough. They are well validated for assessing the impact of cough. Cough can be assessed objectively with chall...

  7. Patterns of motor signs in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 at the start of follow-up in a reference unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Gómez-Andrés, David; Sanz-Gallego, Irene; Rausell, Estrella; Arpa, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellar system and other subcortical regions of the brain. As for other cerebellar diseases, the severity of this type of ataxia can be assessed with the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) which gives a total score that reflects functional impairment out of 8 cerebellar function tests. SCA3 patients score profile is heterogeneous on at the start of follow up. This study investigates possible patterns in those profiles and analyses the impact of other usually concurrent signs of impairment of extracerebellar motor systems in that profile variability by means of multivariate statistical approaches. Seventeen patients with SCA3 underwent systematic anamnesis, neurological and SARA assessment, visual evaluation of (123)I-Ioflupane (DaTSCAN) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and electrophysiological studies (nerve conduction and electromyography). Patterns in the profiles of SARA item scores were investigated by hierarchical clustering after multivariate correspondence analysis. A network analysis was used to represent relationships between SARA item scores, clinical, genetic and neurological examination parameters as well as abnormalities of DaTSCAN SPECT imaging and electrophysiological studies. The most frequently altered SARA items in all patients are gait and stance, and three profiles of SCA3 patients can be distinguished depending mainly on their degree of impairment in those two items. Other SARA items like the score on heel-shin slide contribute less to the classification. Network analysis shows that SARA item scores configure a single domain that is independent of the size of the mutated expanded allele and age of onset, which are, in turn closely and inversely correlated. The severity of cerebellar dysfunction is correlated with longer disease duration, altered visual evaluation of DaTSCAN SPECT imaging and decreased patellar

  8. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  9. Psychological profile of individuals presenting with chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Katrin; Deary, Vincent; Dogan, Sian

    2017-01-01

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is a common problem in respiratory clinics. Adverse effects on quality of life are documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological factors in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the association of psychological factors with chronic cough, comparing CRC to explained cough and non-cough groups. 67 patients attending a specialist cough clinic (CRC, n=25; explained cough, n=42) and 22 non-cough individuals participated. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory (Personality), Chalder Fatigue Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-15. Cough patients also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Appropriate statistical analyses were used to compare participant groups. Chronic refractory coughers displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue and somatic physical symptoms than non-cough participants. Compared to explained coughers, there were higher depression and fatigue scores and significantly more negative illness representations (specifically, strong beliefs regarding negative consequences, lower illness coherence and higher emotional representations). “Explained” coughers reported significantly increased fatigue and somatic symptoms in comparison to non-coughers. The prevalence of fatigue, low mood, negative illness beliefs and increased physical symptom reporting should be considered in consultations and in developing novel interventions for CRC patients. PMID:28344979

  10. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅱ Typical Cases of Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; DONG Hongying; XU Junfeng

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case Ⅰ Male, age of 57 years. History of cough:The patient suffered from cough with profuse sputum for 3 years more. His disorder attacked easily when the climate changed suddenly in autumn and winter. The symptoms such as cough with sticky sputum were more serious. Antibiotics did not work well due to repeated oral administration while the disease attacked. In the day time, the patient always had the symptoms of fullness in chest, poor appetite, and body heaviness. In recent two weeks, the patient had symptoms of cough with profuse white and sticky sputum, fullness in chest, dyspnea, dryness in the mouth but without desire for drinking water, and tiredness.

  11. Psychological profile of individuals presenting with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hulme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic refractory cough (CRC is a common problem in respiratory clinics. Adverse effects on quality of life are documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological factors in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the association of psychological factors with chronic cough, comparing CRC to explained cough and non-cough groups. 67 patients attending a specialist cough clinic (CRC, n=25; explained cough, n=42 and 22 non-cough individuals participated. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory (Personality, Chalder Fatigue Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-15. Cough patients also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Appropriate statistical analyses were used to compare participant groups. Chronic refractory coughers displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue and somatic physical symptoms than non-cough participants. Compared to explained coughers, there were higher depression and fatigue scores and significantly more negative illness representations (specifically, strong beliefs regarding negative consequences, lower illness coherence and higher emotional representations. “Explained” coughers reported significantly increased fatigue and somatic symptoms in comparison to non-coughers. The prevalence of fatigue, low mood, negative illness beliefs and increased physical symptom reporting should be considered in consultations and in developing novel interventions for CRC patients.

  12. Spatial noise in coupling strength and natural frequency within a pacemaker network; consequences for development of intestinal motor patterns according to a weakly coupled phase oscillator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Parsons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e. spatial noise with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at points of low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  13. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P.; Huizinga, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency. PMID:26869875

  14. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  15. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.

  16. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  17. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  18. Network properties of interstitial cells of Cajal affect intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns, according to a mathematical model of weakly coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruihan; Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) network perturbations on intestinal pacemaker activity and motor patterns? What is the main finding and its importance? Two-dimensional modelling of the ICC pacemaker activity according to a phase model of weakly coupled oscillators showed that network properties (coupling strength between oscillators, frequency gradient and frequency noise) strongly influence pacemaker network activity and subsequent motor patterns. The model explains motor patterns observed in physiological conditions and provides predictions and testable hypotheses for effects of ICC loss and frequency modulation on the motor patterns. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gut motility and are associated with motility disorders. Interstitial cells of Cajal form a network, but the contributions of its network properties to gut physiology and dysfunction are poorly understood. We modelled an ICC network as a two-dimensional network of weakly coupled oscillators with a frequency gradient and showed changes over time in video and graphical formats. Model parameters were obtained from slow-wave-driven contraction patterns in the mouse intestine and pacemaker slow-wave activities from the cat intestine. Marked changes in propagating oscillation patterns (including changes from propagation to non-propagating) were observed by changing network parameters (coupling strength between oscillators, the frequency gradient and frequency noise), which affected synchronization, propagation velocity and occurrence of dislocations (termination of an oscillation). Complete uncoupling of a circumferential ring of oscillators caused the proximal and distal section to desynchronize, but complete synchronization was maintained with only a single oscillator connecting the sections with high enough coupling. The network of oscillators could withstand loss; even with 40% of oscillators lost randomly

  19. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  20. Electromyographic identification of spinal oscillator patterns and recouplings in a patient with incomplete spinal cord lesion: oscillator formation training as a method to improve motor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Blanc, Y; Jeltsch, W; Zäch, G A

    1996-08-01

    A patient with a strongly lesioned spinal cord, sub C5, relearned running, besides improving other movements, by an oscillator formation training (rhythmic, dynamic, stereotyped exercise). After 45 days of jumping on a springboard and other rhythm trainings, the patient was able to run 90 m in 41 s (7.9 km/h) (even 9.3 km/h 3 years after the lesion) besides marching (5.7 km/h), cycling, playing tennis and skiing. FF-type (alpha 1) (f = 8.3-11.4 Hz) and FR-type (alpha 2) (f = 6.7 Hz) motor unit firings were identified by electromyography (EMG) with surface electrodes by their oscillatory firing patterns in this patient. In EMG literature, the alpha 2-oscillatory firing is called "myokymic discharging". Alternating long and short oscillation periods were measured in FF-type motor units, with changing focus (change from long/short to short/long oscillation periods). The alternating mean period durations differed by approximately 10 ms. Transient synchronization of oscillatory firing FF-type motor units was observed with up to two phase relations per oscillation cycle. In recumbent position, the phase change in synchronization of two oscillatory firing motor units in the soleus muscle of one leg correlated with the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing of a third motor unit in the soleus muscle of the other leg. This measurement indicates that the alternating oscillatory firing of premotor neuronal networks is correlated with synchronization of oscillatory firing neuronal subnetworks, i.e., with coupling changes of oscillators, and is not due to reciprocal inhibition of half-centre oscillators as suggested by the change from alternating to symmetrical oscillatory firing. Coupling changes of oscillatory firing subnetworks to generate macroscopic (integrative) network functions are therefore a general organization form of the central nervous system (CNS), and are not related to rhythmic movements like walking or running only. It is proposed that

  1. Efficacy of fluticasone on cough: a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, B.P.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vermue, N.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bohnen, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cough may be the consequence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the short-term effects of an inhaled steroid (fluticasone propionate (FP)) on cough, and to determine the effects of smoking, BHR, allergy and forced expiratory volume in one

  2. Pholcodine-containing cough medicines.(Safety and Efficacy Issues)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ... taken pholcodine-containing cough medicines. Following a thorough review of all available data on the safety and efficacy of pholcodine-containing cough medicines, the Committee found no firm evidence to substantiate the hypothesis of cross-sensitization between pholcodine and NMBAs and a subsequent increased risk of anaphylactic reactions during s...

  3. Differential neural activation patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait in response to concurrent cognitive and motor load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Shine

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions.

  4. Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M.; Matar, Elie; Ward, Philip B.; Bolitho, Samuel J.; Pearson, Mark; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is exacerbated by the processing of cognitive information whilst walking. To date, no studies have explored the neural correlates associated with increases in cognitive load whilst performing a motor task in patients with freezing. In this experiment, 14 PD patients with and 15 PD patients without freezing of gait underwent 3T fMRI while performing a virtual reality gait task. Directions to walk and stop were presented on the viewing screen as either direct cues or as more cognitively indirect pre-learned cues. Both groups showed a consistent pattern of BOLD response within the Cognitive Control Network during performance of the paradigm. However, a between group comparison revealed that those PD patients with freezing of gait were less able to recruit the bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and the pre-supplementary motor area, as well as the left subthalamic nucleus when responding to indirect cognitive cues whilst maintaining a motor output. These results suggest that PD patients with freezing of gait are unable to properly recruit specific cortical and subcortical regions within the Cognitive Control Network during the performance of simultaneous motor and cognitive functions. PMID:23382821

  5. 77 FR 68132 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antiasthmatic Drug Products for Over... small business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator... business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator,...

  6. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough.

  7. Questionnaire survey of chronic cough in asthmatic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏为利; 邱忠民; 吕寒静; 杨忠民; 洪光朝; 王岚; 刘兴元; 郑桂芬

    2004-01-01

    @@ Wheezing is a common symptom of asthma and a main reason for most patients to seek medical care. Although wheezing has long been considered the essential symptom of asthma, clinical observations have shown that chronic cough is also an important symptom of asthma, even the sole presenting manifestation in cough variant asthma.1 As a special form of asthma, cough variant asthma probably represents the milder end of the spectrum of asthma or the forerunner of asthma, and may develop into typical asthma when the state of the illness progresses.2 Therefore, there may be a natural course from chronic cough to wheezing in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, there is currently no data to show how many patients with asthma present chronic cough before the first onset of wheezing. To investigate this question, we performed this questionnaire survey.

  8. Treating Child Cough through Spleen and Kidney%从脾肾论治小儿咳嗽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏宇

    2012-01-01

    Cough is a common disease in children, Based on the children's special physiological and pathological conditions, this paper discusses the treatments of child cough through the spleen and kidney and then types the disease into different patterns.%咳嗽是儿科常见疾病,文章从小儿特殊的生理病理出发,由脾肾论治小儿咳嗽,对从脾肾论治的小儿咳嗽病症进行了分型和讨论.

  9. Application of Irwin diagnostic procedures for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fang FENG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic procedures suggested by the Irwin group,and summarize the experiences in diagnosis and treatment,and to beter understand the etiology,diagnosis,differential diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods Data of 118 patients,who were finally diagnosed as chronic cough according to the diagnostic procedures suggested by Irwin group in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA in 2009,were retrospectivety analyzed.Results With the Irwin diagnostic procedures of chronic cough,118 patients were diagnosed definitely.The final diagnostic rate reached 100%.The duration to reach the final diagnosis was 1 day to 30 days.Of the 118 patients with chronic cough,113 were cured(96%.32 cases(27.1% were caused by asthma and related diseases(allergic rhinitis,allergic pharyngitis,cough variant asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis;28 cases(23.7% were due to upper airway cough syndrome and related diseases(chronic rhinitis,sinusitis,pharyngeal bursitis,postnasal drip syndrome,chronic laryngitis,and vocal cord polyps;23 cases(19.5% due to gastroesophageal reflux disease;14 cases(11.9% due to lower respiratory tract infection and related diseases(endobronchial tuberculosis,pulmonary tuberculosis,endotracheal mucosal adenocarcinoma,lung cancer,bronchiectasis,and pulmonary fibrosis;10 cases(8.5% due to cardiac insafficiency;6 cases(5.1% due to administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI-like antihypertensive agents;3 cases(2.5% were psychogenic cough,and 2 cases(1.7% were induced by other causes.Conclusions The Irwin diagnosis of chronic cough is a comprehensive and thorough procedure,and it should be used with delibcration in clinic.The etiology of chronic cough is complicated,mainly including asthma and related diseases,sinusitis and upper airway cough syndrome,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  10. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mangesh Bhalerao; Pradip Awale; Abhijeet Sawle; Dhananjay Sangle; Devendra B Sonawane; Vilas Chavan

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerabili...

  11. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes.

  12. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinušová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12 Phsysical Activity and Sports Science students without experience in dance participated in the study. 8 sessions were observed focused on space, time, energy and body contact. A specific instrument was created, the observational system of motor skills OSMOS (Castañer, Torrents, Anguera y Dinusôva, 2008,. It was codified with ThemeCoder  (Pattern Vision, 2001 and SDIS-GSEQ   (Bakeman &  Quera, 1996 and THEME (Magnusson, 2000 were used for the reliability and detection of T-patterns .
    Key Words:  Motor Skills, Field Format, Body expression and dance, Motor T-Patterns detection, Kinesic's Model.

    En todo proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje que promueva la generación de acciones motrices, la elección de los modelos que usan los docentes es una decisión pedagógica de mayor importancia de la que se le suele otorgar.  El objetivo de la investigación es el de observar y constatar qué tipo de respuestas motrices generan los discentes a partir de los modelos de tipo cinésico ofrecidos por los docentes. Las respuestas motrices a observar se refieren a los patrones de habilidades motrices, las variaciones de cuerpo-espacio y tiempo así como de interacción entre los participantes. Han participado en el estudio 12 estudiantes de primer ciclo en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el deporte con alto bagaje deportivo pero sin experiencia en danza y expresión corporal (EC. Se observaron 8 sesiones

  13. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  14. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  15. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [ 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough.

  16. 肾咳辨析%Kidney Cough Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜梦; 张恒

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective Medical history of kidney cough less systematically, and clinical renal cough a few patients. so people pen according to the clinical manifestations of the patient to kidney cough points for kidney empty cough, Yang deifciency cough, kidney deifciency cough, according to the type of syndrome of dialectical treatment, lfexibility in the use of name old doctor of traditional chinese medicine of clinical experience, the prescription of various, make kidney cough patients get better curative effect.%历代医家对肾咳较少有系统论述,而临床中肾咳病人并不在少数。故笔人根据病人的临床表现把肾咳分为肾阴虚咳、肾阳虚咳、肾气虚咳,根据其证型进行辩证论治,灵活运用名老中医之临证经验方,方药一体,使肾咳病人获得较好疗效。

  17. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A

  18. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  19. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  20. Characteristics of Chinese patients with cough in primary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is one of the most common respiratory symptoms and is well characterized in specialized cough clinics with high success rates of diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding cough in primary care settings. The present study aimed at investigating clinical epidemiology of cough through a national study of two questionnaire surveys sent to primary care physicians in China. Methods Approximately 18,000 subjects recruited were having daytime or night symptoms of cough and diagnoses of respiratory disease from February 2005 to April 2006 as Survey 1 and from June 2007 to December 2007 as Survey 2. Patients suffering from respiratory malignancy, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, severe hypohepatia or renal dysfunction, pregnancy, possible pregnancy or lactation, neutropenia were not eligible. Information regarding demography, history of allergies, symptomatic profile, treatment and curative effects for cough was elicited. Results 8216 questionnaires were collected in Survey 1 and 9711 in Survey 2. The mean values of ages were 25.7 and 22.3 years old, respectively. Symptoms included expectoration (74% and 76%, wheeze (59% and 74%, breathlessness (22% and 26%, chest pain (9% and 13% and fever (15% and 18%. About 15% and 23% patients had hypersusceptibility, of whom 6% to 17% had a family history. More than 50% of the cases had histories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, conjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis. Asthma, COPD, and bronchitis were dominant etiologies of cough. Procaterol or the combination of antibiotics and steroids were used as the treatment. Conclusion Causes and outcomes of cough differed with ages and time in this particular national study, while successful and precise diagnosis and management of cough in primary care settings need to be further improved in China.

  1. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-05-26

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis.

  2. Are pruritus and scratching the cough of the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Pruritus is not the equivalent of the cough of the skin, but itch and scratch can certainly be defined as such. In physiological conditions, they share the same function: to exclude a foreign body. Itch/scratching and cough could be selective responses for the same diseases, mainly atopic diseases, and their pathophysiology is similar (role of C fibers and mast cells; role of histamine, substance P and tachykinins). This is an intriguing analogy rather than a pathophysiological identity. It may be inappropriate for many disease settings. Itch and cough can be triggered or enhanced by stress. This similarity is very interesting because it could give rise to many new research ideas.

  3. Cough induced syncope: A hint to cardiac tamponade diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Roberto; Lasam, Glenmore

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male with history of lung adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath and frequent episodes of cough-induced syncope. A large pericardial effusion was found on echocardiogram suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done which improved the dyspnea and eventually resolved the syncope. There are only two other cases reported in the literature with cough-induced syncope in the setting of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade. Our clinical vignette also highlights the importance of pulsus paradoxus identification in patients with cough induced syncope to rule out cardiac tamponade since this is the most sensitive physical finding for its diagnosis. PMID:28603595

  4. Modelling of coughed droplets in a hospital ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Coughing and its importance for spreading respiratory infectious diseases has been confirmed in many previous studies. The dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by the coughing of a patient in a hospital ward was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulation. Two relatively...... realistic three-dimensional thermal mannequins with a parallel bed arrangement simulated the patients. The maximum dispersion distances in time under ward ventilation conditions were studied. A velocity profile simulated a time-dependent cough with total duration of 0.4 s. The results indicated...

  5. Brain-Computer Interface Therapy after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain-Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-computer interface (BCI devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective. This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods. Stroke patients (n=19 with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results. No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training, increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p<0.05 corrected. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.

  6. Acute cough | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute cough Akuter Husten E.1.1.1Medical condition in easily understood language Acu...igation E.1.2Version 17.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10066522 E.1.2Term Acute cough E.1.2System...igible for inclusion in this trial must fulfill all of the following criteria:1. Acute cough with symptoms l...based on medical history and physical examination7. CS score of at least 50 mm on a 100 mm VAS at V1 8. Acute...te cough Akuter Husten E.1.1.2Therapeutic area Diseases [C] - Respiratory Tract Dis

  7. Modelling of coughed droplets in a hospital ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Coughing and its importance for spreading respiratory infectious diseases has been confirmed in many previous studies. The dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by the coughing of a patient in a hospital ward was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulation. Two relatively...... realistic three-dimensional thermal mannequins with a parallel bed arrangement simulated the patients. The maximum dispersion distances in time under ward ventilation conditions were studied. A velocity profile simulated a time-dependent cough with total duration of 0.4 s. The results indicated...... that the transport characteristic of droplets due to coughing is highly influenced by their size. Although the effects of gravity or inertia on small droplets ( 40 μm are significantly affected by gravity and soon fall...

