Mason, Diana S.
2002-08-01
What does this say for where we've been and where we're going? The Information Age has brought us closer together. I know more about more people and events than I have ever known. I see this as a good thing. It is easy to keep in touch with friends. It is easy to buy and sell over the Internet, to seek answers on various questions, to gather facts, to improve your mind, etc. However, Joshua Benton of The Dallas Morning News1 cites a U.S. Department of Education report as stating, "Too many teachers make it into American classrooms without knowing the material they're teaching...". This concerns me greatly. With all the advantages afforded to us in an affluent society, then how/why can this be true? Other things in the report mentioned by Benton include (1) criticism of the states for setting low standards for new teachers; (2) colleges of education spending too much time on classroom management and teaching techniques and not enough on subject area content in mathematics, literature, and science; and (3) a call to the states to make it easier for professionals to switch careers into teaching through alternative programs. On the other side of the debate, how can 3 4 months of training in an alternative program bring successful teaching practices into the classroom? Yes, we need more teachers, especially in mathematics and science. Getting the content to these prospective teachers is not a problem. There is the Web, there are many online courses available (more on the way) both in subject areas and pedagogy, and the number of conferences and workshops offered abound. The following pages go into great depth regarding all the wonderful talks, workshops, and entertaining events that you can attend at the Fall 2002, ACS National Meeting, August 18 20. However, you've got to get off the couch and attend! The High School Program is Monday, August 19, from 8:30 until 3:00 at the Park Plaza Hotel. Preregistration is $30. Mahatma Gandhi said, "Live as if you were to die
Conserved binding of GCAC motifs by MEC-8, couch potato, and the RBPMS protein family
Soufari, Heddy
2017-01-01
Precise regulation of mRNA processing, translation, localization, and stability relies on specific interactions with RNA-binding proteins whose biological function and target preference are dictated by their preferred RNA motifs. The RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins is defined by a conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain found in metazoan RBPMS/Hermes and RBPMS2, Drosophila couch potato, and MEC-8 from Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to determine the parameters of RNA sequence recognition by the RBPMS family, we have first used the N-terminal domain from MEC-8 in binding assays and have demonstrated a preference for two GCAC motifs optimally separated by >6 nucleotides (nt). We have also determined the crystal structure of the dimeric N-terminal RRM domain from MEC-8 in the unbound form, and in complex with an oligonucleotide harboring two copies of the optimal GCAC motif. The atomic details reveal the molecular network that provides specificity to all four bases in the motif, including multiple hydrogen bonds to the initial guanine. Further studies with human RBPMS, as well as Drosophila couch potato, confirm a general preference for this double GCAC motif by other members of the protein family and the presence of this motif in known targets. PMID:28003515
Zonato, Valeria; Fedele, Giorgio; Kyriacou, Charalambos P
2016-01-01
couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward. A second downstream SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with the first has been claimed to be primarily responsible for the latitudinal cline in diapause incidence in USA populations.Here, we investigate the frequencies of these two cpo SNPs in populations of Drosophila throughout continental Europe. The advantage of studying cpo variation in Europe is the very low frequency of In(3R)Payne, which we reveal here, does not appear to be clinally distributed. We observe a very different geographical scenario for cpo variation from the one in North America, suggesting that the downstream SNP does not play a role in diapause. In an attempt to verify whether the SNPs influence diapause we subsequently generated lines with different combinations of the two cpo SNPs on known timeless (tim) genetic backgrounds, because polymorphism in the clock gene tim plays a significant role in diapause inducibility. Our results reveal that the downstream cpo SNP does not seem to play any role in diapause induction in European populations in contrast to the upstream coding cpo SNP. Consequently, all future diapause studies on strains of D. melanogaster should initially determine their tim and cpo status.
Holt, Bradley
2011-01-01
This practical guide offers a short course on scaling CouchDB to meet the capacity needs of your distributed application. Through a series of scenario-based examples, this book lets you explore several methods for creating a system that can accommodate growth and meet expected demand. In the process, you learn about several tools that can help you with replication, load balancing, clustering, and load testing and monitoring. Apply performance tips for tuning your databaseReplicate data, using Futon and CouchDB's RESTful interfaceDistribute CouchDB's workload through load balancingLearn option
Marić, Nadja P; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava
2010-12-01
A hundred years after psychoanalysis was introduced, neuroscience has taken a giant step forward. It seems nowadays that effects of psychotherapy could be monitored and measured by state-of-the art brain imaging techniques. Today, the psychotherapy is considered as a strategic and purposeful environmental influence intended to enhance learning. Since gene expression is regulated by environmental influences throughout life and these processes create brain architecture and influence the strength of synaptic connections, psychotherapy (as a kind of learning) should be explored in the context of aforementioned paradigm. In other words, when placing a client on the couch, therapist actually placed client's neuronal network; while listening and talking, expressing and analyzing, experiencing transference and counter transference, therapist tends to stabilize synaptic connections and influence dendritic growth by regulating gene-transcriptional activity. Therefore, we strongly believe that, in the near future, an increasing knowledge on cellular and molecular interactions and mechanisms of action of different psycho- and pharmaco-therapeutic procedures will enable us to tailor a sophisticated therapeutic approach toward a person, by combining major therapeutic strategies in psychiatry on the basis of rational goals and evidence-based therapeutic expectations.
CouchSurfing - a choice for travellers
Skog, Christina
2012-01-01
The objective of this thesis was to examine the thoughts and prejudices CouchSurfing evoke in people who had not previously heard of CouchSurfing. Additionally, the views expressed by people who had previously heard about the phenomenon were also studied. The aim was also to determine how these prejudices affected the behaviour of people. The purpose was to understand different aspects and give a more comprehensive picture of CouchSurfing through this thesis. The theoretical framework of ...
Anderson, J; Slater, Noah
2010-01-01
Three of CouchDB's creators show you how to use this document-oriented database as a standalone application framework or with high-volume, distributed applications. With its simple model for storing, processing, and accessing data, CouchDB is ideal for web applications that handle huge amounts of loosely structured data. That alone would stretch the limits of a relational database, yet CouchDB offers an open source solution that's reliable, scales easily, and responds quickly. CouchDB works with self-contained data that has loose or ad-hoc connections. It's a model that fits many real-world
Jacobson, Nathan
1979-01-01
Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its
Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.
Bracey, Gerald W.
2000-01-01
Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)
Papi, Paolo; Advances in Lie Superalgebras
2014-01-01
The volume is the outcome of the conference "Lie superalgebras," which was held at the Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica, in 2012. The conference gathered many specialists in the subject, and the talks held provided comprehensive insights into the newest trends in research on Lie superalgebras (and related topics like vertex algebras, representation theory and supergeometry). The book contains contributions of many leading esperts in the field and provides a complete account of the newest trends in research on Lie Superalgebras.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezin, F.A.
1977-01-01
Generalization of the Laplace-Casimir operator theory on the Lie supergroups is considered. The main result is the formula for radial parts of the Laplace operators under some general assumptions about the Lie supergroup. In particular these assumptions are valid for the Lie suppergroups U(p,g) and C (m,n). The first one is the analogue of the unitary group, the second one is the analogue of the linear group of canonical transformations
Brown, MC
2012-01-01
CouchDB is a new breed of database for the Internet, geared to meet the needs of today's dynamic web applications. With this concise introduction, you'll learn how CouchDB's simple model for storing, processing, and accessing data makes it ideal for the type of data and rapid response users now demand from your applications-and how easy CouchDB is to set up, deploy, maintain, and scale. The code-packed examples in this book will help you learn how to work with documents, populate a simple database, replicate data from one database to another, and a host of other tasks. Install CouchDB on Lin
Movahedi, Siamak; Homayounpour, Gohar
2012-12-01
The authors present a clinical discussion of the psychic functions of the chador, a veil-like outer garment worn in public by some Iranian women. Drawing on Anzieu's theoretical concept of the skin ego, the authors suggest that the chador does not just cover the body; it may also envelop the psyche and function as a second skin for the ego. The maternal function of a holding environment is symbolically displaced on any clothing that 'hides,''covers,''veils,' or 'dresses' the body. The skin's containing functions are extended through sensory and metonymic mediations to clothes, thus providing an imaginary maternal sack for the person. The clinical vignettes presented here suggest that for some Iranian women the chador may work, on one hand, as a second skin ego and a shield against a perceived intrusive world. On the other hand, it may work as a punitive maternal superego, a 'holding cell' in a jail that paralyses the separation/individuation process. Operating in the service of the patient's resistance and defense, the chador may also function as a psychic refuge and a place to hide on the couch. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avraham eMerzel
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Do we feel bound by our own misrepresentations? Does one act of cheating compel the cheater to make subsequent choices that maintain the false image even at a cost? To answer these questions we employed a two-task paradigm such that in the first task the participants could benefit from false reporting of private observations whereas in the second they could benefit from making a prediction in line with their actual, rather than their previously reported observations. Thus, for those participants who inflated their report during the first task, sticking with that report for the second task was likely to lead to a loss, whereas deviating from it would imply that they had lied. Data from three experiments (total N=116 indicate that, having lied, participants were ready to suffer future loss rather than admit, even if implicitly, that they had lied.
Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato.
Kaye, Barbara K.
1998-01-01
Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…
Quasi-Lie algebras and Lie groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momo Bangoura
2006-07-01
In this work, we define the quasi-Poisson Lie quasigroups, dual objects to the quasi-Poisson Lie groups and we establish the correspondence between the local quasi-Poisson Lie quasigoups and quasi-Lie bialgebras (up to isomorphism). (author) [fr
Lie groups and Lie algebras for physicists
Das, Ashok
2015-01-01
The book is intended for graduate students of theoretical physics (with a background in quantum mechanics) as well as researchers interested in applications of Lie group theory and Lie algebras in physics. The emphasis is on the inter-relations of representation theories of Lie groups and the corresponding Lie algebras.
CouchSurfers' motivations to host travelers in Spain
Pietilä, Outi
2011-01-01
This Bachelor thesis examines the online community CouchSurfing, which is a hospitality exchange network that promotes cultural exchange, cultural diversity and tolerance. CouchSurfing members offer each other free accommodation when traveling and share their insight and knowledge of the place. The primary objective of this thesis was to define the CouchSurfers’ motivation factors behind hosting travelers in Spain, as well as produce findings to why alternative ways to travel, such as Cou...
'CouchSurfing' : explorations in cosmopolitanism, trust, and resistance
Shapiro, Josh D.
2012-01-01
This dissertation is based on qualitative and quantitative research conducted via a case study of CouchSurfing.org, a hybrid online/offline hospitality exchange network that enables travelers to locate locals who offer them free accommodation. Chapter one begins with a statistical analysis of CouchSurfers to determine if they hold a cosmopolitan orientation. My analysis incorporates nationally representative samples from 21 different countries, over 1400 CouchSurfers, and 74,000 respondents t...
Rubio Martí, Vicente
2016-01-01
En el presente proyecto definimos lo que es un grupo de Lie, así como su respectiva álgebra de Lie canónica como aproximación lineal a dicho grupo de Lie. El proceso de linealización, que es hallar el algebra de Lie de un grupo de Lie dado, tiene su
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ming-Zhong; Bai Cheng-Ming
2015-01-01
A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang–Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. (paper)
Youth Homelessness and Vulnerability: How Does Couch Surfing Fit?
Curry, Susanna R; Morton, Matthew; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Dworsky, Amy; Samuels, Gina M; Schlueter, David
2017-09-01
Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25. Findings suggest that couch surfing is relatively common, particularly among the older age group. Among households with 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds, 4.0% and 20.5%, respectively, reported that any of them had couch surfed in the last 12 months. There are notable social, economic, and educational differences, on average, between youth reporting homelessness and those reporting only couch surfing. However, most youth who report experiencing homelessness also report couch surfing, and these youth who experience both circumstances present high levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Couch surfing encompasses a range of experiences, some of which likely include need for services. Interviews currently in the field, and expanded analysis of data, will contribute more nuanced policy insights. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Bakhurst, D
1992-01-01
This article challenges Jennifer Jackson's recent defence of doctors' rights to deceive patients. Jackson maintains there is a general moral difference between lying and intentional deception: while doctors have a prima facie duty not to lie, there is no such obligation to avoid deception. This paper argues 1) that an examination of cases shows that lying and deception are often morally equivalent, and 2) that Jackson's position is premised on a species of moral functionalism that misconstrue...
The return of the Freudian Couch®
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juelskjær, Malou; Staunæs, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene Gad
2013-01-01
This article explores how the affective “set-up” of Freud’s legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension...... of comfort technology, we explore how the couch participates in transforming intensities and shaping desires by affecting bodies, voices, atmospheres, and relations. We look into the Danish school, which over the past decade has intensified its focus on preparing students to take part in a workforce....... Through our material-affective perspective we zoom in on everyday practices in the offices of principals to see how the couch, a mundane comfort technology, affects management relations between principal, students, parents, and teachers....
Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egelyng, Henrik
2017-01-01
Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....
Hsiang, Wu-Yi
2017-01-01
This volume consists of nine lectures on selected topics of Lie group theory. We provide the readers a concise introduction as well as a comprehensive 'tour of revisiting' the remarkable achievements of S Lie, W Killing, É Cartan and H Weyl on structural and classification theory of semi-simple Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations; and also the wonderful duet of Cartans' theory on Lie groups and symmetric spaces.With the benefit of retrospective hindsight, mainly inspired by the outstanding contribution of H Weyl in the special case of compact connected Lie groups, we develop the above theory via a route quite different from the original methods engaged by most other books.We begin our revisiting with the compact theory which is much simpler than that of the general semi-simple Lie theory; mainly due to the well fittings between the Frobenius-Schur character theory and the maximal tori theorem of É Cartan together with Weyl's reduction (cf. Lectures 1-4). It is a wonderful reality of the Lie t...
Verschuere, B.; Spruyt, A.; Meijer, E.H.; Otgaar, H.
2011-01-01
Brain imaging studies suggest that truth telling constitutes the default of the human brain and that lying involves intentional suppression of the predominant truth response. By manipulating the truth proportion in the Sheffield lie test, we investigated whether the dominance of the truth response
Biyogmam, Guy Roger
2011-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the category of Lie $n$-racks and generalize several results known on racks. In particular, we show that the tangent space of a Lie $n$-Rack at the neutral element has a Leibniz $n$-algebra structure. We also define a cohomology theory of $n$-racks..
Vrij, Aldert; Taylor, Paul J.; Picornell, Isabel; Oxburgh, Gavin; Myklebust, Trond; Grant, Tim; Milne, Rebecca
2015-01-01
In this chapter, we discuss verbal lie detection and will argue that speech content can be revealing about deception. Starting with a section discussing the, in our view, myth that non-verbal behaviour would be more revealing about deception than speech, we then provide an overview of verbal lie
Medicine, lies and deceptions.
Benn, P
2001-04-01
This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.
Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing
Liu, Xiao
2013-01-01
This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…
The guilty couch potato: The role of negative emotions in reducing recovery through media use
Reinecke, L; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.L.
2014-01-01
This article addresses ego depletion as a mechanism influencing media-based stress recovery processes. Using structural equation modeling, relationships between ego depletion, procrastination, guilt, enjoyment, vitality, and recovery experience were tested using data from an online survey (N=471).
de Feijter, D.; Khan, J.V.; van Gisbergen, M.
2016-01-01
Viewers more frequently watch television content whenever they want, using devices they prefer, which stimulated "Binge-watching" (consecutive viewing of television programs). Although binge-watching and health concerns have been studied before, the context in which binge-watching takes place and
Couching Techniques for Cataract Treatment in Osogbo, South West ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objectives: To find out the different techniques of couching, highlight the unacceptable poor visual sequelae and assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of subjects. Settings and Design: Clinic based and prospective observational study. Methods and Material: Structured interview and clinical examination of consecutive ...
On Murray Jackson's 1961 'Chair, couch and countertransference'.
Connolly, Angela
2015-09-01
One of the problems facing psychoanalysts of all schools is that theory has evolved at a much faster pace than practice. Whereas there has been an explosion of theory, practice has remained, at least officially, static and unchanging. It is in this sense that Murray Jackson's 1961 paper is still relevant today. Despite the rise of the new relational and intersubjective paradigms, most psychoanalysts, and not a few Jungian analysts, still seem to feel that the couch is an essential component of the analytical setting and process. If the use of the couch is usually justified by the argument that it favours regression, facilitates analytical reverie and protects the patient from the influence of the analyst, over time many important psychoanalysts have come to challenge this position. Increasingly these analysts suggest that the use of the couch may actually be incompatible with the newer theoretical models. This contention is strengthened by some of the findings coming from the neurosciences and infant research. This underlines the necessity of empirical research to verify the clinical effectiveness of these different positions, couch or face-to-face, but it is exactly this type of research that is lacking. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Bakhurst, D
1992-06-01
This article challenges Jennifer Jackson's recent defence of doctors' rights to deceive patients. Jackson maintains there is a general moral difference between lying and intentional deception: while doctors have a prima facie duty not to lie, there is no such obligation to avoid deception. This paper argues 1) that an examination of cases shows that lying and deception are often morally equivalent, and 2) that Jackson's position is premised on a species of moral functionalism that misconstrues the nature of moral obligation. Against Jackson, it is argued that both lying and intentional deception are wrong where they infringe a patient's right to autonomy or his/her right to be treated with dignity. These rights represent 'deontological constraints' on action, defining what we must not do whatever the functional value of the consequences. Medical ethics must recognise such constraints if it is to contribute to the moral integrity of medical practice.
Iachello, Francesco
2015-01-01
This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...
Chevalley, Claude
2018-01-01
The standard text on the subject for many years, this introductory treatment covers classical linear groups, topological groups, manifolds, analytic groups, differential calculus of Cartan, and compact Lie groups and their representations. 1946 edition.
Bakhurst, D
1992-01-01
This article challenges Jennifer Jackson's recent defence of doctors' rights to deceive patients. Jackson maintains there is a general moral difference between lying and intentional deception: while doctors have a prima facie duty not to lie, there is no such obligation to avoid deception. This paper argues 1) that an examination of cases shows that lying and deception are often morally equivalent, and 2) that Jackson's position is premised on a species of moral functionalism that misconstrues the nature of moral obligation. Against Jackson, it is argued that both lying and intentional deception are wrong where they infringe a patient's right to autonomy or his/her right to be treated with dignity. These rights represent 'deontological constraints' on action, defining what we must not do whatever the functional value of the consequences. Medical ethics must recognise such constraints if it is to contribute to the moral integrity of medical practice. PMID:1619626
Choreographing Couch and Collimator in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yingli; Zhang Pengpeng; Happersett, Laura; Xiong Jianping; Yang Jie; Chan, Maria; Beal, Kathryn; Mageras, Gig; Hunt, Margie
2011-01-01
Purpose: To design and optimize trajectory-based, noncoplanar subarcs for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) deliverable on both Varian TrueBEAM system and traditional accelerators; and to investigate their potential advantages for treating central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: To guide the computerized selection of beam trajectories consisting of simultaneous couch, gantry, and collimator motion, a score function was implemented to estimate the geometric overlap between targets and organs at risk for each couch/gantry angle combination. An initial set of beam orientations is obtained as a function of couch and gantry angle, according to a minimum search of the score function excluding zones of collision. This set is grouped into multiple continuous and extended subarcs subject to mechanical limitations using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. After determination of couch/gantry trajectories, a principal component analysis finds the collimator angle at each beam orientation that minimizes residual target-organ at risk overlaps. An in-house VMAT optimization algorithm determines the optimal multileaf collimator position and monitor units for control points within each subarc. A retrospective study of 10 CNS patients compares the proposed method of VMAT trajectory with dynamic gantry, leaves, couch, and collimator motion (Tra-VMAT); a standard noncoplanar VMAT with no couch/collimator motion within subarcs (Std-VMAT); and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans that were clinically used. Results: Tra-VMAT provided improved target dose conformality and lowered maximum dose to brainstem, optic nerves, and chiasm by 7.7%, 1.1%, 2.3%, and 1.7%, respectively, compared with Std-VMAT. Tra-VMAT provided higher planning target volume minimum dose and reduced maximum dose to chiasm, optic nerves, and cochlea by 6.2%, 1.3%, 6.3%, and 8.4%, respectively, and reduced cochlea mean dose by 8.7%, compared with IMRT. Tra-VMAT averaged
Carnovale, Giovanna; Caselli, Fabrizio; Concini, Corrado; Sole, Alberto
2017-01-01
Lie theory is a mathematical framework for encoding the concept of symmetries of a problem, and was the central theme of an INdAM intensive research period at the Centro de Giorgi in Pisa, Italy, in the academic year 2014-2015. This book gathers the key outcomes of this period, addressing topics such as: structure and representation theory of vertex algebras, Lie algebras and superalgebras, as well as hyperplane arrangements with different approaches, ranging from geometry and topology to combinatorics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owusu-Agyapong, Linus
2016-07-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the attenuation effects of a treatment couch and to alternatively model the couch top material with a Prowess Panther treatment planning system which does not support couch top modelling. The Hounsfield Unit classification of the couch structure was determined using a PMMA phantom by comparing ion chamber measurements with the dose forecasted by the treatment planning system (TPS). The transmission factor (TF) of the couch top was determined and was used as a TF for a treatment accessory that represented the treatment couch in the TPS. A treatment plan was done for various angles with and without the interference of the couch top and a simulated treatment was done using the PMMA phantom. Ion chamber measurement were made and compared with dose predicted by the TPS to evaluate the accuracy of the couch top modelling in the treatment planning system TPS. These investigations were done for various field sizes. The ideal set of HU for the couch was established to be -674. The measured TF was 0.956042 and the TPS calculated Transmission factor was 0.951456. The percentage difference between the measured and calculated TFs was 0.48% and this agrees perfectly with the IAEA recommended tolerance of 2%. Relative attenuation measurements were as high as 54.16% and as low as 0.63% for the beams that exited the couch before interacting with the phantom. In comparing couch modelling by couch simulation and couch TF insert, it was observed that the normalized doses were the same for 5×5 square field but deviated approximately 1% for the other field sizes. The highest deviation was observed at 10×10 square field. This study demonstrates that the couch simulation method of couch modelling is the best method that can be used to account for the effect of the treatment couch top on intersecting posterior beam fields. Thus, the attenuation effects of the treatment couch was effectively evaluated and the couch top material accurately modelled in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
С. І. Мельник
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).
Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L
2015-01-01
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.
Seron, X
2014-10-01
The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Getting Started with GEO, CouchDB, and Nodejs
Thompson, Mick
2011-01-01
Today's mobile devices have GPS and standard APIs to give you access to coordinates-but what can you do with that data? With this concise book, application developers learn how to work with location data quickly and easily, using Node.js, CouchDB, and other open source tools and libraries. Node.js makes it simple to run event code on the Web, and the CouchDB document-oriented database lets you store location data and perform complex queries on it quickly. You'll learn how to get started with these tools, and then use them together to build an example project called MapChat, using HTML and Ja
Lazebnik, Jenny
2017-01-01
Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into
Use of induced mutations for potato improvement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishore, H.; Das, B.; Subramanyam, K.N.; Chandra, R.; Upadhya, M.D.
1975-01-01
The investigations aim at the utilization of induced mutations for potato improvement. The effect of γ-rays was tested on selfed seeds and hybrid seeds as well as on tubers of several potato varieties. Chemical mutagens have been successfully employed to produce daylength neutral clones. An attempt to induce resistance against Pseudomonas solanacearum did not give conclusive results. Potato improvement in relation of yield and other characters of economic significance like maturity and attributes of tubers has been handicapped by several technical considerations world over. The crux of the problem lies in the narrow genetic base (variability) for potato breeders to work with. The use of mutation breeding, therefore, offers a good tool for this. Improvement by mutation breeding for the quantitative characters besides the resistance to disease and pest has been demonstrated in other crops like white mustard variety Primex (Anderson and Olsson, 1954), barley (Gustafsson, 1965) and peanut (Gregory, 1956). Keeping these in view and the success we had in isolating photoperiod insensitive types (Upadhaya et al, 1973, 1974) study was enlarged to use mutagens to increase as wide a spectrum as possible of the variability for quantative and qualitative characters. (author)
Lie symmetries and superintegrability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucci, M C; Post, S
2012-01-01
We show that a known superintegrable system in two-dimensional real Euclidean space (Post and Winternitz 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 162001) can be transformed into a linear third-order equation: consequently we construct many autonomous integrals—polynomials up to order 18—for the same system. The reduction method and the connection between Lie symmetries and Jacobi last multiplier are used.
Lie bialgebras with triangular decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andruskiewitsch, N.; Levstein, F.
1992-06-01
Lie bialgebras originated in a triangular decomposition of the underlying Lie algebra are discussed. The explicit formulas for the quantization of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and some motion Lie algebras are given, as well as the algebra of rational functions on the quantum Heisenberg group and the formula for the universal R-matrix. (author). 17 refs
Lie groups, lie algebras, and representations an elementary introduction
Hall, Brian
2015-01-01
This textbook treats Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations in an elementary but fully rigorous fashion requiring minimal prerequisites. In particular, the theory of matrix Lie groups and their Lie algebras is developed using only linear algebra, and more motivation and intuition for proofs is provided than in most classic texts on the subject. In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including: a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras motivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C) an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras a self-contained construction of the representations of compac...
Potato irradiation technology in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takehisa, M.
1981-01-01
After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)
Electromagnetic guided couch and multileaf collimator tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rune; Ravkilde, Thomas; Worm, Esben Schjødt
2016-01-01
Purpose: Couch and MLC tracking are two promising methods for real-time motion compensation during radiation therapy. So far, couch and MLC tracking experiments have mainly been performed by different research groups, and no direct comparison of couch and MLC tracking of volumetric modulated arc...... to characterize the geometric and dosimetric performance of electromagnetic guided couch and MLC tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator equipped with a Millennium MLC. The tracking system latency was determined without motion prediction as the time lag between sinusoidal target motion and the compensating motion...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.