  8. Clinical Implication of Cough CPR in Cardiac Cath Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Rau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year-old-male with inferoposterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was shifted to cardiac cath lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA dominance with complete occlusion of the RCA in mid vessel. During angioplasty, the patient developed reperfusion induced Bezold Jarisch Reflex (BJR with profound bradycardia along with decrease in systolic pressure. The patient was asked to cough. The use of cough-CPR maintained the consciousness as the patient was getting syncopal. This report focuses on BJR and cough-CPR specific to interventional cardiology practice within the catheterization laboratory. Awareness of the fact that BJR may develop due to successful restoration of flow which can be managed with cough CPR, atropine and fluids can avoid the administration of vasoconstrictors.

  9. Recessive spinocerebellar ataxia with paroxysmal cough attacks: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raul; Galicia-Polo, Lourdes; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimeé; Cortés-Rubio, Ana M; Trujillo-Bracamontes, Marla R; Cerecedo-Zapata, Cesar M; Hernández-Hernández, Oscar; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Magaña, Jonathan J

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary ataxias are a heterogeneous group of neurological diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar syndrome and numerous other features, which result in great diversity of ataxia subtypes. Despite the characterization of a number of both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ataxias, it is thought that a large group of these conditions remains to be identified. In this study, we report the characterization of five patients (three Mexicans and two Italians) who exhibit a peculiar form of recessive ataxia associated with coughing. The main clinical and neurophysiological features of these patients include cerebellar ataxia, paroxysmal cough, restless legs syndrome (RLS), choreic movements, atrophy of distal muscles, and oculomotor disorders. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar atrophy, while video polysomnography (VPSG) studies showed a severe pattern of breathing-related sleep disorder, including sleep apnea, snoring, and significant oxygen saturation in the absence of risk factors. All patients share clinical features in the peripheral nervous system, including reduction of amplitude and prolonged latency of sensory potentials in median and sural nerves. Altogether, clinical criteria as well as molecular genetic testing that was negative for different autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ataxias suggest the presence of a new form of recessive ataxia. This ataxia, in which cerebellar signs are preceded by paroxysmal cough, affects not only the cerebellum and its fiber connections, but also the sensory peripheral nervous system and extracerebellar central pathways.

  10. An early role for WNT signaling in specifying neural patterns of Cdx and Hox gene expression and motor neuron subtype identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Nordström

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between extrinsic signaling, progenitor cell specification and neuronal subtype identity is central to the developmental organization of the vertebrate central nervous system. In the hindbrain and spinal cord, distinctions in the rostrocaudal identity of progenitor cells are associated with the generation of different motor neuron subtypes. Two fundamental classes of motor neurons, those with dorsal (dMN and ventral (vMN exit points, are generated over largely non-overlapping rostrocaudal domains of the caudal neural tube. Cdx and Hox genes are important determinants of the rostrocaudal identity of neural progenitor cells, but the link between early patterning signals, neural Cdx and Hox gene expression, and the generation of dMN and vMN subtypes, is unclear. Using an in vitro assay of neural differentiation, we provide evidence that an early Wnt-based program is required to interact with a later retinoic acid- and fibroblast growth factor-mediated mechanism to generate a pattern of Cdx and Hox profiles characteristic of hindbrain and spinal cord progenitor cells that prefigure the generation of vMNs and dMNs.

  11. Phenytoin-induced isolated chronic, nocturnal dry cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score +6 related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein.

  12. Discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; QIU Zhi-hong; WEI Wei-li; LIU Bo; XU Xiang-huai; L(U) Han-jing; QIU Zhong-min

    2011-01-01

    Background The current diagnostic algorithms for chronic cough require the establishment of the primary presumptive causes followed by the confirmation of diagnosis with the specific therapies.The aim of the study was to investigate the discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes and its clinical implication.Methods A total of 109 patients with chronic cough underwent laboratory investigations to identify the cause of cough; including sinus computerized tomography (if needed),histamine bronchial provocation,induced sputum cytology and 24-hour esophageal pH or multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring.The presumptive causes were confirmed by treating them sequentially.The difference between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough was compared.Results Single cause was more frequent in the definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (78.9% vs.54.1%,x2=15.01,P=0.0001).In contrast,multiple causes were significantly fewer in definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (15.6% vs.37.6%,x2=13.53,P=0.0002).There was a discrepancy between definite and presumptive causes in 30 patients (27.5%).Compared with the presumptive causes,definite upper airway cough syndrome (24.8% vs.11.9%,x2=6.0,P=0.01) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (6.4% vs.0,x2=7.23,P=0.007) was more frequent as a single cause of chronic cough while cough variant asthma plus gastroesophageal reflux disease (3.7% vs.11.9%,x2=5.17,P=0.02) and upper airway cough syndrome plus nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (0 vs.9.2%,x2=10.48,P=0.001) were fewer as multiple causes of chronic cough.Conclusions A discrepancy was common between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough.To treat presumptive causes sequentially may be a suitable solution for avoidance of erroneous multiple causes and possible over-treatment.

  13. Three-dimensional knee kinematics by conventional gait analysis for eleven motor tasks of daily living: typical patterns and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheys, Lennart; Leardini, Alberto; Wong, Pius D; Van Camp, Laurent; Callewaert, Barbara; Bellemans, Johan; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-04-01

    The availability of detailed knee kinematic data during various activities can facilitate clinical studies of this joint. To describe in detail normal knee joint rotations in all three anatomical planes, 25 healthy subjects (aged 22-49 years) performed eleven motor tasks, including walking, step ascent and descent, each with and without sidestep or crossover turns, chair rise, mild and deep squats, and forward lunge. Kinematic data were obtained with a conventional lower-body gait analysis protocol over three trials per task. To assess the repeatability with standard indices, a representative subset of 10 subjects underwent three repetitions of the entire motion capture session. Extracted parameters with good repeatability included maximum and minimum axial rotation during turning, local extremes of the flexion curves during gait tasks, and stride times. These specific repeatable parameters can be used for task selection or power analysis when planning future clinical studies.

  14. The cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae are mechanosensitive but have no profound effect on ongoing feeding related motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The anterior segments of cyclorraphous Diptera larvae bear various sense organs: the dorsal- and terminal organ located on the cephalic lobes, the ventral- and labial organs associated with the mouthplate and the internal labral organ which lies on the dorsal surface of the esophagus. The sense organs are connected to the brain via the antennal nerve (dorsal- and labral organ) or the maxillary nerve (terminal-, ventral-, labial organ). Although their ultrastructure suggests also a mechanosensory function only their response to olfactory and gustatory stimuli has been investigated electrophysiologically. Here we stimulated the individual organs with step-, ramp-, and sinusoidal stimuli of different amplitude while extracellulary recording their afferents from the respective nerves. The external organs show a threshold of approximately 2 microm. All organs responded phasically and did not habituate to repetitive stimuli. The low threshold of the external organs combined with their rhythmically exposure to the substrate suggested a putative role in the temporal coordination of feeding. We therefore repetitively stimulated individual organs while simultaneously monitoring the centrally generated motor pattern for food ingestion. Neither the dorsal-, terminal- or ventral organ afferents had an obvious effect on the ongoing motor rhythm. Various reasons explaining these results are discussed.

  15. Experiments on the fluid dynamics of the human cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Human coughing is studied non-intrusively by high-speed schlieren videography, revealing a turbulent jet lasting up to 1 sec with a total expelled air volume of about 2 L. Velocimetry of eddy motion reveals a jet centerline airspeed of at least 8 m/sec. With Re roughly 18,000 the cough jet is inertia-driven and buoyancy is negligible. It shows typical round-turbulent-jet behavior, including a conical spreading angle of 24 deg, despite irregular initial conditions. The cough jet is projected several m into the surrounding air before it mixes out. It is well known that a cough can transmit infectious agents, and we are advised to cover our mouths in an apparent attempt to thwart the jet formation. Present experiments have shown that wearing a surgical mask or respirator designed to prevent the inhalation of infectious agents also interferes with the cough-jet formation, redirecting it into the person's rising thermal plume. (Tang et al., J. Royal. Soc. Interface 6, S727, 2009.)

  16. Aging deteriorated perception of urge-to-cough without changing cough reflex threshold to citric acid in female never-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae; Kanezaki, Masashi; Gui, Peijun; Yamasaki, Miyako; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of aging on the cognitive aspect of cough has not been studied yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the aging effect on the perception of urge-to-cough in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen young, female, healthy never-smokers were recruited via public postings. Twelve elderly female healthy never-smokers were recruited from a nursing home residence. The cough reflex threshold and the urge-to-cough were evaluated by inhalation of citric acid. The cough ref...

  17. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .2. EMERGENCE OF SPECIFIC MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In 20 women with type-1 diabetes, the emergence of fetal movement patterns was studied using real-time ultrasound. One-hour recordings were made once a week between the 7th and 17th week of gestation. Data were compared to those obtained in uncomplicated pregnancy. The diabetic women were being trea

  18. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .2. EMERGENCE OF SPECIFIC MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In 20 women with type-1 diabetes, the emergence of fetal movement patterns was studied using real-time ultrasound. One-hour recordings were made once a week between the 7th and 17th week of gestation. Data were compared to those obtained in uncomplicated pregnancy. The diabetic women were being trea

  19. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Rubin, Bruce K; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-23

    Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were performed through a pediatric cough questionnaire (PCQ), developed by the Italian Society of Cough Study. A total of 433 children visited by family care pediatricians for acute cough due to a URTI were enrolled in this study, with mean age of 6.1 years (SD 3.6). Cough type, duration, severity and frequency, cough impact on sleep disturbances of children and parents and on school and sport activities were assessed at baseline. In a subset of 241 children who were either treated with antitussive drugs (levodropropizine n = 101, central antitussives n = 60) or received no treatment (n = 80), the outcome of cough after 6 days was analyzed in terms of resolution, improvement, no change, or worsening. Descriptive analysis, χ2 test, and multivariate analysis with stepwise logistic regression were performed. Cough disturbed sleep in 88% of children and 72% of parents. In children treated with cough suppressants, the duration, type, intensity, and frequency cough were similar at baseline in the two groups respectively treated with levodropropizine and central antitussives (cloperastine and codeine). Both levodropropizine and central drugs reduced cough intensity and frequency. However, percentage of cough resolution was higher with levodropropizine than with central antitussives (47% vs. 28% respectively, p = 0.0012). Acute cough disturbs sleep in most children and their parents. Both levodropropizine and central antitussives reduced cough intensity, with levodropropizine producing a higher cough resolution

  20. Influence factors of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic cough%慢性咳嗽患者咳嗽敏感性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 赖克方; 罗炜; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence factors of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic cough. Methods Patients with chronic cough were recruited by using a diagnostic program. Cough reflex sensitivity was examined through eapsaicin cough challenge and the LgC5 (C5, the concentration of capsaicin causing five or more coughs ) was used as the index of cough threshold. Score of the severity of cough, age,gender, course of disease, pulmonary ventilation function (FEV1/pred%, MMEF/pred% )and cell differential of induced sputum (the percent of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils)were also recorded for analysis. Results One hundred and fifty patients with different etiology of chronic cough involved in the study. Cough threshold of the patients was correlated with cough score at daytime (r=0.175, P0.05 ). Regression analysis showed that only gender and disease course were significantly corrclated with LgC5 ( all P0.05.多元线性回归分析显示,咳嗽阈值仅与性别、咳嗽病程有关(P均<0.01).结论咳嗽敏感性与咳嗽症状积分反映咳嗽程度的不同特征,性别与咳嗽病程可能影响慢性咳嗽患者的咳嗽敏感性.

  1. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Bhalerao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerability were analysed from the following grades by patients and confirmed by doctor. Of 50 patients, 63% were diagnosed with cough due to upper respiratory tract infections, 17% common cold, 12% allergic cough and 8% smoker’s cough. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough was noted in 42 (84% out of 50 patients and fair response in another 4 (8%. Only 4 out of 50 patients showed no relief in symptoms. Most of the patients (98% accepted the remedy well. Only one adverse event was reported. However, a relation to the medication was classified to be unlikely. The test drug Mykoff® is an effective and safe cough syrup that is highly acceptable for patients with cough of short duration.

  2. Detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae antigens in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choroszy-Krol, Irena; Frej-Madrzak, Magdalena; Jama-Kmiecik, Agnieszka; Sarowska, Jolanta; Serek, Pawel; Pirogowicz, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in adults with symptoms of chronic cough. The study was conducted in 83 hospitalized patients aged 18-67 suffering of chronic cough. The control group consisted of 20 healthy age-matched subjects without any respiratory symptoms. Bacteriological tests on the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae antigen were performed in throat swabs by indirect immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The rate of Chlamydophila infected patients was examined in relation to age and gender. The Chlamydophila pneumoniae antigen was detected in 15 (18 %) out of the 83 patients; about equally in both genders. Furthermore, we found that the patients aged 28-37 constituted the age group that most frequently tested positive for Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Unraveling the presence of Chlamydia infection in chronic cough patients enables to introduce a timely implementation of effective therapy and thus can prevent distant complications.

  3. Exposure to coughed airborne pathogens in a double bed hospital patient room with overhead mixing ventilation: impact of posture of coughing patient and location of doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, W.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of a doctor and a patient to air coughed by a second infected patient was studied in a mock-up of two-bed hospital infectious ward with mixing ventilation at 22oC (71.6 F) room air temperature. The effect of posture of the coughing patient lying sideways or on back), position...... with a cough generator. Another heated dummy was used to simulate the second patient in the second bed. The cough consisted of 100% CO2. The Peak Cough Time was 4 s, when the doctor was close to coughing patient and increased more than twice for the exposed patient. The level of exposure (Peak Concentration...... Level) depends on the positioning relative to the cough direction: lying or standing still, facing or turned sideways and changed varied 194 to 10228 ppm. Ventilation rates of 12 h-1 (recommended by present hospital standards) resulted in increased background exposure levels and may suggest risk from...

  4. Cough Recognition Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Dynamic Time Warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping

    Cough recognition provides important clinical information for the treatment of many respiratory diseases, but the assessment of cough frequency over a long period of time remains unsatisfied for either clinical or research purpose. In this paper, according to the advantage of dynamic time warping (DTW) and the characteristic of cough recognition, an attempt is made to adapt DTW as the recognition algorithm for cough recognition. The process of cough recognition based on mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and DTW is introduced. Experiment results of testing samples from 3 subjects show that acceptable performances of cough recognition are obtained by DTW with a small training set.

  5. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Zaccone

    Full Text Available The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3 and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4 coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli.

  6. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Z. Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Exophiala pneumonia presenting with a cough productive of black sputum.

  7. Cough and asthma diagnosis: physicians’ diagnosis and treatment of patients complaining of acute, subacute and chronic cough in rural areas of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamasaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yamasaki1, Keichi Hanaki2, Katsuyuki Tomita3, Masanari Watanabe1, Yasuyuki Hasagawa1, Ryota Okazaki1, Miki Yamamura1, Kouji Fukutani4, Yuji Sugimoto5, Kazuhiro Kato4, Masahiro Kodani6, Toshikazu Ikeda7, Tatsuya Konishi8, Yuji Kawasaki9, Hirokazu Tokuyasu9, Hiroki Yajima3, Hitoshi Sejima10, Takeshi Isobe11, Eiji Shimizu1, SAN-IN Asthma Research Group1Third Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Tottori University, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hakuai Hospital, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital,  Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan; 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Organization, Matsue Hospital, Japan; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue City Hospital, Japan; 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 10Department of Pediatrics,  11Department of Internal Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, JapanBackground: Cough is one of the most common reasons for visiting a clinic. The causes of cough differ according to the duration of cough. Infectious disease is commonly observed in acute cough while noninfectious disease is commonly observed in chronic cough. On the other hand, cough is frequently observed in patients with asthma/cough variant asthma (CVA.Objective: In this study, we investigated the causes of cough in a rural region in Japan and the clinical examination and treatment for the patients diagnosed as asthma/CVA.Methods: We analyzed 124 patients who complained of cough.Results: The most common reason for acute cough was respiratory tract infection while asthma/CVA is the most common reason for subacute and chronic cough. The diagnostic procedure for asthma/CVA depends on clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients with acute cough. While in asthmatic patients with subacute and chronic cough, diagnosis

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in China: an insight into the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kefang; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Guangqiao; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-07-28

    Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogenic inflammation and and gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC). Cough-related animal models have been developed, including models for esophageal reflux, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis. Normal reference values for differential cell counts in induced sputum, cough sensitivity and esophageal 24-h pH monitoring in Chinese healthy subjects have been established. By using a modified algorithm for the etiological diagnosis of chronic cough, the causes of chronic cough have been investigated across a number of cities in China. The most common causes of chronic cough are cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, upper airway cough symptoms, atopic cough and GERC, however, there are some regional variations. The Chinese National Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Cough were drafted in 2005, updated in 2009, and have been widely publicized and disseminated through many channels since their publication.

  9. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  10. Effects of Chronic Sleep Restriction during Early Adolescence on the Adult Pattern of Connectivity of Mouse Secondary Motor Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeh, Yazan N.; Bernard, Amy; de Vivo, Luisa; Honjoh, Sakiko; Mihalas, Stefan; Ng, Lydia; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical circuits mature in stages, from early synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning to late synaptic refinement, resulting in the adult anatomical connection matrix. Because the mature matrix is largely fixed, genetic or environmental factors interfering with its establishment can have irreversible effects. Sleep disruption is rarely considered among those factors, and previous studies have focused on very young animals and the acute effects of sleep deprivation on neuronal morphology and cortical plasticity. Adolescence is a sensitive time for brain remodeling, yet whether chronic sleep restriction (CSR) during adolescence has long-term effects on brain connectivity remains unclear. We used viral-mediated axonal labeling and serial two-photon tomography to measure brain-wide projections from secondary motor cortex (MOs), a high-order area with diffuse projections. For each MOs target, we calculated the projection fraction, a combined measure of passing fibers and axonal terminals normalized for the size of each target. We found no homogeneous differences in MOs projection fraction between mice subjected to 5 days of CSR during early adolescence (P25–P30, ≥50% decrease in daily sleep, n=14) and siblings that slept undisturbed (n=14). Machine learning algorithms, however, classified animals at significantly above chance levels, indicating that differences between the two groups exist, but are subtle and heterogeneous. Thus, sleep disruption in early adolescence may affect adult brain connectivity. However, because our method relies on a global measure of projection density and was not previously used to measure connectivity changes due to behavioral manipulations, definitive conclusions on the long-term structural effects of early CSR require additional experiments. PMID:27351022

  11. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reprint of: Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  13. Human convection flow in spaces with and without ventilation: personal exposure to floor-released particles and cough-released droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Pantelic, Jovan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the human convective boundary layer (CBL), room airflow patterns, and their velocities on personal exposure are examined. Two pollutants are studied which simulate particles released from the feet and generated at distances of 2 and 3 m by a human cough. A thermal manikin whose body...

  14. FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... in the FDA’s laboratories in Silver Spring, MD. Whooping Cough: Background and Key Findings The FDA is studying ...

  15. The Cough Cylinder : A tool to study measures against airborne spread of (myco-) bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessche, K. van den; Marais, B.J.; Wattenberg, M.; Magis-Escurra, C.; Reijers, M.; Tuinman, I.L.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van; Groot, R. de; Cotton, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Covering your cough' reduces droplet number, but its effect on airborne pathogen transmission is less clear. The World Health Organization specifically recommends cough etiquette to prevent the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but implementation is generally poor and evidence suppo

  16. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Special Features Use Caution When Giving Cough and Cold Products to Kids Share Tweet Linkedin ... age should not be given any kind of cough and cold product that contains a decongestant or ...