1989-01-01
Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations
Lipkin, Harry J
2002-01-01
According to the author of this concise, high-level study, physicists often shy away from group theory, perhaps because they are unsure which parts of the subject belong to the physicist and which belong to the mathematician. However, it is possible for physicists to understand and use many techniques which have a group theoretical basis without necessarily understanding all of group theory. This book is designed to familiarize physicists with those techniques. Specifically, the author aims to show how the well-known methods of angular momentum algebra can be extended to treat other Lie group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-02-01
The Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1143) evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the proposed Lied Transplant Center at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Statement in not required.
Couch height–based patient setup for abdominal radiation therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yao Municipal Hospital, Yao (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Tsujii, Katsutomo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kawanabe, Kiyoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)
2016-04-01
There are 2 methods commonly used for patient positioning in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction: one is the skin mark patient setup method (SMPS) and the other is the couch height–based patient setup method (CHPS). This study compared the setup accuracy of these 2 methods for abdominal radiation therapy. The enrollment for this study comprised 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. For treatments (539 sessions), patients were set up by using isocenter skin marks and thereafter treatment couch was shifted so that the distance between the isocenter and the upper side of the treatment couch was equal to that indicated on the computed tomographic (CT) image. Setup deviation in the A-P direction for CHPS was measured by matching the spine of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of a lateral beam at simulation with that of the corresponding time-integrated electronic portal image. For SMPS with no correction (SMPS/NC), setup deviation was calculated based on the couch-level difference between SMPS and CHPS. SMPS/NC was corrected using 2 off-line correction protocols: no action level (SMPS/NAL) and extended NAL (SMPS/eNAL) protocols. Margins to compensate for deviations were calculated using the Stroom formula. A-P deviation > 5 mm was observed in 17% of SMPS/NC, 4% of SMPS/NAL, and 4% of SMPS/eNAL sessions but only in one CHPS session. For SMPS/NC, 7 patients (30%) showed deviations at an increasing rate of > 0.1 mm/fraction, but for CHPS, no such trend was observed. The standard deviations (SDs) of systematic error (Σ) were 2.6, 1.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and the root mean squares of random error (σ) were 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 0.9 mm for SMPS/NC, SMPS/NAL, SMPS/eNAL, and CHPS, respectively. Margins to compensate for the deviations were wide for SMPS/NC (6.7 mm), smaller for SMPS/NAL (4.6 mm) and SMPS/eNAL (3.1 mm), and smallest for CHPS (2.2 mm). Achieving better setup with smaller margins, CHPS appears to be a reproducible method for abdominal patient setup.
Wilson, Byron; Gete, Ermias
2017-12-01
We present a method in which the treatment couch's accuracy is measured using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and a phantom of our own construction. Using this phantom, we were able to quantify the treatment couch walkout, and the rotation angle accuracy for both static and dynamic couch treatments. These measurements were used to provide an accurate measure of the treatment couch isocenter as well as to verify the couch rotation angle recorded in the trajectory log. The phantom was constructed using a polystyrene slab in which five ball bearings of 4 mm diameter are placed on the same plane at varying radii (0, 2.8, 4.4, 5.6, and 6.7 cm). The couch was rotated through its full extent (-90, 90 degrees) while MV images were acquired continuously. The couch rotational accuracy was calculated using a least squares minimization which fit the locations of the BBs to their expected locations relative to reference setup conditions. Using this approach, rotation angle and isocenter walkout was calculated in three dimensions. These measurements were used to quantify the accuracy of the couch as well as to validate the Varian TrueBeam trajectory logs. Additionally, a method for an EPID-based couch star-shot measurement was developed and compared with the traditional film-based method. The measured couch center of rotation consisted of a cloud of points clustered around the room isocenter within 0.7 mm distance. The trajectory log couch angle values agreed with those recorded in the DICOM header of the EPID images to the third significant digit and the couch rotation angles recorded in the trajectory log and DICOM header agreed with the calculated values to 0.08 degrees. Comparison of couch star-shot measurement developed in this study with film-based star-shot measurements gave an agreement to within 0.2 mm. We have developed a quality assurance method for the treatment couch which is simple, accurate, and enables the user to access a multitude of consistent data
Gillespie, Elgy
2001-01-01
"If we are what we eat, as they are forever telling, then we're mostly potato" sayd travel writer, journalist and enthusiastic cook Elgy Gillespie Now Elgy has drawn on her travel experiences and her love of food to gather over 100 potato recipes from Ireland and around the world" Taken from the back cover. Published by Wolfhound Press Ltd., 68 Mountjoy Square, Dublin in 2001. Illustrated by Rebecca Wildsmith. Cover illustration Eva Byrne, cover photograph Richard Gibson, cover design W...
Control of a HexaPOD treatment couch for robot-assisted radiotherapy.
Hermann, Christian; Ma, Lei; Wilbert, Jürgen; Baier, Kurt; Schilling, Klaus
2012-10-01
Moving tumors, for example in the vicinity of the lungs, pose a challenging problem in radiotherapy, as healthy tissue should not be irradiated. Apart from gating approaches, one standard method is to irradiate the complete volume within which a tumor moves plus a safety margin containing a considerable volume of healthy tissue. This work deals with a system for tumor motion compensation using the HexaPOD® robotic treatment couch (Medical Intelligence GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany). The HexaPOD, carrying the patient during treatment, is instructed to perform translational movements such that the tumor motion, from the beams-eye view of the linear accelerator, is eliminated. The dynamics of the HexaPOD are characterized by time delays, saturations, and other non-linearities that make the design of control a challenging task. The focus of this work lies on two control methods for the HexaPOD that can be used for reference tracking. The first method uses a model predictive controller based on a model gained through system identification methods, and the second method uses a position control scheme useful for reference tracking. We compared the tracking performance of both methods in various experiments with real hardware using ideal reference trajectories, prerecorded patient trajectories, and human volunteers whose breathing motion was compensated by the system.
Lie Quasi-Bialgebras and Cohomology of Lie algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bangoura, Momo
2010-05-01
Lie quasi-bialgebras are natural generalisations of Lie bialgebras introduced by Drinfeld. To any Lie quasi-bialgebra structure of finite-dimensional (G, μ, γ, φ), corresponds one Lie algebra structure on D = G + G*, called the double of the given Lie quasi-bialgebra. We show that there exist on ΛG, the exterior algebra of G, a D-module structure and we establish an isomorphism of D-modules between ΛD and End(ΛG), D acting on ΛD by the adjoint action. (author) [fr
Renormalized Lie perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.
1981-07-01
A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another
Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.
2014-01-01
Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a
Purposes and Effects of Lying.
Hample, Dale
Three exploratory studies were aimed at describing the purposes of lies and the consequences of lying. Data were collected through a partly open-ended questionnaire, a content analysis of several tape-recorded interviews, and a large-scale survey. The results showed that two of every three lies were told for selfish reasons, while three of every…
The clinical impact of the couch top and rails on IMRT and arc therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulliam, Kiley B; Howell, Rebecca M; Followill, David; Luo, Dershan; Kry, Stephen F; White, R Allen
2011-01-01
The clinical impact of the Varian Exact Couch on dose, volume coverage to targets and critical structures, and tumor control probability (TCP) has not been described. Thus, we examined their effects on IMRT and arc therapy. Five clinical prostate patients were planned with both 6 MV eight-field IMRT and 6 MV two-arc RapidArc techniques using the Eclipse treatment planning system. These plans neglected treatment couch attenuation, as is a common clinical practice. Dose distributions were then recalculated in Eclipse with the inclusion of the Varian Exact Couch (imaging couch top) and the rails in varying configurations. The changes in dose and coverage were evaluated using the dose-volume histograms from each plan iteration. We used a TCP model to calculate losses in tumor control resulting from not accounting for the couch top and rails. We also verified dose measurements in a phantom. Failure to account for the treatment couch and rails resulted in clinically unacceptable dose and volume coverage losses to the targets for both IMRT and RapidArc. The couch caused average prescription dose losses (relative to plans that ignored the couch) to the prostate of 4.2% and 2.0% for IMRT with the rails out and in, respectively, and 3.2% and 2.9% for RapidArc with the rails out and in, respectively. On average, the percentage of the target covered by the prescribed dose dropped to 35% and 84% for IMRT (rails out and in, respectively) and to 18% and 17% for RapidArc (rails out and in, respectively). The TCP was also reduced by as much as 10.5% (6.3% on average). Dose and volume coverage losses for IMRT plans were primarily due to the rails, while the imaging couch top contributed most to losses for RapidArc. Both the couch top and rails contribute to dose and coverage losses that can render plans clinically unacceptable. A follow-up study we performed found that the less attenuating unipanel mesh couch top available with the Varian Exact couch does not cause a clinically
Lie Algebras and Integrable Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yufeng; Mei Jianqin
2012-01-01
A 3 × 3 matrix Lie algebra is first introduced, its subalgebras and the generated Lie algebras are obtained, respectively. Applications of a few Lie subalgebras give rise to two integrable nonlinear hierarchies of evolution equations from their reductions we obtain the nonlinear Schrödinger equations, the mKdV equations, the Broer-Kaup (BK) equation and its generalized equation, etc. The linear and nonlinear integrable couplings of one integrable hierarchy presented in the paper are worked out by casting a 3 × 3 Lie subalgebra into a 2 × 2 matrix Lie algebra. Finally, we discuss the elliptic variable solutions of a generalized BK equation. (general)
Celse, Jérémy; Chang, Kirk
2017-11-30
This research analyzed whether political leaders make people lie via priming experiments. Priming is a non-conscious and implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus affects the response to another. Following priming theories, we proposed an innovative concept that people who perceive leaders to be dishonest (such as liars) are likely to lie themselves. We designed three experiments to analyze and critically discussed the potential influence of prime effect on lying behavior, through the prime effect of French political leaders (including general politicians, presidents and parties). Experiment 1 discovered that participants with non-politician-prime were less likely to lie (compared to politician-prime). Experiment 2A discovered that, compared to Hollande-prime, Sarkozy-prime led to lying behavior both in gravity (i.e., bigger lies) and frequency (i.e., lying more frequently). Experiment 2B discovered that Republicans-prime yielded an impact on more lying behavior, and Sarkozy-prime made such impact even stronger. Overall, the research findings suggest that lying can be triggered by external influencers such as leaders, presidents and politicians in the organizations. Our findings have provided valuable insights into organizational leaders and managers in their personnel management practice, especially in the intervention of lying behavior. Our findings also have offered new insights to explain non-conscious lying behavior.
Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes
Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, B; Wong, R; Geng, H; Lam, W; Cheung, K; Yu, S
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a filmless methodology based on an ArcCheck for QA measurement of the couch translation per gantry rotation and couch speed of a Tomotherapy unit. Methods: Two test plans recommended by TG148 were chosen for this study. A helical plan with 1 cm field size opened the leaves for 180 degrees at the 2nd, 7th and 12th of total 13 rotations and was used to verify if the couch travelled the expected distance per gantry rotation. The other test plan was a static plan with the gantry at 0°, 1cm field width and constant couch movement speed of 0.5mm/s. It was used for couch speed measurement. The ArcCheck was isocentrically set up and recorded movie files which took a snapshot exposure every 50ms. Due to the spiral pattern of diodes distribution, when one of the diodes of the ArcCheck located at the beam center, the dose profile as measured by the row of diodes which surrounded the center diode should have a symmetrical pattern. We divided the profile into left half A and right half B. Then a shape parameter was defined as S=Σ|(A−B)|/Σ(A+B). By searching the local minimum of S parameter, the beam center at different time could be located. The machine trajectory log data were also collected and analyzed for comparison. Results: The mean value of measured couch translation and couch speed by ArcCheck had less than 0.05% deviation from the planned values. For couch speed measurement, our result showed a mean value of 0.5002 with an uncertainty ±0.0031, which agreed very well with both the plan setting of 0.5 mm/s and the machine log data of 0.5005 mm/s. Conclusion: Couch translation measured using ArcCheck is accurate and comparable to the film-based measurement. This filmless method also provides a convenient and independent way for measuring couch speed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, B; Wong, R; Geng, H; Lam, W; Cheung, K; Yu, S [Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, N/A, Hong Kong (China)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a filmless methodology based on an ArcCheck for QA measurement of the couch translation per gantry rotation and couch speed of a Tomotherapy unit. Methods: Two test plans recommended by TG148 were chosen for this study. A helical plan with 1 cm field size opened the leaves for 180 degrees at the 2nd, 7th and 12th of total 13 rotations and was used to verify if the couch travelled the expected distance per gantry rotation. The other test plan was a static plan with the gantry at 0°, 1cm field width and constant couch movement speed of 0.5mm/s. It was used for couch speed measurement. The ArcCheck was isocentrically set up and recorded movie files which took a snapshot exposure every 50ms. Due to the spiral pattern of diodes distribution, when one of the diodes of the ArcCheck located at the beam center, the dose profile as measured by the row of diodes which surrounded the center diode should have a symmetrical pattern. We divided the profile into left half A and right half B. Then a shape parameter was defined as S=Σ|(A−B)|/Σ(A+B). By searching the local minimum of S parameter, the beam center at different time could be located. The machine trajectory log data were also collected and analyzed for comparison. Results: The mean value of measured couch translation and couch speed by ArcCheck had less than 0.05% deviation from the planned values. For couch speed measurement, our result showed a mean value of 0.5002 with an uncertainty ±0.0031, which agreed very well with both the plan setting of 0.5 mm/s and the machine log data of 0.5005 mm/s. Conclusion: Couch translation measured using ArcCheck is accurate and comparable to the film-based measurement. This filmless method also provides a convenient and independent way for measuring couch speed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas
2016-01-01
Potato starch granules consist primarily of two tightly packed polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, which amount for 20-30%, is the principal linear component, but a fraction is in fact slightly branched. Amylopectin is typically the major component and is extensively branched...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...
Nonflexible Lie-admissible algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, H.C.
1978-01-01
We discuss the structure of Lie-admissible algebras which are defined by nonflexible identities. These algebras largely arise from the antiflexible algebras, 2-varieties and associator dependent algebras. The nonflexible Lie-admissible algebras in our discussion are in essence byproducts of the study of nonassociative algebras defined by identities of degree 3. The main purpose is to discuss the classification of simple Lie-admissible algebras of nonflexible type
Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture
These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...
Lie families: theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carinena, Jose F; Grabowski, Janusz; De Lucas, Javier
2010-01-01
We analyze the families of non-autonomous systems of first-order ordinary differential equations admitting a common time-dependent superposition rule, i.e. a time-dependent map expressing any solution of each of these systems in terms of a generic set of particular solutions of the system and some constants. We next study the relations of these families, called Lie families, with the theory of Lie and quasi-Lie systems and apply our theory to provide common time-dependent superposition rules for certain Lie families.
Lying in business : Insights from Hanna Arendt's 'Lying in Politics'
Eenkhoorn, P.; Graafland, J.J.
2011-01-01
The political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments regarding why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt's theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Popple, R; Cardan, R; Huang, M; Tannazi, F; Brezovich, I
2015-01-01
Purpose: To quantified the dosimetric characteristics of a Calypso compatible radiotherapy couch using continuously scanned transmission factor as a function of gantry angle. Methods: Radiation dose as a function of gantry angle was measured with an ionization chamber at the center of a 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom placed on Qfix kVue Calypso compatible couch. A 3-D scanner was employed to continuously scan the dose during an arc rotation delivery. Nearly continuous transmission curves of 0.03° step size were obtained from IEC gantry angle 90° to180° for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at three couch longitudinal positions (due to longitudinally non-uniform shape of the couch rails) with rails both at the center and on sides. The transmission curves were evaluated to assess the attenuation by the couch. They were also compared to those of a carbon fiber couch top. Results: The scanned transmission curves of the Calypso comptible couch showed fine details of the couch transmission as a function of gantry angle. The attenuation by the couch varied from 2.4% to 12.9% for the 6 MV photo beam and from 1.8% to 8.9% for the 15 MV photon beam depending on the gantry angle. The attenuation by the flat couch top is only approximately 2 to 3%, but by the rail is much more significant. Because the rails are not uniformly shaped in the longitudinal direction, attenuation by the rail for the same gantry angle varied with the rail longitudinal position. The transmission curves of the carbon fiber couch top are nearly identical to those of the Calypso compatible couch top. Conclusion: The Calypso compatible couch attenuates radiation by 2.4%–12.9% and 1.8%–8.9% for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The attenuation by the rails is much more significant than the flat couch top
Gradings on simple Lie algebras
Elduque, Alberto
2013-01-01
Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 1207.306 Section 1207.306 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all varieties...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...
Lie groups, Lie algebras, and some of their applications
Gilmore, Robert
1974-01-01
Lie group theory plays an increasingly important role in modern physical theories. Many of its calculations remain fundamentally unchanged from one field of physics to another, altering only in terms of symbols and the language. Using the theory of Lie groups as a unifying vehicle, concepts and results from several fields of physics can be expressed in an extremely economical way. With rigor and clarity, this text introduces upper-level undergraduate students to Lie group theory and its physical applications.An opening discussion of introductory concepts leads to explorations of the classical
Marwaha, R S; Pandey, S K; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, S V; Kumar, Parveen
2010-03-01
Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) processing industry has emerged fast due to economic liberalization coupled with growing urbanization, expanding market options and development of indegenous processing varieties. India's first potato processing varieties 'Kufri Chipsona-1' and 'Kufri Chipsona-2' were developed in 1998, followed by an improved processing variety 'Kufri Chipsona-3' in 2005 for the Indian plains and first chipping variety 'Kufri Himsona' for the hills. These varieties have >21% tuber dry matter content, contain low reducing sugars (products. The availability of these varieties and standardization of storage techniques for processing potatoes at 10-12°C with sprout suppressant isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate have revolutionized the processing scenario within a short span of 10 years. Currently about 4% of total potato produce is being processed in organized and unorganized sector. Potato processing industry mainly comprises 4 segments: potato chips, French fries, potato flakes/powder and other processed products. However, potato chips still continue to be the most popular processed product. The major challenge facing the industries lies in arranging round the year supply of processing varieties at reasonable price for their uninterrupted operation, besides several others which have been discussed at length and addressed with concrete solutions.
The study of online hospitality exchange : The case of couch surfing network
Zaki, Taher
2015-01-01
The work presented here firstly aims at creating awareness about the whole concept of ‘couch surfing,’ relatively a new phenomenon when seeking ‘alternative’ and inexpensive ways to travel to new destinations. This particular research work outlines the emphasis and prospects of alternative ways to travel nowadays. It then progresses to explaining about the couch surfing idea, how it functions as well as its benefits and criticisms. The theoretical framework of this research is based on the mo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, M.
1985-01-01
The theory of supergravity has attracted increasing attention in the recent years as a unified theory of elementary particle interactions. The superspace formulation of the theory is highly suggestive of an underlying geometrical structure of superspace. It also incorporates the beautifully geometrical general theory of relativity. It leads us to believe that a better understanding of its geometry would result in a better understanding of the theory itself, and furthermore, that the geometry of superspace would also have physical consequences. As a first step towards that goal, we develop here a theory of super Lie groups. These are groups that have the same relation to a super Lie algebra as Lie groups have to a Lie algebra. More precisely, a super Lie group is a super-manifold and a group such that the group operations are super-analytic. The super Lie algebra of a super Lie group is related to the local properties of the group near the identity. This work develops the algebraic and super-analytical tools necessary for our theory, including proofs of a set of existence and uniqueness theorems for a class of super-differential equations
Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact treatment couch in a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta XiO treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-01-01
Triangular Lie algebras are the Lie algebras which can be faithfully represented by triangular matrices of any finite size over the real/complex number field. In the paper invariants ('generalized Casimir operators') are found for three classes of Lie algebras, namely those which are either strictly or non-strictly triangular, and for so-called special upper triangular Lie algebras. Algebraic algorithm of Boyko et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.39 5749 (Preprint math-ph/0602046)), developed further in Boyko et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.40 113 (Preprint math-ph/0606045)), is used to determine the invariants. A conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.34 9085), concerning the number of independent invariants and their form, is corroborated
Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes
Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April
2010-01-01
The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...
Evaluation of a new six degrees of freedom couch for radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidhalter, D.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.; Wyss, M.; Schaer, N.; Munro, P.; Scheib, S.; Kunz, P.
2013-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the geometric accuracy of a prerelease version of a new six degrees of freedom (6DoF) couch. Additionally, a quality assurance method for 6DoF couches is proposed.Methods: The main principle of the performance tests was to request a known shift for the 6DoF couch and to compare this requested shift with the actually applied shift by independently measuring the applied shift using different methods (graph paper, laser, inclinometer, and imaging system). The performance of each of the six axes was tested separately as well as in combination with the other axes. Functional cases as well as realistic clinical cases were analyzed. The tests were performed without a couch load and with a couch load of up to 200 kg and shifts in the range between −4 and +4 cm for the translational axes and between −3° and +3° for the rotational axes were applied. The quality assurance method of the new 6DoF couch was performed using a simple cube phantom and the imaging system.Results: The deviations (mean ± one standard deviation) accumulated over all performance tests between the requested shifts and the measurements of the applied shifts were −0.01 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.02 cm for the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical axes, respectively. The corresponding values for the three rotational axes couch rotation, pitch, and roll were 0.03°± 0.06°, −0.04°± 0.12°, and −0.01°± 0.08°, respectively. There was no difference found between the tests with and without a couch load of up to 200 kg.Conclusions: The new 6DoF couch is able to apply requested shifts with high accuracy. It has the potential to be used for treatment techniques with the highest demands in patient setup accuracy such as those needed in stereotactic treatments. Shifts can be applied efficiently and automatically. Daily quality assurance of the 6DoF couch can be performed in an easy and efficient way. Long-term stability has to be evaluated in
"Lie to me"-Oxytocin impairs lie detection between sexes.
Pfundmair, Michaela; Erk, Wiebke; Reinelt, Annika
2017-10-01
The hormone oxytocin modulates various aspects of social behaviors and even seems to lead to a tendency for gullibility. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of oxytocin on lie detection. We hypothesized that people under oxytocin would be particularly susceptible to lies told by people of the opposite sex. After administration of oxytocin or a placebo, male and female participants were asked to judge the veracity of statements from same- vs. other-sex actors who either lied or told the truth. Results showed that oxytocin decreased the ability of both male and female participants to correctly classify other-sex statements as truths or lies compared to placebo. This effect was based on a lower ability to detect lies and not a stronger bias to regard truth statements as false. Revealing a new effect of oxytocin, the findings may support assumptions about the hormone working as a catalyst for social adaption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jull Andrew
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels. Twenty children (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1.5 years; 40% female were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention. Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C] measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games. Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2
Brown, Judith E; Broom, Dorothy H; Nicholson, Jan M; Bittman, Michael
2010-06-01
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. More distal predictors such as maternal employment may also be implicated since working mothers have less time to supervise children's daily activities. The research reported here used two waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to investigate whether mothers' hours in paid work shape young children's television viewing, snacking and physical activity, and through those lifestyle behaviours, children's weight at ages 4-5 years and 6-7 years. At both ages, children's lifestyle behaviours were interrelated and associated with weight status. Cross-sectional analysis confirmed small, direct associations between longer hours of maternal employment and child weight at age 4-5 years, but not with child's weight measured two years later. In both the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, the children of mothers who worked part-time watched less television and were less likely to be overweight than children of mothers who were not employed or who worked full-time. While associations were small, they remained significant after adjustment for maternal weight, household income and other factors. The combination of direct and indirect relationships between mothers' work hours and the weight status of their young children provides additional support to calls for family-friendly work policies as an important means for promoting healthy family lifestyles and early childhood wellbeing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony
2008-02-07
The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels.Twenty children (mean +/- SD age = 12 +/- 1.5 years; 40% female) were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention). Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer) and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C]) measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games.Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2
Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank
2017-06-01
In territorial, socially monogamous species, the establishment and defense of a territory are an important strategy to maximize individual fitness, but the factors responsible for the duration of territory occupancy are rarely studied, especially in long-lived mammals. A long-term monitoring program in southeast Norway spanning over 18 years allowed us to follow the individual life histories of Eurasian beavers ( Castor fiber ) from adolescence in their natal family group to dispersal and territory establishment until the end of territory occupancy. We investigated whether territory size, resource availability, population density, and dispersal age could explain the duration of territory occupancy, which ranged from 1 to 11 years. The duration of territory occupancy was positively related to dispersal age, suggesting that individuals that delayed dispersal had a competitive advantage due to a larger body mass. This is in support with the maturation hypothesis, which states that an animal should await its physical and behavioral maturation before the acquisition of a territory. Further, we found that individuals that established in medium-sized territories occupied them longer as compared to individuals in small or large territories. This suggests that large territories are more costly to defend due to an increased patrolling effort, and small territories might not have sufficient resources. The lifetime reproductive success ranged from zero to six kits and generally increased with an increasing duration of territory occupancy. Our findings show the importance of holding a territory and demonstrate that dispersal decisions and territory selection have important consequences for the fitness of an individual.
Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...
Acrylamide in processed potato products
Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...
Invariants of generalized Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawala, V.K.
1981-01-01
Invariants and invariant multilinear forms are defined for generalized Lie algebras with arbitrary grading and commutation factor. Explicit constructions of invariants and vector operators are given by contracting invariant forms with basic elements of the generalized Lie algebra. The use of the matrix of a linear map between graded vector spaces is emphasized. With the help of this matrix, the concept of graded trace of a linear operator is introduced, which is a rich source of multilinear forms of degree zero. To illustrate the use of invariants, a characteristic identity similar to that of Green is derived and a few Racah coefficients are evaluated in terms of invariants
The Inter-genebank Potato Database and the dimensions of available wild potato germplasm
Huamán, Z.; Hoekstra, R.; Bamberg, J.B.
2000-01-01
The Association of Potato Inter-genebank Collaborators (APIC) constructed a database of all wild potato holdings of the most important potato genebanks in Europe, the United States, Peru, and Argentina. The Inter-genebank Potato Database (IPD) now contains data of 11,819 wild potato accessions
21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it is...
2004-01-01
Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all...
Isomorphism of Intransitive Linear Lie Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Miguel Martins Veloso
2009-11-01
Full Text Available We show that formal isomorphism of intransitive linear Lie equations along transversal to the orbits can be extended to neighborhoods of these transversal. In analytic cases, the word formal is dropped from theorems. Also, we associate an intransitive Lie algebra with each intransitive linear Lie equation, and from the intransitive Lie algebra we recover the linear Lie equation, unless of formal isomorphism. The intransitive Lie algebra gives the structure functions introduced by É. Cartan.
MINAMI, Haruo
2016-01-01
For a compact simple Lie group $G$, we show that the element $[G, \\mathcal{L}] \\in \\pi^S_*(S^0)$ represented by the pair $(G, \\mathcal{L})$ is zero, where $\\mathcal{L}$ denotes the left invariant framing of $G$. The proof relies on the method of E. Ossa [Topology, 21 (1982), 315–323].
String Topology for Lie Groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Hepworth, Richard
2010-01-01
In 1999 Chas and Sullivan showed that the homology of the free loop space of an oriented manifold admits the structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra. In this paper we give a direct description of this Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra in the case that the manifold is a compact Lie group G. Our answer ...
Lie groups and algebraic groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...
Cartan Connections and Lie Algebroids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Crampin
2009-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is a study of the relationship between two constructions associated with Cartan geometries, both of which involve Lie algebroids: the Cartan algebroid, due to [Blaom A.D., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 358 (2006, 3651–3671], and tractor calculus [Cap A., Gover A.R., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 354 (2001, 1511–1548].
Lie symmetries in differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleitez, V.
1979-01-01
A study of ordinary and Partial Differential equations using the symmetries of Lie groups is made. Following such a study, an application to the Helmholtz, Line-Gordon, Korleweg-de Vries, Burguer, Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and wave equations is carried out [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsi, Wen C.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Law, Aaron; Schreuder, Andreas N.
2014-01-01
Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsi, Wen C., E-mail: Wen.Hsi@Mclaren.org, E-mail: Wenchien.hsi@sphic.org.cn; Zeidan, Omar A., E-mail: omar.zeidan@orlandohealth.com [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); Law, Aaron; Schreuder, Andreas N., E-mail: niek.schreuder@provisionhp.com [ProCure Training and Development Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States)
2014-08-15
Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted
Hsi, Wen C; Law, Aaron; Schreuder, Andreas N; Zeidan, Omar A
2014-08-01
An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted misalignments of GeoIso and RadIso in
Development of a QA Phantom for online image registration and resultant couch shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arumugam, S.; Jameson, M.G.; Holloway, L.C.
2010-01-01
Full text: Purpose Recently our centre purchased an Elekta-Synergy accelerator with kV-CBCT and a hexapod couch attachment. This system allows six degrees of freedom for couch lOp shifts, based on registration of on line imaging. We designed and built a phantom in our centre to test the accuracy and precision of this system. The goal of this project was to investigate the accuracy and practical utilisation of this phantom. Method The phantom was constructed from perspex sheets and high density dental putty (Fig. I). Five high density regions (three small regions to simulate prostate seeds and two larger regions to simulate boney anatomy) were incorporated to test the manual and automatic registrations within the software. The phantom was utilised to test the accuracy and precision of repositioning with the hexapod couch and imaging system. To achieve this, the phantom was placed on the couch at known orientations and the shifts were quantified using the registration of verification and reference image data sets. True shifts and those predicted by the software were compared. Results The geometrical accuracy of the phantom was verified with measurements of the CT scan to be with I mm of the intended geometry. The image registration and resultant couch shifts were found to be accurate within I mm and 0.5 degrees. The phantom was found to be practical and easy to use. Conclusion The presented phantom provides a less expensive and effective alternative to commercially available systems for verifying imaging registration and corresponding six degrees of freedom couch shifts. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, R. Lee [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Thomas, Christopher G., E-mail: Chris.Thomas@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)
2015-05-15
Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, R. Lee; Thomas, Christopher G.
2015-01-01
Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeuerle, G.G.A.; Kerf, E.A. de
1990-01-01
The structure of the laws in physics is largely based on symmetries. This book is on Lie algebras, the mathematics of symmetry. It gives a thorough mathematical treatment of finite dimensional Lie algebras and Kac-Moody algebras. Concepts such as Cartan matrix, root system, Serre's construction are carefully introduced. Although the book can be read by an undergraduate with only an elementary knowledge of linear algebra, the book will also be of use to the experienced researcher. Experience has shown that students who followed the lectures are well-prepared to take on research in the realms of string-theory, conformal field-theory and integrable systems. 48 refs.; 66 figs.; 3 tabs
SU-E-T-315: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Top Shift On VMAT Delivery in Absence of Indexing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Islam, M; Jin, H; Ferguson, S; Ahmad, S [Oklahoma Univ. Health Science Ctr., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To investigate dosimetric effects of couch top shift for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in absence of indexing of immobilization devices. Methods: A total of twelve VMAT treatment plans were selected from three regions (lung, abdomen, and pelvis) to account for the variation of the patient position relative to the couch top. The treatment plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse system. A pinpoint ionization chamber (PTW TN31014) was placed at the center of 16-cm solid water phantom and the dose was delivered using the Varian TrueBeam STx with BrainLAB ExacTrac couch top. To simulate the day-to-day variation of the patient position relative to couch top, the couch top was laterally shifted up to 50 mm, with an increment of 5 mm from 0 to 20 mm; and of 10 mm afterwards, and the phantom was moved back to 0 cm shift for measurement. The dose was also delivered using a Varian tennis racket grid insert at 0 cm shift to simulate the absence of couch top. The treatment plans were delivered with 6, 10, and 15 MV photons using the same leaf sequencing to investigate the energy dependence of couch top shift. The dose difference was normalized to 0 cm shift for the regular couch top for comparison. Results: The percent difference of dose was found to increase with lateral shift for all energies; however, the average differences were close to 0% and the maximum difference was within 1% along the lateral shifts. The differences with the absence of couch top were 2.2±0.5% (6MV), 1.7±0.3% (10MV), and 1.6±0.2% (15MV), respectively. Conclusion: The inclusion of couch top is recommended in treatment planning to minimize the dosimetric uncertainty between calculated and delivered dose even in absence of indexing of immobilization devices in VMAT delivery.
Fractional supersymmetry and infinite dimensional lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rausch de Traubenberg, M.
2001-01-01
In an earlier work extensions of supersymmetry and super Lie algebras were constructed consistently starting from any representation D of any Lie algebra g. Here it is shown how infinite dimensional Lie algebras appear naturally within the framework of fractional supersymmetry. Using a differential realization of g this infinite dimensional Lie algebra, containing the Lie algebra g as a sub-algebra, is explicitly constructed
The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper Foged; Chen, Mingjie
2014-01-01
Mitochondria are called the powerhouses of the cell. To better understand the role of mitochondria in maintaining and regulating metabolism in storage tissues, highly purified mitochondria were isolated from dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum 'Folva') and their proteome investigated. Proteins...... manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more "extreme" proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...
Particle-like structure of Lie algebras
Vinogradov, A. M.
2017-07-01
If a Lie algebra structure 𝔤 on a vector space is the sum of a family of mutually compatible Lie algebra structures 𝔤i's, we say that 𝔤 is simply assembled from the 𝔤i's. Repeating this procedure with a number of Lie algebras, themselves simply assembled from the 𝔤i's, one obtains a Lie algebra assembled in two steps from 𝔤i's, and so on. We describe the process of modular disassembling of a Lie algebra into a unimodular and a non-unimodular part. We then study two inverse questions: which Lie algebras can be assembled from a given family of Lie algebras, and from which Lie algebras can a given Lie algebra be assembled. We develop some basic assembling and disassembling techniques that constitute the elements of a new approach to the general theory of Lie algebras. The main result of our theory is that any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero or over R can be assembled in a finite number of steps from two elementary constituents, which we call dyons and triadons. Up to an abelian summand, a dyon is a Lie algebra structure isomorphic to the non-abelian 2-dimensional Lie algebra, while a triadon is isomorphic to the 3-dimensional Heisenberg Lie algebra. As an example, we describe constructions of classical Lie algebras from triadons.
Poster - Thur Eve - 38: Review of couch parameters using an FMEA.
Larouche, R; Doucet, R; Rémy, E; Filion, A; Poirier, L
2012-07-01
To improve patient safety during positioning, we undertook a systematic review of the processes used by our center to obtain couch positions. We used a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) framework and fifteen different possible failures were identified and rated. The three major failures were 1) Loss of planned couch position and bias from the previous day's couch position, 2) DICOM origin or isocenter is different between two plans (imaging or treatment), and 3) Patient shift in opposite direction than intended. The main effect of these failures was to cause an override of couch parameters. Based on these results, we modified our processes, introduced new QA and software checks and developed new tolerance tables so as to improve system robustness and increase our success rate at catching failures before they can affect the patient. It has been a year since we made these modifications. Based on our results, we have reduced the number of overrides at our center from a maximum of 20.5% to a maximum of 6.3%, with an average at 4% of daily treatments. Our results suggest that FMEA is an effective tool in improving treatment quality that could be used in other centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Comportement à la corrosion intrinsèque de couches minces à base d'aluminium (Al-M: M=Mo, Mg, ... Département de Physique, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000, Algérie. .... dépôts réalisés sur substrat en verre servent pour la ...
The Return of the Freudian Couch®: Managing Affectivity through Technologies of Comfort
Juelskjaer, Malou; Staunaes, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene
2013-01-01
This article explores how the affective "set-up" of Freud's legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension. Through affective encounters with the…
Technical problems of TBI in case of the moving couch method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsuda, Masayuki (Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). Hospital)
1991-12-01
In Tokai University Hospital ever since 1982, TBI for bone marrow transplantation has been performed by the moving couch method. In this method, the patient is irradiated from the opposite direction of A-P and P-A in a comfortable supine position as is. This technique has been well studied and greatly improved. For example, the moving speed of the couch is automatically varied depending on the dose rate deviation of the electron linear accelerator, function having variable speed with the dose rate (VSDR). Another function in variable speed with division (VSDV). In addition it has a self-recording function for the actual condition for the dose and couch movement. In such small areas as the eyes and gonad, the shielding effect cannot be effectively used. For the lungs, but it is able to shield and compensate to a sufficient extent. It applied to actual treatment resulting from data obtained from the measurements using a phantom. During the irradiation we must check the reproducibility of the systems which are dose rate, couch position, and so on. This is one reasonable concept of the dose monitor. (author).
The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takakura, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Mizowaki, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: toru1@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2010-01-07
The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 {+-} 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.
The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takakura, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T; Mizowaki, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 ± 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 ± 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 ± 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.
TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olch, A
2014-01-01
The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives
Transformation groups and Lie algebras
Ibragimov, Nail H
2013-01-01
This book is based on the extensive experience of teaching for mathematics, physics and engineering students in Russia, USA, South Africa and Sweden. The author provides students and teachers with an easy to follow textbook spanning a variety of topics. The methods of local Lie groups discussed in the book provide universal and effective method for solving nonlinear differential equations analytically. Introduction to approximate transformation groups also contained in the book helps to develop skills in constructing approximate solutions for differential equations with a small parameter.
Filiform Lie algebras of order 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navarro, R. M.
2014-01-01
The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, “Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l’étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes,” Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81–116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the sl(2,C)-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases
Filiform Lie algebras of order 3
Navarro, R. M.
2014-04-01
The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, "Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l'étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes," Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81-116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the {sl}(2,{C})-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salam, A. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)
1963-01-15
Throughout the history of quantum theory, a battle has raged between the amateurs and professional group theorists. The amateurs have maintained that everything one needs in the theory of groups can be discovered by the light of nature provided one knows how to multiply two matrices. In support of this claim, they of course, justifiably, point to the successes of that prince of amateurs in this field, Dirac, particularly with the spinor representations of the Lorentz group. As an amateur myself, I strongly believe in the truth of the non-professionalist creed. I think perhaps there is not much one has to learn in the way of methodology from the group theorists except caution. But this does not mean one should not be aware of the riches which have been amassed over the course of years particularly in that most highly developed of all mathematical disciplines - the theory of Lie groups. My lectures then are an amateur's attempt to gather some of the fascinating results for compact simple Lie groups which are likely to be of physical interest. I shall state theorems; and with a physicist's typical unconcern rarely, if ever, shall I prove these. Throughout, the emphasis will be to show the close similarity of these general groups with that most familiar of all groups, the group of rotations in three dimensions.
2013-05-23
... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...
Morphological characterization of the local potato (Solanum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
2011-02-07
Feb 7, 2011 ... agronomical characteristics of the genotypes were described according to the criteria developed for potato .... potato tubers were stored at 4°C and 80% moisture storage con- ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII.
Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherz, H.
1991-01-01
In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period
Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...
Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn
2009-01-01
mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...... with acetic acid and determination by RP-HPLC with UV-detection at 202 nm. The results not only confirmed that contents above 100 mg TGA/kg in potato tubers frequently occurred in some years, but also showed the possibility of finding lower contents in the same varieties other years. This led to the cautious...
Potato Organic Farming in Batu City, Indonesia
Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Sulistiono, Rudi; Sudiarso, Sudiarso; Soemarno, Soemarno
2013-01-01
Organic potato cultivation was an effort to improve declining quality of potato agroecosystems and to preserve soil fertility. This study was conducted to analyze pattern of farming system and land management on the area of organic potatoes in Batu city. Research was conducted by the survey method, respondents were determined by the method of stratified cluster sampling. Farmer respondents were experienced organic potato farmer and as "expert leaders". Results show that the mindset of farmer...
Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yutaka, Y; One, H
1958-01-01
Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.
Sustainable potato production: global case studies
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...
Consumptive qualities of different potato varieties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
М. М. Фурдига
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To summarize results of studying consumptive qualities of different varieties of potato and define basic characteristics which allow to subsume them under specific economic categories. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, summarizing, analytical approach. Results. Potato varieties entered in the State register of plant varieties suitable to dissemination in Ukraine and new ones especially to be bred at the Institute of Potato Growing of NAAS were studied during the period of 2005–2016 for such basic economic characters as consumptive quality of tubers, content of starch, dry matters, protein, sugar, vitamins, carotenoids and mineral substances as well as aminoacids, color of flesh, suitability for industrial manufacturing of potato products and for purpose of technology. Attention was paid to the good prospects to use varieties with purple, blue and red potato tuber flesh with high antioxidant capacity. Potato varieties with above characteristics and their complex combination were defined and described. The requirements of processing industry for potato as a raw material for manufacturing of potato food were given. Conclusions. The major criterion for consumptive qualities of a potato variety and correspondingly division for the commercial use is consumptive quality of tubers, especially content of essential nutrients and their favorable combination, improved taste and cooking quality, high antioxidant capacity, suitability for potato products manufacturing and use for purpose of technology. Potato varieties can be divided for economic purposes into edible, suitable for potato products manufacturing, technical and multipurpose ones.
Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit
2008-01-01
frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...
Potato proteins : their properties and nutritive value
Labib, A.I.
1962-01-01
Physical and biological investigations were carried out on the nitrogenous substances in the potato tuber. The importance of the potato as a food was considered in the introduction. By paper electrophoresis proteins in potato tuber sap could be separated into at least six fractions. The protein
Lie algebroids in derived differential topology
Nuiten, J.J.
2018-01-01
A classical principle in deformation theory asserts that any formal deformation problem is controlled by a differential graded Lie algebra. This thesis studies a generalization of this principle to Lie algebroids, and uses this to examine the interactions between the theory of Lie algebroids and the
The Centroid of a Lie Triple Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohong Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available General results on the centroids of Lie triple algebras are developed. Centroids of the tensor product of a Lie triple algebra and a unitary commutative associative algebra are studied. Furthermore, the centroid of the tensor product of a simple Lie triple algebra and a polynomial ring is completely determined.
The First Honest Book about Lies.
Kincher, Jonni; Espeland, Pamela, Ed.
Readers learn how to discern the truth from lies through a series of activities, games, and experiments. This book invites young students to look at lies in a fair and balanced way. Different types of lies are examined and the purposes they serve and discussed. Problem solving activities are given. The book is organized in nine chapters,…
Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina
2017-07-06
Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.
Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.
Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B
1982-01-01
The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...
From ISIS to CouchDB: Databases and Data Models for Bibliographic Records
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciano Ramalho
2011-04-01
Full Text Available For decades bibliographic data has been stored in non-relational databases, and thousands of libraries in developing countries still use ISIS databases to run their OPACs. Fast forward to 2010 and the NoSQL movement has shown that non-relational databases are good enough for Google, Amazon.com and Facebook. Meanwhile, several Open Source NoSQL systems have appeared. This paper discusses the data model of one class of NoSQL products, semistructured, document-oriented databases exemplified by Apache CouchDB and MongoDB, and why they are well-suited to collective cataloging applications. Also shown are the methods, tools, and scripts used to convert, from ISIS to CouchDB, bibliographic records of LILACS, a key Latin American and Caribbean health sciences index operated by the Pan-American Health Organization.
Writing and querying MapReduce views in CouchDB
Holt, Bradley
2011-01-01
If you want to use CouchDB to support real-world applications, you'll need to create MapReduce views that let you query this document-oriented database for meaningful data. With this short and concise ebook, you'll learn how to create a variety of MapReduce views to help you query and aggregate data in CouchDB's large, distributed datasets. You'll get step-by-step instructions and lots of sample code to create and explore several MapReduce views through the course of the book, using an example database you construct. To work with these different views, you'll learn how to use the Futon web a
Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Shinichi; Noto, Kimiya; Kurata, Yuichi; Shoji, Saori
2011-01-01
In this study, we proposed and evaluated a positional accuracy assessment method with two high-resolution digital cameras for add-on six-degrees-of-freedom radiotherapy (6D) couches. Two high resolution digital cameras (D5000, Nikon Co.) were used in this accuracy assessment method. These cameras were placed on two orthogonal axes of a linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate system and focused on the isocenter of the LINAC. Pictures of a needle that was fixed on the 6D couch were taken by the cameras during couch motions of translation and rotation of each axis. The coordinates of the needle in the pictures were obtained using manual measurement, and the coordinate error of the needle was calculated. The accuracy of a HexaPOD evo (Elekta AB, Sweden) was evaluated using this method. All of the mean values of the X, Y, and Z coordinate errors in the translation tests were within ±0.1 mm. However, the standard deviation of the Z coordinate errors in the Z translation test was 0.24 mm, which is higher than the others. In the X rotation test, we found that the X coordinate of the rotational origin of the 6D couch was shifted. We proposed an accuracy assessment method for a 6D couch. The method was able to evaluate the accuracy of the motion of only the 6D couch and revealed the deviation of the origin of the couch rotation. This accuracy assessment method is effective for evaluating add-on 6D couch positioning.
Automorphic Lie algebras with dihedral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knibbeler, V; Lombardo, S; A Sanders, J
2014-01-01
The concept of automorphic Lie algebras arises in the context of reduction groups introduced in the early 1980s in the field of integrable systems. automorphic Lie algebras are obtained by imposing a discrete group symmetry on a current algebra of Krichever–Novikov type. Past work shows remarkable uniformity between algebras associated to different reduction groups. For example, if the base Lie algebra is sl 2 (C) and the poles of the automorphic Lie algebra are restricted to an exceptional orbit of the symmetry group, changing the reduction group does not affect the Lie algebra structure. In this research we fix the reduction group to be the dihedral group and vary the orbit of poles as well as the group action on the base Lie algebra. We find a uniform description of automorphic Lie algebras with dihedral symmetry, valid for poles at exceptional and generic orbits. (paper)
CONTROLE DES CENTRES F+ DANS LES COUCHES MINCES D’OXYDE DE ZINC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A DJELLOUL
2000-12-01
Il est établi que la concentration des lacunes peut être régulée à la limite de l’ordre deux pour des températures ne dépassant pas 980 K. Au-delà de cette température, se crée un autre type de défaut dans les couches de ZnO, qui est le zinc interstitiel.
Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Nepal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samaya Gairhe
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Nepal is one of the top twenty countries where potato contributes substantially for the human diet. Enhancing adoption of improved potato varieties could impact on farmer’s income, household food and nutritional security. As such, using a multistage sampling procedure, a study was conducted to assess the determinants of improved potato varieties adoption in Nepal covering 180 samples in four districts, two in hills and two in Tarai region. The study revealed that; Kavre and Bardiya districts in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by improved potato varieties adoption. On the other hand, Dhankuta and Jhapa in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by local potato varieties adoption. The informal seed sources followed by agro-vet and market were the major sources for improved varietal adoption. Farmers’ accesses to training and formal seed sources were important factor determining improved potato varietal adoption. However, households with larger farm size were less likely to allocate more area for improved potato varieties as many of farmers were reluctant to take potato cultivation as agri-business and still follow subsistence farming. Potato R&D programs, therefore, need to strengthen formal seed system to enhance access to quality potato seeds and build producer’s capacity through regular training and exposer visits in order to improve adoption of improved potato varieties in Nepal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldosary, Ghada; Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal; Devic, Slobodan
2014-01-01
Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chow, Phillip E., E-mail: pechow@mednet.ucla.edu; Thomas, David H.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Yang, Yingli; Steinberg, Michael L.; Lee, Percy; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2016-08-15
Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance in radiation therapy brings real-time imaging and adaptive planning into the treatment vault where it can account for interfraction and intrafraction movement of soft tissue. The only commercially available MRI-guided radiation therapy device is a three-head {sup 60}Co and MRI system with an integrated treatment planning system (TPS). Couch attenuation of the beam of up to 20% is well modeled in the TPS. Variations in the patient’s day-to-day position introduce discrepancies in the actual couch attenuation as modeled in the treatment plan. For this reason, the authors’ institution avoids plans with beams that pass through or near the couch edges. This study investigates the effects of differential beam attenuation by the couch due to couch shifts in order to determine whether couch edge avoidance restrictions can be lifted. Couch shifts were simulated using a Monte Carlo treatment planning system and ion chamber measurements performed for validation. Methods: A total of 27 plans from 23 patients were investigated. Couch shifts of 1 and 2 cm were introduced in combinations of lateral and vertical directions to simulate patient position variations giving 16 shifted plans per reference plan. The 1 and 2 cm shifts were based on shifts recorded in 320 treatment fractions. Results: Following TG176 recommendations for measurement methods, couch attenuation measurements agreed with TPS modeled attenuation to within 2.1%. Planning target volume D95 changed less than 1% for 1 and 2 cm couch shifts in only the x-direction and less than 3% for all directions. Conclusions: Dosimetry of all plans tested was robust to couch shifts up to ±2 cm. In general, couch shifts resulted in clinically insignificant dosimetric deviations. It is conceivable that in certain cases with large systematic couch shifts and plans that are particularly sensitive to shifts, dosimetric changes might rise to a clinically significant level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldosary, Ghada [Medical Physics Unit, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal; Moftah, Belal [Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
2014-08-15
Treatment couches have been known to perturb dose delivery in patients. This effect is most pronounced in techniques such as IMRT and RapidArc. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for a “default” treatment couch, actual couches are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield Unit (HU) values may exist. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable HU data for any treatment couch. We also investigate the effects of both the default and modeled treatment couches on absorbed dose. Experimental verifications show that by neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch in the TPS, dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% were present for 4 MV and 10 MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, a clinical study based on a cohort of 20 RapidArc and IMRT (brain, pelvis and abdominal) cases is performed. 2D dose distributions show that without the couch in the planning phase, differences ≤ 4.6% and 5.9% for RapidArc and IMRT cases are present for the same cases that the default couch was added to. Additionally, in comparison to the default couch, employing the modeled couch in the calculation process influences dose distributions by ≤ 2.7% and 8% for RapidArc and IMRT cases, respectively. This result was found to be site specific; where an accurate couch proves to be preferable for IMRT brain plans. As such, adding the couch during dose calculation decreases dose calculation errors, and a precisely modeled treatment couch offers higher dose delivery accuracy for brain treatment using IMRT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W
2013-01-01
When delivering conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), discrepancies between the pre-treatment CT/MRI/PET based patient geometry and the daily patient geometry are minimized by performing couch translations and/or small rotations. However, full compensation of, in particular, rotations is usually not possible. In this paper, we introduce an online ‘virtual couch shift (VCS)’: we translate and/or rotate the pre-treatment dose distribution to compensate for the changes in patient anatomy and generate a new plan which delivers the transformed dose distribution automatically. We show for a phantom and a cervical cancer patient case that VCS accounts for both translations and large rotations equally well in terms of DVH results and 2%/2 mm γ analyses and when the various aspects of the clinical workflow can be implemented successfully, VCS can potentially outperform physical couch translations and/or rotations. This work is performed in the context of our hybrid 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator, which can provide translations and rotations but also deformations of the anatomy. The VCS is the first step toward compensating all of these anatomical changes by online re-optimization of the IMRT dose distribution. (paper)
Flavouring compounds in Indian potato snacks.
Raigond, Pinky; Singh, Brajesh; Dhulia, Akshita; Chopra, Shelly; Dutt, Som
2015-12-01
Market for processed potato products is rising day by day. Flavour plays important role in decision making by consumers due to their preferences for better tasting food. In potato and potato products, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are the major umami compounds which contribute towards flavour. Therefore, umami 5' nucleotides (AMP+GMP) were estimated from local potato products available as common fried products in the Indian markets and processed potato products being sold by the retailers. The analysis was also carried in raw, microwaved and pressure cooked tubers of forty seven Indian potato cultivars. Umami 5' nucleotide content ranged from 2.63 (Aloo seekh) to 8.26 μg/g FW (fried lachcha) in local potato products. In processed potato products, the content ranged from 2.72 μg/g FW (Smiles) to 14.75 μg/g FW (Aloo Bhujia). Along with aloo bhujia, umami 5' nucleotides were also high in dehydrated aloo lachcha (11.14 μg/g FW) and dehydrated potato chips (10.13 μg/g FW) and low in Smiles (2.72 μg/g FW) and Potato Shortz (3.40 μg/g FW). The study suggests that the potato products prepared solely from potato contained higher levels of umami 5' nucleotides compared to other products prepared by mixing potato with other cereals and vegetables. In Indian potato cultivars overall there was 14 % increase on microwave cooking and 31 % increase in flavouring compounds on pressure cooking. This type of study enabled in identifying better tasting cultivars for further product development and also to develop products with less addition of salt.
Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products
Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah
2016-01-01
High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be
Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.
1994-01-01
This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.
Shihoro irradiation plant for potato
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kameyama, Kenji
1985-01-01
There have been rapid moves toward the commercialization of food irradiation around the world since November, 1980, when a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO expert committee made a recommendation on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The bold US move toward the commercialization has had a great impact. Ahead of these move around the world, Japan built a commercial irradiation plant in 1974, which has been operated for inhibiting the sprouting of potatoes. This plant was built in Shihoro, Hokkaido, and two thirds of the 400 million yen construction cost was provided by the Government and Hokkaido authorities for five agricultural cooperative associations of four local townships. Since then, the plant has been under the joint management of these cooperatives. The aim and circumstance of the plant construction are described. The mechanism of the plant with conveyors, a turntable and a Co-60 source of 300,000 Ci is shown. The plant processes 15 tons of potatoes per hour with the dose from 60 to 150 Gy. Potato bruise and irradiation effect, irradiation time and effect, and post-irradiation storage temperature and potato quality are reported. (Kako, I.)
7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...
7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...
SU-E-T-570: New Quality Assurance Method Using Motion Tracking for 6D Robotic Couches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheon, W; Cho, J; Ahn, S; Han, Y; Choi, D
2015-01-01
Purpose: To accommodate geometrically accurate patient positioning, a robotic couch that is capable of 6-degrees of freedom has been introduced. However, conventional couch QA methods are not sufficient to enable the necessary accuracy of tests. Therefore, we have developed a camera based motion detection and geometry calibration system for couch QA. Methods: Employing a Visual-Tracking System (VTS, BonitaB10, Vicon, UK) which tracks infrared reflective(IR) markers, camera calibration was conducted using a 5.7 × 5.7 × 5.7 cm 3 cube attached with IR markers at each corner. After positioning a robotic-couch at the origin with the cube on the table top, 3D coordinates of the cube’s eight corners were acquired by VTS in the VTS coordinate system. Next, positions in reference coordinates (roomcoordinates) were assigned using the known relation between each point. Finally, camera calibration was completed by finding a transformation matrix between VTS and reference coordinate systems and by applying a pseudo inverse matrix method. After the calibration, the accuracy of linear and rotational motions as well as couch sagging could be measured by analyzing the continuously acquired data of the cube while the couch moves to a designated position. Accuracy of the developed software was verified through comparison with measurement data when using a Laser tracker (FARO, Lake Mary, USA) for a robotic-couch installed for proton therapy. Results: VTS system could track couch motion accurately and measured position in room-coordinates. The VTS measurements and Laser tracker data agreed within 1% of difference for linear and rotational motions. Also because the program analyzes motion in 3-Dimension, it can compute couch sagging. Conclusion: Developed QA system provides submillimeter/ degree accuracy which fulfills the high-end couch QA. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning. (2013M2A2A7043507
On Deformations and Contractions of Lie Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc de Montigny
2006-05-01
Full Text Available In this contributed presentation, we discuss and compare the mutually opposite procedures of deformations and contractions of Lie algebras. We suggest that with appropriate combinations of both procedures one may construct new Lie algebras. We first discuss low-dimensional Lie algebras and illustrate thereby that whereas for every contraction there exists a reverse deformation, the converse is not true in general. Also we note that some Lie algebras belonging to parameterized families are singled out by the irreversibility of deformations and contractions. After reminding that global deformations of the Witt, Virasoro, and affine Kac-Moody algebras allow one to retrieve Lie algebras of Krichever-Novikov type, we contract the latter to find new infinite dimensional Lie algebras.
Quantum Lie theory a multilinear approach
Kharchenko, Vladislav
2015-01-01
This is an introduction to the mathematics behind the phrase “quantum Lie algebra”. The numerous attempts over the last 15-20 years to define a quantum Lie algebra as an elegant algebraic object with a binary “quantum” Lie bracket have not been widely accepted. In this book, an alternative approach is developed that includes multivariable operations. Among the problems discussed are the following: a PBW-type theorem; quantum deformations of Kac--Moody algebras; generic and symmetric quantum Lie operations; the Nichols algebras; the Gurevich--Manin Lie algebras; and Shestakov--Umirbaev operations for the Lie theory of nonassociative products. Opening with an introduction for beginners and continuing as a textbook for graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book can also be used as a reference by more advanced readers. With the exception of the introductory chapter, the content of this monograph has not previously appeared in book form.
Postharvest changes in glycoalkaloid content of potatoes.
Friedman, M; McDonald, G M
1999-01-01
Potatoes contain antinutritional and potentially toxic compounds including inhibitors of digestive enzymes, hemagglutinins, and glycoalkaloids. Solanum glycoalkaloids are reported to inhibit cholinesterase, disrupt cell membranes, and induce teratogenicity. In this overview, we describe the role of potatoes in the human diet, reported changes in glycoalkaloid content of fresh and processed potatoes during storage, under the influence of light and radiation, following mechanical damage, and as a result of food processing. Also covered are safety aspects and suggested research needs to develop a protocol that can be adopted by the potato producers and processors to minimize post-harvest synthesis of glycoalkaloids in potatoes. Reducing the glycoalkaloid content of potatoes will provide a variety of benefits extending from the farm to processing, shipping, marketing, and consumption of potatoes and potato products. A commercially available ELISA kit is described which permits rapid assay of glycoalkaloid content of parts of the potato plant including leaves, tubers, and peel, as well as processed potato products including french fries, chips, and skins. Understanding the multiple overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will permit controlling postharvest glycoalkaloid production for the benefit of the producer and consumer.
Computations in finite-dimensional Lie algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Cohen
1997-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes progress made in context with the construction of a general library of Lie algebra algorithms, called ELIAS (Eindhoven Lie Algebra System, within the computer algebra package GAP. A first sketch of the package can be found in Cohen and de Graaf[1]. Since then, in a collaborative effort with G. Ivanyos, the authors have continued to develop algorithms which were implemented in ELIAS by the second author. These activities are part of a bigger project, called ACELA and financed by STW, the Dutch Technology Foundation, which aims at an interactive book on Lie algebras (cf. Cohen and Meertens [2]. This paper gives a global description of the main ways in which to present Lie algebras on a computer. We focus on the transition from a Lie algebra abstractly given by an array of structure constants to a Lie algebra presented as a subalgebra of the Lie algebra of n×n matrices. We describe an algorithm typical of the structure analysis of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra: finding a Levi subalgebra of a Lie algebra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chow, P; Thomas, D; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M; Low, D; Yang, Y; Lamb, J [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance in radiation therapy brings real-time imaging and adaptive planning into the treatment vault where it can account for interfraction and intrafraction movement of soft tissue. The only commercially-available MRI-guided radiation therapy device is a three-head 60Co and MRI system with an integrated treatment planning system (TPS). An up to 20% attenuation of the beam by the couch is well modeled in the TPS. However, variations in the patient’s day-to-day position introduce discrepancies in the actual couch position relative its location as modeled in the treatment plan. For this reason, our institution avoids plans with beams that pass through or near the couch edges. This study looks at plans without restriction on beam angles and investigates the effects of couch shift by simulating shifts of the couch relative to the patient, in order to determine whether couch edge avoidance restrictions can be lifted. Methods: A total of 27 plans from 23 patients were investigated. Couch shifts of 1 and 2 cm were introduced in combinations of lateral and vertical direction to simulate variations in patient positioning on the couch giving 16 shifted plans per reference plan. The shift values of 1 and 2 cm were based on shifts recorded in 320 treatment fractions. Results: Measured couch attenuation versus TPS modeled agreed within 2.1%. Planning Target Volume (PTV) D95 changed less than 1% for 1 and 2 cm couch shifts in only the x-direction and less than 3% for all directions. Conclusion: The dosimetry of all plans with shifts up to ±2 cm was within reasonable clinical tolerances. Robustness of a plan to couch shifts can be tested in the TPS. Inclusion of beams traversing the couch edges should be considered if an improvement in plan quality or delivery time can be achieved.
TH-C-12A-05: Dynamic Couch Motion for Improvement of Radiation Therapy Trajectories in DCA and VMAT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacDonald, L [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Thomas, Christopher [MCCPM, Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the potential improvement in dosimetric external beam radiation therapy plan quality using an optimized dynamic gantry and couch motion trajectory which minimizes exposure to the organs at risk. Methods: Patient-specific anatomical information of head-and-neck and cranial cancer patients was used to quantify the geometric overlap between target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocentre as a function of gantry and couch angle. QUANTEC dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a Varian Truebeam linac using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm includes weighting factors which can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap, with the clinical practicality of largescale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized trajectories were calculated for cranial DCA treatments and for head-and-neck VMAT treatments and compared to conventional DCA and VMAT treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicates a decrease in dose to the organs-at-risk between 4.64% and 6.82% (2.39 and 3.52 Gy) of the prescription dose per patient per organ at risk. Conclusion: Using simultaneous couch and gantry motion during radiation therapy to minimize the geometrical overlap in the beams-eye-view target volumes and the organs-at-risk can have an appreciable dose reduction to organs-at-risk.
TH-C-12A-05: Dynamic Couch Motion for Improvement of Radiation Therapy Trajectories in DCA and VMAT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, L; Thomas, Christopher
2014-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the potential improvement in dosimetric external beam radiation therapy plan quality using an optimized dynamic gantry and couch motion trajectory which minimizes exposure to the organs at risk. Methods: Patient-specific anatomical information of head-and-neck and cranial cancer patients was used to quantify the geometric overlap between target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocentre as a function of gantry and couch angle. QUANTEC dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a Varian Truebeam linac using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm includes weighting factors which can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap, with the clinical practicality of largescale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized trajectories were calculated for cranial DCA treatments and for head-and-neck VMAT treatments and compared to conventional DCA and VMAT treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicates a decrease in dose to the organs-at-risk between 4.64% and 6.82% (2.39 and 3.52 Gy) of the prescription dose per patient per organ at risk. Conclusion: Using simultaneous couch and gantry motion during radiation therapy to minimize the geometrical overlap in the beams-eye-view target volumes and the organs-at-risk can have an appreciable dose reduction to organs-at-risk
Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes and associated damage to potato
Schans, J.
1993-01-01
Population dynamics of potato cyst nematodes (PCN; Globoderarostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida Stone) and their interactions with potato plants are insufficiently understood to explain variations of population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Kyung Tae; Kim, Jung Soo; Sim, Hyun Sun; Min, Jung Whan; Son, Soon Yong; Han, Dong Kyoon
2016-01-01
Because of non-coplanar therapy with couch rotation in respiratory gated radiation therapy, the recognition of marker movement due to the change in the distance between the infrared camera and the marker due to the rotation of the couch is called RPM (Real-time The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of motion reflections (baseline changes) of 2D gating configuration (two dot marker block) and 3D gating configuration (six dot marker block). The motion was measured by varying the couch angle in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions by 10° in the 2D gating configuration. In the 3D gating configuration, the couch angle was changed by 10° in the clockwise direction and compared with the baseline at the reference 0°. The reference amplitude was 1.173 to 1.165, the couch angle at 20° was 1.132, and the couch angle at 1.0° was 1.083. At 350° counterclockwise, the reference amplitude was 1.168 to 1.157, the couch angle at 340° was 1.124, and the couch angle at 330° was 1.079. In this study, the phantom is used to quantitatively evaluate the value of the amplitude according to couch change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Kyung Tae; Kim, Jung Soo [Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Hyun Sun [College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Dong Kyoon [College of Health Sciences, EulJi University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
Because of non-coplanar therapy with couch rotation in respiratory gated radiation therapy, the recognition of marker movement due to the change in the distance between the infrared camera and the marker due to the rotation of the couch is called RPM (Real-time The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of motion reflections (baseline changes) of 2D gating configuration (two dot marker block) and 3D gating configuration (six dot marker block). The motion was measured by varying the couch angle in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions by 10° in the 2D gating configuration. In the 3D gating configuration, the couch angle was changed by 10° in the clockwise direction and compared with the baseline at the reference 0°. The reference amplitude was 1.173 to 1.165, the couch angle at 20° was 1.132, and the couch angle at 1.0° was 1.083. At 350° counterclockwise, the reference amplitude was 1.168 to 1.157, the couch angle at 340° was 1.124, and the couch angle at 330° was 1.079. In this study, the phantom is used to quantitatively evaluate the value of the amplitude according to couch change.
Recent Advances in Solanum Potato Improvement In Uganda
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper reviews the major production constraints for extension of potato production and the role of potato ... Viable, commercial seed schemes and appropriate low cost storage methods are ..... national Potato Centre (CIP), Lima, (Peru). In-.
THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS
Gregor Urek; S Širca; Stare Geric; B Dolničar; P Strajnar
2008-01-01
The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultiva...
The structure of complex Lie groups
Lee, Dong Hoon
2001-01-01
Complex Lie groups have often been used as auxiliaries in the study of real Lie groups in areas such as differential geometry and representation theory. To date, however, no book has fully explored and developed their structural aspects.The Structure of Complex Lie Groups addresses this need. Self-contained, it begins with general concepts introduced via an almost complex structure on a real Lie group. It then moves to the theory of representative functions of Lie groups- used as a primary tool in subsequent chapters-and discusses the extension problem of representations that is essential for studying the structure of complex Lie groups. This is followed by a discourse on complex analytic groups that carry the structure of affine algebraic groups compatible with their analytic group structure. The author then uses the results of his earlier discussions to determine the observability of subgroups of complex Lie groups.The differences between complex algebraic groups and complex Lie groups are sometimes subtle ...
Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.
1993-01-01
A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ''Cartan Calculus.''
Classification and identification of Lie algebras
Snobl, Libor
2014-01-01
The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for researchers and practitioners who apply Lie algebras and Lie groups to solve problems arising in science and engineering. The authors address the problem of expressing a Lie algebra obtained in some arbitrary basis in a more suitable basis in which all essential features of the Lie algebra are directly visible. This includes algorithms accomplishing decomposition into a direct sum, identification of the radical and the Levi decomposition, and the computation of the nilradical and of the Casimir invariants. Examples are given for each algorithm. For low-dimensional Lie algebras this makes it possible to identify the given Lie algebra completely. The authors provide a representative list of all Lie algebras of dimension less or equal to 6 together with their important properties, including their Casimir invariants. The list is ordered in a way to make identification easy, using only basis independent properties of the Lie algebras. They also describe certain cl...
Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men
Wibral, M.; Dohmen, T.J.; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin
2012-01-01
Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone
Elementary construction of graded lie groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheunert, M.; Rittenberg, V.
1977-06-01
We show how the definitions of the classical Lie groups have to be modified in the case where Grassmann variables are present. In particular, we construct the general linear, the special linear and the orthosymplectic graded Lie groups. Special attention is paid to the question of how to formulate an adequate 'unitarity condition'. (orig.) [de
Lie symmetries for systems of evolution equations
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael
2018-01-01
The Lie symmetries for a class of systems of evolution equations are studied. The evolution equations are defined in a bimetric space with two Riemannian metrics corresponding to the space of the independent and dependent variables of the differential equations. The exact relation of the Lie symmetries with the collineations of the bimetric space is determined.
Graded-Lie-algebra cohomology and supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Auria, R.; Fre, P.; Regge, T.
1980-01-01
Detailed explanations of the cohomology invoked in the group-manifold approach to supergravity is given. The Chevalley cohomology theory of Lie algebras is extended to graded Lie algebras. The scheme of geometrical theories is enlarged so to include cosmological terms and higher powers of the curvature. (author)
The species boundaries of wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, are controversial with most of the taxonomic problems in a clade containing cultivated potatoes. We here provide the first in-depth phylogenetic study of the cultivated potato clade to explore possible causes of these pr...
2013-02-11
... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...
Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouani, A.; Boussaha, A.
1987-01-01
In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes
Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Toru; Sugiyama, Junnichi; Otobe, Kazuki; Todoriki, Setsuko
1993-01-01
The impedance ratio at 5kHz to 50kHz (Z 6K /Z 50K ) determined at 22degC at an apical region of potato tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radian treatment. Irradiated potatoes of 10 cultivars could be detected with this method, and potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at Shihoro could be distinguished from unirradiated 'Danshaku'. (author)
Hygiene assessment of irradiated potato mutagenic activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uralova, M.; Grunt, J.; Patzeltova, N.
1977-01-01
Albino rat males were fed on gamma-irradiated potatoes for one month and mated with two intact female rats each. The dominant lethal mutation method was then used for the study of possible mutagenic activity of the irradiated potatoes. No statistically significant differences were observed and no mutagenic activity was found. Thus, the test showed that potatoes irradiated with a dose of 10 krad of gamma radiation does not present genetic hazards for albino rats. (L.O.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Jeong Min; Jeong, Cheon Young; Park, Young Hwan; Song, Ki Won
2003-01-01
Confirming an error to be able to break out in a method to move couch manually while operator sees the skin marks on patient in case of curing head who got 2 targets adjoined, so we analyze coordinates price of couch, evaluate reproducibility and precision of change movements between targets. In radiotherapy, for confirming errors in manual movements by operators by exchanging between two targets to treat patient head, we read coordinates price(vertical, longitudinal, lateral three directions of couch) shown on a monitor of LINAC( CL 2100, Varian, USA) in order to evaluate accuracy about the length that moved in time for moving couch manually. After reading movement length of coordinates recorded in three directions of all treatment, we compared distance between targets recorded in RTP(Pinnacle, ADAC, USA) with reading coordinates price of couch, setting actually done the same patient for ten times, coordinates were recorded, treated for evaluating averages and degrees of errors and standard deviations. In method to confirm skin marks of patient by operators' view and to move couch manually, average standard deviations of movements between two targets are vertical 1.4 mm, longitudinal 0.9 mm, lateral 2.2 mm in each direction. As for the error in straight dimension, it is about 3.6 mm averages and 5.1 mm maximum. The average of errors in each directions was vertical 1mm, longitudinal 0.7 mm, lateral 2.7 mm. The greatest error broke out in lateral direction with 25% of all cases ; to exceed an error average. If operators moved manually couch for changing target points, errors about 3.6 mm average degrees occur. It is important that operators confirm the errors prices of actual couch coordinates for asking a correct movement between the targets adjoined each other ; in case of treatment demanding high precision like 3D conformal therapy or IMRT. Therefore, if we apply couch coordinates confirmation to reproducibility and to precision evaluation of treatment, it
Continuum analogues of contragredient Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saveliev, M.V.; Vershik, A.M.
1989-03-01
We present an axiomatic formulation of a new class of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras - the generalizations of Z-graded Lie algebras with, generally speaking, an infinite-dimensional Cartan subalgebra and a contiguous set of roots. We call such algebras ''continuum Lie algebras''. The simple Lie algebras of constant growth are encapsulated in our formulation. We pay particular attention to the case when the local algebra is parametrized by a commutative algebra while the Cartan operator (the generalization of the Cartan matrix) is a linear operator. Special examples of these algebras are the Kac-Moody algebras, algebras of Poisson brackets, algebras of vector fields on a manifold, current algebras, and algebras with differential or integro-differential Cartan operator. The nonlinear dynamical systems associated with the continuum contragredient Lie algebras are also considered. (author). 9 refs
Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review
Priedniece, Vivita; Spalvins, Kriss; Ivanovs, Kaspars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija
2017-12-01
The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.
Bioproducts from Potatoes. A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priedniece Vivita
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The increasing amount of food waste througout the world is becoming a major problem for waste management plants. The food waste produced amounts to 1.3 million tons a year. This is a resource that could be used for production of new products. Decreasing fossil resources and a rapidly growing population lead to the necessity to produce more food and to replace existing with new materials ones that are biological and produce little effect on environment. Bioeconomy is a method that can help achieve production of value-added products that use local resources and waste to manufacture products efficiently. In this article, we are looking at possibilities to use potatoes for production of new materials, such as bioplastics, antioxidants, proteins, instead of their conventional use for food production. We have studied potato components, extraction technologies and summed up possible directions for development for new products, looking at the use of processing waste as a raw material.
Traditional couching is not an effective alternative procedure for cataract surgery in Mali.
Schémann, J F; Bakayoko, S; Coulibaly, S
2000-12-01
In Mali, more cataract patients receive sight-restoring surgery using a traditional "couching" procedure (the lens inside the vitreous body) than by modern cataract surgery. In order to evaluate the relative effectiveness and other outcomes of the traditional procedure compared to the modern surgical intervention, we conducted a population-based survey in a rural district of Mali in 1996. A total of 99,800 persons from 160 villages were eligible to be included in the sample. All individuals operated for cataract by a modern procedure were checked for visual acuity and questioned regarding their clinical history, the cost of the surgery and their satisfaction with the surgery immediately following the operation and presently. Each patient was paired with one person operated by a traditional cataract surgical procedure. From a total population of 99,800 we found 85 individuals (0.085%) who had been operated by intracapsular extraction (ICCE) without lens implantation and we paired these with 82 individuals operated by the traditional method and by a local healer. In both groups, males were predominant (74.4% in the modern group and 61.3% in the traditional) and the median age was 65 and 68 years, respectively. Men with a higher social status (defined as administrative or religious authority) were slightly more common among those operated by ICCE (18.9%) than among those operated by the traditional healer (4.4%). Nearly half (47.6%) of the patients operated by couching did not know that a modern alternative existed. The mean cost to the patient of the two procedures was similar; with traditional couching costing on average US$ 42.10 and modern surgery (including transport and drugs) costing US$ 52.40. The traditional healer was often paid partially in kind and the price paid varied according to the patient's ability to pay. The clinical results differed greatly between the two methods. After aphakic correction of eyes operated by ICCE, 5.3% had good vision (33/18), 76
Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Naoki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Obata, Yasunori; Kimura, Takashi; Nakazawa, Hisato; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Hashizume, Chisa I.; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of megavoltage photon beam attenuation (PBA) by couch tops and to propose a method for correction of PBA. Four series of phantom measurements were carried out. First, PBA by the exact couch top (ECT, Varian) and Imaging Couch Top (ICT, BrainLAB) was evaluated using a water-equivalent phantom. Second, PBA by Type-S system (Med-Tec), ECT and ICT was compared with a spherical phantom. Third, percentage depth dose (PDD) after passing through ICT was measured to compare with control data of PDD. Forth, the gantry angle dependency of PBA by ICT was evaluated. Then, an equation for PBA correction was elaborated and correction factors for PBA at isocenter were obtained. Finally, this method was applied to a patient with hepatoma. PBA of perpendicular beams by ICT was 4.7% on average. With the increase in field size, the measured values became higher. PBA by ICT was greater than that by Type-S system and ECT. PBA increased significantly as the angle of incidence increased, ranging from 4.3% at 180 deg to 11.2% at 120 deg. Calculated doses obtained by the equation and correction factors agreed quite well with the measured doses between 120 deg and 180 deg of angles of incidence. Also in the patient, PBA by ICT was corrected quite well by the equation and correction factors. In conclusion, PBA and its gantry angle dependency by ICT were observed. This simple method using the equation and correction factors appeared useful to correct the isocenter dose when the PBA effect cannot be corrected by a treatment planning system. (author)
Lagrangian submanifolds and dynamics on Lie algebroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon, Manuel de; Marrero, Juan C; MartInez, Eduardo
2005-01-01
In some previous papers, a geometric description of Lagrangian mechanics on Lie algebroids has been developed. In this topical review, we give a Hamiltonian description of mechanics on Lie algebroids. In addition, we introduce the notion of a Lagrangian submanifold of a symplectic Lie algebroid and we prove that the Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) dynamics on Lie algebroids may be described in terms of Lagrangian submanifolds of symplectic Lie algebroids. The Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) formalism on Lie algebroids permits us to deal with Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) functions not defined necessarily on tangent (cotangent) bundles. Thus, we may apply our results to the projection of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) functions which are invariant under the action of a symmetry Lie group. As a consequence, we obtain that Lagrange-Poincare (Hamilton-Poincare) equations are the Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations associated with the corresponding Atiyah algebroid. Moreover, we prove that Lagrange-Poincare (Hamilton-Poincare) equations are the local equations defining certain Lagrangian submanifolds of symplectic Atiyah algebroids. (topical review)
Estimation of Nitrogen Pools in Irrigated Potato Production on Sandy Soil Using the Model SUBSTOR
Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J.; Boote, Kenneth J.
2015-01-01
Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB) is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations- a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N) loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha-1 N) of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha-1 N). The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha-1N) and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn). The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses. PMID:25635904
Introduction to the theory of Lie groups
Godement, Roger
2017-01-01
This textbook covers the general theory of Lie groups. By first considering the case of linear groups (following von Neumann's method) before proceeding to the general case, the reader is naturally introduced to Lie theory. Written by a master of the subject and influential member of the Bourbaki group, the French edition of this textbook has been used by several generations of students. This translation preserves the distinctive style and lively exposition of the original. Requiring only basics of topology and algebra, this book offers an engaging introduction to Lie groups for graduate students and a valuable resource for researchers.
Vertex ring-indexed Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairlie, David; Zachos, Cosmas
2005-01-01
Infinite-dimensional Lie algebras are introduced, which are only partially graded, and are specified by indices lying on cyclotomic rings. They may be thought of as generalizations of the Onsager algebra, but unlike it, or its sl(n) generalizations, they are not subalgebras of the loop algebras associated with sl(n). In a particular interesting case associated with sl(3), their indices lie on the Eisenstein integer triangular lattice, and these algebras are expected to underlie vertex operator combinations in CFT, brane physics, and graphite monolayers
Representations of some quantum tori Lie subalgebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Song
2013-01-01
In this paper, we define the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie subalgebras in x ∞ =a ∞ (b ∞ , c ∞ , d ∞ ). The embedding formulas into x ∞ are introduced. Irreducible highest weight representations of A(tilde sign) q , B(tilde sign) q , and C(tilde sign) q -series of the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie algebras in terms of vertex operators are constructed. We also construct the polynomial representations of the A(tilde sign) q , B(tilde sign) q , C(tilde sign) q , and D(tilde sign) q -series of the q-analog Virasoro-like Lie algebras.