  17. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children ... FDA recommending about use of over-the-counter cough and cold products for infants and children under ...

  18. Motor imagery-induced EEG patterns in individuals with spinal cord injury and their impact on brain-computer interface accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, G. R.; Daly, I.; Kaiser, V.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Assimilating the diagnosis complete spinal cord injury (SCI) takes time and is not easy, as patients know that there is no ‘cure' at the present time. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can facilitate daily living. However, inter-subject variability demands measurements with potential user groups and an understanding of how they differ to healthy users BCIs are more commonly tested with. Thus, a three-class motor imagery (MI) screening (left hand, right hand, feet) was performed with a group of 10 able-bodied and 16 complete spinal-cord-injured people (paraplegics, tetraplegics) with the objective of determining what differences were present between the user groups and how they would impact upon the ability of these user groups to interact with a BCI. Approach. Electrophysiological differences between patient groups and healthy users are measured in terms of sensorimotor rhythm deflections from baseline during MI, electroencephalogram microstate scalp maps and strengths of inter-channel phase synchronization. Additionally, using a common spatial pattern algorithm and a linear discriminant analysis classifier, the classification accuracy was calculated and compared between groups. Main results. It is seen that both patient groups (tetraplegic and paraplegic) have some significant differences in event-related desynchronization strengths, exhibit significant increases in synchronization and reach significantly lower accuracies (mean (M) = 66.1%) than the group of healthy subjects (M = 85.1%). Significance. The results demonstrate significant differences in electrophysiological correlates of motor control between healthy individuals and those individuals who stand to benefit most from BCI technology (individuals with SCI). They highlight the difficulty in directly translating results from healthy subjects to participants with SCI and the challenges that, therefore, arise in providing BCIs to such individuals.

  19. Firing patterns and functional roles of different classes of spinal afferents in rectal nerves during colonic migrating motor complexes in mouse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Kyloh, Melinda; Brookes, Simon J; Nicholas, Sarah J; Spencer, Nick J

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the different classes of visceral afferents that innervate the large intestine is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range rectal afferents play an important role in the detection and transmission of visceral pain induced by noxious colorectal distension in mice. However, it is not clear which classes of spinal afferents are activated during naturally occurring colonic motor patterns or during intense contractions of the gut smooth muscle. We developed an in vitro colorectum preparation to test how the major classes of rectal afferents are activated during spontaneous colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) or pharmacologically induced contraction. During CMMCs, circular muscle contractions increased firing in low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular afferents and muscular-mucosal afferents, which generated a mean firing rate of 1.53 ± 0.23 Hz (n = 8) under isotonic conditions and 2.52 ± 0.36 Hz (n = 17) under isometric conditions. These low-threshold rectal afferents were reliably activated by low levels of circumferential stretch induced by increases in length (1-2 mm) or load (1-3 g). In a small proportion of cases (5 of 34 units), some low-threshold muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents decreased their firing rate during the peak of the CMMC contractions. High-threshold afferents were never activated during spontaneous CMMC contractions or tonic contractions induced by bethanechol (100 μM). High-threshold rectal afferents were only activated by intense levels of circumferential stretch (10-20 g). These results show that, in the rectal nerves of mice, low-threshold, wide-dynamic-range muscular and muscular-mucosal afferents are excited during contraction of the circular muscle that occurs during spontaneous CMMCs. No activation of high-threshold rectal afferents was detected during CMMCs or intense contractile activity in naïve mouse colorectum.

  20. Acidogenic Potential of “Sugar-Free” Cough Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John A; Ritchie, John R

    2009-01-01

    A patient presented with extensive marginal ditching around restorations recently placed during whole-mouth rehabilitation. The patient was not xerostomic and was otherwise normal except for the self-reported excessive use of “sugar-free” cough drops sweetened with sorbitol and Isomalt® (an equimolar mix of glucosyl-mannitol and glucosylsorbitol). This prompted an in vitro investigation to determine whether Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, a cariogenic streptococcus, could grow and produce acid in growth medium containing an aqueous extract of such “sugar-free” cough drops. The results indicate that S. sobrinus 6715 uses Isomalt® and sorbitol extensively, producing terminal culture pH as low as 4.2 when grown on medium with cough drop extract containing these sugars. This pH is sufficient to demineralize dental enamel. Patients should be cautioned against the chronic overuse of “sugar-free” cough drops and other “sugar-free” confections sweetened with a mixture of Isomalt® and sorbitol. PMID:19444340

  1. Acidogenic potential of "sugar-free" cough drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John A; Ritchie, John R

    2009-03-06

    A patient presented with extensive marginal ditching around restorations recently placed during whole-mouth rehabilitation. The patient was not xerostomic and was otherwise normal except for the self-reported excessive use of "sugar-free" cough drops sweetened with sorbitol and Isomalt® (an equimolar mix of glucosyl-mannitol and glucosylsorbitol). This prompted an in vitro investigation to determine whether Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, a cariogenic streptococcus, could grow and produce acid in growth medium containing an aqueous extract of such "sugar-free" cough drops. The results indicate that S. sobrinus 6715 uses Isomalt® and sorbitol extensively, producing terminal culture pH as low as 4.2 when grown on medium with cough drop extract containing these sugars. This pH is sufficient to demineralize dental enamel. Patients should be cautioned against the chronic overuse of "sugar-free" cough drops and other "sugar-free" confections sweetened with a mixture of Isomalt® and sorbitol.

  2. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  3. Cough reflex sensitivity in adolescents with diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciljakova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus which can involve one or more organ systems. DAN without apparent symptoms is more often in childhood and adolescence. While heart rate variability (HRV and Ewing's battery of cardiovascular tests are regarded as a gold standard for the diagnosis of DAN, the examination of cough reflex sensitivity (CRS is another possibility. The aim of this study was to compare HRV and CRS in children with diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods Sixty one patients (37 girls, 24 boys aged 15-19 suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 completed the study. Based on HRV, patients were divided into 2 groups - with DAN (n = 25 and without DAN (n = 32, 4 patients were excluded because of ambiguous results. CRS was studied in each patient by inhalation of gradually increasing concentration of capsaicin. Results Subjects with DAN required a significantly higher concentration of capsaicin needed to evoke 2 coughs (median 625 μmol/l, IQR 68.4-625.0 μmol/l vs. median 29.3 μmol/l, IQR 9.8-156.3 μmol/l, P Conclusion Diabetes mellitus lowers the cough response. Cough reflex sensitivity appears to be another sensitive method for the evaluation of DAN in diabetes.

  4. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); H.J. van Duijn (Huug); M.M. Kuyvenhoven (Marijke); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. AIM: To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. DESIGN OF STUDY: Second Dutch National Survey o

  5. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, H.J.M.; Duijn, H.J. van; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. AIM: To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. DESIGN OF STUDY: Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DN

  6. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; van Duijn, Huug J.; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M.; Schellevis, Francois G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. Aim To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. Design of study Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP

  7. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  8. Levodropropizine for treating cough in adult and children: a meta-analysis of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni; Saibene, Federico; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; De Blasio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and lung specialists. About 40% of the population at any one time report cough. Cough is associated with significantly impaired health-related quality of life. Levodropropizine is an effective and very well tolerated peripheral antitussive drug. We want to compare it to central cough suppressants efficacy (opioids and non-opioids) that may be associated with side effects ...

  9. Levodropropizine for treating cough in adult and children: a meta-analysis of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni; Saibene, Federico; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; De Blasio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and lung specialists. About 40% of the population at any one time report cough. Cough is associated with significantly impaired health-related quality of life. Levodropropizine is an effective and very well tolerated peripheral antitussive drug. We want to compare it to central cough suppressants efficacy (opioids and non-opioids) that may be associated with side effects ...

  10. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K. Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  11. Misdiagnosis and mistreatment of ace-inhibitor induced cough decreases therapy compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; de Boer, P.; van Dijk, K. W.; Visser, S. T.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A common adverse effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) is a persistent dry cough. Physicians and pharmacists who fail to recognise dry cough to be ACEi related may prescribe cough suppressants (antitussives), instead of recommended ACEi substitution. The aim of this s

  12. Sixty-eight Cases of Child Chronic Cough Treated by Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; WANG Su-mei; WU Li-qun

    2009-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of moxibustion for chronic cough in children. Methods: 68 child cases of chronic cough were treated by moxibustion. Results: 54 cases were cured, 13 cases improved, and one case failed. The cure rate was 79.2%, with a total effective rate of 98.5%. Conclusion: The moxibustion therapy has definite therapeutic effect for children chronic cough.

  13. 76 FR 44475 - Labeling for Bronchodilators To Treat Asthma; Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Bronchodilators To Treat Asthma; Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antiasthmatic Drug Products for Over...)(6) to establish a monograph for OTC cold, cough, allergy, bronchodilator, and antiasthmatic drug products. The ANPR included the recommendations of the Advisory Review Panel on OTC Cold, Cough,...

  14. Exercises for the torso performed in a standing posture: spine and hip motion and motor patterns and spine load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Karpowicz, Amy; Fenwick, Chad M J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the muscle activity, spine motion, spine load, and stiffness during several movement-based or "functional" exercises and to assess the effect of technique change. Eight subjects, all healthy men from a university population, were instrumented to obtain surface electromyography of selected trunk and hip muscles, together with video analysis and electromagnetic lumbar spine position sensor to track spine posture. Exercises included a walkout in the sagittal plane that compared an upright form against a wall with those performed on the floor, overhead cable pushes, lateral cable walkouts, the good morning exercise, and the bowler's squat. Generally, muscle activation levels were quite modest even though the tasks were quite strenuous in many cases. Even though similar joint moments were required in different exercises, the pattern of activity between muscles was different. Abdominal bracing increased spine stiffness at the expense of more spine load. Thus, muscle activity seems to be constrained in "functional" exercises. There are several possible reasons for this. Single muscles cannot be activated to 100% of the maximum voluntary contraction in functional exercises because this would upset the balance of moments about the 3 orthopedic axes of the spine, or it would upset the balance of stiffening muscles around the spine required to ensure stability of the spinal column. The one exception was the floor walkout, which resulted in full activation of the rectus abdominis; however, this was a sagittal plane task without the joint moment constraints of multiplanar exercise. Therefore, maximal muscle activity is observed during single-plane tasks, but muscle activation levels were constrained during functional tasks. Thus, strength training muscles may not help in "functional multiplanar" tasks. These data can be used to assist decisions regarding the selection of exercises, specifically choices regarding the starting challenge

  15. Association between Community Ambulation Walking Patterns and Cognitive Function in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Further Insights into Motor-Cognitive Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive function is generally evaluated based on testing in the clinic, but this may not always reflect real-life function. We tested whether parameters derived from long-term, continuous monitoring of gait are associated with cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 107 patients with PD (age: 64.9 ± 9.3 yrs; UPDRS motor sum “off”: 40.4 ± 13.2; 25.23% women wore a 3D accelerometer on their lower back for 3 days. Computerized measures of global cognitive function, executive function, attention, and nonverbal memory were assessed. Three-day acceleration derived measures included cadence, variability, bilateral coordination, and dynamic postural control. Associations between the acceleration derived measures and cognitive function were determined. Results. Linear regression showed associations between vertical gait variability and cadence and between global cognitive score, attention, and executive function (p≤0.048. Dynamic postural control was associated with global cognitive score and attention (p≤0.027. Nonverbal memory was not associated with the acceleration-derived measures. Conclusions. These findings suggest that metrics derived from a 3-day worn body-fixed sensor reflect cognitive function, further supporting the idea that the gait pattern may be altered as cognition declines and that gait provides a window into cognitive function in patients with PD.

  16. The effects of viscosity on the axial motor pattern and kinematics of the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) during lateral undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Angela M; Jayne, Bruce C

    2008-05-01

    Separate studies of terrestrial and aquatic locomotion are abundant, but research addressing locomotion in transitional environments (e.g. mud) is scant. The African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) moves in a gradation of water to mud conditions during seasonal droughts, and breathes air. Thus, the lungfish was an ideal organism for our study to determine the effects of a wide range of viscosities on lateral undulatory swimming and to simulate some of the muddy conditions early tetrapods may have encountered. Regardless of viscosity, several aspects of lungfish swimming were similar to those of other swimming vertebrates including: posteriorly propagated muscle activity that was unilateral and alternated between the left and right sides at each longitudinal location, and posterior increases in the amount of bending, the amplitude of muscle activity and the timing differences between muscle activity and bending. With increased viscosity (1-1000 cSt), significant increases occurred in the amount of lateral bending of the vertebral column and the amplitude of muscle activity, particularly in the most anterior sites, but the distance the fish traveled per tail beat decreased. The magnitude of the phase shift between EMG onset relative to bending increased by as much as 13% of a cycle with increased viscosity, so that the muscles were increasingly active during lengthening rather than shortening. Therefore, with increased viscosity the relationship between axial muscle activity and bending in the lungfish became more dissimilar rather than converging on the motor pattern used by other ectothermic vertebrates when undulating in fully terrestrial environments.

  17. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...... the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure...

  18. Personal Construction of Cough Medicine among Young Substance Abusers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cough medicine abuse is a growing problem in many places, there is no study examining the views of young substance abusers toward cough medicine. The objective of this study was to examine personal constructions of cough medicine abusers via the repertory grid tests (=11. Several observations are highlighted from the study. First, personal constructions of cough medicine were mixed, including the benefits and harmful effects of its abuse. Second, although the informants perceived cough medicine to be addictive and harmful, they perceived cough medicine to be less addictive and less harmful than did heroin. Third, while the informants construed cough medicine to be similar to ketamine and marijuana, they also perceived cough medicine to possess some characteristics of heroin. Fourth, relative to the construed similarity between heroin and the gateway drugs (cigarette, beer, and liquor, the informants construed cough medicine to be more similar to the gateway drugs. Finally, a higher level of perceived dissimilarity between cough medicine and gateway drugs was related to a higher level of perceived harm of cough medicine abuse.

  19. Distinction between voluntary cough sound and speech in volunteers by spectral and complexity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, J; Tatar, M; Javorka, M

    2008-12-01

    Objective monitoring of cough sound for extended period is an important step toward a better understanding of this symptom. Because ambulatory cough monitoring systems are not commercially available, we prepared own monitoring system, which is able to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech in healthy volunteers. 20-min sound records were obtained using portable digital voice recorder. Characteristics of the sound events have been calculated in time and frequency domains and by a nonlinear analysis. Based on selected parameters, classification tree was constructed for the classification of cough and non-cough sound events. We validated the usefulness of our algorithm developed against manual counts of cough obtained by a trained observer. The median sensitivity value was 100% (the interquartile range was 98-100) and the median specificity was 95% (the interquartile range was 90-97). In conclusion, we developed an algorithm to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. Antioxidant activity of herbal polysaccharides and cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosalova, G; Jurecek, L; Hromadkova, Z; Kostalova, Z; Sadlonova, V

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of Fallopia sachalinensis leaves resulted in two fractions (FS-1 and FS-2). Chemical and spectral analyses of samples revealed the prevalence of pectic polysaccharides with high galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, and rhamnose content. Arabinogalactan with a higher content of phenolic prevailed in the FS-1, whereas rhamnogalacturonan predominated in the FS-2 fraction. Both polysaccharides showed significant antioxidant activity according to DPPH and FRAP assays. Evaluation of antitussive activity in healthy adult conscious guinea pigs after oral application of 50 and 75 mg/kg of the FS-2 polysaccharide extracts showed a significant suppression of cough reflex, without an influence on specific airway resistance. The suppression of cough was comparable with that of codeine.

  1. Whooping cough in adults: an update on a reemerging infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Robert D; Blaylock, Jason; Hartzell, Joshua D

    2012-02-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, which is commonly thought of as a pediatric illness, is an underappreciated adult pathogen. Recent outbreaks highlight the significance of pertussis in adults and the risk of transmission to at-risk infants who are most susceptible to complications, including death. This article describes the recent epidemiologic shifts and reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pertussis. New vaccination recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in response to recent outbreaks and infant deaths are highlighted.

  2. Acidogenic Potential of “Sugar-Free” Cough Drops

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A patient presented with extensive marginal ditching around restorations recently placed during whole-mouth rehabilitation. The patient was not xerostomic and was otherwise normal except for the self-reported excessive use of “sugar-free” cough drops sweetened with sorbitol and Isomalt® (an equimolar mix of glucosyl-mannitol and glucosylsorbitol). This prompted an in vitro investigation to determine whether Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, a cariogenic streptococcus, could grow and produce acid i...

  3. Abnormal intraepithelial airway nerves in persistent unexplained cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, F; Springall, D R; Moradoghli-Haftvani, A; Krausz, T; Price, D; Fuller, R W; Polak, J M; Pride, N B

    1995-12-01

    Idiopathic persistent nonproductive cough (PNPC) is characterized by enhanced cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, suggesting that capsaicin-sensitive afferent airway nerves are either present in increased numbers or functionally upregulated. In 16 patients with idiopathic PNPC and eight healthy control subjects, we measured cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin and the anatomic density in bronchial epithelium of nerves immunoreactive for the general nerve-marker protein gene product (PGP)-9.5 and the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) and substance-P (SP). The log concentrations of capsaicin required to elicit at least two (C2) and five (C5) coughs were significantly lower in patients (P) than in control subjects (C) (median [range] log C2, P = 0.3 [-0.3 to 1.2] microM; C = 1.5 [0.9 to 2.1], p upper lobe (RUL) and a subsegmental carina of the right lower lobe (RLL), total nerve density (PGP-9.5 immunoreactivity) was greater in P than C, although this was not significant. CGRP-immunoreactive nerve density was significantly higher in P than in C in the RUL (median [range] P = 1.05% [0.13 to 5.08]; C = 0.02% [0 to 0.24], p = 0.001) and RLL (P = 0.59% [0.04 to 3.14]; C = 0% [0 to 0.50], p < 0.02). SP-immunoreactive nerves were not significantly different in the two groups. Abnormal intraepithelial airway nerves containing increased quantities of CGRP are present in patients with idiopathic PNPC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Preteens and Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all preteens receive the Tdap vaccine when they are 11 or 12 to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Infectious and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Disease (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPD).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  5. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Babies and Young Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all children receive the DTaP vaccine, according to CDC’s recommended schedule, to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  6. Cough reflex sensitivity in adolescents with diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus which can involve one or more organ systems. DAN without apparent symptoms is more often in childhood and adolescence. While heart rate variability (HRV) and Ewing's battery of cardiovascular tests are regarded as a gold standard for the diagnosis of DAN, the examination of cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) is another possibility. The aim of this study was to compare HRV and CRS in chi...

  7. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the fi...