Quartic trace identity for exceptional Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okubo, S.
1979-01-01
Let X be a representation matrix of generic element x of a simple Lie algebra in generic irreducible representation ]lambda] of the Lie algebra. Then, for all exceptional Lie algebras as well as A 1 and A 2 , we can prove the validity of a quartic trace identity Tr(X 4 ) =K (lambda)[Tr(X 2 )] 2 , where the constant K (lambda) depends only upon the irreducible representation ]lambda], and its explicit form is calculated. Some applications of second and fourth order indices have also been discussed
Jurco, Branislav
2011-01-01
Let g be a simplicial Lie algebra with Moore complex Ng of length k. Let G be the simplicial Lie group integrating g, which is simply connected in each simplicial level. We use the 1-jet of the classifying space of G to construct, starting from g, a Lie k-algebra L. The so constructed Lie k-algebra L is actually a differential graded Lie algebra. The differential and the brackets are explicitly described in terms (of a part) of the corresponding k-hypercrossed complex structure of Ng. The res...
Lie-Nambu and Lie-Poisson structures in linear and nonlinear quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czachor, M.
1996-01-01
Space of density matrices in quantum mechanics can be regarded as a Poisson manifold with the dynamics given by certain Lie-Poisson bracket corresponding to an infinite dimensional Lie algebra. The metric structure associated with this Lie algebra is given by a metric tensor which is not equivalent to the Cartan-Killing metric. The Lie-Poisson bracket can be written in a form involving a generalized (Lie-)Nambu bracket. This bracket can be used to generate a generalized, nonlinear and completely integrable dynamics of density matrices. (author)
SU-E-T-66: A Prototype for Couch Based Real-Time Dosimetry in External Beam Radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramachandran, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Bendigo (Australia)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to design a prototype for couch-based based real time dosimetry system in external beam radiotherapy Methods: A prototype of 100 ionization chambers was designed on a printed circuit board by etching the copper layer and each ionization chamber was wired to a 50 pin connector. The signals from the two 50 pin connectors collected from the ionization chambers were then transferred to a PXI module from National Instruments. The PXI module houses a current amplifier that amplifies the charge collected from the ionization chamber. The amplified signal is then sent to a digital multimeter module for converting the analog signal to digital signal. A software was designed in labview to read and display the signals obtained from the PXI module. A couch attachment frame was designed to house the 100 ionization chamber module. The frame was fixed underneath the treatment couch for measuring the dose during treatment. Resutls: The ionization chamber based prototype dosimetry was tested for simple radiotherapy treatment fields and found to be a useful device for measuring real time dosimetry at the treatment couch plane. This information could be used to assess the delivered dose to a patient during radiotherapy. It could be used as an invivo dosimeter during radiotherapy. Conclusion: In this study, a prototype for couch based real time dosimetry system was designed and tested. The prototype forms a basis for the development of large scale couch based real time dosimetry system that could be used to perform morning QA prior to treatment, assess real time doses delivered to patient and as a device to monitor the output of the treatment beam. Peter MacCallum Cancer Foundation.
SU-E-T-66: A Prototype for Couch Based Real-Time Dosimetry in External Beam Radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramachandran, P
2015-01-01
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to design a prototype for couch-based based real time dosimetry system in external beam radiotherapy Methods: A prototype of 100 ionization chambers was designed on a printed circuit board by etching the copper layer and each ionization chamber was wired to a 50 pin connector. The signals from the two 50 pin connectors collected from the ionization chambers were then transferred to a PXI module from National Instruments. The PXI module houses a current amplifier that amplifies the charge collected from the ionization chamber. The amplified signal is then sent to a digital multimeter module for converting the analog signal to digital signal. A software was designed in labview to read and display the signals obtained from the PXI module. A couch attachment frame was designed to house the 100 ionization chamber module. The frame was fixed underneath the treatment couch for measuring the dose during treatment. Resutls: The ionization chamber based prototype dosimetry was tested for simple radiotherapy treatment fields and found to be a useful device for measuring real time dosimetry at the treatment couch plane. This information could be used to assess the delivered dose to a patient during radiotherapy. It could be used as an invivo dosimeter during radiotherapy. Conclusion: In this study, a prototype for couch based real time dosimetry system was designed and tested. The prototype forms a basis for the development of large scale couch based real time dosimetry system that could be used to perform morning QA prior to treatment, assess real time doses delivered to patient and as a device to monitor the output of the treatment beam. Peter MacCallum Cancer Foundation
When is a lie acceptable? Work and private life lying acceptance depends on its beneficiary.
Cantarero, Katarzyna; Szarota, Piotr; Stamkou, Eftychia; Navas, Marisol; Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra Del Carmen
2018-01-01
In this article we show that when analyzing attitude towards lying in a cross-cultural setting, both the beneficiary of the lie (self vs other) and the context (private life vs. professional domain) should be considered. In a study conducted in Estonia, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden (N = 1345), in which participants evaluated stories presenting various types of lies, we found usefulness of relying on the dimensions. Results showed that in the joint sample the most acceptable were other-oriented lies concerning private life, then other-oriented lies in the professional domain, followed by egoistic lies in the professional domain; and the least acceptance was shown for egoistic lies regarding one's private life. We found a negative correlation between acceptance of a behavior and the evaluation of its deceitfulness.
The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mazur
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production
Relax with CouchDB--into the non-relational DBMS era of bioinformatics.
Manyam, Ganiraju; Payton, Michelle A; Roth, Jack A; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Coombes, Kevin R
2012-07-01
With the proliferation of high-throughput technologies, genome-level data analysis has become common in molecular biology. Bioinformaticians are developing extensive resources to annotate and mine biological features from high-throughput data. The underlying database management systems for most bioinformatics software are based on a relational model. Modern non-relational databases offer an alternative that has flexibility, scalability, and a non-rigid design schema. Moreover, with an accelerated development pace, non-relational databases like CouchDB can be ideal tools to construct bioinformatics utilities. We describe CouchDB by presenting three new bioinformatics resources: (a) geneSmash, which collates data from bioinformatics resources and provides automated gene-centric annotations, (b) drugBase, a database of drug-target interactions with a web interface powered by geneSmash, and (c) HapMap-CN, which provides a web interface to query copy number variations from three SNP-chip HapMap datasets. In addition to the web sites, all three systems can be accessed programmatically via web services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Relax with CouchDB - Into the non-relational DBMS era of Bioinformatics
Manyam, Ganiraju; Payton, Michelle A.; Roth, Jack A.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Coombes, Kevin R.
2012-01-01
With the proliferation of high-throughput technologies, genome-level data analysis has become common in molecular biology. Bioinformaticians are developing extensive resources to annotate and mine biological features from high-throughput data. The underlying database management systems for most bioinformatics software are based on a relational model. Modern non-relational databases offer an alternative that has flexibility, scalability, and a non-rigid design schema. Moreover, with an accelerated development pace, non-relational databases like CouchDB can be ideal tools to construct bioinformatics utilities. We describe CouchDB by presenting three new bioinformatics resources: (a) geneSmash, which collates data from bioinformatics resources and provides automated gene-centric annotations, (b) drugBase, a database of drug-target interactions with a web interface powered by geneSmash, and (c) HapMap-CN, which provides a web interface to query copy number variations from three SNP-chip HapMap datasets. In addition to the web sites, all three systems can be accessed programmatically via web services. PMID:22609849
Binny, Diana; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Crowe, Scott B
2017-09-01
This study utilizes process control techniques to identify action limits for TomoTherapy couch positioning quality assurance tests. A test was introduced to monitor accuracy of the applied couch offset detection in the TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system using the TQA "Step-Wedge Helical" module and MVCT detector. Individual X-charts, process capability (cp), probability (P), and acceptability (cpk) indices were used to monitor a 4-year couch IEC offset data to detect systematic and random errors in the couch positional accuracy for different action levels. Process capability tests were also performed on the retrospective data to define tolerances based on user-specified levels. A second study was carried out whereby physical couch offsets were applied using the TQA module and the MVCT detector was used to detect the observed variations. Random and systematic variations were observed for the SPC-based upper and lower control limits, and investigations were carried out to maintain the ongoing stability of the process for a 4-year and a three-monthly period. Local trend analysis showed mean variations up to ±0.5 mm in the three-monthly analysis period for all IEC offset measurements. Variations were also observed in the detected versus applied offsets using the MVCT detector in the second study largely in the vertical direction, and actions were taken to remediate this error. Based on the results, it was recommended that imaging shifts in each coordinate direction be only applied after assessing the machine for applied versus detected test results using the step helical module. User-specified tolerance levels of at least ±2 mm were recommended for a test frequency of once every 3 months to improve couch positional accuracy. SPC enables detection of systematic variations prior to reaching machine tolerance levels. Couch encoding system recalibrations reduced variations to user-specified levels and a monitoring period of 3 months using SPC facilitated in detecting
Lie-superalgebraical aspects of quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palev, T.D.
1978-01-01
The Lie-superalgebraical properties of the ordinary quantum statistics are discussed with the aim of possible generalization in quantum theory and in theoretical physics. It is indicated that the algebra generated by n pairs of Fermi or paraFermi operators is isomorphic to the classical simple Lie algebra Bsub(n) of the SO(2n+1) orthogonal group, whereas n pairs of Bose or paraBose operators generate the simple orthosympletic superalgebra B(O,n). The transition to infinite number of creation and annihilation operators (n → infinity) does not change a superalgebraic structure. Hence, ordinary Bose and Fermi quantization can be considered as quantization over definite irreducible representations of two simple Lie superalgebras. The idea is given of how one can introduce creation and annihilation operators that satisfy the second quantization postulates and generate other simple Lie superalgebras
Multiplication: From Thales to Lie1
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Addition. To describe the geometric constructions of addition, as ..... general, we could apply the implicit function theorem of calculus to solve locally the defining ... and whose multiplication and inverse are analytic maps, is called a Lie group.
Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...
Geographic distribution of wild potato species
Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.
2001-01-01
The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77
Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Revd Dr Olaleye
Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...
PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.
Reid, Alex
2009-01-01
Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.
Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance
Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...
Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes
Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...
Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.
1996-01-01
Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)
Top 5 exotic clones for potato breeding
Wild and cultivated relatives of potato feature prominently in breeding programs. In this short article, I describe five exotic clones that have promising traits for the future of the US potato industry. They include M6, an inbred line of S. chacoense that provides a source of genes for self-compati...
Sweet potato in gluten-free pancakes.
Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour, and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20, and 40% of sweet potato flour. At 40% sweet potato, the apparent viscosity became comparable to that of the traditional wheat pancake batter. Texture properties of the cooked pancakes, such...
New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, M.V.
1989-01-01
Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs
Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.
Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang
2014-12-01
Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.
The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper
We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...
7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...
Improving seed potato quality in Ethiopia: a value chain perspective
Hirpa, A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, Paul
2016-01-01
In Ethiopia, use of low-quality seed potatoes by the majority of potato growers is
associated with underdevelopment of the seed potato value chains. Three seed potato systems are present in Ethiopia: the informal seed system, the alternative seed system and the formal seed system. This chapter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldosary, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.aldosary@mail.mcgill.ca [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nobah, Ahmad; Al-Zorkani, Faisal [Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moftah, Belal [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Biomedical Physics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2015-01-01
The effect of a treatment couch on dose perturbation is not always fully considered in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). In the course of inverse planning radiotherapy techniques, beam parameter optimization may change in the absence of the couch, causing errors in the calculated dose distributions. Although modern treatment planning systems (TPS) include data for the treatment couch components, they are not manufactured identically. Thus, variations in their Hounsfield unit (HU) values may exist. Moreover, a radiotherapy facility may wish to have a third-party custom tabletop installed that is not included by the TPS vendor. This study demonstrates a practical and simple method of acquiring reliable computed tomography (CT) data for the treatment couch and shows how the absorbed dose calculated with the modeled treatment couch can differ from that with the default treatment couch found in the TPS. We also experimentally verified that neglecting to incorporate the treatment couch completely in the treatment planning process might result in dose differences of up to 9.5% and 7.3% for 4-MV and 10-MV photon beams, respectively. Furthermore, 20 RapidArc and IMRT cases were used to quantify the change in calculated dose distributions caused by using either the default or modeled couch. From 2-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array measurements, we observed large dose distribution differences between the measurements and calculations when the couch was omitted that varied according to the planning technique and anatomic site. Thus, incorporating the treatment couch in the dose calculation phase of treatment planning significantly decreases dose calculation errors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serante, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.serante@gmail.com [Clinica de Radioterapia Inga, Nitero, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Joao G. [Instituto Oncologico, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Neves-Junior, Wellington F.P.; Leite, Joao Paulo S.; Haddad, Cecilia M.K. [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia. Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras
2015-12-15
In this work, attenuation measurements were performed for the beams of energy 6 and 15MV for the couch table BrainLAB Imaging Couch, consisting of carbon fiber. The measurements were performed in the Linac Novalis-Tx (Varian) for 5 x 5 and 10 x 10 cm² field sizes, varying gantry positions. The measured data were compared with the values calculated with the treatment planning system Eclipse, calculated with the algorithm AAA, in order to validate the model of the couch included in your library. The highest attenuation for the field size of 10 x 10 cm² was 7,5% and 4,8% for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. With the field size of 5 x 5 cm² the highest attenuation value was 8,1% and 5,3%, for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. Both measured at gantry position 120 deg C. From the attenuation data measured with an ionization chamber, it was possible to modify the model of the couch in Eclipse to obtain the smallest difference between measured and predicted values by the TPS. (author)
Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F
2015-06-01
Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.
Kuswinanti, Tutik
2012-01-01
Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...
Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.
Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B
1982-01-01
The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sati, Hisham [University of Pittsburgh,Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Mathematics Program, Division of Science and Mathematics, New York University Abu Dhabi,Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Schreiber, Urs [Mathematics Institute of the Academy,Žitna 25, Praha 1, 115 67 (Czech Republic)
2017-03-16
We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie (p+1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie (p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane charges as they are lifted from ordinary cohomology to twisted K-theory. This supports the proposal that M-brane charges live in a twisted cohomology theory.
Testosterone administration reduces lying in men.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Wibral
Full Text Available Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46 or a placebo (n=45. Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01. Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.
Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review
Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan
2018-02-01
Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as
Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome
Niks, R.E.; Heyzen, van S.; Szabo, L.J.; Alemu, S.K.
2013-01-01
The pathogenicity and identity was studied of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elymus repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus). We
Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome
The pathogenicity and identity of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elytrigia repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus) was studied. We fo...
Control of sweet potato virus diseases.
Loebenstein, Gad
2015-01-01
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sugawara operators for classical Lie algebras
Molev, Alexander
2018-01-01
The celebrated Schur-Weyl duality gives rise to effective ways of constructing invariant polynomials on the classical Lie algebras. The emergence of the theory of quantum groups in the 1980s brought up special matrix techniques which allowed one to extend these constructions beyond polynomial invariants and produce new families of Casimir elements for finite-dimensional Lie algebras. Sugawara operators are analogs of Casimir elements for the affine Kac-Moody algebras. The goal of this book is to describe algebraic structures associated with the affine Lie algebras, including affine vertex algebras, Yangians, and classical \\mathcal{W}-algebras, which have numerous ties with many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics, including modular forms, conformal field theory, and soliton equations. An affine version of the matrix technique is developed and used to explain the elegant constructions of Sugawara operators, which appeared in the last decade. An affine analogue of the Harish-Chandra isomorphism connec...
Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].
Song, Guo-qing; Yamaguchi, Ken-ichi
2006-01-01
Among the available transformation methods reported on sweet potato, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is more successful and desirable. Stem explants have shown to be ideal for the transformation of sweet potato because of their ready availability as explants, the simple transformation process, and high-frequency-regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Under the two-step kanamycin-hygromycin selection method and using the appropriate explants type (stem explants), the efficiency of transformation can be considerably improved in cv. Beniazuma. The high efficiency in the transformation of stem explants suggests that the transformation protocol described in this chapter warrants testing for routine stable transformation of diverse varieties of sweet potato.
Identification of irradiated potatoes by impedance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Rita; Singh, Antaryami; Wadhawan, A.K.
1997-01-01
The electrical impedance of potatoes irradiated at 60, 90, 150 and 1000 Gy was measured using various frequencies of alternating current. The impedance of the irradiated potatoes was higher than the unirradiated potatoes particularly in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The ratio of the impedance at 5 kHz to that at 50 Hz (Z5k/Z50) was found to be the best indicator for detection of radiation treatment. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs
Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen
Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative...... selection, can be obtained with good prediction accuracies in tetraploid potato....
[Phytopathogenic bacteria of couch-grass in the crops of wheat].
Iakovleva, L M; Patyka, V F; Gvozdiak, R I; Shcherbina, T N
2009-01-01
Bacterialdiseases of weeds in the crops of wheat on the fields of Kyiv and Vinnytsya regions of Ukraine Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski Agropyrum repens L. were revealed. The following symptoms of bacterial affections: the leaves wither, oval or hatched necrotic spots on green leaves, necroses on the stalks, empty-ears, partial blackening of the ear axes, awns, caryopsises, scales, water-soaked or dark brown with violet shade spots on the rhizomes were found. During the vegetation period bacteria were isolated from the affected plants which caused pathological process in the couch-grass and wheat. The pathogenic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, P. viridiflava, Pseudomonas sp., Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pantoea agglomerans, the part of yellow-pigmentary isolates were not identified. Some Psyringae were isolated from the rhizomes during winterthawing. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.
MO-D-213-05: Sensitivity of Routine IMRT QA Metrics to Couch and Collimator Rotations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alaei, P
2015-01-01
Purpose: To assess the sensitivity of gamma index and other IMRT QA metrics to couch and collimator rotations. Methods: Two brain IMRT plans with couch and/or collimator rotations in one or more of the fields were evaluated using the IBA MatriXX ion chamber array and its associated software (OmniPro-I’mRT). The plans were subjected to routine QA by 1) Creating a composite planar dose in the treatment planning system (TPS) with the couch/collimator rotations and 2) Creating the planar dose after “zeroing” the rotations. Plan deliveries to MatriXX were performed with all rotations set to zero on a Varian 21ex linear accelerator. This in effect created TPS-created planar doses with an induced rotation error. Point dose measurements for the delivered plans were also performed in a solid water phantom. Results: The IMRT QA of the plans with couch and collimator rotations showed clear discrepancies in the planar dose and 2D dose profile overlays. The gamma analysis, however, did pass with the criteria of 3%/3mm (for 95% of the points), albeit with a lower percentage pass rate, when one or two of the fields had a rotation. Similar results were obtained with tighter criteria of 2%/2mm. Other QA metrics such as percentage difference or distance-to-agreement (DTA) histograms produced similar results. The point dose measurements did not obviously indicate the error due to location of dose measurement (on the central axis) and the size of the ion chamber used (0.6 cc). Conclusion: Relying on Gamma analysis, percentage difference, or DTA to determine the passing of an IMRT QA may miss critical errors in the plan delivery due to couch/collimator rotations. A combination of analyses for composite QA plans, or per-beam analysis, would detect these errors
Lie groups and grand unified theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitoso, M.D.
1987-01-01
This work presents some concepts in group theory and Lie algebras and, at same time, shows a method to study and work with semisimple Lie groups, based on Dynkin diagrams. The aproach taken is not completely formal, but it presents the main points of the elaboration of the method, so its mathematical basis is designed with the purpose of making the reading not so cumbersome to those who are interested only in a general picture of the method and its usefulness. At the end it is shown a brief review of gauge theories and two grand-unification models based on SO(13) and E 7 gauge groups. (author) [pt
Casimir elements of epsilon Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheunert, M.
1982-10-01
The classical framework for investigating the Casimir elements of a Lie algebra is generalized to the case of an epsilon Lie algebra L. We construct the standard L-module isomorphism of the epsilon-symmetric algebra of L onto its enveloping algebra and we introduce the Harish-Chandra homomorphism. In case the generators of L can be written in a canonical two-index form, we construct the associated standard sequence of Casimir elements and derive a formula for their eigenvalues in an arbitrary highest weight module. (orig.)
Trajectory optimization for dynamic couch rotation during volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy
Smyth, Gregory; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Philip M.; Bedford, James L.
2013-11-01
Non-coplanar radiation beams are often used in three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce dose to organs at risk (OAR) by geometric avoidance. In volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) non-coplanar geometries are generally achieved by applying patient couch rotations to single or multiple full or partial arcs. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method for a non-coplanar technique, dynamic couch rotation during VMAT (DCR-VMAT), which combines ray tracing with a graph search algorithm. Four clinical test cases (partial breast, brain, prostate only, and prostate and pelvic nodes) were used to evaluate the potential OAR sparing for trajectory-optimized DCR-VMAT plans, compared with standard coplanar VMAT. In each case, ray tracing was performed and a cost map reflecting the number of OAR voxels intersected for each potential source position was generated. The least-cost path through the cost map, corresponding to an optimal DCR-VMAT trajectory, was determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Results show that trajectory optimization can reduce dose to specified OARs for plans otherwise comparable to conventional coplanar VMAT techniques. For the partial breast case, the mean heart dose was reduced by 53%. In the brain case, the maximum lens doses were reduced by 61% (left) and 77% (right) and the globes by 37% (left) and 40% (right). Bowel mean dose was reduced by 15% in the prostate only case. For the prostate and pelvic nodes case, the bowel V50 Gy and V60 Gy were reduced by 9% and 45% respectively. Future work will involve further development of the algorithm and assessment of its performance over a larger number of cases in site-specific cohorts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.
Boundary layer on a flat plate with suction; Couche limite sur paroi plane poreuse avec aspiration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Favre, A; Dumas, R; Verollet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Institut de Mecanique Statistique de la Turbulence, Faculte des Sciences de Marseille, 13 (France)
1961-07-01
This research done in wind tunnel concerns the turbulent boundary layer of a porous flat plate with suction. The porous wall is 1 m long and begins 1 m downstream of the leading edge. The Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness is of the order of 16.300. The suction rate defined as the ratio of the velocity perpendicular to the wall to the external flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2 per cent. The pressure gradient can be controlled. The mean velocity profiles have been determined for various positions and suction rates by means of total pressure probes together with the intensities of the turbulent velocity fluctuations components, energy spectra and correlations by means of hot wire anemometers, spectral analyser and correlator. The stream lines, the values of the viscous and turbulent shear stresses, of the local wall friction, of the turbulent energy production term, with some information on the dissipation of the energy have been derived from these measurements. For these data the integral of equation of continuity in boundary layer have been drawn. The suction effects on the boundary layer are important. The suction thoroughly alters the mean velocity profiles by increasing the viscous shear stresses near the wall and decreasing them far from the wall, it diminishes the longitudinal and transversal turbulence intensities, the turbulent shear stresses, and the production of energy of turbulence. These effects are much stressed in the inner part of the boundary layer. On the other hand the energy spectra show that the turbulence scale is little modified, the boundary layer thickness being not much diminished by the suction. The suction effects can be appreciated by comparing twice the suction rate to the wall friction coefficient (assumed airtight), quite noticeable as soon as the rate is about unity, they become very important when it reaches ten. (author) [French] Ces recherches, effectuees en soufflerie, concernent la couche limite turbulente d
Lying in Business : Insights from Hannah Arendt’s ‘Lying in Politics’
Eenkhoorn, P.; Graafland, J.J.
2010-01-01
The famous political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt’s theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural
Teaching the Truth about Lies to Psychology Students: The Speed Lying Task
Pearson, Matthew R.; Richardson, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
To teach the importance of deception in everyday social life, an in-class activity called the "Speed Lying Task" was given in an introductory social psychology class. In class, two major research findings were replicated: Individuals detected deception at levels no better than expected by chance and lie detection confidence was unrelated…
SU-C-207-04: Reconstruction Artifact Reduction in X-Ray Cone Beam CT Using a Treatment Couch Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lasio, G; Hu, E; Zhou, J; Lee, M; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: to mitigate artifacts induced by the presence of the RT treatment couch in on-board CBCT and improve image quality Methods: a model of a Varian IGRT couch is constructed using a CBCT scan of the couch in air. The model is used to generate a set of forward projections (FP) of the treatment couch at specified gantry angles. The model couch forward projections are then used to process CBCT scan projections which contain the couch in addition to the scan object (Catphan phantom), in order to remove the attenuation component of the couch at any given gantry angle. Prior to pre-processing with the model FP, the Catphan projection data is normalized to an air scan with bowtie filter. The filtered Catphan projections are used to reconstruct the CBCT with an in-house FDK algorithm. The artifact reduction in the processed CBCT scan is assessed visually, and the image quality improvement is measured with the CNR over a few selected ROIs of the Catphan modules. Results: Sufficient match between the forward projected data and the x-ray projections is achieved to allow filtering in attenuation space. Visual improvement of the couch induced artifacts is achieved, with a moderate expense of CNR. Conclusion: Couch model-based correction of CBCT projection data has a potential for qualitative improvement of clinical CBCT scans, without requiring position specific correction data. The technique could be used to produce models of other artifact inducing devices, such as immobilization boards, and reduce their impact on patient CBCT images.