  8. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenia, Priti; Houghton, Tom; Beardsmore, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    There is widespread use of menthol in over-the-counter medications, despite scant information on any beneficial effects. Our aim was to assess the effect of menthol on nasal air flow, perception of nasal patency and cough challenge testing. Subjects comprised 42 healthy children aged 10 and 11 in a school setting. We used a single-blind pseudo-randomized cross-over trial to compare the effect of an inhalation of either menthol or placebo(eucalyptus oil). Baseline and post-intervention measurements were made on each of 2 consecutive days. Main outcome measures were (i) nasal expiratory and inspiratory flows and volumes, measured by spirometer, (ii) perception of nasal patency, assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS), and (iii) the number of coughs in response to nebulized citric acid. There was no effect of menthol on any of the spirometric measurements. Following menthol, there was a significant increase in the perception of nasal patency (mean difference in log VAS (menthol-placebo) = -0.207, 95%CI -0.329, -0.085). The cough count after menthol inhalation was reduced when compared to baseline but the change was not different from that after placebo (mean difference in cough count (menthol-placebo) = -1.71, 95%CI -4.11, 0.69). Menthol has no effect on objective measures of flow but significantly increases the perception of nasal patency. It may not be possible to extrapolate these findings to younger children and those with rhinitis. Extending the study of menthol to these groups, including investigations of the efficacy and safety profiles, will provide further valuable evidence for its common use.

  9. Forced expiratory technique, directed cough, and autogenic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, James B

    2007-09-01

    In health, secretions produced in the respiratory tract are cleared by mucociliary transport, cephalad airflow bias, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce secretion clearance, leading to increased risk of infection. In obstructive lung disease these conditions are further complicated by early collapse of airways, due to airway compression, which traps both gas and secretions. Techniques have been developed to optimize expiratory flow and promote airway clearance. Directed cough, forced expiratory technique, active cycle of breathing, and autogenic drainage are all more effective than placebo and comparable in therapeutic effects to postural drainage; they require no special equipment or care-provider assistance for routine use. Researchers have suggested that standard chest physical therapy with active cycle of breathing and forced expiratory technique is more effective than chest physical therapy alone. Evidence-based reviews have suggested that, though successful adoption of techniques such as autogenic drainage may require greater control and training, patients with long-term secretion management problems should be taught as many of these techniques as they can master for adoption in their therapeutic routines.

  10. Deglutition and Cough in Different Degrees of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparim, Aretuza Zaupa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease is one of the pathologies mostly affecting deglutition. Objective: To analyze the efficiency of both deglutition and cough reflex in cases of laryngeal penetration or tracheal aspiration with food, in different severity stages of Parkinson disease. Study's way: contemporaneous cohort with transverse incision. Method: The sample had 38 patients in the study group and 38 individuals in the control group submitted to a neurologic evaluation and an otorhinolaryngological evaluation by transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Results: The cough reflex was manifested in 100% of patients without food offering. Alimentary stasis in piriform recesses and epiglottic vallecula in solid, pasty and liquid consistency was significant (p= 0.0000. The laryngeal penetration in liquid consistency was significant (p= 0.0036. Tracheal aspiration occurred in 06 patients of the study group in liquid consistency and it was absent in control group. Conclusion: The efficiency of deglutition in the study group prevailed in the solid consistency, followed by pasty and liquid consistencies. In the control group, deglutition was effective in all individuals. Cough reflex was efficient in most patients of the study group and prevalently inefficient in the subgroup 2.

  11. Clinicoradiological diagnosis of cough-induced intercostal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobradin, Andrew; Bello, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    Cough-induced intercostal hernias without any type of external trauma are very uncommon. There have been less than 10 cases documented in literature. This clinical report describes a 66-year-old male who developed an intercostal hernia induced by a severe cough due to bilateral pneumonia and a subsequent rib fracture. It took almost a full year to diagnose this patient's chest wall mass. Only after taking careful history and reviewing all the images, the diagnosis of intercostal hernia was made. He was referred to a cardiothoracic surgeon for treatment. Intercostal hernias can be caused by the sheer exertion of coughing without any prior history of trauma to the chest wall or abdomen. Early diagnosis is difficult and had to be based on clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging studies might help to establish diagnosis, but cannot replace a diligent examination and clinical interview. The treatment of the chest wall defect is case dependent. Surgical repair reinforcement of the intercostal muscles might be required with prosthetic nonabsorbable (polypropylene) mesh.

  12. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, afte

  13. Azithromycin and cough-specific health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic cough : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Doornewaard-ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrolides reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD. Their effects on health status has not been assessed as primary outcome and is less clear. This study assessed the effects of prophylactic azithromycin on cough-specific health status in COPD-patients with chronic productive cough. M

  14. Azithromycin and cough-specific health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic cough : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Doornewaard-ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrolides reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD. Their effects on health status has not been assessed as primary outcome and is less clear. This study assessed the effects of prophylactic azithromycin on cough-specific health status in COPD-patients with chronic productive cough. M

  15. The effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and patterned electrical stimulation on spinal inhibitory interneurons and motor function in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Tsai, Yun-An; Tang, Shuen-Chang; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Liu, Meigen

    2016-06-01

    Supraspinal excitability and sensory input may play an important role for the modulation of spinal inhibitory interneurons and functional recovery among patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with patterned electrical stimulation (PES) on spinal inhibitory interneurons in patients with chronic incomplete SCI and in healthy individuals. Eleven patients with incomplete SCI and ten healthy adults participated in a single-masked, sham-controlled crossover study. PES involved stimulating the common peroneal nerve with a train of ten 100 Hz pulses every 2 s for 20 min. Anodal tDCS (1 mA) was simultaneously applied to the primary motor cortex that controls the tibialis anterior muscle. We measured reciprocal inhibition and presynaptic inhibition of a soleus H-reflex by stimulating the common peroneal nerve prior to tibial nerve stimulation, which elicits the H-reflex. The inhibition was assessed before, immediately after, 10 min after and 20 min after the stimulation. Compared with baseline, simultaneous application of anodal tDCS with PES significantly increased changes in disynaptic reciprocal inhibition and long-latency presynaptic inhibition in both healthy and SCI groups for at least 20 min after the stimulation (all, p stimulation (p = 0.004). In conclusion, anodal tDCS combined with PES could induce spinal plasticity and improve ankle movement in patients with incomplete SCI.

  16. Effects of pirfenidone on increased cough reflex sensitivity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Akihito; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Katayama, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Pirfenidone, an antifibrotic drug with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, delays fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Patients with IPF have a greater cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin than healthy people, and cough is an independent predictor of IPF disease progression; however, the effects of pirfenidone on cough reflex sensitivity are unknown. After challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs, pirfenidone was administered intraperitoneally, and the cough reflex sensitivity was measured at 48 h after the challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and the tracheal tissue was collected. Pirfenidone suppressed the capsaicin-induced increase in cough reflex sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, increased levels of prostaglandin E2, substance P, and leukotriene B4, but not histamine, in the BAL fluid were dose dependently suppressed by pirfenidone. The decrease in neutral endopeptidase activity in the tracheal tissue was also alleviated by pirfenidone treatment. The total number of cells and components in the BAL fluid was not influenced. These results suggest that pirfenidone ameliorates isolated cough based on increased cough reflex sensitivity associated with allergic airway diseases, and potentially relieve chronic cough in IPF patients who often have increased cough reflex sensitivity. Prospective studies on cough-relieving effects of pirfenidone in patients with IPF are therefore warranted.

  17. Effect of carbocysteine on cough reflex to capsaicin in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Fujimura, Masaki; Yamamori, Chihiro; Nobata, Kouichi; Myou, Shigeharu; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Michishita, Yasukatsu; Takegoshi, Tadayoshi

    2003-06-01

    Cough, one of the main symptoms of bronchial asthma, is a chronic airway inflammatory disease with functionally damaged bronchial epithelium. Recently, we established an animal model with cough hypersensitivity after antigen challenge and clearly showed the protective effect of carbocysteine in this model. This study was designed to investigate the clinical effect of carbocysteine for cough sensitivity in patients with bronchial asthma. The effects of the two orally active mucoregulatory drugs, carbocysteine and ambroxol hydrochloride, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin were examined in 14 patients with stable asthma. Capsaicin cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin eliciting five or more coughs, was measured as an index of airway cough sensitivity. Geometric mean values of the cough threshold at run-in (baseline) and after 4 weeks' treatment of placebo, 1500 mg day-1 of carbocysteine and 45 mg day-1 of ambroxol hydrochloride were 12.8 micro M (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5, 29.6), 11.0 micro M (95% CI 4.4, 27.5), 21.0 micro M (95% CI 8.8, 50.2) and 11.6 micro M (95% CI 5.8, 23.3), respectively. The cough threshold for carbocysteine was significantly greater than those of ambroxol hydrochloride (P = 0.047) and placebo (P = 0.047), respectively. These findings indicate that carbocysteine administration may be a novel therapeutic option for asthmatic patients, especially with cough variant asthma.

  18. Incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal fractures and associated spinal cord injury resulting from motor vehicle collisions in China over 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Xinwei; Zhao, Yiwen; Ou, Lan; Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Yu, Hailong; Wang, Qi; Han, Jianda; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal fractures (TSFs) and associated spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting from motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). This was a cross-sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed 698 patients with TSFs resulting from MVCs admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2011. The incidence and pattern were summarized with respect to different age groups, fracture levels, and the role of patients. There were 464 males (66.5%) and 234 females (33.5%) aged 40.5 ± 13.8 years old. The most common roles of patients in MVCs were car drivers (189, 27.1%), pedestrians hurt by a car (155, 22.2%), and car passengers (145, 20.8%). The most common fracture levels were L1 (n = 198, 19.2%) and T12 (n = 116, 11.3%), followed by C2 (n = 86, 8.3%). A total of 298 (42.7%) patients suffered a spinal cord injury. The frequencies of SCIs decreased from 53.1% to 24.6% with increasing age. The patients in the 20 to 39 age group (45.3% of all patients) had the largest sex ratio (2.4) and highest frequency of complete SCIs (19.3%) and complications (3.2%). Motorcycle drivers had the youngest mean age (35.7 ± 10.2), largest sex ratio (10.4), and highest frequency of SCIs (56.0%) and complications (4.4%). Motorcycle passengers had the highest frequency of complete SCI (22.7%) and ASOIs (45.5%) and the largest mean injury severity scoring (ISS) (18.9 ± 9.6). The most common fracture levels of motorcycle drivers were C3–C7, while that of others were T11–L2. The most common role of patients who sustained TSFs were car drivers who were 20 to 39 years old. Motorcycle drivers had the highest frequency of SCIs and complications. Motorcycle passengers had the highest frequency of complete SCIs and ASOIs and the largest ISS. Therefore, we should pay more attention to MVC patients, especially car drivers and motorcycle drivers and passengers. PMID:27787384

  19. 运动意识任务的模式识别方法研究%Pattern recognition method of motor imagery tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝国; 宋爱国; 费树岷

    2011-01-01

    针对脑机接口研究中运动想象脑电信号的模式识别问题,提出了一种基于离散小波变换和AR双谱的特征提取方法.该方法首先利用Daubechies类小波函数对二路脑电信号进行3层分解,抽取小波系数的均值、能量均值、均方差三个特征;然后,采用5阶AR模型进行双谱估计,抽取双谱切片特征;最后,将这两类特征进行组合后使用马氏距离线性判别进行分类.利用BCI2003竞赛的标准数据,该方法使得EEG的识别正确率达到92.86%,与竞赛的最好结果(89.29%)相比提高了3.57%,为BCI研究中脑电信号的模式识别提供了有效的手段.%Aiming at the issue of motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG) pattern recognition in the research of brain-computer interface (BCI) , a novel feature extraction method based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and autoregressive (AR) bispectrum is proposed. Firstly, two-channel EEG signals are decomposed to three levels using Daubechies wavelet function. Secondly, the mean, average power and standard deviation of the wavelet coefficients are computed. Thirdly, bispectrum is estimated using fifth-order AR model and diagonal slice characteristic of the bispectrum is extracted. Finally, the above two kinds of features are combined, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on Mahalanobis distance is utilized to classify the combined feature. This method is applied to the standard dataset of BCI Competition 2003 , and experimental results show that the recognition rate reaches 92.86%,which is 3.57% higher than the best result ( 89.29% ) of the competition. This technology provides an effective approach to EEG pattern recognition in BCI research.

  20. Assessment of antitussive efficacy of dextromethorphan in smoking related cough: objective vs. subjective measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, James; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Hull, David; Morice, Alyn H

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Using an established model of smokers cough we measured the antitussive effects of dextromethorphan compared with placebo. METHODS The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled, crossover comparison of 22 mg 0.8 ml−1 dextromethorphan delivered pregastrically with matched placebo. Objective and subjective measurements of cough were recorded. Subjective measures included a daily diary record of cough symptoms and the Leicester quality of life questionnaire. Cough frequency was recorded using a manual cough counter. The objective measure of cough reflex sensitivity was the citric acid, dose–response cough challenge. RESULTS Dextromethorphan was significantly associated with an increase in the concentration of citric acid eliciting an average of two coughs/inhalation (C2) when compared with placebo, 1 h post dose by 0.49 mM (95% CI 0.05, 0.45, geometric mean 3.09) compared with placebo 0.24 mM (geometric mean 1.74) P < 0.05 and at 2 h 0.57 mM (95% CI 0.01, 0.43, geometric mean 3.75) compared with placebo 0.34 mM (geometric mean 2.19) P < 0.05). There was a highly significant improvement in the subjective data when compared with baseline. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and active treatment. No correlation was seen between cough sensitivity to citric acid and recorded cough counts or symptoms. When both subjective and objective data were compared with screening data there was evidence of a marked ‘placebo’ effect. CONCLUSIONS The objective measure of cough sensitivity demonstrates dextromethorphan effectively diminishes the cough reflex sensitivity. However, subjective measures do not support this. Other studies support these findings, which may represent a profound sensitivity of the cough reflex to higher influences. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Dextromethorphan is widely used as a cough suppressant in over the counter medications. Its efficacy in altering cough reflex sensitivity has been shown in

  1. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  2. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  3. Tic disorders in the differential diagnosis of chronic cough in children in relation to four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Işık; Şişmanlar, Şahika Gülen

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cough is a frequent reason for medical referrals in childhood. In patients who do not have signs or symptoms of an underlying respiratory system disease and who do not respond to experimental treatment, psychogenic cough should be considered. In this paper, four patients who were referred to our department with a prediagnosis of psychogenic cough, found to have tic disorder as a result of the assessments performed and improved with antipsychotic medication are presented. The differantial diagnosis of chronic cough in children should include tic disorders as well as psychogenic cough. Tic disorders can be diagnosed easily with detailed history and their response to medical treatment is rather satisfactory. Recognition of these disorders by pediatricians will minimize erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate therapies in children with a complaint of chronic cough.

  4. Injury pattern, injury severity, and mortality in 33,495 hospital-admitted victims of motorized two-wheeled vehicle crashes in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Leijdesdorff, H.A. Siegerink, B. Sier, C.F. Reurings, M.C. & Schipper, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents involving motorized two-wheeled vehicle (MTV) riders often result in severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this nationwide study is to describe the influence of the type of motorized two-wheeled vehicle on the patient injury severity and mortality on hospitalization, after MTV accidents in The Netherlands. Data from the Institute for Road Safety Research and the Hospital Trauma Databases were analyzed. All MTV crash victims admitted to Dutch hospitals from 1993 to ...

  5. High prevalence of persistent cough with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, K. S.; Nicholls, M G

    1995-01-01

    1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are in common use for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Whereas they are, in general, well tolerated, a dry cough can develop which, on occasion, requires termination of therapy. The reported prevalence of cough with ACE inhibitor therapy has varied from 0.2 to 25%, depending upon methods of data collection, analysis and symptom reporting. 2. To evaluate the prevalence of cough in Chinese patients receiving ACE inhibitors, inter...

  6. Multi-centre retrospective analysis of clinical diagnosis and treatment for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ming CHENG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and the present status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods The clinical data of 238 in-patients and out-patients of Departments of Respiratory Diseases from 4 teaching hospitals of Chongqing Municipality were collected from Oct.2008 to Dec.2009,and their clinical characteristics,diagnosis and therapeutic effects were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 238 patients were enrolled,most of them complained of dry cough and night cough.Throat symptoms were most common,including itching or foreign body sensation,throat discomfort and gastro-oesophageal reflux.Congestion of pharynx and cobblestone like changes in posterior pharyngeal wall were the most common signs in patients with chronic cough.Among all the supplementary examinations,bronchial provocation test resulted in highest positive rate.Etiological diagnosis was done in a total of 254 case-times for diseases leading to chronic cough,among them upper airway cough syndrome(UACS was suspected in 115 case-times.cough variant asthma(CVA in 42 case-times,and cough due to gastroesophageal reflux(GERC in 53 case-times.After the specific treatment targeting UACS,CVA and GERC,in 152 case-times improvement was found after follow-up,including 56,27 and 21 case-times,respectively,with an effective rate of 68.4%(104/152.The final diagnosis for the other 44 case-times with chronic cough was chronic tonsillitis,chronic bronchitis,eosinophilic bronchitis and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI induced cough.A definite diagnosis was finally made in 148 out of a total of 254 casses,with a diagnostic rate of 58.3%(148/254.Conclusion The final diagnostic rate in etiology of chronic cough is still poor nowadays in our country,and empirical treatment is still the main practice for chronic cough.

  7. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...... to improve clearance of airway secretions from the lungs. The utility of MCC/CC as a biomarker for disease progression and therapeutic intervention is gaining increased recognition as a valuable tool in the clinical research community. A number of investigators currently active in using MCC/CC for diagnostic...

  8. Safety Profile of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jody L; Wang, George Sam; Reynolds, Kate M; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Kauffman, Ralph E; Palmer, Robert B; Paul, Ian M; Dart, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children pediatric (75.5%), and single-ingredient (77.5%) formulations were most commonly involved. AEs occurring in >20% of all cases included tachycardia, somnolence, hallucinations, ataxia, mydriasis, and agitation. Twenty cases (0.6%) resulted in death; most were in children pediatric liquid formulations were the most commonly reported products. These characteristics present an opportunity for targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, vaccines and cycles of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. This highly contagious respiratory disease occurs through epidemic cycles every 3-5 years and vaccination did not change this frequency. Models suggest that the cyclic increase of susceptibles is linked to demographic differences and different vaccine coverage. However, differences in surveillance of the disease as well as adaptation of the agents of the disease to their human hosts and to vaccine pressure might also play an important role. These parameters are discussed in this review.

  10. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  11. Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-01

    The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under our experimental conditions. The real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number (Rec) and normalized cough expired volume (Q/AD, with Q as the cough expired volume and A as the opening area). However, the effects of Rec and Q/AD on the maximum penetration distances proved to be more significant; larger values of Rec and Q/AD reflected cough flows with greater penetration distances. A protocol was developed to scale the particle experiments between the prototype in air, and the model in water. The water tank experiments revealed that although medium and large particles deposit readily, their maximum spread distance is similar to that of small particles. Moreover, the leading vortex plays an important role in enhancing particle transport. PMID:28046084

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan.

  13. Levocloperastine in the treatment of chronic nonproductive cough: comparative efficacy versus standard antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprandi, P; Castelli, C; Bernorio, S; Dell'Abate, E; Carrara, M

    2004-01-01

    The medical and social impact of cough is substantial. Current antitussive agents at effective doses have adverse events such as drowsiness, nausea and constipation that limit their use. There is also recent evidence that standard antitussive agents, such as codeine, may not reduce cough during upper respiratory infections. Therefore, there is a need for more effective and better-tolerated agents. The efficacy of levocloperastine, a novel antitussive, which acts both centrally on the cough center and on peripheral receptors in the tracheobronchial tree in treating chronic cough, was compared with that of other standard antitussive agents (codeine, levodropropizine and DL-cloperastine) in six open clinical trials. The studies enrolled patients of all ages with cough associated with various respiratory disorders including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levocloperastine significantly improved cough symptoms (intensity and frequency of cough) in all trials, and improvements were observed after the first day of treatment. In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. When compared with other antitussive agents, levocloperastine had improved or comparable efficacy, with a more rapid onset of action. Importantly, no evidence of central adverse events was recorded with levocloperastine, whereas drowsiness was reported by a significant number of patients receiving codeine. Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. It has a more rapid onset of action than standard agents with an improved tolerability profile.