Growth of some varieties of Lie superalgebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaicev, M V; Mishchenko, S P
2007-01-01
We study numerical characteristics of varieties of Lie superalgebras and, in particular, the growth of codimensions. An example of an insoluble variety of almost polynomial growth is constructed. We prove that the exponent of this variety is equal to three and calculate the growth exponents for two earlier known soluble varieties
Lie Algebras for Constructing Nonlinear Integrable Couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yufeng
2011-01-01
Two new explicit Lie algebras are introduced for which the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Giachetti-Johnson (GJ) hierarchy and the Yang hierarchy are obtained, respectively. By employing the variational identity their Hamiltonian structures are also generated. The approach presented in the paper can also provide nonlinear integrable couplings of other soliton hierarchies of evolution equations. (general)
Lie algebraical aspects of quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palev, T.D.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the secon quantization axioms can, in principle, be satisfied with creation and annihilation operators generating (in the case of n pairs of such operators) the Lie algebra Asub(n) of the group SL(n+1). A concept of the Fock space is introduced. The matrix elements of the operators are found
Lie algebras and linear differential equations.
Brockett, R. W.; Rahimi, A.
1972-01-01
Certain symmetry properties possessed by the solutions of linear differential equations are examined. For this purpose, some basic ideas from the theory of finite dimensional linear systems are used together with the work of Wei and Norman on the use of Lie algebraic methods in differential equation theory.
Bases in Lie and quantum algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballesteros, A; Celeghini, E; Olmo, M A del
2008-01-01
Applications of algebras in physics are related to the connection of measurable observables to relevant elements of the algebras, usually the generators. However, in the determination of the generators in Lie algebras there is place for some arbitrary conventions. The situation is much more involved in the context of quantum algebras, where inside the quantum universal enveloping algebra, we have not enough primitive elements that allow for a privileged set of generators and all basic sets are equivalent. In this paper we discuss how the Drinfeld double structure underlying every simple Lie bialgebra characterizes uniquely a particular basis without any freedom, completing the Cartan program on simple algebras. By means of a perturbative construction, a distinguished deformed basis (we call it the analytical basis) is obtained for every quantum group as the analytical prolongation of the above defined Lie basis of the corresponding Lie bialgebra. It turns out that the whole construction is unique, so to each quantum universal enveloping algebra is associated one and only one bialgebra. In this way the problem of the classification of quantum algebras is moved to the classification of bialgebras. In order to make this procedure more clear, we discuss in detail the simple cases of su(2) and su q (2).
ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. B. Smirnov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2 and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4
Associative and Lie deformations of Poisson algebras
Remm, Elisabeth
2011-01-01
Considering a Poisson algebra as a non associative algebra satisfying the Markl-Remm identity, we study deformations of Poisson algebras as deformations of this non associative algebra. This gives a natural interpretation of deformations which preserves the underlying associative structure and we study deformations which preserve the underlying Lie algebra.
Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merve Duruyurek
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.
Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.
Chen, Xiao Dong
2002-01-01
Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)
physiological mechanisms for potato dormancy release
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ACSS
of deep dormancy, during which potato seeds do not germinate after ... dormancy period and sprouting behaviour are major criteria ... develop once sprouting begins; such as changes ...... an example of plant information processing. Plant Cell ...
Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia
Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.
2010-01-01
This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed
Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid
2015-01-01
Heating foods immersed in oil during frying provides many attractive sensorial attributes including taste, flavor and color. However, some toxic compounds formed during frying of potatoes such as furan and acrylamide may constitute an increased cancer risk for consumers. The objective of this work...... was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...
Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.
2016-01-01
The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)
Global field experiments for potato simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi
2018-01-01
A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...
Scholte, K.
2000-01-01
A field experiment in which main-crop potatoes were grown every other year was conducted on a sandy soil from 1994 to 1999. The aim of the experiment was to control soil-borne pathogens of potato with ecologically sound methods. Potato grown as a trap crop from the end of April to the end of June (8
Application of gamma irradiation for storage potato
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezaee, M.; Almasi, M.
2009-01-01
Since deficiency of controlled store in Iran and environmental problems of chemical material the use of gamma irradiation to control sprouting and increase the length of storage time of potatoes has been proposed as an alternative to cold storage or the use of chemical sprout suppressants. In this study potatoes of Agria Variety were irradiated at a dose of 0.10 KGY and stored along with the unirradiated controls at 12±3°C for a period of more than 6 month from October to April .After 4 month of storage the sprouting ranged from 5 to 12% in irradiated potatoes and 45 to 74% in unirradiated samples and after 6 month the unirradiated potatoes were discarded because of heavy sprouting and rotting. The rot attack was approximately double in unirradiated samples. It was found that losses through dehydration were 10.3 to 15.1 % in the irradiated potatoes. Also a comparative study of reducing and non-reducing sugars, vitamin-C content, total sugar, starch and protein was carried out between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The results suggested the efficacy of Gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the storing quality of potato during lean periods from October to April. (author)
The Effect of Telling Lies on Belief in the Truth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danielle Polage
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The current study looks at the effect of telling lies, in contrast to simply planning lies, on participants’ belief in the truth. Participants planned and told a lie, planned to tell a lie but didn’t tell it, told an unplanned lie, or neither planned nor told a lie (control about events that did not actually happen to them. Participants attempted to convince researchers that all of the stories told were true. Results show that telling a lie plays a more important role in inflating belief scores than simply preparing the script of a lie. Cognitive dissonance may lead to motivated forgetting of information that does not align with the lie. This research suggests that telling lies may lead to confusion as to the veracity of the lie leading to inflated belief scores.
Motivation and Consequences of Lying. A Qualitative Analysis of Everyday Lying
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beata Arcimowicz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This article presents findings of qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with a group of "frequent liars" and another of "rare liars" who provided their subjective perspectives on the phenomenon of lying. Participants in this study previously had maintained a diary of their social interactions and lies over the course of one week, which allowed to assign them to one of the two groups: frequent or rare liars. Thematic analysis of the material followed by elements of theory formulation resulted in an extended lying typology that includes not only the target of the lie (the liar vs. other but also the motivation (protection vs. bringing benefits. We offer an analysis of what prevents from telling the truth, i.e. penalties, relationship losses, distress of the lied-to, and anticipated lack of criticism for telling the truth. We also focus on understanding moderatorsof consequences of lying (significance of the area of life, the type of lie and capacity to understand the liar that can be useful in future studies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503318
Influence of γ-irradiation on drying of slice potato
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jun; Chao Yan; Fu Junjie; Wang Jianping
2001-01-01
A new technology is introduced to dry food products by hot-air after pretreated by irradiation. The influence of different dosage of irradiation, temperature of hot air, thickness of the slice potato on the rate of dehydration temperature of irradiated potato were studied. A conclusion is reached that the 3 factors, irradiation dosage, hot-air temperature and thickness of slice potato, affect the rate of dehydration and temperature of slice potato. The higher the dosage is, the greater the rate of dehydration of potato becomes, and the higher the temperature of the slice potato gets. (authors)
Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Jung-In
2018-02-01
To investigate the changes in quality of the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with couch-shift between arcs by half of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf width. A total of 22 patients with head-and-neck cancer were retrospectively selected. Since the smallest MLC leaf width was 5 mm in this study, the couch was shifted by 2.5 mm in the longitudinal-direction between arcs to increase the resolution of fluence map. A total of three types of VMAT plans were generated for each patient; the three types of plans were a two-full-arc plan without couch-shift (NS plan), a two-half-arc-pair plan with couch-shift (HAS plan), and a two-full-arc pair plan with couch-shift (FAS plan). Changes in the dose-volumetric parameters were investigated. The FAS plan showed the best plan quality for the target volumes and organs at risk compared to the NS and HAS plans. However, the magnitudes of differences among the three types of plans were minimal, and every plan was clinically acceptable. The average integral doses of the NS, HAS, and FAS plans were 160,549 ± 37,600 Gy-cc, 147,828 ± 33,343 Gy-cc, and 156,030 ± 36,263 Gy-cc, respectively. The average monitor unit of the NS, HAS, and FAS plans were 717 ± 120 MU, 648 ± 100 MU, and 763 ± 158 MU, respectively. The HAS plan was better than the others in terms of normal tissue sparing and plan efficiency. By shifting the couch by half of the MLC leaf width in the longitudinal direction between arcs, the VMAT plan quality could be improved. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Potato crop growth as influenced by potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida) and abiotic factors
Ruijter, de F.
1998-01-01
The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the major mechanisms by which potato cyst nematodes reduce potato crop growth and to explain interactions known to occur with cultivar and abiotic factors. Understanding of these interactions may lead to strategies that
Localization of potato leafroll virus in leaves of secondarily-infected potato plants
Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Blank, de C.M.; Peters, D.; Lent, van J.W.M.
1995-01-01
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen was localized by immunogold labelling in semi-thin leaf sections of secondarily-infected potato plants cv. Bintje. Viral antigen was present in all cell types of the phloem tissue. but occurred most abundantly in the companion cells. Detectable amounts of PLRV
Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.
2012-01-01
Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were
Symptom expression of Potato virus Y across all market classes of U.S. potato varieties
Potato virus Y (PVY) can cause a range of foliar and tuber symptoms that can lead to reduced yield and quality defects in the daughter tubers. Five strains of PVY were used to inoculate 70 potato varieties in aphid screened greenhouses in Idaho and New York. Three to five isolates per strain were ...
Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.
2007-01-01
Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unge, Rikard von
2002-01-01
We extend the path-integral formalism for Poisson-Lie T-duality to include the case of Drinfeld doubles which can be decomposed into bi-algebras in more than one way. We give the correct shift of the dilaton, correcting a mistake in the literature. We then use the fact that the six dimensional Drinfeld doubles have been classified to write down all possible conformal Poisson-Lie T-duals of three dimensional space times and we explicitly work out two duals to the constant dilaton and zero anti-symmetric tensor Bianchi type V space time and show that they satisfy the string equations of motion. This space-time was previously thought to have no duals because of the tracefulness of the structure constants. (author)
Does a point lie inside a polygon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milgram, M.S.
1988-01-01
A superficially simple problem in computational geometry is that of determining whether a query point P lies in the interior of a polygon if it lies in the polygon's plane. Answering this question is often required when tracking particles in a Monte Carlo program; it is asked frequently and an efficient algorithm is crucial. Littlefield has recently rediscovered Shimrat's algorithm, while in separate works, Wooff, Preparata and Shamos and Mehlhorn, as well as Yamaguchi, give other algorithms. A practical algorithm answering this question when the polygon's plane is skewed in space is not immediately evident from most of these methods. Additionally, all but one fails when two sides extend to infinity (open polygons). In this paper the author review the above methods and present a new, efficient algorithm, valid for all convex polygons, open or closed, and topologically connected in n-dimensional space (n ≥ 2)
Harmonic analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups
Fujiwara, Hidenori
2015-01-01
This book is the first one that brings together recent results on the harmonic analysis of exponential solvable Lie groups. There still are many interesting open problems, and the book contributes to the future progress of this research field. As well, various related topics are presented to motivate young researchers. The orbit method invented by Kirillov is applied to study basic problems in the analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups. This method tells us that the unitary dual of these groups is realized as the space of their coadjoint orbits. This fact is established using the Mackey theory for induced representations, and that mechanism is explained first. One of the fundamental problems in the representation theory is the irreducible decomposition of induced or restricted representations. Therefore, these decompositions are studied in detail before proceeding to various related problems: the multiplicity formula, Plancherel formulas, intertwining operators, Frobenius reciprocity, and associated alge...
Differential calculus on quantized simple Lie groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.
1991-01-01
Differential calculi, generalizations of Woronowicz's four-dimensional calculus on SU q (2), are introduced for quantized classical simple Lie groups in a constructive way. For this purpose, the approach of Faddeev and his collaborators to quantum groups was used. An equivalence of Woronowicz's enveloping algebra generated by the dual space to the left-invariant differential forms and the corresponding quantized universal enveloping algebra, is obtained for our differential calculi. Real forms for q ε R are also discussed. (orig.)
On split Lie triple systems II
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the proof is complete. Acknowledgements. The first author was supported by the PCI of the UCA 'Teorıa de Lie y Teorıa de Espacios de Banach', by the PAI with project numbers FQM-298, FQM-3737, FQM-2467, by the project of the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia MTM2004-06580-C02-02 and with fondos ...
Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buccella, F.
1983-01-01
The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras
Akivis, M A
2011-01-01
This book describes the life and achievements of the great French mathematician, Elie Cartan. Here readers will find detailed descriptions of Cartan's discoveries in Lie groups and algebras, associative algebras, differential equations, and differential geometry, as well of later developments stemming from his ideas. There is also a biographical sketch of Cartan's life. A monumental tribute to a towering figure in the history of mathematics, this book will appeal to mathematicians and historians alike.
Unitary representations of basic classical Lie superalgebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gould, M.D.; Zhang, R.B.
1990-01-01
We have obtained all the finite-dimensional unitary irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) and C(n), which also exhaust such irreps of all the basic classical Lie superalgebras. The lowest weights of such irreps are worked out explicitly. It is also shown that the contravariant and covariant tensor irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) are unitary irreps of type (1) and type (2) respectively, explaining the applicability of the Young diagram method to these two types of tensor irreps. (orig.)
Preschoolers' Understanding of Lies and Innocent and Negligent Mistakes.
Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.
1998-01-01
Examined preschoolers' ability to distinguish innocent and negligent mistakes from lies. Found that, when asked to identify a mistake or lie about a food's contact with contaminants and identify a bystander's reaction, children distinguished mistakes from lies; they could also discriminate between lies and both negligent mistakes that generate…
Legitimate lies : The relationship between omission, commission, and cheating
Pittarello, Andrea; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Motro, Daphna
Across four experiments, we show that when people can serve their self-interest, they are more likely to refrain from reporting the truth ( lie of omission) than actively lie ( lie of commission). We developed a novel online "Heads or Tails" task in which participants can lie to win a monetary
The representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Qiang
1998-01-01
In this paper we discuss the relation between representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations. A series of representations of Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantization of coadjoint orbits. Particularly, all representations of compact Lie groups, holomorphic discrete series of representations and spherical representations of reductive Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantizations of elliptic and hyperbolic coadjoint orbits. (orig.)
A survey on stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras
Crainic, Marius; Schätz, Florian; Struchiner, Ivan
2014-01-01
We give simple and unified proofs of the known stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras, Lie subalgebras and Lie algebra homomorphisms. Moreover, we investigate when a Lie algebra homomorphism is stable under all automorphisms of the codomain (including outer automorphisms).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Yong Mo; Song, Yong Min; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Ji Min; Choi, Byeung Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
When a radiation treatment, there is an attenuation by Carbon Fiber Couch. In this study, we tried to evaluate the usability of the Varian Standard Couch(VSC) by modeling with Treatment Planning System (TPS) VSC was scanned by CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography) of the Linac(Clinac IX, VARIAN, USA), following the three conditions of VSC, Side Rail OutGrid(SROG), Side Rail InGrid(SRIG), Side Rail In OutSpine Down Bar(SRIOS). After scan, the data was transferred to TPS and modeled by contouring Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, Spine Down Bar automatically. We scanned the Cheese Phantom(Middelton, USA) using Computed Tomography(Light Speed RT 16, GE, USA) and transfer the data to TPS, and apply VSC modeled previously with TPS to it. Dose was measured at the isocenter of Ion Chamber(A1SL, Standard imaging, USA) in Cheese Phantom using 4 and 10 MV radiation for every 5° gantry angle in a different filed size(3 X 3 cm{sup 2},10 X 10cm{sup 2}) without any change of MU(=100), and then we compared the calculated dose and measured dose. Also we included dose at the 127° in SRIG to compare the attenuation by Side Bar Upper. Results : The density of VSC by CBCT in TPS was 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and in the case of Spine Down Bar, it was 0.7g/cm{sup 3}. The radiation was attenuated by 17.49%, 16.49%, 8.54%, and 7.59% at the Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, and Spine Down Bar. For the accuracy of modeling, calculated dose and measured dose were compared. The average error was 1.13% and the maximum error was 1.98% at the 170° beam crossing the Spine Down Bar. To evaluate the usability for the VSC modeled by TPS, the maximum error was 1.98% as a result of compassion between calculated dose and measured dose. We found out that VSC modeling helped expect the dose, so we think that it will be helpful for the more accurate treatment.
Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertem, Ümit
2016-01-01
We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases. (paper)
Tran Tron Long , Mai; Sutter , Eliane; Tribollet , Bernard
2013-01-01
11 pages, www.mattech-journal.org; International audience; Les propriétés électrochimiques de la couche de dépôts de corrosion formée à la surface des coupons d'acier E24 immergés pendant plusieurs années dans l'eau de mer sous différentes conditions de protection cathodique ont éteé'tudiées à l'aide de la spectroscopie d'impédance électrochimique et de mesures globale et locale de courant. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la couche de dépôts dont le comportement est déterminé par sa sous-c...
Cestovní ruch a sociální sítě: Projekt CouchSurfing v Česku
Hásová, Adéla
2012-01-01
The master thesis focuses on the virtual social network sites which are concern to be exceptionally actual issue. Moreover the thesis deals with social networks in tourism. The number of various social networks about travelling is high. However, only the community of CouchSurfing (hospitality exchange network) was chosen for the research purposes of the thesis. The research included in the thesis focuses on CouchSurfing because is the greatest hospitality exchange site in these days. It inclu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I
2014-01-01
Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room
SU-E-T-84: A Survey On Radiotherapy Table Tolerances and Couch Overrides of Over 350 Institutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Panfil, J; Surucu, M; Roeske, J
2015-01-01
Purpose: Table overrides are relatively common in radiotherapy, yet are a potential safety concern. The goal of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and table tolerance values used clinically. Methods: A 25 question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the AAPM. In the first part of the survey, participants were asked: if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. In the second part of the survey, individuals were asked to provide table tolerance data for the following sites: brain/head & neck, lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate. Each site was further divided into IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal techniques. Free-text spaces were provided, allowing respondents to enter any table tolerance data they were unable to specify under the treatment sites listed. Results: A total of 361 individuals responded, of which approximately half participated in the couch tolerances portion of the survey. Overall, 86% of respondents’ institutions allow couch tolerance overrides at treatment. Therapists were the most common staff members permitted to perform overrides, followed by physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians, respectively. Of the institutions allowing overrides, 34% reported overriding daily. More than half of the centers require documentation of the override and/or a setup image (acquired after override) to radiographically verify the treatment site. With respect to table tolerances, groups resulting from the free-text responses were at the two extremes; SRS/SBRT were the tightest, while clinical setup/mets/extremities were the most generous. There was no qualitative difference between IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal table tolerances. Conclusion: This work is intended to stimulate a discussion within the radiotherapy community. This discussion, supplemented by the survey results provides an
SU-E-T-84: A Survey On Radiotherapy Table Tolerances and Couch Overrides of Over 350 Institutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Panfil, J; Surucu, M; Roeske, J [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Table overrides are relatively common in radiotherapy, yet are a potential safety concern. The goal of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and table tolerance values used clinically. Methods: A 25 question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the AAPM. In the first part of the survey, participants were asked: if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. In the second part of the survey, individuals were asked to provide table tolerance data for the following sites: brain/head & neck, lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate. Each site was further divided into IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal techniques. Free-text spaces were provided, allowing respondents to enter any table tolerance data they were unable to specify under the treatment sites listed. Results: A total of 361 individuals responded, of which approximately half participated in the couch tolerances portion of the survey. Overall, 86% of respondents’ institutions allow couch tolerance overrides at treatment. Therapists were the most common staff members permitted to perform overrides, followed by physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians, respectively. Of the institutions allowing overrides, 34% reported overriding daily. More than half of the centers require documentation of the override and/or a setup image (acquired after override) to radiographically verify the treatment site. With respect to table tolerances, groups resulting from the free-text responses were at the two extremes; SRS/SBRT were the tightest, while clinical setup/mets/extremities were the most generous. There was no qualitative difference between IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal table tolerances. Conclusion: This work is intended to stimulate a discussion within the radiotherapy community. This discussion, supplemented by the survey results provides an
Internally connected graphs and the Kashiwara-Vergne Lie algebra
Felder, Matteo
2018-02-01
It is conjectured that the Kashiwara-Vergne Lie algebra \\widehat{krv}_2 is isomorphic to the direct sum of the Grothendieck-Teichmüller Lie algebra grt_1 and a one-dimensional Lie algebra. In this paper, we use the graph complex of internally connected graphs to define a nested sequence of Lie subalgebras of \\widehat{krv}_2 whose intersection is grt_1 , thus giving a way to interpolate between these two Lie algebras.
Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder
African Journals Online (AJOL)
sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 ... (2004), bulkiness and perishability affect post- ..... credit makes it possible for farmers to purchase .... Promotion of the Sweet Potato for the Food Industry.
Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ACSS
Key words: Quality seed potato, seed system and challenges ... systems, inadequate seed production and ... informal sources of seed potato, despite ..... Directorate General for International. Co-operation (DGIC), Brussels,. Belgium. 1540pp.
WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Kalashnikov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.
WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.
Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes
Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali
2017-03-01
In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.
Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.
Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I
2015-01-01
A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.
Dose impact of a carbon fiber couch for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tominaga, Hirofumi; Kanetake, Nagisa; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Iwashita, Yuki; Sakata, Junichi; Okuda, Tomoko; Araki, Fujio; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Tomiyama, Yuki
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to measure the dose attenuation caused by a carbon fiber radiation therapy table (Imaging Couch Top; ICT, BrainLab) and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of ICT during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung tumors. The dose attenuation of ICT was measured using an ionization chamber and modeled by means of a treatment planning system (TPS). SBRT was planned with and without ICT in a lung tumor phantom and ten cases of clinical lung tumors. The results were analyzed from isocenter doses and a dose-volume histogram (DVH): D 95 , D mean , V 20 , V 5 , homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI). The dose attenuation of the ICT modeled with TPS agreed to within ±1% of the actually measured values. The isocenter doses, D 95 and D mean with and without ICT showed differences of 4.1-5% for posterior single field and three fields in the phantom study, and differences of 0.6-2.4% for five fields and rotation in the phantom study and six fields in ten clinical cases. The dose impact of ICT was not significant for five or more fields in SBRT. It is thus possible to reduce the dose effect of ICT by modifying the beam angle and beam weight in the treatment plan. (author)
Performance stability of potato genotypes under rainfed and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
YDessalegn
The prevailing average monthly maximum temperature is higher in the irrigated potato production system than in the rainfed system. The average monthly minimum temperature is low and causes frost injury to the plant during the irrigated potato production system. Therefore, irrigated potato production is affected both by the.
7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be...
Glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds in gamma irradiated potatoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergers, W.W.A.
1980-01-01
Potatoes were used to study the metabolic stress effects in irradiated vegetable products. The changes of the contents of specific target compounds (glycoalkaloids, phenolic acids and coumarins) in alcoholic extracts of gamma irradiated potatoes were studied for metabolic irradiation stress. Doses of up to 3 kGy were applied to potatoes of several varieties. (Auth.)
influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ACSS
essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...
Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci
Bakker, E.H.
2003-01-01
This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain
Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...
Evaluation of five pre-emergence herbicides for volunteer potato ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Volunteer potatoes can cause significant weed problems in crops following potatoes as large numbers of potato tubers remain behind in the field after mechanical harvesting. These volunteer plants can create havoc with rotation programs and serve as a source of pests and diseases. The aim of this project was to identify a ...
Developmental dynamics of Globodera ellingtonae in field-grown potato
Globodera ellingtonae is a recently described nematode parasite of potato, which is closely related to the economically-significant potato cyst nematodes, G. rostochiensis and G. pallida. Because of the close relationship of G. ellingtonae to the potato cyst nematodes, a greater understanding of its...
Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato
While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...
Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest
Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...
Irradiation of potatoes for long-term storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srapenjanz, R.
1976-01-01
In the USSR gamma irradiation of potatoes is used for extending the storage life. The properties of potatoes are not changed, and the irradiation procedure is lower in cost than chemical treatments for sprout inhibition. Finally, a brief outline is given of investigations on sprout inhibition of potatoes in other socialist countries
76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum
2011-03-23
...; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...
7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...
Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study shows that calcium soil amendments reduce blackleg and soft rot diseases under Zimbabwe's growing seasons in red fersiallitic soils. Compound S produces better results in potato production than compound D and farmers should be encouraged to use compound S when growing potatoes. Key words: potato ...
75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan
2010-03-26
...] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and... potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Customs). This document also corrects Customs' name within...
Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.
1976-01-01
Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light
7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...
Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia
Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
2015-01-01
Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in
Pinpointing the weed sources of potato psyllid in Washington
A major challenge in controlling zebra chip disease of potatoes is our inability to predict what potato fields are likely to be colonized by potato psyllid, the vector of the pathogen that causes zebra chip. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA developed a novel method to identify w...
Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.
Helder, J.
1994-01-01
1. How does a potato plant form tubers?
Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large
Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J.T.
1981-01-01
A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian
Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.
Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina
2014-01-01
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.
Differential calculus on quantized simple Lie groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. (Dept. of Optics, Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia))
1991-07-01
Differential calculi, generalizations of Woronowicz's four-dimensional calculus on SU{sub q}(2), are introduced for quantized classical simple Lie groups in a constructive way. For this purpose, the approach of Faddeev and his collaborators to quantum groups was used. An equivalence of Woronowicz's enveloping algebra generated by the dual space to the left-invariant differential forms and the corresponding quantized universal enveloping algebra, is obtained for our differential calculi. Real forms for q {epsilon} R are also discussed. (orig.).
Vector fields and nilpotent Lie algebras
Grayson, Matthew; Grossman, Robert
1987-01-01
An infinite-dimensional family of flows E is described with the property that the associated dynamical system: x(t) = E(x(t)), where x(0) is a member of the set R to the Nth power, is explicitly integrable in closed form. These flows E are of the form E = E1 + E2, where E1 and E2 are the generators of a nilpotent Lie algebra, which is either free, or satisfies some relations at a point. These flows can then be used to approximate the flows of more general types of dynamical systems.
Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.
1993-01-01
A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(G q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators - the 'reflection matrix' Y= triple bond L + SL - being a special case - generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N). (orig.)