  14. Cough quality in children: a comparison of subjective vs. bronchoscopic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Nancy C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is the most common symptom presenting to doctors. The quality of cough (productive or wet vs dry is used clinically as well as in epidemiology and clinical research. There is however no data on the validity of cough quality descriptors. The study aims were to compare (1 cough quality (wet/dry and brassy/non-brassy to bronchoscopic findings of secretions and tracheomalacia respectively and, (2 parent's vs clinician's evaluation of the cough quality (wet/dry. Methods Cough quality of children (without a known underlying respiratory disease undergoing elective bronchoscopy was independently evaluated by clinicians and parents. A 'blinded' clinician scored the secretions seen at bronchoscopy on pre-determined criteria and graded (1 to 6. Kappa (K statistics was used for agreement, and inter-rater and intra-rater agreement examined on digitally recorded cough. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine if cough quality related to amount of airway secretions present at bronchoscopy. Results Median age of the 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls enrolled was 2.6 years (IQR 5.7. Parent's assessment of cough quality (wet/dry agreed with clinicians' (K = 0.75, 95%CI 0.58–0.93. When compared to bronchoscopy (bronchoscopic secretion grade 4, clinicians' cough assessment had the highest sensitivity (0.75 and specificity (0.79 and were marginally better than parent(s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85 (95%CI 0.77–0.92. Intra-observer (K = 1.0 and inter-clinician agreement for wet/dry cough (K = 0.88, 95%CI 0.82–0.94 was very good. Weighted K for inter-rater agreement for bronchoscopic secretion grades was 0.95 (95%CI 0.87–1. Sensitivity and specificity for brassy cough (for tracheomalacia were 0.57 and 0.81 respectively. K for both intra and inter-observer clinician agreement for brassy cough was 0.79 (95%CI 0.73–0.86. Conclusions Dry and wet cough in children, as determined by clinicians and

  15. Propofol-induced violent coughing in a patient with Becker′s muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol anesthesia is often associated with decreased incidence of gagging, coughing or laryngospasm, and provides intense suppression on airway reflex during tracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway insertion. Propofol pretreatment is also effective in reducing the occurrence of opioid-induced coughing. These benefits are often attributed to bronchodilator and sedative effects of propofol. However, severe coughing following sedative doses of 1% propofol has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of violent coughing following low-dose propofol infusion in a patient with Becker′s muscular dystrophy.

  16. Breaking the sound barrier? Pitfalls and benefits of acoustic cough monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Lesley A; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally push-button and symptom diaries have been used to document cough events, especially when examining temporal associations between cough and reflux events. More recently, acoustic devices have allowed more accurate recording of cough events, and compared with the latter traditional techniques reported 6-18 times more coughing. Whether the differences reported between these techniques represents disparities in subject groups or cough detection and quantification methods is unknown. In this issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, Kavitt et al. show that listeners of such recordings have a 4-fold increase in odds of recording cough events compared with patients using push-button techniques, and that even when using a 5-min window to assess temporal concordance/discordance, over 70% of coughs were not reported by the patients. These observations have potential significant implications when assessing temporal associations between cough and reflux, and thus any clinical decision making based on these data. This editorial examines both the findings of Kavitt et al. and discusses the pitfalls and benefits of validated accurate documentation of cough.

  17. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  18. Dopamine modulates two potassium currents and inhibits the intrinsic firing properties of an identified motor neuron in a central pattern generator network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppenburg, P; Levini, R M; Harris-Warrick, R M

    1999-01-01

    The two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons are components [along with the anterior burster (AB) neuron] of the pacemaker group of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Dopamine (DA) modifies the motor pattern generated by the pyloric network, in part by exciting or inhibiting different neurons. DA inhibits the PD neuron by hyperpolarizing it and reducing its rate of firing action potentials, which leads to a phase delay of PD relative to the electrically coupled AB and a reduction in the pyloric cycle frequency. In synaptically isolated PD neurons, DA slows the rate of recovery to spike after hyperpolarization. The latency from a hyperpolarizing prestep to the first action potential is increased, and the action potential frequency as well as the total number of action potentials are decreased. When a brief (1 s) puff of DA is applied to a synaptically isolated, voltage-clamped PD neuron, a small voltage-dependent outward current is evoked, accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. These responses are occluded by the combined presence of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium. In voltage-clamped PD neurons, DA enhances the maximal conductance of a voltage-sensitive transient potassium current (IA) and shifts its Vact to more negative potentials without affecting its Vinact. This enlarges the "window current" between the voltage activation and inactivation curves, increasing the tonically active IA near the resting potential and causing the cell to hyperpolarize. Thus DA's effect is to enhance both the transient and resting K+ currents by modulating the same channels. In addition, DA enhances the amplitude of a calcium-dependent potassium current (IO(Ca)), but has no effect on a sustained potassium current (IK(V)). These results suggest that DA hyperpolarizes and phase delays the activity of the PD neurons at least in part by modulating their intrinsic postinhibitory recovery

  19. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: increasing the cohesivity of airway secretions to improve cough interaction and reduce aerosol dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Darryl

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious respiratory diseases are transmitted to non-infected subjects when an infected person expels pathogenic microorganisms to the surrounding environment when coughing or sneezing. When the airway mucus layer interacts with high-speed airflow, droplets are expelled as aerosol; their concentration and size distribution may each play an important role in disease transmission. Our goal is to reduce the aerosolizability of respiratory secretions while interfering only minimally with normal mucus clearance using agents capable of increasing crosslinking in the mucin glycoprotein network. Methods We exposed mucus simulants (MS to airflow in a simulated cough machine (SCM. The MS ranged from non-viscous, non-elastic substances (water to MS of varying degrees of viscosity and elasticity. Mucociliary clearance of the MS was assessed on the frog palate, elasticity in the Filancemeter and the aerosol pattern in a "bulls-eye" target. The sample loaded was weighed before and after each cough maneuver. We tested two mucomodulators: sodium tetraborate (XL"B" and calcium chloride (XL "C". Results Mucociliary transport was close to normal speed in viscoelastic samples compared to non-elastic, non-viscous or viscous-only samples. Spinnability ranged from 2.5 ± 0.6 to 50.9 ± 6.9 cm, and the amount of MS expelled from the SCM increased from 47 % to 96 % adding 1.5 μL to 150 μL of XL "B". Concurrently, particles were inversely reduced to almost disappear from the aerosolization pattern. Conclusion The aerosolizability of MS was modified by increasing its cohesivity, thereby reducing the number of particles expelled from the SCM while interfering minimally with its clearance on the frog palate. An unexpected finding is that MS crosslinking increased "expectoration".

  20. Cough and Arabinogalactan Polysaccharide from the Bark of Terminalia Arjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivová, V; Bera, K; Ray, B; Nosáľ, S; Nosáľová, G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the antitussive activity of the medicinal tree Terminalia arjuna. We used the stem bark for extraction and preparation of water extracted isolate and its two fractions: acetone-soluble (TA-S) and acetone precipitated (TA-P) fraction. The presence of a pectic arabinogalactan was confirmed in TA-P fraction by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The antitussive activity of samples was assessed after oral administration in a dose of 50 mg.kg(-1) in healthy guinea pigs, in which cough was elicited by inhalation of citric acid (0.3 mol/L) in body plethysmograph. The water extracted isolate showed a significant ability to decrease the number of cough efforts by 64.2 %; the antitussive activity on par with that of codeine phosphate. The TA-P fraction showed the antitussive activity of 54.8 %. In contrast, TA-S fraction had only a mild antitussive activity. No changes in in vivo airway resistance were noted. We conclude that arabinogalactan is an essential component of Terminalia arjuna that underlies its antitussive action.

  1. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  2. Determination of cough sensitivities of patients with different causes of cough%不同病因咳嗽患者的咳嗽敏感性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧; 马千里; 龙舟; 黄赞胜; 唐咸军; 吴颖; 王长征

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the sensitivities of patients with different causes of cough to capsaicin-stimulated cough and to investigate the clinical significance of capsaicin cough provocation test in diagnosis and treatment of different causes of cough. Methods We selected 169 patients with different causes of cough from the outpatients in Chongqing Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University, including upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) , cough variability asthma (CVA) , gastro-esophageal regurgitation cough (GERC) , cough after a cold, occupational irritant cough and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ( ACEI) -related cough. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers of our hospital were enrolled as controls. All the subjects were examined by capsaicin cough provocation test, and the results were analyzed to compare the differences of the qualitative (positive rate) and quantitative (log C2 and log C5) indices in different causes of cough. Results A total of 148 patients who were diagnosed as cough by different causes completed the study. Nearly half of the patients (47.4% , 18/38) in the normal control group were cough provocation positive. GERC group had the highest positive rate among the groups with different causes of cough, and the GERC group and cough after a cold group had a significant difference compared with the control group ( P 0.05 ) were not significantly different. Comparison of C2 values in different groups was similar to that of C5 values. According to the 95% confidence intervals of log C5 values, no overlap was detected between the normal control group and the GERC group and cough after a cold group, but there was some overlap between the normal control group and the CVA group. More overlaps were detected between the normal control group and the UACS group, occupational irritant cough group and ACEI-related cough group. Coclusion Cough sensitivities of patients with different causes ofcough are significantly different. Capsaicin cough

  3. Cough Variant Asthma in Medical Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsana Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cough variant asthma (CVA is a subset of asthma where the only symptom is chronic persistent cough. Many cases go unrecognized due to lack of proper evaluation. Response to asthma medication with features supportive of airway hypersensitivity helps in management of this disease. Objective: To find out the proportion of cough variant asthma among the patients attending medicine outpatient department of Enam Medical College, Savar, Dhaka. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka over a period of two years from July 2009 to July 2011. Cough variant asthma was diagnosed mainly on clinical ground as chronic cough without wheezing, fever, weight loss, shortness of breath or sputum or any other apparent cause that persisted for more than eight weeks with absolutely normal physical examination of chest, normal chest radiography and blood count except raised eosinophil count and IgE level. Patients who met these criteria were given 2 weeks course of inhaler beclomethasone propionate and were assessed for improvement. Those who improved after steroid inhalation were categorised as having cough variant asthma. Results: Out of purposively selected 148 patients complaining only of chronic dry cough for more than eight weeks, 92 patients met the primary selection criteria for cough variant asthma. These 92 patients were given 2 weeks trial of 250 ìgm beclomethasone inhalation twice daily. Seventy nine patients reported almost complete recovery from chronic cough after 2 weeks and were categorized as having CVA. Thirteen patients did not improve and were not categorized as CVA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that cough variant asthma is the most common among the patients with chronic cough not due to any apparent cause. The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid suggests that early intervention is effective in the treatment of this disease.

  4. Respiratory management of motor neurone disease: a review of current practice and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar; Proctor, Alison Ruth; McDermott, Christopher J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2012-06-01

    Motor neurone disease is a neurodegenerative condition with a significant morbidity and shortened life expectancy. Hypoventilatory respiratory failure is the most common cause of death and respiratory function significantly predicts both survival and quality of life in patients with motor neurone disease. Accordingly, supporting and maintaining respiratory function is important in caring for these patients. The most significant advance in motor neurone disease care of recent years has been the domiciliary provision of non-invasive ventilation for treating respiratory failure. Neuromuscular respiratory weakness also leads to ineffective cough and retained airways secretions, predisposing to recurrent chest infections. In this review, we discuss current practice and recent developments in the respiratory management of motor neurone disease, in terms of ventilatory support and cough augmentation.

  5. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Two Kinds of Iranian Honey and Diphenhydramine on Nocturnal Cough and the Sleep Quality in Coughing Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Yousef-Zanjani, Mahdieh; Allami, Abbas; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Beyhaghi, Taraneh

    2017-01-01

    Coughing in a child induced by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) can be a problem, both for the child and its parents. Current studies show a lack of proven efficacy for over-the counter (OTC) medications, but promising data support the use of honey for children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two kinds of Iranian honey with diphenhydramine (DPH) on nocturnal pediatric coughs and the sleep quality of children and their parents. This was a clinical trial (registered in IRCT; No.: 28.20.7932, 15 October 2013). The study consisted of 87 patients. All the parents completed a standard previously validated questionnaire. The children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1, Honey type 1 (Kimia Company, Iran) (n = 42), Group 2, Honey type 2 (Shahde-Golha, Iran) (n = 25), and Group 3, DPH (n = 20). Each group received double doses of the respective treatments on two successive nights. A second survey was then administered via a telephone interview in which the parents were asked the same questions. The mean scores for all aspects of coughs were significantly decreased in each group before and after the treatment. All three treatments improved the cough and sleep scores. Honey type 1 was superior to DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the frequency, and Honey type 2 was more effective than DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the sleep quality of the child. There was no significant difference between Honey type 1 and 2 in any aspects of cough relief in the present study. The results suggest that honey may provide better cough relief than DPH in children and improve the sleep quality of children and their parents. PMID:28103276

  7. Self-medication for cough and the common cold : Information needs of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne Maartje; McGuire, Treasure; Deckx, Laura; Moses, Geraldine; Verheij, Theo; van Driel, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines, little is known about Australia's cough and cold medicines information needs. The aim of this study was to identify gaps in consumers' perceived knowledge and concerns, to better target consumer medicines informatio

  8. Diagnostic yield of oesophageal pH monitoring in patients with chronic unexplained cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, Auke; Bredenoord, Arjan J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. One of the main causes of persistent cough is gastro-oesophageal reflux. In these patients, excessive oesophageal acid exposure and/or a temporal association between gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough can be demonstrated during 24-h pH monitoring. Impedance pH monitoring may have a highe

  9. Pharmacogenetics of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema and cough : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Leusink, Maarten; van der Putten, Lisa; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Angioedema and cough are the two most important adverse effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). Evidence exists that ACEI-related angioedema/cough is partly genetically determined and several genes have been identified to play a role in the development of ACEI-related adverse effects. Materials & me

  10. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  11. Use of honey associated with Ananas comosus (Bromelin) in the treatment of acute irritative cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Rizzo, José Angelo; Schor, Deborah; Silva, Almerinda Rêgo; de Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti; Solé, Dirceu; Sarinho, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the immediate improvement rate of irritative cough in patients treated with the combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). Methods: Pragmatic, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study with children aged between 2 and 15 years, with irritative cough for at least 24hours. The double-blind assessment of cough was through the number of observed coughing episodes and intensity score for a period of 10minutes of observation. The decrease of one point in the mean total score was considered as a therapeutic effect. Results: There was a reduction in coughing episodes in both groups, as well as in the cough score after 30minutes of drug or honey administration. The change in clinical score above two points, which could indicate marked improvement, occurred in five patients in the bromelin group and only in one in the placebo group, but without significant difference. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: The immediate improvement rate of irritative cough was similar in patients treated with combination of Ananas comosus extract and honey (Bromelin®) compared with the use of honey alone (placebo group). It is possible that honey has a therapeutic effect on mucus and cough characteristics (Clinical Trials: NCT01356693). PMID:27181342

  12. Self-medication for cough and the common cold : Information needs of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne Maartje; McGuire, Treasure; Deckx, Laura; Moses, Geraldine; Verheij, Theo; van Driel, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines, little is known about Australia's cough and cold medicines information needs. The aim of this study was to identify gaps in consumers' perceived knowledge and concerns, to better target consumer medicines

  13. Diagnostic yield of oesophageal pH monitoring in patients with chronic unexplained cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, Auke; Bredenoord, Arjan J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. One of the main causes of persistent cough is gastro-oesophageal reflux. In these patients, excessive oesophageal acid exposure and/or a temporal association between gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough can be demonstrated during 24-h pH monitoring. Impedance pH monitoring may have a

  14. Pharmacogenetics of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema and cough : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Leusink, Maarten; van der Putten, Lisa; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Angioedema and cough are the two most important adverse effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). Evidence exists that ACEI-related angioedema/cough is partly genetically determined and several genes have been identified to play a role in the development of ACEI-related adverse effects. Materials & me

  15. A comparison of risk factors for wheeze and recurrent cough in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; Westergaard, Tine; Pedersen, Bo V

    2005-01-01

    In a study of 2,978 Danish children aged 5 years from two suburban counties of Copenhagen, carried out in 1998, the authors compared risk factor profiles for wheeze and recurrent cough without wheeze by using polytomous logistic regression to clarify whether the two conditions are likely to have...... the same etiology. Data were obtained 1) by a mailed parental questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions and supplementary questions on cough, sociodemography, perinatal factors, and environmental exposure); 2) through general practitioners (familial allergic disease......); and 3) from the National Medical Birth Register (birth weight). Wheeze (WH) was defined as more than one episode of wheeze within the last 12 months (irrespective of cough status) and recurrent cough without WH (RC) as cough occurring outside colds and usually lasting for periods of more than 1 week...

  16. Towards improving the diagnosis and management of chronic cough in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-qiao; SUN Bao-qing; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2011-01-01

    Cough is a common condition in clinical settings.Importantly,chronic cough without obvious abnormal chest X-ray findings accounts for about 20%-30% of respiratory clinic visits,and yields a high rate of misdiagnosis and mistreatment.1 Up to 80% of patients with chronic cough were diagnosed with other disorders,such as “chronic bronchitis” or “chronic pharyngolaryngitis”.2,3 As many as 50% of female patients with cough may develop urinary incontinence,which can interfere seriously with their daily living,including work and school performance.4 Along with the increasing demand for a high-quality life among Chinese people,cough as an important issue should be properly addressed by both clinicians and patients.

  17. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  18. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Girish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

  19. Fuzzy approach for improved recognition of citric acid induced piglet coughing from continuous registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    A natural acoustic indicator of animal welfare is the appearance (or absence) of coughing in the animal habitat. A sound-database of 5319 individual sounds including 2034 coughs was collected on six healthy piglets containing both animal vocalizations and background noises. Each of the test animals was repeatedly placed in a laboratory installation where coughing was induced by nebulization of citric acid. A two-class classification into 'cough' or 'other' was performed by the application of a distance function to a fast Fourier spectral sound analysis. This resulted in a positive cough recognition of 92%. For the whole sound-database however there was a misclassification of 21%. As spectral information up to 10000 Hz is available, an improved overall classification on the same database is obtained by applying the distance function to nine frequency ranges and combining the achieved distance-values in fuzzy rules. For each frequency range clustering threshold is determined by fuzzy c-means clustering.

  20. Cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman with glomus jugulare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of recurrent cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman, which was initially thought to be seizures. Syncopal episodes were triggered by paroxysms of cough and were characterized by unresponsiveness and myoclonic jerks in her extremities. She had a left-sided glomus jugulare tumor that extended into the posterior cranial fossa with evidence of worsening communicating hydrocephalus on brain imaging. We postulate that bouts of cough produced increased intracranial pressure both by raising intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures as well as by transient obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow secondary to intermittent tonsillar herniation during cough. This resulted in diffuse decrease in cerebral blood flow causing syncope. The patient's syncopal episodes decreased in frequency once an external ventricular drain was placed followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Search for factors that can increase intracranial pressure seems warranted in patients with recurrent cough syncope.