Analytic factorization of Lie group representations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gimperlein, Heiko; Krötz, Bernhard; Lienau, Christoph
2012-01-01
For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E......¿=¿(A(G))E¿E¿=¿(A(G))E¿. As a corollary we obtain that E¿E¿ coincides with the space of analytic vectors for the Laplace–Beltrami operator on G....
Knutson, Nels C; Schmidt, Matthew C; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Li, H Harold; Sajo, Erno; Price, Michael J
2017-07-01
Real-time dynamic control of the linear accelerator, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery was investigated as a novel technique for acquiring tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data. TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) was used to control the linear accelerator using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A single XML file was used to dynamically manipulate the machine, couch, and imaging parameters during radiation delivery. A TG-51 compliant 1D water tank was placed on the treatment couch, and used to position a detector at isocenter at a depth of 24.5 cm. A depth scan was performed towards the water surface. Via XML control, the treatment couch vertical position was simultaneously lowered at the same rate, maintaining the detector position at isocenter, allowing for the collection of TMR data. To ensure the detector remained at isocenter during the delivery, the in-room camera was used to monitor the detector. Continuous kV fluoroscopic images during 10 test runs further confirmed this result. TMR data at multiple Source to Detector Distances (SDD) and scan speeds were acquired to investigate their impact on the TMR data. Percentage depth dose (PDD) scans (for conversion to TMR) along with traditional discrete TMR data were acquired as a standard for comparison. More than 99.8% of the measured points had a gamma value (1%/1 mm) < 1 when compared with discrete or PDD converted TMR data. Fluoroscopic images showed that the concurrent couch and tank movements resulted in SDD errors < 1 mm. TMRs acquired at SDDs of 99, 100, and 101 cm showed differences less than 0.004. TrueBeam Developer Mode was used to collect continuous TMR data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected discrete data, but yielded higher sampled resolution and reduced acquisition time. This novel method does not require the modification of any equipment and does not use a 3D tank or reservoir. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Or Violeta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007
Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.
2007-01-01
of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....
Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.
Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro
2014-01-01
Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.
Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann
2014-01-01
A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis I Bogomaz
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Efficiency of potato transformation depends on plant genotype and bacterial strain. Genotypes with high regeneration ability have high transformation ability. It is shown, that transgenosis of Bt gene increases potato resistance to collorado potato beetle, transgenosis of ipt gene does not influence on resistance.
Introduction to quantized LIE groups and algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tjin, T.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors give a self-contained introduction to the theory of quantum groups according to Drinfeld, highlighting the formal aspects as well as the applications to the Yang-Baxter equation and representation theory. Introductions to Hopf algebras, Poisson structures and deformation quantization are also provided. After defining Poisson Lie groups the authors study their relation to Lie bialgebras and the classical Yang-Baxter equation. Then the authors explain in detail the concept of quantization for them. As an example the quantization of sl 2 is explicitly carried out. Next, the authors show how quantum groups are related to the Yang-Baxter equation and how they can be used to solve it. Using the quantum double construction, the authors explicitly construct the universal R matrix for the quantum sl 2 algebra. In the last section, the authors deduce all finite-dimensional irreducible representations for q a root of unity. The authors also give their tensor product decomposition (fusion rules), which is relevant to conformal field theory
Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes
Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; McCuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.
1992-06-01
The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.
Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes
Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.
1992-01-01
The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.
Irradiation processing of potatoes, onions and garlic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jan, M.; Starr, A.; Wahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.
1992-07-01
In this report, studies have been conducted on irradiation preservation of potatoes, onions and garlic involving different varieties, harvesting season and storage life. As a result of these investigations, optimum conditions were established for each crop. The effect of irradiation and storage on sprouting, rottage and weight loss of potatoes is presented. The sprouting initiated in the unirradiated samples after 2 months reaching 51, 80 and 100% on 4, 5 and 6 months storage respectively. Weight losses were observed in the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (A.B.)
Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokunaga, Taizo
2007-01-01
Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)
Effect of radiation on potato susceptibility to plant diseases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Younis, N.A.
1982-01-01
The average world production of potatoes is about 7 billion bushels, having a value nearly, if not quite, equal to that of wheat. Hence, it has for years been recognized as the world's leading food crop (Thompson, 1949). Potato is the world's leading vegetable crop and rivals wheat in total value. There is probably no food article in daily diet of the white race more common than the potato. Potato tuber contains nearly 80 per cent water in it's uncooked state. Most of the remainder consists of about 2 per cent protein and 18 per cent starch. The potato is one of the cheapest and most common sources of carbohydrate food
Studies on potato irradiation in the G.D.R
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luther, Th.; Huebner, G.; Grahn, Ch.; Doellstaedt, R.
1990-01-01
The studies of potato irradiation have been conducted in the framework of the National Food Irradiation Research Project for 4 years. Although in the G.D.R. the use of chemical sprout inhibitors is allowed, potato irradiation can be an alternative technique for potato processing. Before irradiation a wound healing period of approx. 2 weeks is absolutely necessary to protect the potatoes from Fusarium. The method that presents the minimum risk of damage is irradiation in containers. Economic evaluations for the irradiation of potatoes are also made. (author)
Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.
Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei
2018-05-28
Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.
Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.
Group formalism of Lie transformations to time-fractional partial ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lie symmetry analysis; Fractional partial differential equation; Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative ... science and engineering. It is known that while ... differential equations occurring in different areas of applied science [11,14]. The Lie ...
Utari, E.; Lisnawita; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, AR; Hasanuddin
2018-02-01
The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of important pathogens on potato crops in North Sumatra, Indonesia. This nematode causes significant crop losses on potatoes directly and indirectly. The effect of fungal isolates (Trichoderma sp. 1, Mucor sp.1, Aspergillus sp. 2, Mucor sp. 2) that were isolated from rhizosphere of potato in North Sumatra were studied in green house experiments on the growth of potato and the reproduction of the nematode (Meloidogyne spp). The results showed that Trichoderma sp. 1 caused a significant gall reduction, while Mucor sp.1 and Mucor sp.2 could improve the growth of potato.
Simple Lie groups without the approximation property
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; de Laat, Tim
2013-01-01
For a locally compact group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M0A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. The group G is said to have the Approximation Property (AP) if the constant function 1 can be approximated by a net in A(G) in the weak-∗ topology...... on the space M0A(G). Recently, Lafforgue and de la Salle proved that SL(3,R) does not have the AP, implying the first example of an exact discrete group without it, namely, SL(3,Z). In this paper we prove that Sp(2,R) does not have the AP. It follows that all connected simple Lie groups with finite center...
Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axford, R.A.
1998-01-01
The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function
On Quantum Lie Nilpotency of Order 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Kireeva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates the free algebras of varieties of associative algebras modulo identities of quantum Lie nilpotency of order 1 and 2. Let q be an invertible element of the ground field K (or of its extension. The element[x,y]q = xy-qyxof the free associative algebra is called a quantum commutator. We consider the algebras modulo identities [x,y]q = 0 (1and [[x,y]q ,z]q = 0. (2It is natural to consider the aforementioned algebras as the quantum analogs of commutative algebras and algebras of Lie nilpotency of order 2. The free algebras of the varieties of associative algebras modulo the identity of Lie nilpotency of order 2, that is the identity[[x,y] ,z] =0,where [x,y]=xy-yx is a Lie commutator, are of great interest in the theory of algebras with polynomial identities, since it was proved by A.V.Grishin for algebras over fields of characteristic 2, and V.V.Shchigolev for algebras over fields of characteristic p>2, that these algebras contain non-finitely generated T-spaces.We prove in the paper that the algebras modulo identities (1 and (2 are nilpotent in the usual sense and calculate precisely the nilpotency order of these algebras. More precisely, we prove that the free algebra of the variety of associative algebras modulo identity (1 is nilpotent of order 2 if q ≠ ± 1, and nilpotent of order 3 if q = - 1 and the characteristic of K is not equal to 2. It is also proved that the free algebra of the variety of associative algebras modulo identity (2 is nilpotent of order 3 if q3 ≠ 1, q ≠ ± 1, nilpotent of order 4 if q3 = 1, q ≠ 1, and nilpotent of
A generalization of the Lie derivative
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, P.
1984-01-01
If X=xisup(i)deltasub(i) and Y=etasup(i)deltasub(i) are vector fields then it is well-known that the Lie derivative Poundsub(X)Y equivalent to [X,Y] (xisup(s)deltasub(s) etasup(s)deltasub(s)xisup(i))deltasub(i) is also a vector field under general coordinate transformations. A generalization of this result, due to previous workers, allows a definition of Poundsub(F)G, where F,G are arbitrary contravariant tensor fields. The formulae are linear in the first partial derivatives of F and G. An application to the theory of Killing-Yano tensor fields on Riemannian manifolds is given. (author)
Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).
Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G
2010-01-01
Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.
Biderivations of finite dimensional complex simple Lie algebras
Tang, Xiaomin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that a biderivation of a finite dimensional complex simple Lie algebra without the restriction of skewsymmetric is inner. As an application, the biderivation of a general linear Lie algebra is presented. In particular, we find a class of a non-inner and non-skewsymmetric biderivations. Furthermore, we also get the forms of linear commuting maps on the finite dimensional complex simple Lie algebra or general linear Lie algebra.
Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop
Heusinkveld, B. G.
2010-07-01
The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.
Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.
2017-01-01
Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016
Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
PRAKASH
lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.
Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe
Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.
2015-01-01
The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It
Potato developments in a changing Europe
Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.
2006-01-01
The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection
( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.
Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mungan, Carl E
2009-01-01
Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics
Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato cannon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mungan, Carl E [Physics Department, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5002 (United States)], E-mail: mungan@usna.edu
2009-05-15
Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is accessible to undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics.
Global field experiments for potato simulations
Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay
2018-01-01
A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,
Responses of potatoes plants inoculated with arbuscular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A pot experiment was set to examine the impact of the foliar litter (Hardwickia binata and Azadirachta indica) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on the development of two varieties of potato plants (Aida, Atlas). Three litter doses (0, 25 and 50 g) were applied to the pots after bedding plantlets. The plants were ...
Resistance to Black Dot in Potato
Black dot fungus can colonize tubers on the surface, in the stolon end, or in a combination of both.On the surface the fungus is prevalent as sclerotia, and in the stolon end the fungus colonizes the vascular tissuesas hyphae. The fungus is introduced to non-infested soils mostly by infected potato ...
Comparing methods of ploidy estimation in potato.
Ploidy manipulation and the resulting need for rapid ploidy screening is an important part of a potato research and breeding program. Determining ploidy by counting chromosomes or measuring DNA in individual cells is definitive, but takes time, technical skills and equipment. We tested three predi...
Pink eye in potato is problematic
Fall of 2017 was a challenging harvest season for potato growers in Central Wisconsin because of the less-than-ideal patterns of temperature and precipitation. Late September had several days with high temperatures above 85'F that shut down most harvest operations. Early October brought in quite a f...
Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon
Mungan, Carl E.
2009-01-01
Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…
Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
sonu
Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.
Engineering resistance against potato virus Y
Vlugt, van der R.A.A.
1993-01-01
Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,
Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M
2008-09-01
Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.
Lie symmetries and differential galois groups of linear equations
Oudshoorn, W.R.; Put, M. van der
2002-01-01
For a linear ordinary differential equation the Lie algebra of its infinitesimal Lie symmetries is compared with its differential Galois group. For this purpose an algebraic formulation of Lie symmetries is developed. It turns out that there is no direct relation between the two above objects. In
Exponentiation and deformations of Lie-admissible algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, H.C.
1982-01-01
The exponential function is defined for a finite-dimensional real power-associative algebra with unit element. The application of the exponential function is focused on the power-associative (p,q)-mutation of a real or complex associative algebra. Explicit formulas are computed for the (p,q)-mutation of the real envelope of the spin 1 algebra and the Lie algebra so(3) of the rotation group, in light of earlier investigations of the spin 1/2. A slight variant of the mutated exponential is interpreted as a continuous function of the Lie algebra into some isotope of the corresponding linear Lie group. The second part of this paper is concerned with the representation and deformation of a Lie-admissible algebra. The second cohomology group of a Lie-admissible algebra is introduced as a generalization of those of associative and Lie algebras in the Hochschild and Chevalley-Eilenberg theory. Some elementary theory of algebraic deformation of Lie-admissible algebras is discussed in view of generalization of that of associative and Lie algebras. Lie-admissible deformations are also suggested by the representation of Lie-admissible algebras. Some explicit examples of Lie-admissible deformation are given in terms of the (p,q)-mutation of associative deformation of an associative algebra. Finally, we discuss Lie-admissible deformations of order one
Accurately Detecting Students' Lies regarding Relational Aggression by Correctional Instructions
Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Marksteiner, Tamara
2012-01-01
This study investigates the effect of correctional instructions when detecting lies about relational aggression. Based on models from the field of social psychology, we predict that correctional instruction will lead to a less pronounced lie bias and to more accurate lie detection. Seventy-five teachers received videotapes of students' true denial…
Lie n-derivations on 7 -subspace lattice algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
all x ∈ K and all A ∈ Alg L. Based on this result, a complete characterization of linear n-Lie derivations on Alg L is obtained. Keywords. J -subspace lattice algebras; Lie derivations; Lie n-derivations; derivations. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 47B47, 47L35. 1. Introduction. Let A be an algebra. Recall that a linear ...
Dimension of the c-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to derive some inequalities for dimension of the c-nilpotent multiplier of finite dimensional Lie algebras and their factor Lie algebras. We further obtain an inequality between dimensions of c-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebra L and tensor product of a central ideal by its abelianized factor ...
The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.
1982-01-01
The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaitelman, Simona F.; Kim, Leonard H.; Yan Di; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Vicini, Frank A.; Grills, Inga S.
2011-01-01
Purpose: We present a novel form of arc therapy: continuous arc rotation of the couch (C-ARC) and compare its dosimetry with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). C-ARC, like VMAT, uses a modulated beam aperture and dose rate, but with the couch, not the gantry, rotating. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients previously treated with APBI using 3D-CRT were replanned with (1) C-ARC, (2) IMRT, and (3) VMAT. C-ARC plans were designed with one medial and one lateral arc through which the couch rotated while the gantry was held stationary at a tangent angle. Target dose coverage was normalized to the 3D-CRT plan. Comparative endpoints were dose to normal breast tissue, lungs, and heart and monitor units prescribed. Results: Compared with 3D-CRT, C-ARC, IMRT, and VMAT all significantly reduced the ipsilateral breast V50% by the same amount (mean, 7.8%). Only C-ARC and IMRT plans significantly reduced the contralateral breast maximum dose, the ipsilateral lung V5Gy, and the heart V5%. C-ARC used on average 40%, 30%, and 10% fewer monitor units compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: C-ARC provides improved dosimetry and treatment efficiency, which should reduce the risks of toxicity and secondary malignancy. Its tangent geometry avoids irradiation of critical structures that is unavoidable using the en face geometry of VMAT.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaballa, H; O’Brien, M; Riegel, A; Jamshidi, A; Klein, E [Northwell Health, Lake Success, NY (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a daily quality assurance (QA) device that can test the 6DoF (degrees of freedom) couch repositioning accuracy, prior to SBRT treatment deliveries, with an accuracy of ±0.3 degrees and ±0.3 mm. Methods: A daily QA phantom is designed with a focus on the derived center of projections of its markers, rather than tracking its individual markers one at a time. This approach can be the most favorable to address the intended machining accuracy of the QA phantom and the CBCT spatial resolution limitations, primarily 1 mm min slice thickness, simultaneously. With the current design, ±0.1 mm congruence of the resultant center of gravity of the markers with reference CT (0.6 mm minimum slice thickness) vs CBCT (1.0 mm minimum slice thickness) can be achieved. If successful, the QA device should be qualified to test 6DoF couch performance with a gauged accuracy of ±0.3 degrees/±0.3 mm. Testing is performed for the Varian True Beam 2.0 6DoF system. Results: Once the QA phantom is constructed and tested, agreement of the center of gravity of the reference CT scan and the CBCT scan of ±0.1 mm is achieved. This has translated into a consistent 3D-3D match on the treatment machine, CT vs CBCT, with a repetitive ±0.1 mm variation, thus exceeding our expectations. We have deployed the phantom for daily QA on one of our accelerators, and found that the QA time has increased by only 10 minutes. Conclusion: A 6DoF phantom has been designed (patent pending) and built with a realistic work flow in mind where the daily couch accuracy QA checks taking less than 10 minutes. Current developments include integration with the Varian’s Machine Performance Check consistency module.
Novel and high volume use flame retardants in US couches reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE phase out.
Stapleton, Heather M; Sharma, Smriti; Getzinger, Gordon; Ferguson, P Lee; Gabriel, Michelle; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene
2012-12-18
California's furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on the
Polygraph lie detection on real events in a laboratory setting.
Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C
1993-06-01
This laboratory study dealt with real-life intense emotional events. Subjects generated embarrassing stories from their experience, then submitted to polygraph testing and, by lying, denied their stories and, by telling the truth, denied a randomly assigned story. Money was given as an incentive to be judged innocent on each story. An interrogator, blind to the stories, used Control Question Tests and found subjects more deceptive when lying than when truthful. Stories interacted with order such that lying on the second story was more easily detected than lying on the first. Embarrassing stories provide an alternative to the use of mock crimes to study lie detection in the laboratory.
Enveloping algebras of Lie groups with descrete series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen huu Anh; Vuong manh Son
1990-09-01
In this article we shall prove that the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of some unimodular Lie group having discrete series, when localized at some element of the center, is isomorphic to the tensor product of a Weyl algebra over the ring of Laurent polynomials of one variable and the enveloping algebra of some reductive Lie algebra. In particular, it will be proved that the Lie algebra of a unimodular solvable Lie group having discrete series satisfies the Gelfand-Kirillov conjecture. (author). 6 refs
Internally connected graphs and the Kashiwara-Vergne Lie algebra
Felder, Matteo
2016-01-01
It is conjectured that the Kashiwara-Vergne Lie algebra $\\widehat{\\mathfrak{krv}}_2$ is isomorphic to the direct sum of the Grothendieck-Teichm\\"uller Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{grt}_1$ and a one-dimensional Lie algebra. In this paper, we use the graph complex of internally connected graphs to define a nested sequence of Lie subalgebras of $\\widehat{\\mathfrak{krv}}_2$ whose intersection is $\\mathfrak{grt}_1$, thus giving a way to interpolate between these two Lie algebras.
Economic viability and commercial experience with shihoro potato irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kume, T.
1985-01-01
A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season
Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qajarbeygi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.
Pro-Lie Groups: A Survey with Open Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl H. Hofmann
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A topological group is called a pro-Lie group if it is isomorphic to a closed subgroup of a product of finite-dimensional real Lie groups. This class of groups is closed under the formation of arbitrary products and closed subgroups and forms a complete category. It includes each finite-dimensional Lie group, each locally-compact group that has a compact quotient group modulo its identity component and, thus, in particular, each compact and each connected locally-compact group; it also includes all locally-compact Abelian groups. This paper provides an overview of the structure theory and the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups, including results more recent than those in the authors’ reference book on pro-Lie groups. Significantly, it also includes a review of the recent insight that weakly-complete unital algebras provide a natural habitat for both pro-Lie algebras and pro-Lie groups, indeed for the exponential function that links the two. (A topological vector space is weakly complete if it is isomorphic to a power RX of an arbitrary set of copies of R. This class of real vector spaces is at the basis of the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups. The article also lists 12 open questions connected to pro-Lie groups.
Devious Lies: Adventures in Freelance Science Outreach
Fatland, D. R.
2003-12-01
Observations are given from two freelance science outreach projects undertaken by the author: Tutoring at-risk secondary students and teaching astronomy to 5th-7th graders in a camp retreat environment. Two recurring thematic challenges in these experiences are considered: First the 'Misperception Problem', the institutionalized chasm between the process of doing science and K-12 science education (wherein science is often portrayed as something distant and inaccessible, while ironically children are necessarily excellent scientists). And second the 'Engagement Problem', engaging a student's attention and energy by matching teaching material and--more importantly--teaching techniques to the student's state of development. The objective of this work is twofold: To learn how to address these two challenges and to empower the students in a manner independent of the scientific content of any particular subject. An underlying hypothesis is that confidence to problem solve (a desirable life-skill) can be made more accessible through a combination of problem solving by the student and seeing how others have solved seemingly impossible problems. This hypothesis (or agenda) compels an emphasis on critical thinking and raises the dilemma of reconciling non-directed teaching with very pointed conclusions about the verity of pseudo-science and ideas prevalent about science in popular culture. An interesting pedagogical found-object in this regard is the useful 'devious lie' which can encourage a student to question the assumption that the teacher (and by extension any professed expert) has the right answers.
Quantum integrable systems related to lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.
1983-01-01
Some quantum integrable finite-dimensional systems related to Lie algebras are considered. This review continues the previous review of the same authors (1981) devoted to the classical aspects of these systems. The dynamics of some of these systems is closely related to free motion in symmetric spaces. Using this connection with the theory of symmetric spaces some results such as the forms of spectra, wave functions, S-matrices, quantum integrals of motion are derived. In specific cases the considered systems describe the one-dimensional n-body systems interacting pairwise via potentials g 2 v(q) of the following 5 types: vsub(I)(q)=q - 2 , vsub(II)(q)=sinh - 2 q, vsub(III)(q)=sin - 2 q, vsub(IV)(q)=P(q), vsub(V)(q)=q - 2 +#betta# 2 q 2 . Here P(q) is the Weierstrass function, so that the first three cases are merely subcases on the fourth. The system characterized by the Toda nearest-neighbour potential exp(qsub(j)-qsub(j+1)) is moreover considered. This review presents from a general and universal point of view results obtained mainly over the past fifteen years. Besides, it contains some new results both of physical and mathematical interest. (orig.)
Moving Picture, Lying Image: Unreliable Cinematic Narratives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Csönge Tamás
2015-08-01
Full Text Available By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. According to scholarly literature on the subject, the narrator has to be strongly characterized, or in other words, anthropomorphized. In the case of film, the main problem is that the narrator is either missing or the narration cannot be attributed entirely to them. There is a medial rupture where the apparatus mediates the story instead of a character’s oral or written discourse. The present paper focuses on some important but overlooked questions about the nature of cinematic storytelling through a re-examination of |the lying flashback in Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright. Can a character-narrator control the images the viewer sees? How can the filmic image still be unreliable without having an anthropomorphic narrator? How useful is the term focalization when we are dealing with embedded character-narratives in film?
Jonction Josephson en couche épaisse d'oxydes supraconducteurs
Gunther, C.; Monfort, Y.; Sing, M. Lam Chok; Bloyet, D.; Brousse, T.; Provost, J.; Raveau, B.
1992-02-01
Constrictions engraved in YBaCuO thick films fabricated by screen printing on YSZ substrate (J_c>3 000 A/cm^2 at 77 K) have been studied. Microwave irradiation of the devices at LN2 showed distinct Shapiro steps demonstrating the presence intrinsic Josephson junctions. The latter have an I_c(T) dependence fitting (1-T/T_c)^2 characteristic of SNS junctions. Furthermore, dc SQUID effects have also been observed with a peak-to-peak response simeq 0.2 μV and with a magnetic field periodicity extending through several hundred of φ_0. An energy resolution close to 3× 10^{-29} J/Hz is estimated for our constriction operating in the white noise frequency range (f>50 Hz) at 77 K. This sensitivity is adequate to use this flux sensor in many applications : geomagnetism, magnetocardiology, ... Nous avons étudié des constrictions gravées dans des couches épaisses d'YBaCuO déposées sur substrat de YSZ (J_c>3 000 A/cm^2 à 77 K). L'observation de marches de Shapiro lors d'irradiations des échantillons à 77 K par un champ HF met clairement en évidence la présence de jonctions Josephson intrinsèques de type SNS, leur dépendance en température du courant critique étant en (1-T/T_c)^2. De plus, nous avons obtenu des réponses en champ magnétique, caractéristiques des SQUIDs dc, d'amplitude 0,2 μVcc et dont la périodicité s'étend sur plusieurs centaines de φ_0. La résolution en énergie est de l'ordre de 3× 10^{-29} J/Hz en zone de bruit blanc (f>50 Hz) à 77 K. Cette sensibilité est suffisante pour envisager son utilisation dans des applications telles que : géomagnétisme, magnétocardiologie, ...
SU-E-J-126: An Online Replanning Method for FFF Beams Without Couch Shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahunbay, E; Ates, O; Li, X
2015-01-01
Purpose: In a situation that couch shift for patient positioning is not preferred or prohibited (e.g., MR-Linac), segment aperture morphing (SAM) can address target dislocation and deformation. For IMRT/VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams, however, SAM method would lead to an adverse translational dose effect due to the beam unflattening. Here we propose a new 2-step process to address both the translational effect of FFF beams and the target deformation. Methods: The replanning method consists of an offline and an online steps. The offline step is to create a series of pre-shifted plans (PSP) obtained by a so called “warm start” optimization (starting optimization from the original plan, rather from scratch) at a series of isocenter shifts with fixed distance (e.g. 2 cm, at x,y,z = 2,0,0 ; 2,2,0 ; 0,2,0; …;− 2,0,0). The PSPs all have the same number of segments with very similar shapes, since the warm-start optimization only adjusts the MLC positions instead of regenerating them. In the online step, a new plan is obtained by linearly interpolating the MLC positions and the monitor units of the closest PSPs for the shift determined from the image of the day. This two-step process is completely automated, and instantaneously fast (no optimization or dose calculation needed). The previously-developed SAM algorithm is then applied for daily deformation. We tested the method on sample prostate and pancreas cases. Results: The two-step interpolation method can account for the adverse dose effects from FFF beams, while SAM corrects for the target deformation. The whole process takes the same time as the previously reported SAM process (5–10 min). Conclusion: The new two-step method plus SAM can address both the translation effects of FFF beams and target deformation, and can be executed in full automation requiring no additional time from the SAM process. This research was supported by Elekta inc. (Crawley, UK)
SU-E-J-126: An Online Replanning Method for FFF Beams Without Couch Shift
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahunbay, E; Ates, O; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: In a situation that couch shift for patient positioning is not preferred or prohibited (e.g., MR-Linac), segment aperture morphing (SAM) can address target dislocation and deformation. For IMRT/VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams, however, SAM method would lead to an adverse translational dose effect due to the beam unflattening. Here we propose a new 2-step process to address both the translational effect of FFF beams and the target deformation. Methods: The replanning method consists of an offline and an online steps. The offline step is to create a series of pre-shifted plans (PSP) obtained by a so called “warm start” optimization (starting optimization from the original plan, rather from scratch) at a series of isocenter shifts with fixed distance (e.g. 2 cm, at x,y,z = 2,0,0 ; 2,2,0 ; 0,2,0; …;− 2,0,0). The PSPs all have the same number of segments with very similar shapes, since the warm-start optimization only adjusts the MLC positions instead of regenerating them. In the online step, a new plan is obtained by linearly interpolating the MLC positions and the monitor units of the closest PSPs for the shift determined from the image of the day. This two-step process is completely automated, and instantaneously fast (no optimization or dose calculation needed). The previously-developed SAM algorithm is then applied for daily deformation. We tested the method on sample prostate and pancreas cases. Results: The two-step interpolation method can account for the adverse dose effects from FFF beams, while SAM corrects for the target deformation. The whole process takes the same time as the previously reported SAM process (5–10 min). Conclusion: The new two-step method plus SAM can address both the translation effects of FFF beams and target deformation, and can be executed in full automation requiring no additional time from the SAM process. This research was supported by Elekta inc. (Crawley, UK)
Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei
2017-12-01
The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.