  1. The correlation of respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Myeong-Rae; Kim, Nan-Soo

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two stroke patients were assigned to 2 different groups (intervention group=21, control group=21). Both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program, with the intervention group also receiving respiratory muscle training for 20 to 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure), forced vital capacity, and cough capacity were measured. [Results] The intervention group showed significant increases in maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, forced vital capacity, and cough capacity. The change in maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and forced vital capacity showed a significant correlation with cough capacity, with maximal expiratory pressure showing the highest correlation. [Conclusion] The present study showed that the increase in maximal expiratory pressure plays an important role in improving the cough capacity of stroke patients.

  2. 不同病因慢性咳嗽的咳嗽程度比较%Cough score in patients with different etiology of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 赖克方; 罗炜; 刘春丽; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同病因慢性咳嗽患者咳嗽程度的异同及可能的影响因素.方法 按慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序进行病因诊断,收集单一病因慢性咳嗽患者150例,通过咳嗽积分评价,比较不同病因患者日间及夜间咳嗽程度的差异及其与年龄、性别、病程的关系.结果 纳入患者包括鼻后滴流综合征24例,咳嗽变异型哮喘26例、胃食管反流性咳嗽20例,嗜酸细胞性支气管炎31例,变应性咳嗽30例及感染后咳嗽19例.各组间的日间咳嗽积分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).咳嗽变异型哮喘组的夜间积分明显高于鼻后滴流综合征、胃食管反流性咳嗽、嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎、变应性咳嗽及感染后咳嗽组(均P<0.01).分别对日间咳嗽积分和夜间咳嗽积分进行有序分类logistic回归分析,显示年龄与日间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.05),性别与夜间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.01).结论 不同病因慢性咳嗽的日间咳嗽程度类似,但咳嗽变异型哮喘夜间咳嗽程度显著高于其他病因的咳嗽.%Objective To investigate the severity of cough in patients with different etiology of chronic cough and its related factors. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with chronic cough were recruited. The diagnosis of the patients was as follows: 24 cases with post nasal drip syndrome (PNDs), 26 cough variant asthma (CVA), 20 gastroesophageal reflux-induced cough (GERC), 31 eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), 30 atopic cough (AC) and 19 cough post infection (CPI). The severity of cough at daytime and night-time were scored by the doctor and the patient at the first visit. The correlation between cough score and age, gender and course duration of patients was analyzed. Results There was no significantly difference of cough score at daytime among different groups. Cough score at night in CVA group was significantly higher than that of other five groups (all P <0.01). Regression analysis showed that cough score at daytime

  3. Frequency of Persistent Cough and Trends in Seeking Medical Care and TreatmentResults of an Internet Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Fujimura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In this large-scale cohort study, many respondents were unwilling to visit their doctor, despite having chronic cough. Improvements in educational campaigns are needed to encourage people with chronic cough to visit a doctor.

  4. 咳嗽从瘀血论治经验%The experiences of the treatment on cough from blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献中; 王世彪; 王保平

    2014-01-01

    Cough lung disease is one of the most common syndromes caused by many reasons, cough, a cough and internal cough points, most doctors more responsibility in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney damage, or due to feel the wind, cold, heat, dryness, fire evil and hair, or phlegm due to spleen deficiency, liver fire attacking lung, deficiency of kidney qi and other causes. In recent years, the study found, blood stasis caused one of the main causes of chronic cough, especially in chronic cough patients. Our clinical treatment of chronic bronchitis, cough asthma, pulmonary heart disease, bronchiectasis patients, each with blood stasis of TCM, often obtain good effect. The blood stasis cough experience summarized as follows.

  5. Prevalence of cough among patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Teklay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cough, its causality and impact on patient adherence in patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods - A cross sectional study was conducted in Ayder Referral Hospital, northern Ethiopia from April to June 2014. Patients who started either captopril or enalapril were interviewed for the occurrence of cough and its characteristics. Data were entered to EPI-info and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 statistical software. Logistic regression model was used to analyze variations in occurrence of cough among different factors. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results - One hundred two patients were participated in this study. Of which, 54(52.9% were females. About half of the respondents (53% were between the ages of 40 to 60. Cough was observed in 30 (29.4% patients. According to World Health Organizations causality scale, the reported cough was certain (drug induced in 5 (7.1% patients; possible in 10 (25% patients; probable in 12 (10.7% patients and unlikely in 3 (57.1% patients. Significant statistical difference was observed between occurrence of cough and durations of treatment (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in occurrence of cough with age, sex, ethnicity, residence, dose and type of ACEI. Conclusion – In this study, dry cough was more prevalent among patients on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Troublesome cough may affect patient’s sleep and overall adherence to treatment. Health professionals should aware of the characteristics cough and manage accordingly.

  6. Exhaled air dispersion during coughing with and without wearing a surgical or N95 mask.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Hui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We compared the expelled air dispersion distances during coughing from a human patient simulator (HPS lying at 45° with and without wearing a surgical mask or N95 mask in a negative pressure isolation room. METHODS: Airflow was marked with intrapulmonary smoke. Coughing bouts were generated by short bursts of oxygen flow at 650, 320, and 220L/min to simulate normal, mild and poor coughing efforts, respectively. The coughing jet was revealed by laser light-sheet and images were captured by high definition video. Smoke concentration in the plume was estimated from the light scattered by smoke particles. Significant exposure was arbitrarily defined where there was ≥ 20% of normalized smoke concentration. RESULTS: During normal cough, expelled air dispersion distances were 68, 30 and 15 cm along the median sagittal plane when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. In moderate lung injury, the corresponding air dispersion distances for mild coughing efforts were reduced to 55, 27 and 14 cm, respectively, p < 0.001. The distances were reduced to 30, 24 and 12 cm, respectively during poor coughing effort as in severe lung injury. Lateral dispersion distances during normal cough were 0, 28 and 15 cm when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Normal cough produced a turbulent jet about 0.7 m towards the end of the bed from the recumbent subject. N95 mask was more effective than surgical mask in preventing expelled air leakage during coughing but there was still significant sideway leakage.

  7. Electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles to produce cough in spinal cord injury: effect of stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Rachel A; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bonsan B; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2015-05-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles, with electrodes placed in the posterolateral position, combined with a voluntary cough can assist clearance of airway secretions in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine whether an increase in stimulus intensity of the trains of electrical stimuli delivered to the expiratory muscles has an increasing effect on a stimulated voluntary cough and to determine at which stimulus intensity a plateau of cough peak expiratory flow occurs. In 7 healthy individuals with a SCI at and above C7, gastric pressure (P(ga)), esophageal pressure (P(es)), peak expiratory cough flow (PEF(cough)), and expiratory volume were measured as participants coughed voluntarily with simultaneous trains of electrical stimuli delivered over the abdominal muscles (50 Hz, 1-s duration). The intensity of the stimulation was increased incrementally. A plateau in PEF(cough) occurred in all 7 individuals at a mean of 211 ± 29 mA (range 120-360 mA). Peak values reached for P(ga), P(es), and PEF(cough) were 83.0 ± 8.0 cm H2O, 66.1 ± 5.6 cm H2O, and 4.0 ± 0.4 l/s respectively. The plateau in expiratory cough flow that was associated with increasing expiratory pressures is indicative of dynamic airway compression. This suggests that the evoked cough will be effective in creating more turbulent airflow to further assist in dislodging mucus and secretions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Classification of chronic cough by systematic treatment cascade trial starting with beta agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is one of the most challenging symptoms to diagnose and treat, not only because of the variety of underlying disorders but also its varying susceptibility to treatments. Etiological studies of chronic cough vary depending on the clinical settings and the particular interests of investigators. Objectives The purposes of this study were first to categorize the etiology of chronic cough by its response to systematic diagnostic treatments starting from the β2 agonist and second to sub-categorize β2 agonist responsive cough (BRC) by the airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods One hundred and eighty-four never-smokers received the maximal dose of procaterol to diagnose BRC. BRC was sub-categorized into two groups with or without airway hyperresponsiveness measured by the methacholine challenge test. Sinobronchial syndrome (SBS) was diagnosed by postnasal drip symptoms and by the response to clarythromycin and carbocysteine. Atopic cough (AC) was diagnosed by the evidence of atopy and the response to cetirizine hydrochloride. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was diagnosed by the response to rabeprazole sodium. Since we did not investigate eosinophil counts in the tissue or in the induced sputum, no diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchitis was made. Results One hundred and nine patients had BRC. Twenty-three of them had bronchial asthma (BA), 53 had cough variant asthma (CVA) and 33 had non-hyperresponsive BRC (NHBRC). Thirty-one patients had GERD, 27 had AC and 14 had SBS. Twenty-five patients had more than one diagnosis in combination, while 6 had other miscellaneous diseases. Twelve patients were undiagnosed and 11 dropped out of the study. Conclusions The majority of chronic cough was BRC. NHBRC was a new chronic cough entity. GERD is a common cause of chronic cough in Japan, as in Western countries. AC and SBS are also causes of chronic cough in Japan. Trial registration University hospital medical information network (UMIN 000007483) PMID

  9. Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Lidwien AM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient receptor potential (TRP vanilloid and ankyrin cation channels are activated by various noxious chemicals and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cough. The aim was to study the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in TRP genes and irritant exposures on cough. Methods Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model. Results Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6 and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6. Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p Conclusions TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures.

  10. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy.

  11. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijen, Johannes HJM; van Duijn, Huug J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Schellevis, François G; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2008-01-01

    Background GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. Aim To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. Design of study Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with a health interview and an additional questionnaire. Setting Children aged 0–17 years registered with 122 GPs in Dutch general practice. Method Characteristics of patients and their GPs were derived from the DNSGP-2 health interview and a questionnaire, respectively. Characteristics of the illness symptoms and GP consultation were acquired by means of an additional questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of all children who completed the questionnaire, 550 reported cough, sore throat, or earache in the 2 weeks preceding the interview with 147 of them consulting their GP. Young children more frequently consulted the GP for respiratory symptoms, as did children with fever, longer duration of symptoms, those reporting their health to be ‘poor to good’, and living in an urban area. When parents were worried, and when a child or their parents were cued by someone else, the GP was also consulted more often. GP-related determinants were not associated with GP consultation by children. Conclusion This study emphasises the importance of establishing the reasons behind children with respiratory tract symptoms consulting their GP. When GPs are aware of possible determinants of the decision to consult a GP, more appropriate advice and reassurance can be given regarding these respiratory symptoms, which are generally self-limiting. PMID:18387228

  12. Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chandelia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1 less than 2 years and (2 2–5 years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2 years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82% and systemic sympathomimetics (48%. The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025. However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895. No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2 years vs. 85% (2–5 years; p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.

  13. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT and conventional overground walking training (CT in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n=12 and CT (n=12 groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Interventions. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Results. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P<0.05, with no significant difference between the two groups after intervention. However, kinematic data were significantly improved (P<0.05 after BWSTT but not after CT. Maximum hip extension and flexion angles were significantly improved (P<0.05 for the BWSTT group during the stance and swing phases compared to baseline. Conclusion. In subacute patients with stroke, BWSTT can lead to improved gait quality when compared with conventional gait training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  14. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Rong Mao; Wai Leung Lo; Qiang Lin; Le Li; Xiang Xiao; Preeti Raghavan; Dong-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilatera...

  15. Effects of Schisandra chinensis extracts on cough and pulmonary inflammation in a cough hypersensitivity guinea pig model induced by cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Nie, Yi-chu; Gan, Zhen-yong; Liu, Xiao-dong; Fang, Zhang-fu; Zhong, Bo-nian; Tian, Jin; Huang, Chu-qin; Lai, Ke-fang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2015-05-13

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in prescription medications for the treatment of chronic cough. However, the material basis of S. chinensis in relieving cough has not been completely elucidated yet. This study established a guinea pig model of cough hypersensitivity induced by 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, to evaluate the antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of three S. chinensis extracts. And then the function of four lignans in reducing expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was examined using A549 cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The results demonstrated that both ethanol extract (EE) and ethanol-water extract (EWE) of S. chinensis, but not water extract (WE), significantly reduced the cough frequency enhanced by 0.4M citric acid solution in these cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Meanwhile, pretreatment with EE and EWE both significantly attenuated the CS-induced increase in infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and total inflammatory cells, as well as pulmonary MDA, TNF-α, and IL-8, while remarkably increased activities of pulmonary SOD and GSH. According to H&E and immunofluorescence staining assays, airway epithelium hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, inflammatory cells infiltration, as well as expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1, were significantly attenuated in animals pretreatment with 1g/kg EE. Moreover, four lignans of EE, including schizandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin and γ-schisandrin, significantly inhibited CSE-induced expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and NOS3, as well as NO release in A549 cells. In conclusion, S. chinensis reduces cough frequency and pulmonary inflammation in the CS-induced cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Lignans may be the active components.

  16. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  17. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  18. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín Martín Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  19. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate to treat cough in advanced lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, M; Porta, C; Gualtieri, G; Nastasi, G; Tinelli, C

    1996-07-01

    C-fibres probably represent the common final pathway in both ACE inhibitors and neoplastic cough. A recent report demonstrated that inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE inhibitors' cough; this effect might be due to the suppression of afferent unmyelinated C-fibres. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled sodium cromoglycate might also be effective in lung cancer patients who presented with irritative neoplastic cough. Twenty non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients complaining of cough resistant to conventional treatment were randomised to receive, in a double-blind trial, either inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo. Patients recorded cough severity daily, before and during treatment, on a 0 to 4 scale. The efficacy of treatment was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric measures, comparing the intergroup differences in the measures of summary of symptom scores calculated in each patient before and after treatment. We report that inhaled sodium cromoglycate can reduce cough, also in NSCLC patients and that such reduction, observed in all patients treated, is statistically significant (P sodium cromoglycate appears to be a cost-effective and safe treatment for lung cancer-related cough.

  20. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers.

  1. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate to treat cough in advanced lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, M.; Porta, C.; Gualtieri, G.; Nastasi, G.; Tinelli, C.

    1996-01-01

    C-fibres probably represent the common final pathway in both ACE inhibitors and neoplastic cough. A recent report demonstrated that inhaled sodium cromoglycate is an effective treatment for ACE inhibitors' cough; this effect might be due to the suppression of afferent unmyelinated C-fibres. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled sodium cromoglycate might also be effective in lung cancer patients who presented with irritative neoplastic cough. Twenty non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients complaining of cough resistant to conventional treatment were randomised to receive, in a double-blind trial, either inhaled sodium cromoglycate or placebo. Patients recorded cough severity daily, before and during treatment, on a 0 to 4 scale. The efficacy of treatment was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric measures, comparing the intergroup differences in the measures of summary of symptom scores calculated in each patient before and after treatment. We report that inhaled sodium cromoglycate can reduce cough, also in NSCLC patients and that such reduction, observed in all patients treated, is statistically significant (P < 0.001). Inhaled sodium cromoglycate appears to be a cost-effective and safe treatment for lung cancer-related cough. PMID:8688342

  2. Comorbid trends in World Trade Center cough syndrome and probable posttraumatic stress disorder in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Justin K; Webber, Mayris P; Gustave, Jackson; Cohen, Hillel W; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Kelly, Kerry J; Glass, Lara; Prezant, David J

    2011-11-01

    We describe the relationship between World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome symptoms, pulmonary function, and symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in WTC-exposed firefighters in the first year post-September 11, 2001 (baseline), and 3 to 4 years later (follow-up). Five thousand three hundred sixty-three firefighters completed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and questionnaires at both times. Relationships among WTC cough syndrome, probable PTSD, and PFTs were analyzed using simple and multivariable models. We also examined the effects of cofactors, including WTC exposure. WTC cough syndrome was found in 1,561 firefighters (29.1%) at baseline and 1,186 (22.1%) at follow-up, including 559 with delayed onset (present only at follow-up). Probable PTSD was found in 458 firefighters (8.5%) at baseline and 548 (10.2%) at follow-up, including 343 with delayed onset. Baseline PTSD symptom counts and probable PTSD were associated with WTC cough syndrome at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset WTC cough syndrome. Similarly, WTC cough syndrome symptom counts and WTC cough syndrome at baseline were associated with probable PTSD at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset probable PTSD. WTC arrival time and work duration were cofactors of both outcomes. A small but consistent association existed between pulmonary function and WTC cough syndrome, but none with PTSD. The study showed a moderate association between WTC cough syndrome and probable PTSD. The presence of one contributed to the likelihood of the other, even after adjustment for shared cofactors such as WTC exposure.

  3. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  4. GROWTH AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN FETUSES OF WOMEN WITH TYPE-1 DIABETES .3. 1ST TRIMESTER QUANTITY OF FETAL MOVEMENT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, EJH; VISSER, GHA; MORSSINK, LP; DEVRIES, JIP

    1991-01-01

    Delayed emergence of movement patterns and disturbances in the development of behavioural states are often observed in the fetuses of diabetic women. The developmental course of specific fetal movement patterns was studied in 20 women with type-1 diabetes during the first trimester of pregnancy. The

  5. Ultrasonic Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    and T. Higuchi, "Cylindrical Micro Ultrasonic Motor Utilizing Bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 38, pp. 3347-3350, 1999.

  6. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed air in a hospital room with displacement air distribution: impact of ventilation rate and distance from coughing patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostadinov, Kamen

    The exposure of a doctor and a second patient to coughed air by an infected patient was studied in a simulated two-bed hospital patient room. The air temperature in the room, ventilated at two air change rates (3 h-1 and 6 h-1) was kept 22 oC. Thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface...... temperature distribution was used as the doctor standing 0.55, 1.1 or 2.8 m downstream the cough. A coughing thermal dummy, lying in one bed and a second thermal manikin in the other bed (1.3 m away), were used as the “sick” and the “exposed” patients. The cough consisted of 100% CO2. The doctor...... hospital standards as minimum ventilation rate in hospital patient rooms, resulted in elevated exposure to coughed air for the doctor, suggesting increased risk from airborne cross-infection. Displacement air distribution does not reduce the risk from cross-infection....

  7. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...

  8. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, H.;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  9. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    S Satam; Jain, R; J Dagaonkar; C Chotalia; Suthar, A.; Joshi, R

    2011-01-01

    Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggest...

  10. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  11. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  12. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  13. Efficacy and safety of Linkus, Aminophylline diphenhydramine and acefyllin piperazine for the treatment of cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hina; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Linkus, Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine group and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine cough syrup on children having cough and sleep difficulty associated with cough. To determine the effects of Linkus polyherbal syrup (group A) and compared with other parallel allopathic groups (Group B and C) for cough on children and associated sleep quality and improvement. 360 children having cough inducted in 3 different groups randomly selected. Three parallel groups were the part of the study. The first study group was the herbal syrup Linkus, second group of children were taking a syrup of multinational pharmaceutical industry having Aminophylline plus Diphenhydramine however the third group received another famous brand having Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine. Informed assent and informed consent have taken from the study subjects and their parents. Subjects with acute cough were included in the study however the subjects with chronic cough considered to be excluded. Every group of individual in the study was informed about the investigational drugs provided. Ethnic groups, frequency of cough and diseases illness (Cough impact on child and its sleep of three different syrups (every group) were assessed on day1 and day 14(pcough including side effects as compare to the other parallel groups B and C (Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine). For nocturnal sleep Linkus providing better results in cough and associated problems. Pain were significantly reduce on day 14 with the herbal Linkus syrup group A (coughs and benefit lung functions and better sleep facilitation.

  14. A causal relationship between cough and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been established: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Smith, Jaclyn A; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2014-02-01

    Along with upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) and eosinophilic airway inflammation (asthma, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered among the most common etiologies of chronic cough. Indeed, cough management guidelines published by numerous respiratory societies worldwide recommend evaluation and treatment of GERD as an integral component of the diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic cough. However, a significant number of patients with chronic cough presumed due to GERD do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of nonacid or weakly acidic reflux. Further contributing to the controversy are recent studies that demonstrate that patients with chronic cough do not have excessive reflux events relative to healthy volunteers. Although a temporal relationship between cough and reflux events has been suggested by studies utilizing impedance-pH monitoring of reflux events and objective cough recording, consensus is lacking in terms of whether this temporal relationship proves a causal link between reflux and cough. The fourth American Cough Conference (New York, June 2013) provided an ideal forum for the debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of reflux and chronic cough.

  15. Lumbosacral motor polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Malmberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of lumbosacral motor neuropathy (LSMN in 15-yers old patient with diabetes mellitus (type I is presented. Clinical and electromyographical patterns are considered and effectiveness of corticosteroid therapy is estimated. The differential features and taxonomic position of LSMN and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP are discussed. The necessity of some liberalization of CIDP diagnostic criteria is demonstrated.

  16. Whooping cough in 2014 and beyond: an update and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Joshua D; Blaylock, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, has had a dramatic resurgence in the past several years and is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in the world. The year 2012 marked the most cases in the United States in > 50 years. Large outbreaks have occurred in multiple states, and infant deaths have drawn the attention of not only health-care providers but also the media. Although the disease is theoretically preventable by vaccination, it remains a challenge to control. New vaccination strategies have been implemented across different age groups and populations of patients, but vaccine coverage remains dismally low. Acellular vaccines, although safe, do not afford the same long-lasting immunity as the previously used whole-cell vaccine. Ultimately, improvements in the development of vaccines and in vaccination coverage will be essential to decrease the burden of pertussis on society. This article provides a review of pertussis infection and discusses advances related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection, as well as continued areas of uncertainty.

  17. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis that are only known to infect humans. This severe and acute respiratory disease presents epidemic cycles and became a vaccine-preventable disease in the 1940s/1950s when developed countries introduced vaccination. The first type of vaccine developed against this disease was a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine containing inactivated B. pertussis bacteria. Most developed countries produced their own vaccine and given the pediatric nature of the disease at the time of licensure, infants and toddlers were the primary targets and were thus massively vaccinated. The characterization of few virulence factors produced by B. pertussis enabled the development of second-generation pertussis vaccines called the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. These only contain 1-5 purified, detoxified B. pertussis proteins and were first introduced in Japan around 30 years ago. Australia, Europe and North America introduced aP vaccines approximately 15 years later, which replaced wP vaccines since then.

  18. January critical care case of the month: bad cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. History of Present Illness A 41 year-old man was admitted with a five-day history of cough, shortness of breath, and fever to 102° F. He was recently diagnosed with a high-grade astrocytoma of the brain and had undergone resection followed by chemotherapy with temozomide (an alkylating agent and radiation therapy. PMH Renal transplantation (1993 Glioblastoma (astrocytoma grade 4 Crohn’s disease treated with budesonide and meselamine Medications Dexamethasone 2 mg PO BID Keppra 500 mg PO BID Tacrolimus 1.5 mg PO AM and 1mg PO PM Mycophenolate 750 mg PO BID Budesonide 3 mg PO daily Meselamine 1600 mg PO TID Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim DS PO on Mon/Wed/Fri Temozolomide 75 mg IM with radiotherapy Social History Nonsmoker, no ethanol or recreational drugs, no recent travel, and no occupational exposures. Physical Examination T 38.6°C, P 112 beats/min, RR 32-40 breaths/min, BP 119/76 mm Hg, SpO2 100% on NRB General: Fatigued, ill appearing and dyspneic. …

  19. A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Giorgio; Maschio, Massimo; Poillucci, Gabriele; Pennesi, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2017-08-28

    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39.1×10(9)/L; N 28.9×10(9)/L; Hb 11.3gr/dL; PLT 375×10(9)/L; CRP 28.7mg/dL; ESR 41mm/h. Chest x-ray confirmed a pulmonary consolidation in the right lower lobe (figure 1), with an associated pleural effusion. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed and intravenous ceftriaxone 100mg/kg/die was started. The following day, he developed palpebral oedema and his urine became tea coloured. His blood pressure was 126/82mmHg (>99th percentile).(1) Serum creatinine rose from 0.45mg/dl to 1.09mg/dl (39.8µmol/L - 93.4µmol/L) and C3 was 9mg/dl (n.r. 90-180mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed gross hematuria and 3+ proteinuria, with microscopicy showing dysmorphic red blood cells with casts. Ultrasounds showed enlarged kidneys with increased echogenicity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. 矫正偏瘫下肢异常运动模式的方法及临床效果观察%Research on the effectiveness of the training method and device for lower limb motor pattern remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海红; 霍剑菲; 王峥; 孙爱萍; 张学敏; 曹效; 苏洪泉; 赵博; 赵文汝

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究矫正偏瘫下肢异常运动模式的方法并观察临床效果.方法 选择30例经传统方法训练后下肢运动模式仍异常的患者,对其进行运动模式重塑训练60次,训练前后自身对照研究,分别进行功能评定,数据采用SPSS 12.0统计软件进行分析.结果 功能性步行分级,下肢Fugl-Meyer,屈髋肌徒手肌力,屈髋肌、伸膝和足背屈表面肌电信号的强度和比例,屈髋、伸膝和足背屈自主关节活动度,日常生活能力评估指标,训练前后均有明显改善(3.7±1.4比0.3±0.9;30±9比15±25;3.6±1.3比1.4±0.9;111±18比58±35;161±4比111±13;15 ±7比4±6;79±12比56±25),差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 下肢运动模式重塑训练方式及其装置能够有效限制下肢运动中不需要的关节活动,能有效重塑下肢正常运动模式.%Objective To make a device that can valid inhibit the unwanted joint motion in the movement of the lower extremity,in order to ensure the patient walking in normal gait.After the training using this method and device,the normal gait can be remodeled.Another purpose of this research is to observe its effectiveness.Methods The lower extremity motor pattern remodeling device was made,according to the figure of the lower trunk and the lower limb of the patient,by using the parts as follows:①the artificial aluminium-alloy joint hip,knee and ankle,which was the initial flexion angle of the joint that could be adjusted.The motion angle of those artificial joint could be adjusted.②The aluminium-alloy aid raddle and the waisdine made of lukewarm thermoplast board; Also those artificial joint could only be allowed to act on the direction of frontal axis moving forward and backward,in order to ensure the patient walking in normal gait.The clinical trail of the lower limb gait motor pattern remodeling was done by own control study in 30 hemiplegic patients who had gait training using commonly used method and who

  1. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines.

  2. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Asano

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough.

  3. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  4. The Chinese national guidelines on diagnosis and management of cough (December 2010)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Ke-fang

    2011-01-01

    Cough is a defensive physiological reflex of the human body that enables vital clearance of secretions and harmful elements from the respiratory tract;however,frequent and intense coughing may adversely impact on a patient's work,daily life and social activities.Cough is one of the most commonly observed symptoms in clinical practice arising from a wide range of aetiologies.A chronic cough may be overlooked by clinicians,particularly if reassured by the normal appearance on a chest radiograph.Furthermore,70%-80% of these patients are readily mislabelled or diagnosed with “chronic bronchitis” or “bronchitis” in China,then typically treated with substantial but ineffective courses of antibiotics,or subjected to repeated investigations as a result of a diagnosis that is unclear,and may thus suffer more discomfort and fimancial burden from their disease.

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Antitussive Agents on Respiratory Center Output in Patients With Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Claudia; Lavorini, Federico; Zanasi, Alessandro; Saibene, Federico; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Cough is produced by the same neuronal pool implicated in respiratory rhythm generation, and antitussive drugs acting at the central level, such as opioids, may depress ventilation. Levodropropizine is classified as a nonopioid peripherally acting antitussive drug that acts at the level of airway sensory nerves. However, the lack of a central action by levodropropizine remains to be fully established. We set out to compare the effects of levodropropizine and the opioid antitussive agent dihydrocodeine on the respiratory responses to a conventional CO2 rebreathing test in patients with chronic cough of any origin. Twenty-four outpatients (aged 39-70 years) with chronic cough were studied. On separate runs, each patient was randomly administered 60 mg levodropropizine, 15 mg dihydrocodeine, or a matching placebo. Subsequently, patients breathed a mixture of 93% oxygen and 7% CO2 for 5 min. Fractional end-tidal CO2 (Fetco2) and inspiratory minute ventilation (V˙i) were continuously monitored. Changes in breathing pattern variables were also assessed. At variance with dihydrocodeine, levodropropizine and placebo did not affect respiratory responses to hypercapnia (P levodropropizine; the assessment of ventilatory responses to CO2 may represent a useful tool to investigate the central respiratory effects of antitussive agents. European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT No.: 2013-004735-68); URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. ObserveClinicalEffectofHeatCoughSyrupwiththeClinicalEffectofAcupunctureinTreatingCoughCooperatewith AcupunctureTreatmentofCough%热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗咳嗽的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力文; 廖侃华; 杜洁挺

    2013-01-01

      目的观察临床中给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗咳嗽的临床效果。方法将我院2012年1月至2012年12月之间收录的200例咳嗽患者随机分为两组,对照组患者给予常规热咳糖浆进行治疗,而观察组的患者给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗,观察两组的患者临床治疗效果。结果通过两组的患者临床治疗效果对比分析,观察组的患者临床治疗总有效率明显的高于对照组的患者临床治疗总有效率(P<0.05),统计学有意义;两组的患者不良反应发生率比较无明显的差异(P>0.05),统计学无意义。结论临床中对于咳嗽患者给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗具有较好的临床疗效,值得临床中应用。%Objective To observe the clinical give heat cough syrup with the clinical effect of acupuncture in treating cough. Methods Between January to 2012 2012 in our hospital were collected in December 200 cases of cough patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group were given routine heat cough syrup for treatment, while patients in observation group given heat cough syrup with acupuncture treatment, observe the effect of clinical treatment of the two groups. Results Through comparative analysis of clinical therapeutic effect in the two groups of patients with clinical observation and treatment group, the total efifciency of treatment were signiifcantly higher than control group in the total efifciency(P0.05), statistics no signiifcance. Conclusion In clinical practice, cough were treated with heat cough syrup has better clinical curative effect of acupuncture treatment, worthy of clinical application.

  7. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DXM cause an increase in the amount of dopamine in the brain’s reward pathway. Extra amounts of dopamine increase the feeling of pleasure and at the ... Hi ervin... Abusing DXM can cause impaired motor function, numbness, nausea or vomiting, increased heart rate and ...

  8. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Pertussis prevalence and its determinants among children with persistent cough in urban Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kayina

    Full Text Available We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control.In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ELISA serology tests.Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12-18 and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16-24 by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30% had a coughing household member and 316 (70% did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24-41.44. Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member.

  10. Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Lindsley

    Full Text Available Influenza is thought to be communicated from person to person by multiple pathways. However, the relative importance of different routes of influenza transmission is unclear. To better understand the potential for the airborne spread of influenza, we measured the amount and size of aerosol particles containing influenza virus that were produced by coughing. Subjects were recruited from patients presenting at a student health clinic with influenza-like symptoms. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from the volunteers and they were asked to cough three times into a spirometer. After each cough, the cough-generated aerosol was collected using a NIOSH two-stage bioaerosol cyclone sampler or an SKC BioSampler. The amount of influenza viral RNA contained in the samplers was analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR (qPCR targeting the matrix gene M1. For half of the subjects, viral plaque assays were performed on the nasopharyngeal swabs and cough aerosol samples to determine if viable virus was present. Fifty-eight subjects were tested, of whom 47 were positive for influenza virus by qPCR. Influenza viral RNA was detected in coughs from 38 of these subjects (81%. Thirty-five percent of the influenza RNA was contained in particles>4 µm in aerodynamic diameter, while 23% was in particles 1 to 4 µm and 42% in particles<1 µm. Viable influenza virus was detected in the cough aerosols from 2 of 21 subjects with influenza. These results show that coughing by influenza patients emits aerosol particles containing influenza virus and that much of the viral RNA is contained within particles in the respirable size range. The results support the idea that the airborne route may be a pathway for influenza transmission, especially in the immediate vicinity of an influenza patient. Further research is needed on the viability of airborne influenza viruses and the risk of transmission.

  11. Children with special health care needs: patterns of safety restraint use, seating position, and risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kallan, Michael J; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Blum, Nathan J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2009-02-01

    Special health care needs associated with behavioral conditions may influence a child's safety in motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to describe and compare variation in restraint use, seating position, and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes among children with and without special health care needs likely to affect behavior. This study uses data collected between December 1, 1998, and November 30, 2002, in a cross-sectional study of children vehicles in 15 states. Parent reports via a validated telephone survey were used to define precrash special health care needs, restraint status, seating position, and the occurrence of clinically significant injuries by using a previously validated survey instrument. Complete data were collected for 14654 children aged 4 to 15 years, representing 171633 children in crashes. Of these, 152 children were reported to have a special need likely to affect behavior, representing 1883 children. A greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were appropriately restrained, particularly among children aged 4 to 8 years. Drivers of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were more often restrained and more often were the child passenger's parent. There were no differences in the rates of front-row seating. There was no significant association between the presence of a special need likely to affect behavior and risk of injury, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics and crash severity. Despite a greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior using proper vehicle restraint, their injury risk was similar to that of children without these special needs. Primary care pediatricians providing best practices for vehicle safety should consider the unique riding experience and risk of injury among children with special health care needs likely to affect behavior.

  12. Emergence of whooping cough: notes from three early epidemics in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanabadi, Arash; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shad, Kaveh; Khalili, Majid; Sajadi, Mohammad M

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a relatively new infectious disease afflicting human beings, compared with other infectious diseases, and is undergoing a resurgence despite decades of vaccination. The oldest known epidemic is thought to be the Paris outbreak of 1578. In this Historical Review, we describe three epidemics of whooping cough in Persia, which although arising roughly one century before the Paris outbreak, have not been examined in detail. A great amount of epidemiological detail was reported that not only distinguishes the various stages and complications of whooping cough, but also reveals unique immunological aspects of this disease. The first of these epidemics is the oldest recorded whooping cough epidemic. On the basis of epidemiological features, we propose that this whooping cough epidemic was the first to have taken place in Persia and might have been part of the first pandemic. This theory pushes back the date of first documented emergence of whooping cough by almost a century, which matches molecular data about its spread. Here, we discuss features of these early epidemics in relation to their initial emergence, potential origins, and spread to Europe.

  13. Effect of tobacco and electronic cigarette use on cough reflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2017-02-06

    Multiple previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy tobacco cigarette smokers have suppressed cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers and furthermore, that smoking cessation, even after years of tobacco use, leads to prompt enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Thus, cough reflex sensitivity is demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon, responding to the presence or absence of influences such as tobacco smoke. These studies, however, were unable to identify whether it was the influence of nicotine, or one or more of the numerous components of tobacco cigarette smoke, that were responsible for this effect. More recently, it has been shown that a single exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapor causes inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity in healthy lifetime nonsmokers. An identical study employing a non-nicotine containing e-cig confirmed an absence of effect on cough reflex sensitivity, thus implicating nicotine as the causative agent of these findings. Recent animal studies demonstrate cough suppression after injection of nicotine into the brains of cats, thus supporting a centrally-mediated antitussive effect of nicotine to explain the results of the aforementioned studies of tobacco smoke and e-cig vapor exposure in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  15. 咳嗽高敏感性综合征%Cough hypersensitivity syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 邱忠民

    2015-01-01

    Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is a new diagnostic concept for chronic cough and tries to label chronic cough caused by the diverse etiologies under the umbrella of cough hypersensitivity,which may result in a change in the strategy for the management of chronic cough in the future.However,there currently is a controversy on the benefit of cough hypersensitivity syndrome and many issues remain to be solved.Its value of clinical application needs to be clarified by the further study.%咳嗽高敏感性综合征是慢性咳嗽的诊断新概念,试图从咳嗽高敏感性的角度对不同病因导致的慢性咳嗽进行统一的归纳和认识,可能对今后慢性咳嗽的诊治带来观念上的改变.不过,咳嗽高敏感性综合征的益处目前尚有争议,还有许多问题尚待解决,其临床应用价值尚需进一步的研究阐明.

  16. Cough-variant asthma: a diagnostic dilemma in the occupational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, A; Wiszniewska, M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2015-03-01

    Cough-variant asthma (Corrao's syndrome) is defined as the presence of chronic non-productive cough in patients with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and response to bronchodilator therapy. This variant of asthma may present a diagnostic problem in occupational medicine. To describe additional evaluation of cough-variant asthma in a cyanoacrylate-exposed worker in whom standard diagnostic testing was negative. A female beautician was evaluated for suspected occupational allergic rhinitis and asthma. A specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) was performed with cyanoacrylate glues used for applying artificial eyelashes and nails. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were recorded hourly for 24h; methacholine challenge testing was performed and nasal lavage (NL) samples were analysed for eosinophilia. After SICT, the patient developed sneezing, nasal airflow obstruction and cough. Declines in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and PEF were not observed. Eosinophil proportions in NL fluid increased markedly at 4 and 24h after SICT. A significant increase in BHR also occurred 24h after SICT. Clinical symptoms, post-challenge BHR and increased NL eosinophil counts confirmed a positive response to SICT and validated the diagnosis of cough-variant occupational asthma. SICT may be useful in cases where history and clinical data suggest cough-variant asthma and spirometric indices are negative. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cough, exertional, and sexual headaches: an analysis of 72 benign and symptomatic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J; Iglesias, F; Oterino, A; Vázquez-Barquero, A; Berciano, J

    1996-06-01

    We analyzed our experience with cough, exertional, and vascular sexual headaches, evaluated the interrelationships among them, and examined the possible symptomatic cases. Seventy-two patients consulted us because of headaches precipitated by coughing (n = 30), physical exercise (n = 28), or sexual excitement (n = 14). Thirty (42%) were symptomatic. The 17 cases of symptomatic cough headache were secondary to Chiari type I malformation, while the majority of cases of symptomatic exertional headaches and the only case of symptomatic sexual headache were secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the precipitant was the same, benign and symptomatic headaches differed in several clinical aspects, such as age at onset, associated clinical manifestations, or response to pharmacologic treatment. Although sharing some properties, such as male predominance, benign cough headache and benign exertional headache are clinically separate conditions. Benign cough headache began significantly later, 43 years on average, than benign exertional headache. By contrast, our findings suggest that there is a close relationship between benign exertional headache and benign vascular sexual headache. We conclude that benign and symptomatic cough headaches are different from both benign and symptomatic exertional and sexual headaches.