White Lies in Hand: Are Other-Oriented Lies Modified by Hand Gestures? Possibly Not
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Katarzyna Cantarero
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centered dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centered lying. In Study 1 (N = 79, we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one’s back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty. We then pre-registered and conducted Study 2 (N = 88, which was designed following higher methodological standards than Study 1. Contrary, to the findings of Study 1, we found that using the hand-over-heart gesture did not result in refraining from using other-oriented white lies. We discuss the findings of this failed replication indicating the importance of strict methodological guidelines in conducting research and also reflect on relatively small effect sizes related to some findings in embodied cognition.
White Lies in Hand: Are Other-Oriented Lies Modified by Hand Gestures? Possibly Not.
Cantarero, Katarzyna; Parzuchowski, Michal; Dukala, Karolina
2017-01-01
Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centered dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centered lying. In Study 1 ( N = 79), we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one's back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty. We then pre-registered and conducted Study 2 ( N = 88), which was designed following higher methodological standards than Study 1. Contrary, to the findings of Study 1, we found that using the hand-over-heart gesture did not result in refraining from using other-oriented white lies. We discuss the findings of this failed replication indicating the importance of strict methodological guidelines in conducting research and also reflect on relatively small effect sizes related to some findings in embodied cognition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robertson, D; Zhao, Z; Wang, X; Yang, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To measure the surface dose for supine craniospinal irradiation employing posterior beams, treating through an imaging couch and BlueBag immobilization device. Methods: The percentage depth dose (PDD) in the buildup region of a clinical 6 MV photon beam was measured using an Advanced Markus parallel plate ionization chamber in a solid water phantom. The PDD from a 10×10 cm{sup 2} anterior beam was measured at 100 cm SSD, simulating a traditional prone craniospinal technique. The measurements were compared to commissioning and treatment planning system data. The PDD was also measured in a posterior setup with the phantom surface laying directly on the Brainlab carbon fiber imaging couch, with the phantom surface 100 cm from the source, simulating a supine craniospinal setup. The posterior measurements were repeated with a BlueBag vacuum immobilization device between the couch and phantom, with thicknesses of 1.7 cm and 5 cm. The PDD from a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field and a typical 6×30 cm{sup 2} craniospinal field were also compared. The PDDs were normalized at 5 cm to reflect typical craniospinal prescription dose normalization. Results: The measured PDD curve from the anterior setup agreed well with commissioning and treatment planning data, with surface doses of 19.9%, 28.8% and 27.7%, respectively. The surface doses of the 10×10 cm{sup 2} and 6×30 cm{sup 2} fields delivered through the imaging couch were both 122.4%. The supine setup yielded surface doses of 122.4%, 121.6%, and 119.6% for the couch only, 1.7 cm bag, and 5 cm bag setups, respectively. Conclusion: Delivering craniospinal irradiation through a carbon fiber couch removes the majority of skin sparing. The addition of a vacuum bag immobilization device restores some skin sparing, but the magnitude of this effect is negligible.
Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes
Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...
THE INFLUENCE OF POTATO CYST NEMATODE G. ROSTOCHIENSIS INFESTATION ON DIFFERENT POTATO CULTIVARS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregor Urek
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the most serious pests of potato in Slovenia. Precise nematode identification and knowledge about potato cultivars, which are most suitable for growing in the Slovenian climate conditions and most resistant to G. rostochiensis, are necessary to develop an effective integrated pest control. Here we report the results of the influence of G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1/4 on the yield of different potato cultivars: the susceptible cultivar Desiree, the resistant cultivars White Lady, Miranda, Aladin, Sante and Adora, and the clone KIS 94-1/5-14. The yield of cv. White Lady was the highest and that of susceptible cv. Desiree the lowest. The influence of several resistant and one susceptible potato cultivars on population dynamics of G. rostochiensis was also determined. The total number of cysts/100 cm3 and the number of eggs and juveniles per cyst increased in the susceptible cv. Desiree and decreased in the resistant cultivars White Lady, Sante and Adora.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brezovich, Ivan A.; Pareek, Prem N.; Plott, W. Eugene; Jennelle, Richard L. S.
1997-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this project was the development of a quality assurance (QA) system that would provide geographically accurate targeting for linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (LBSR). Methods and Materials: The key component of our QA system is a novel device (Alignment Tool) for expedient measurement of gantry and treatment table excursions (wobble) during rotation. The Alignment Tool replaces the familiar pencil-shaped pointers with a ball pointer that is used with the field light of the accelerator to indicate alignment of beam and target. Wobble is measured prior to each patient treatment and analyzed together with the BRW coordinates of the target by a spreadsheet. The corrections required to compensate for any imprecision are identified, and a printout generated indicating the floor stand coordinates for each couch angle used to place the target at isocenter. Results: The Alignment Tool has an inherent accuracy of measurement better than 0.1 mm. The overall targeting error of our QA method, found by evaluating 177 target simulator films of 55 foci in 40 randomly selected patients, was 0.47 ± 0.23 mm. The Alignment Tool was also valuable during installation of the floor stand and a supplemental collimator for the accelerator. Conclusions: The QA procedure described allows accurate targeting in LBSR, even when couch rotation is imprecise. The Alignment Tool can facilitate the installation of any stereotactic irradiation system, and can be useful for annual QA checks as well as in the installation and commissioning of new accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Njeh, Christopher F; Parker, Jason; Spurgin, Joseph; Rhoe, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
Carbon fiber (CF) is now the material of choice for radiation therapy couch tops. Initial designs included side metal bars for rigidity; however, with the advent of IGRT, involving on board imaging, new thicker CF couch tops without metal bars have been developed. The new design allows for excellent imaging at the expense of potentially unacceptable dose attenuation and perturbation. We set out to model the BrainLAB imaging couch top (ICT) in Philips Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system (TPS), to validate the already modeled ICT in BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose treatment planning system and to compute the magnitude of the loss in skin sparing. Using CF density of 0.55 g/cm 3 and foam density of 0.03 g/cm 3 , we demonstrated an excellent agreement between measured dose and Pinnacle 3 TPS computed dose using 6 MV beam. The agreement was within 1% for all gantry angle measured except for 120 o , which was 1.8%. The measured and iPlan RT Dose TPS computed dose agreed to within 1% for all gantry angles and field sizes measured except for 100 o where the agreement was 1.4% for 10 cm × 10 cm field size. Predicted attenuation through the couch by iPlan RT Dose TPS (3.4% - 9.5%) and Pinnacle 3 TPS (2% - 6.6%) were within the same magnitude and similar to previously reported in the literature. Pinnacle 3 TPS estimated an 8% to 20% increase in skin dose with increase in field size. With the introduction of the CF couch top, it estimated an increase in skin dose by approximately 46 - 90%. The clinical impact of omitting the couch in treatment planning will be dependent on the beam arrangement, the percentage of the beams intersecting the couch and their angles of incidence. We have successfully modeled the ICT in Pinnacle 3 TPS and validated the modeled ICT in iPlan RT Dose. It is recommended that the ICT be included in treatment planning for all treatments that involve posteriors beams. There is a significant increase in skin dose that is dependent on the percentage of the beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Njeh Christopher F
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon fiber (CF is now the material of choice for radiation therapy couch tops. Initial designs included side metal bars for rigidity; however, with the advent of IGRT, involving on board imaging, new thicker CF couch tops without metal bars have been developed. The new design allows for excellent imaging at the expense of potentially unacceptable dose attenuation and perturbation. Objectives We set out to model the BrainLAB imaging couch top (ICT in Philips Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS, to validate the already modeled ICT in BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose treatment planning system and to compute the magnitude of the loss in skin sparing. Results Using CF density of 0.55 g/cm3 and foam density of 0.03 g/cm3, we demonstrated an excellent agreement between measured dose and Pinnacle3 TPS computed dose using 6 MV beam. The agreement was within 1% for all gantry angle measured except for 120o, which was 1.8%. The measured and iPlan RT Dose TPS computed dose agreed to within 1% for all gantry angles and field sizes measured except for 100o where the agreement was 1.4% for 10 cm × 10 cm field size. Predicted attenuation through the couch by iPlan RT Dose TPS (3.4% - 9.5% and Pinnacle3 TPS (2% - 6.6% were within the same magnitude and similar to previously reported in the literature. Pinnacle3 TPS estimated an 8% to 20% increase in skin dose with increase in field size. With the introduction of the CF couch top, it estimated an increase in skin dose by approximately 46 - 90%. The clinical impact of omitting the couch in treatment planning will be dependent on the beam arrangement, the percentage of the beams intersecting the couch and their angles of incidence. Conclusion We have successfully modeled the ICT in Pinnacle3 TPS and validated the modeled ICT in iPlan RT Dose. It is recommended that the ICT be included in treatment planning for all treatments that involve posteriors beams. There is a significant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teboh, Forbang R; Agee, M; Rowe, L; Creasy, T; Schultz, J; Bell, R; Wong, J; Armour, E
2014-01-01
Purpose: Immobilization devices combine rigid patient fixation as well as comfort and play a key role providing the stability required for accurate radiation delivery. In the setup step, couch re-positioning needed to align the patient is derived via registration of acquired versus reference image. For subsequent fractions, replicating the initial setup should yield identical alignment errors when compared to the reference. This is not always the case and further couch re-positioning can be needed. An important quality assurance measure is to set couch tolerances beyond which additional investigations are needed. The purpose of this work was to study the inter-fraction couch changes needed to re-align the patient and the intra-fraction stability of the alignment as a guide to establish the couch tolerances. Methods: Data from twelve patients treated on the Accuray CyberKnife (CK) system for fractionated intracranial radiotherapy and immobilized with Aquaplast RT, U-frame, F-Head-Support (Qfix, PA, USA) was used. Each fraction involved image acquisitions and registration with the reference to re-align the patient. The absolute couch position corresponding to the approved setup alignment was recorded per fraction. Intra-fraction set-up corrections were recorded throughout the treatment. Results: The average approved setup alignment was 0.03±0.28mm, 0.15±0.22mm, 0.06±0.31mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.00±0.35degrees, 0.03±0.32degrees, 0.08±0.45degrees for roll, pitch and yaw respectively. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the couch position was 6.65mm, 10.55mm, and 4.77mm in the L/R, A/P and S/I directions respectively and 0.82degrees, 0.71degrees for roll and pitch respectively. Intra-fraction monitoring showed small average errors of 0.21±0.21mm, 0.00±0.08mm, 0.23±0.22mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.03±0.12degrees, 0.04±0.25degrees, and 0.13±0.15degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw respectively. Conclusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teboh, Forbang R; Agee, M; Rowe, L; Creasy, T; Schultz, J; Bell, R; Wong, J; Armour, E [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Immobilization devices combine rigid patient fixation as well as comfort and play a key role providing the stability required for accurate radiation delivery. In the setup step, couch re-positioning needed to align the patient is derived via registration of acquired versus reference image. For subsequent fractions, replicating the initial setup should yield identical alignment errors when compared to the reference. This is not always the case and further couch re-positioning can be needed. An important quality assurance measure is to set couch tolerances beyond which additional investigations are needed. The purpose of this work was to study the inter-fraction couch changes needed to re-align the patient and the intra-fraction stability of the alignment as a guide to establish the couch tolerances. Methods: Data from twelve patients treated on the Accuray CyberKnife (CK) system for fractionated intracranial radiotherapy and immobilized with Aquaplast RT, U-frame, F-Head-Support (Qfix, PA, USA) was used. Each fraction involved image acquisitions and registration with the reference to re-align the patient. The absolute couch position corresponding to the approved setup alignment was recorded per fraction. Intra-fraction set-up corrections were recorded throughout the treatment. Results: The average approved setup alignment was 0.03±0.28mm, 0.15±0.22mm, 0.06±0.31mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.00±0.35degrees, 0.03±0.32degrees, 0.08±0.45degrees for roll, pitch and yaw respectively. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the couch position was 6.65mm, 10.55mm, and 4.77mm in the L/R, A/P and S/I directions respectively and 0.82degrees, 0.71degrees for roll and pitch respectively. Intra-fraction monitoring showed small average errors of 0.21±0.21mm, 0.00±0.08mm, 0.23±0.22mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.03±0.12degrees, 0.04±0.25degrees, and 0.13±0.15degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw respectively. Conclusion
Lying to patients with dementia: Attitudes versus behaviours in nurses.
Cantone, Daniela; Attena, Francesco; Cerrone, Sabrina; Fabozzi, Antonio; Rossiello, Riccardo; Spagnoli, Laura; Pelullo, Concetta Paola
2017-01-01
Using lies, in dementia care, reveals a common practice far beyond the diagnosis and prognosis, extending to the entire care process. In this article, we report results about the attitude and the behaviour of nurses towards the use of lies to patients with dementia. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2016 and February 2017 in 12 elderly residential facilities and in the geriatric, psychiatric and neurological wards of six specialised hospitals of Italy's Campania Region. In all, 106 nurses compiled an attitude questionnaire (A) where the main question was 'Do you think it is ethically acceptable to use lies to patients with dementia?', instead 106 nurses compiled a behaviour questionnaire (B), where the main question was 'Have you ever used lies to patients with dementia?' Ethical considerations: Using lies in dementia care, although topic ethically still controversial, reveals a common practice far beyond the diagnosis and prognosis, extending to the entire care process. Only a small percentage of the interviewed nurses stated that they never used lies/that it is never acceptable to use lies (behaviour 10.4% and attitude 12.3%; p = 0.66). The situation in which nurses were more oriented to use lies was 'to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviors'. Indeed, only the 6.7% in the attitude group and 3.8% in the behaviour group were against using lies. On the contrary, the case in which the nurses were less oriented to use lies was 'to avoid wasting time giving explanations', in this situation were against using lies the 51.0% of the behaviour group and the 44.6% of the attitude group. Our results, according to other studies, support the hypothesis of a low propensity of nurses to ethical reflection about use of lies. In our country, the implementation of guidelines about a correct use of lie in the relationship between health operators and patients would be desirable.
Renormalization group flows and continual Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakas, Ioannis
2003-01-01
We study the renormalization group flows of two-dimensional metrics in sigma models using the one-loop beta functions, and demonstrate that they provide a continual analogue of the Toda field equations in conformally flat coordinates. In this algebraic setting, the logarithm of the world-sheet length scale, t, is interpreted as Dynkin parameter on the root system of a novel continual Lie algebra, denoted by (d/dt;1), with anti-symmetric Cartan kernel K(t,t') = δ'(t-t'); as such, it coincides with the Cartan matrix of the superalgebra sl(N vertical bar N+1) in the large-N limit. The resulting Toda field equation is a non-linear generalization of the heat equation, which is integrable in target space and shares the same dissipative properties in time, t. We provide the general solution of the renormalization group flows in terms of free fields, via Baecklund transformations, and present some simple examples that illustrate the validity of their formal power series expansion in terms of algebraic data. We study in detail the sausage model that arises as geometric deformation of the O(3) sigma model, and give a new interpretation to its ultra-violet limit by gluing together two copies of Witten's two-dimensional black hole in the asymptotic region. We also provide some new solutions that describe the renormalization group flow of negatively curved spaces in different patches, which look like a cane in the infra-red region. Finally, we revisit the transition of a flat cone C/Z n to the plane, as another special solution, and note that tachyon condensation in closed string theory exhibits a hidden relation to the infinite dimensional algebra (d/dt;1) in the regime of gravity. Its exponential growth holds the key for the construction of conserved currents and their systematic interpretation in string theory, but they still remain unknown. (author)
Presence and Distribution of Economically Important Potato Viruses in Montenegro
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Jelena Zindović
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The research was carried out, in the period 2002-2004 in order to determine the presence and distribution of potato viruses at 12 different locations and on 9 different potato varieties grown in Montenegro. The research included collecting of samples in seed potato crops and testing of six economically important potato viruses: Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus X (PVX, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus A (PVA i Potato virus M (PVM. Using the direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA and commercial antisera specific for six potato viruses, it was found that PVY was the most frequent virus during the three-year research period. The second frequent virus was PVS, followed by PVA, PLRV, PVM and PVX. Single and mixed infections were detected, and the most prevalent were the single infections of PVY. Also, in the period 2002-2004, PVY had the highest distribution and the number of present viruses was different at different localities and on different potato varieties. Further investigations were related to detailed characterization of the most prevalent virus (PVY, which is at the same time economically the most important one. Serological characterization of PVY was performed utilizing DAS-ELISA kit with commercial monoclonal antibodies specific for detection of the three strain groups of PVY, and the two straingroups - necrotic (PVYN/PVYNTN and common (PVYO, were identified. Necrotic strains were prevalent in 2002 and 2004, while in 2003 PVYO was the most frequent strain in virus population. The presence of stipple streak strain (PVYC was not detected in any of the testedsamples.
Mutagenicity studies on alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinozaki, Yoshiharu; Hogetsu, Daisuke; Okuyama, Norio; Manabe, Takashi; Sasagawa, Tatsuru.
1981-01-01
The preparation of alcohol extracts from gamma-irradiated potatoes of the ''Danshaku'' variety and their chemical aspects were studied. The final concentrate of alcohol extracts from potatoes showed pH values of 3 -- 4. The o-quinones or ''radiotoxins'' reported by Kuzin, et al. were not detected in the alcohol extracts from potatoes of this variety by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, paper chromatography and the model enzymatic experiment. (author)
Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato
SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男
1987-01-01
The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...
Study on the cytogenetic activity of freshly irradiated potatoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zajtsev, A.N.; Osipova, I.N.
1978-01-01
Cytogenetic activity of potatoes, subjected to gamma irradiation in the dose of 10 Krad, feeding the animals in a day after irradiation, has been investigated. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, who obtained newly irradiated raw or baked potatoes, has no substantial difference from the analogous mutageneity index of mice from the control group. The data obtained are of practical importance when considering the problem of using gamma-irradiated potatoes in the people nourishment
Infection of potato mesophyll protoplasts with five plant viruses.
Barker, H; Harrison, B D
1982-12-01
Methods are described for preparing potato mesophyll protoplasts that are suitable for infection with inocula of virus nucleoprotein or RNA. The protoplasts could be infected with four sap-transmissible viruses (tobacco mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot and tomato black ring viruses) and with potato leafroll virus, which is not saptransmissible. No differences were observed in ability to infect protoplasts with potato leafroll virus strains differing either in virulence in intact plants or in aphid transmissibility.
Combination processes for improving storage of irradiated potatoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirsat, S.G.; Thomas, P.; Nair, P.M.
1990-01-01
Various combined treatments of harvested potatoes to reduce microbial spoilage of irradiated potatoes in storage were studied. Treatments studied were irradiation in conjunction with hot water dip, cold or hot salicylic acid dip, dusting with salicylic acid powder, and sodium hypochlorite wash followed by storage in well aerated containers. Microbial spoilage in irradiated potatoes was found to be greatly reduced by storage at 10deg or 15degC in well aerated containers. (M.G.B.). 9 refs., 1 tab
Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharabash, M; Orabi, I O [National Center for research and radiation Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eloksh, I I; Abd-Alia, M A [Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)
1995-10-01
Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs.
Studies on the storage of irradiated potatoes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharabash, M.; Orabi, I.O.; Eloksh, I.I.; Abd-Alia, M.A.
1995-01-01
Tubers of alpha and king edward potato cultivars were exposed to O, 10 or 50 krad and stored under room temperature and good ventilation in perforated standard carton boxes. 10 Krad was the promising dosage for sprouting inhibition for both the two cultivars. Total losses in weight were partially dependent on the volume of the dosage, the time elapsed after irradiation and cultivar used. Ascorbic acid slightly decreased, whilst sugar fractions were increased during storage in irradiated tubers. Sugar fractions were sharply decreased in boiled or fried potatoes. Also, chlorogenic acid was increased by prolonging the storage time and/or increasing the exposure dose. After-cooking discoloration (darkening) was reduced by gamma irradiation and/or extending the storage period. Using 0.5% citric acid or 0.5% sodium citrate solution inhibited the after-cooking discoloration. 8 tabs
Goeminne, M; Demeulemeester, K; Viaene, N
2011-01-01
In order to make a cost benefit analysis for the management of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, we developed a method to estimate the relative importance of three basic distribution channels of potato cyst nematodes: seed potatoes, machinery and soil tare. The baseline is determined by the area planted with potatoes, the area infested with potato cysts, the proportion of resistant potato cultivars and the distribution of cysts trough different channels. This quantification forms a basis for the evaluation of the effects of different control measures for potato cyst nematode on a national scale. The method can be useful as an example for application in other countries.
Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...
Seed Potato Production and Its Importance
Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK; Taşkın POLAT
2017-01-01
Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified...
Effects of gamma radiation on potato meristems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M.A.
1976-01-01
The development of buds in potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 8 and 12 Krad is studied at histological level. The irradiation was supplied at the beguining and end of the resting period, and the irradiated buds were observed at different stages of their development. Meristem's sensitivity depends on the state of activity involved at the moment of irradiation. Different parts of the meristem present different radiosensitivity, being the most radioresistant. (author) [es
Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S. [Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Minsk (Belarus)
2004-07-01
Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that {sup 137}Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of {sup 137}Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The
Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.
1969-09-01
Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.
Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit
2009-01-01
Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170...
Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.; Chao, Y.
2003-01-01
The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes
Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of dried potato
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J. E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn; Chao, Y
2003-03-01
The objectives of this study were to obtain the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of dried potato. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of different doses, air temperatures, slice thickness of potatoes on the dehydration rate, appearance quality (L-values), vitamin C content, and the rehydration ratio of dried potatoes. The greater the dose, the higher the dehydration rate, the lesser the vitamin C content, and the lower the rehydration ratio. The L-values for low-dose irradiation was greater than that for non-irradiated potatoes.
Potato production on private plots contaminated by radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasiuk, S.
2004-01-01
Potatoes is one of the basis food products of man diet, especially in country area. Recent research has shown that 137 Cs content in potato tubers does not exceed the permissible level at the potato growing on radioactive contaminated land in Belarus. However up to 240-300 kg of potatoes is consumed per man during year and potato yield determines significant share of the internal dose of radiation. Moreover, extra potato yield sold on market is forming the essential part of the rural family budget. Therefore the reducing of 137 Cs content in potatoes and increasing of potato yield could be allowed to improve of quality life of rural inhabitants on contaminated areas. The application of protection measures on private plots are restricted by lack of the knowledge and financial deficit. The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory There is strong motivation for inhabitants to increase the yield and to reduce the radionuclide concentration in potatoes. How to develop the conditions for the sustainable potato production by private producers on affected land? There are several factors to consider. Firstly, the rural inhabitants should be actively involved as initiators to improve their quality life. Secondly, the potato technology should be adopted to the local territory and tested by producers on radiological and economic efficiency. Thirdly, the common village initiatives should be developed for supplying by new varieties of seeds and fertilizers, selling of yield, consulting, crediting etc. The step-by-step solution of described strategy could allow improving and stabilizing the potato production by rural community. The training of rural people as an initial step was realized to transfer to the inhabitants the practical skills that can be used in their day-to-day life within framework of 'ETHOS-II' project. The experimental potato
THE STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF POTATO PRODUCED IN ROMANIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena BULARCA
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed and interpreted the main statistical indicators of potato produced in Romania. First of all, we start by presenting some information about potatoes: origin and appearance, their importance and necessity in the life of people and animals. Then on the basis of the specific statistical indicators, it was interpreted the evolution of the cultivated area, the percentage of the main counties in the cultivated area with potatoes, the average yield per hectare, as well as the import and export of potatoes in a given period. Each indicator was analyzed and corresponding remarks and conclusions have been drawn.
Storage of irradiated potatoes under artificially humidified conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winchester, R.V.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Thomas, A.C.
1976-01-01
Potatoes of the BPI, Up-to-Date, and Pimpernel varieties have been irradiated and stored for sixteen weeks at a relative humidity of 69 per cent to counteract shrinkage caused by low humidity. Moisture loss is reduced by approximately one-quarter compared with storage at ambient humidity (average 42 per cent), and the appearance of the potatoes is considerably improved. The higher humidity causes very few changes in either chemical or physical properties of the potato, except for a slight increase in reducing sugars which is not sufficiently large to preclude the use of the potatoes for processing
Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janet Igarza Castro
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.
Mutation breeding on potato by using nuclear techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-01-01
Potato breeding is one of the most frequent cases in terms of production and growing distinct after cultivation of cereals. The utilization of potato increases everyday since the nodes of potato are available for using fresh food and also chipping, producing starch, alcohol as well as animal feed. At the present day, potatoes are more significant as a result