  18. Serum LDH in chronic cough: a potential marker of airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Wilmot, Rachel; Wright, Caroline; Morice, Alyn Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in almost all tissues of the body and five different isoenzymes are known (LDH-1 to LDH-5). LDH can be elevated in many pathological conditions. We have observed serum LDH to be increased in patients with chronic cough. We wanted to confirm this finding, study the reproducibility and determine the origin of the LDH. Patients prospectively seen at the Hull Cough Clinic had total and specific LDH isoenzyme levels in serum determined. A subgroup of patients also had a serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) measured. Patients completed cough symptom scores and the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ). Spirometry was performed. Eighty-three patients were included. Forty-two percent had LDH values above the reference range and 78% had LDH values in the fourth quartile of the reference range or above. This increase in LDH was predominantly because of a rise in isoenzymes 4 and 5. The increase in LDH was found to be reproducible at 8 weeks. Ten percent had CK values above the normal range. There was no correlation observed between LDH values and the cough scores, HARQ scores or lung function. Serum LDH levels are elevated in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic cough. This rise is likely to be due to airway inflammation known to be associated with chronic cough. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Reduced exposure to coughed air by a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Brand, Marek

    2012-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) for local airflow control and cleansing, limiting the airborne spread of contagious air coughed from a sick patient in a hospital room, was developed. The performance efficiency of the unit, to successfully reduce occupants......’ exposure to coughed air, was studied in a full-scale, two-bed hospital room mock-up, 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 2.60 m (W x L x H), with two patients and a doctor. Four units were placed along the two sides of both beds close to the head. The room was ventilated by overhead mixing air distribution at 22 °C room air...... beside the bed and facing the coughing patient. The generated cough consisted of 100% CO2. The mouth was simulated by a circular opening of 0.021 m diameter. The characteristics of the cough were: peak flow - 10 L/s, cough volume - 2.5 L, duration - 0.5 s and maximum velocity - 28.9 m/s. The performance...

  20. Clues in the differential diagnosis of primary vs secondary cough, exercise, and sexual headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rocío; Ramón, César; Pascual, Julio

    2014-10-01

    Activity-related headaches can be provoked by Valsalva maneuvers ("cough headache"), prolonged exercise ("exertional headache") and sexual excitation ("sexual headache"). These entities are a challenging diagnostic problem as can be primary or secondary and the etiologies for secondary cases differ depending on the headache type. In this paper we review the clinical clues which help us in the differential diagnosis of patients consulting due to activity-related headaches. Cough headache is the most common in terms of consultation. Primary cough headache should be suspected in patients older than 50 years, if pain does not predominate in the occipital area, if pain lasts seconds, when there are no other symptoms/signs and if indomethacin relieves the headache attacks. Almost half of cough headaches are secondary, usually to a Chiari type I malformation. Secondary cough headache should be suspected in young people, when pain is occipital and lasts longer than one minute, and especially if there are other symptoms/signs and if there is no response to indomethacin. Every patient with cough headache needs cranio-cervical MRI. Primary exercise/sexual headaches are more common than secondary, which should be suspected in women especially with one episode, when there are other symptoms/signs, in people older than 40 and if the headache lasts longer than 24 hours. These patients must have quickly a CT and then brain MRI with MRA or an angioCT to exclude space-occupying lesions or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  1. CNS expression pattern of Lmx1b and coexpression with Ptx genes suggest functional cooperativity in the development of forebrain motor control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbreuk, CHJ; Vogelaar, CF; Hellemons, A; Smidt, MP; Burbach, JPH

    2002-01-01

    In the central nervous system, acquisition of regional specification is an important developmental process. The regional specification is reflected by restricted and overlapping expression of homeobox genes, which are regulators of this event. Here, we detail the expression pattern of Lmx1b during l

  2. Prevalence of Joint Gait Patterns Defined by a Delphi Consensus Study Is Related to Gross Motor Function, Topographical Classification, Weakness, and Spasticity, in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Schless, Simon-Henri; De Laet, Tinne; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    During a Delphi consensus study, a new joint gait classification system was developed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This system, whose reliability and content validity have previously been established, identified 49 distinct joint patterns. The present study aims to provide a first insight toward the construct validity and clinical relevance of this classification system. The retrospective sample of convenience consisted of 286 patients with spastic CP (3-18 years old, GMFCS levels I-III, 166 with bilateral CP). Kinematic and kinetic trials from three-dimensional gait analysis were classified according to the definitions of the Delphi study, and one classified trial was randomly selected for each included limb (n = 446). Muscle weakness and spasticity were assessed for different muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle. Subsequently, Pearson Chi square tests, Cramer's V, and adjusted standardized residuals were calculated to explore the strength and direction of the associations between the joint patterns, and the different patient-specific characteristics (i.e., age, GMFCS level, and topographical classification) or clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and spasticity). Patient-specific characteristics showed several significant associations with the patterns of different joints, but the strength of most identified associations was weak. Apart from the knee during stance phase and the pelvis in the sagittal plane, the results systematically showed that the patterns with "minor gait deviations" were the most frequently observed. These minor deviations were found significantly more often in limbs with a lower level of spasticity and good muscle strength. Several other pathological joint patterns were moderately associated with weakness or spasticity, including but not limited to "outtoeing" for weakness and "intoeing" for spasticity. For the joints in the sagittal plane, significantly stronger associations were found with muscle weakness and

  3. Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P S G

    2005-03-01

    The turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, uses its hindlimb during the rhythmic motor behaviors of walking, swimming, and scratching. For some tasks, one or more motor strategies or forms may be produced, e.g., forward swimming or backpaddling. This review discusses experiments that reveal characteristics of the spinal neuronal networks producing these motor behaviors. Limb-movement studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexion and hip extension, as well as variable properties such as the timing of knee extension in the cycle of hip movements. Motor-pattern studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexor and hip extensor motor activities, as well as variable properties such as modifiable timing of knee extensor motor activity in the cycle of hip motor activity. Motor patterns also display variations such as the hip-extensor deletion of rostral scratching. Neuronal-network studies reveal mechanisms responsible for movement and motor-pattern properties. Some interneurons in the spinal cord have shared activities, e.g., each unit is active during more than one behavior, and have distinct characteristics, e.g., each unit is most excited during a specific behavior. Interneuronal recordings during variations support the concept of modular organization of central pattern generators in the spinal cord.

  4. Correlational study on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter and children cough variant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-X; Liu, Y; Xue, Y; Yang, L-Y; Song, G-D; Zhao, L

    2016-06-01

    We explored the relationship between atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter and children cough variant asthma. 48 children all diagnosed with cough variant asthma were placed in the cough asthma group while 50 children suffering from typical asthma were place in typical asthma group. We also had 50 cases of chronic pneumonia (the pneumonia group) and 50 cases of healthy children (the control group). We calculated the average PM 2.5 and temperature values during spring, summer, autumn and winter and monitored serum lymphocyte ratio, CD4+/CD8+T, immunoglobulin IgE, ventilatory index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Our results showed that PM 2.5 values in spring and winter were remarkably higher compared to other seasons. Correlated analysis demonstrated that the onset of cough asthma group was happening in spring. The onset of typical asthma group happened mostly in winter, followed by spring. We established a positive correlation between the onset of asthma of cough asthma group and PM 2.5 value (r = 0.623, p = 0.017), and there was also a positive correlation between the onset of asthma of typical asthma group and PM 2.5 value (r = 0.714, p = 0.015). Our results showed that lymphocyte ratio and IgE level in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group were significantly higher. CD4+/CD8+T was significantly lower in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group. The hs-CRP level in cough asthma, typical asthma and pneumonia groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. The FEV1/predicted value, FEV1/FVC and MMEF/predicted value in the cough asthma group and the typical asthma group were significantly lower than those in other groups, however when comparing between two groups respectively, the difference was not statistically significant. Our findings showed that PM2.5 was related to the onset of children cough variant asthma. PM2.5 reduced immune regulation and ventilatory function.

  5. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  6. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  7. 100 cases Cough Powder Treating Chronic cough clinical analysis%止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽100例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光华

    2012-01-01

      目的:就止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽100例临床分析进行探讨。方法:选择2008年1月至2011年12月在我院收治的慢性咳嗽患者100例,100例患者均采用止嗽散加减治疗,每天都煎1剂,水煎400 mL,早中晚3次空腹温服,儿童要酌情减少剂量,1个疗程为6剂,连续服用3-5个疗程。结果:经过上述治疗之后,100例慢性咳嗽患者显效(症状较治疗前明显减轻)90例(90%),有效(症状有所减轻)8例(8%),无效(治疗前后临床症状无改善)2例(2%),总有效率98%。结论:止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽疗效较好,值得大力推广。%  Objective: Cough Powder Treating clinical analysis 100 cases of chronic cough explore. Method:: Select admitted to a hospital from January 2008 to December 2011, 100 cases of patients with chronic cough, 100 patients were Cough Powder Treating a daily fried, decoction 400 mL, early in the evening 3 times of fasting, warm clothes, children should, where appropriate, to reduce the dose, a treatment for six consecutive taking 3-5 courses. Results: After the above treatment, 100 patients with chronic cough markedly (significantly aleviate the symptoms before treatment) and 90 patients (90%) and effective (symptoms eased) in 8 cases (8%), invalid (no improvement in clinical symptoms before and after treatment ) 2 (2%), with a total efficiency of 98%. Conclusion: Cough Powder Treating chronic cough better effect, is worth promoting.

  8. Acute infantile motor unit disorder. Infantile botulism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, S A; Ramseyer, J C; Fishman, L S; Sedgwick, R P

    1977-04-01

    Eight infants with an acute reversible motor unit disorder are described, including two infants from whom Clostridum botulinum type A was isolated from stool specimens. The clinical spectrum includes constipation, cranial nerve deficits, pupillary involvement, and generalized hypotonic weakness. There were no deaths, and all infants have had complete clinical recovery. A characteristic electromyographic (EMG) pattern was present in part until clinical recovery. This distinctive pattern consisted of brief, small, abundant for power exerted motor unit potentials. This EMG pattern in the context of the clinical syndrome may well be diagnostic for acute infantile motor unit disorder.

  9. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takamitsu; Takemura, Masaya; Fukumitsu, Kensuke; Takeda, Norihisa; Ichikawa, Hiroya; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Uemura, Takehiro; Takakuwa, Osamu; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Maeno, Ken; Ito, Yutaka; Oguri, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Atsushi; Niimi, Akio

    2017-04-01

    Cough-variant asthma (CVA) and cough-predominant asthma (CPA) are the major causes of persistent cough in Japan. The utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in the differential diagnosis of persistent cough has been reported, but the influence of atopic status, which is associated with higher FeNO levels, on the diagnostic utility of FeNO has been unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 105 non-smoking patients with prolonged and chronic cough that were not treated with corticosteroids and anti-leukotrienes. CPA was diagnosed in 37 patients, CVA in 40, and non-asthmatic cough (NAC) in 28. FeNO levels were significantly higher in the CPA [35.8 (7.0-317.9) ppb] and CVA [24.9 (3.1-156.0) ppb] groups than in the NAC group [18.2 (6.9-49.0) ppb] (p ppb [area under the curve (AUC) 0.74, p ppb had AC. Meanwhile, 40% of AC patients had FeNO levels ppb. Stratified cut-off levels were 31.1 ppb (AUC 0.83) in atopic subjects vs. 19.9 ppb (AUC 0.65) in non-atopic subjects (p = 0.03 for AUC). Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and safety of levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine on nonproductive cough in primary and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, G; Barni, S; Marchi, E; Daffonchio, L

    1998-07-01

    Nonproductive cough is a frequent and distressing symptom in patients with lung cancer, and it is not even relieved by palliative chemotherapy. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial regarding the treatment of nonproductive cough was performed in 140 adults with primary lung cancer or metastatic cancer of the lungs. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of a 7-day treatment with levodropropizine drops (75 mg t.i.d.) were evaluated in comparison with dihydrocodeine drops (10 mg t.i.d.; 7 days). Efficacy was assessed on the basis of cough severity scores, number of night awakenings due to cough, and overall estimate of antitussive efficacy. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurring during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Subjective cough severity was significantly reduced during treatment with either levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine, the antitussive effect and its time-profile being similar for both drugs. Also, according to the investigator's evaluation, both levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine produced a significant decrease in cough severity. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased significantly by both drugs, with no difference between the two treatments. No change in laboratory test values was considered clinically relevant, and vital signs were not clinically affected. The number of patients reporting adverse events was similar in the levodropropizine (n=6) and dihydrocodeine (n=4) group. However, the percentage of patients experiencing somnolence in the group receiving levodropropizine (8%) was significantly lower as compared with that of the dihydrocodeine group (22%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and suggest a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dihydrocodeine.

  11. 慢性咳嗽的临床分析%The clinical analysis of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勤军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性咳嗽患者的病因及临床治疗方法。方法对58例慢性咳嗽患者按照咳嗽流程进行检查诊断分析,再根据诊断结果,针对不同病因采取不同治疗方法。结果本组患者咳嗽原因诊断明确87.93%、不明原因12.07%,其中变异性哮喘咳嗽占25.86%、鼻咽喉疾病引起咳嗽占20.69%。临床针对不同病因及病情采取不同治疗方法,治疗有效率为94.83%。结论重视慢性咳嗽的早诊断、早治疗,是提高治疗效果及患者生活质量的有效方法。%objective to explore the etiology and clinical treatment of patients with chronic cough. Methods 58 cases of patients with chronic cough according to cough process inspection diagnosis analysis, according to diagnosis, according to different causes different treatment methods. Results this group of patients cough reason clear diagnosis, unknown reason, 12.07%, 87.93% of cough variability asthma (25.86%), nose and throat diseases cause cough (20.69%). Clinical treatment according to different causes and different treatment methods, treatment effective rate was 94.83%. Conclusion emphasis on early diagnosis and early treatment of chronic cough, is to improve the treatment effect and quality of life of patients with effective methods.

  12. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  13. Baclofen vs. Dextromethorphan in the treatment of coughing: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which outpatient care is sought. Since, a few research evaluated efficacy and therapeutic effect of baclofen in remedy of cough (especially chronic cough, In this study we compared the efficacy of oral Baclofen 20 mg with Dextromethorphan to improvement of cough in two groups."n"nMethods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with chronic cough (up to three weeks that were referred to respiratory diseases clinic of Ali Ebn-e Abitaleb (AS hospital in Zahedan, Iran at 2007 were randomly devided to two groups. 60 peoples in each, (baclofen recipient group with mean age 32.32±6.51 and dextromethorphan recipient group with mean age 31.54±5.06 year were evaluated for qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough for 14 days. "n"nResults: In baclofen recipient group 73.3% and in dextromethorphan recipient group 65% all patients had decline of severity, period and duration of the cough. Statistically, there were no significant differences between two groups in regard to qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough (p>0.05. Also, there were no drug related side effects in the patients."n"nConclusions: Baclofen

  14. Levodropropizine for treating cough in adult and children: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni; Saibene, Federico; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; De Blasio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and lung specialists. About 40% of the population at any one time report cough. Cough is associated with significantly impaired health-related quality of life. Levodropropizine is an effective and very well tolerated peripheral antitussive drug. We want to compare it to central cough suppressants efficacy (opioids and non-opioids) that may be associated with side effects limiting their use. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis of 7 clinical studies of levodropropizine vs. control, including a total of 1,178 patients, was performed with the aim to evaluate the overall comparative efficacy of levodropropizine in the pediatric and adult population. Three electronic databases and reference list were used to search for studies that assessed the efficacy of levodropropizine for treating cough in children and adults using as standardized efficacy parameters the cough frequency and severity, and number of night awakenings as outcome parameters. The meta-analysis of all standardized efficacy parameters showed a highly statistically significant difference in the overall antitussive efficacy in favor of levodropropizine vs. control treatments (p = 0.0015). The heterogeneity test for the efficacy outcome was not statistically significant (p = 0.0534). Seven studies met out inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of the eligible ones showed a statistically significant difference in the overall anti-tussive effect of levodropropizine versus control (p = 0.0015). This analysis indicates that levodropropizine is an effective antitussive drug in children and adults, with statistically significant better overall efficacy outcomes vs. central antitussive drugs (codeine, cloperastine, dextromethorphan) in terms of reducing cough intensity and frequency, and nocturnal awakenings. This result further reinforces the favorable benefit/risk profile of

  15. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  16. The Effect of Aspirin on Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors-Induced Cough : A Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Esmaeili Nadimi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dry cough is the most common adverse effect and limiting factor of all angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs . Prostaglandins have been pinpointed as playing an important role in the genesis of this problem. This double blind clinical trial desinged to study the efficacy of 500 milligram(mg of aspirin comparing with placebo in controlling Enalapril-induced cough. Methods: The subjects were 32 patients who had developed Enalapril-induced cough.They were randomized into two groups: a group of daily dose of aspirin, 500 mg and a group of placebo for a treatment period of 4 weeks. Mean of cough severity was compared between two groups before treatment and weekly, until 4 weeks. Results: Mean of cough severity in aspirin and placebo groups before and at the end of first week of treatment did not show any significant difference. After the second ,third, and fourth weeks, cough severity scores were significantly reduced in aspirin group(p<0.001. Conclusion: 500mg aspirin, once daily, can suppress or abolish Enalapril-induced cough and this finding proposes alternative therapeutic approach for ACEIs-induced related cough. Keywords: aspirin, cough, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs, enalapril

  17. Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2015-12-01

    An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.

  18. Diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by Cough Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Habib Bukhari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pertussis or whooping cough is a communicable infection of upper respiratory tract that mainly affects children. Reports regarding resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated children mainly motivated us to document pertussis in the children. The aim of the study was to explore pertussis in vaccinated children using an alternative method for pertussis diagnosis.Materials and methods: A total of 700 clinical samples were collected during study period (2006-2009, from suspected whooping cough cases of Diphtheria-tetanus- whole cell pertussis (DTwP vaccinated children both male and female aged from 6 months to 84 months The classical ‘Cough Plate Method’ instead of Nasopharyngeal Swab was used for sampling to find out its potential in diagnosis of pertussis.Results: Present study reports the presence of pertussis in vaccinated children using Cough Plate Method. The method successfully isolated Bordetella pertussis from suspected patients of pertussis. A total of 28 culture confirmed cases were detected among 700 samples tested. (Total Isolation rate: 4%.The peak incidence age under risk was 48 months. However, pertussis was detected in children aged as young as 6 and 12 months.Conclusion: The ‘Cough plate’ method used for isolation proved successful and simple instead of nasopharyngeal swabs that is difficult to perform and children may be reluctant to this sampling method when tried. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (2 : 68-72

  19. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  20. Effects of an abdominal binder and electrical stimulation on cough in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K H; Lai, Y L; Wu, H D; Wang, T Q; Wang, Y H

    1998-04-01

    We explored the effect of an abdominal binder, with or without electrical stimulation, on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in 12 paraplegics with complete thoracic cord (T2-T12) injury (mean age 36.0 +/- 1.5 yr) and 12 quadriplegics with complete cervical cord (C4-C8) injury (mean age 36.2 +/- 1.9 yr). The cough was assessed by measuring the PEFR during forceful expiration in a sitting position. The subjects underwent the following experimental maneuvers in a random order with a 10-minute interval between any two maneuvers: 1) voluntary coughing, 2) voluntary coughing with an abdominal binder, and 3) voluntary coughing with an abdominal binder and electrical stimulation. The electrical stimulator (50 Hz with 300 microseconds pulse width) was applied to the abdominal wall. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures. The abdominal binder did not significantly increase PEFR in either paraplegics or quadriplegics; the abdominal binder combined with electrical stimulation significantly increased PEFR by 15% in the paraplegics and 18% in the quadriplegics. These results indicate that electrical stimulation combined with an abdominal binder improves the cough ability in patients with cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury.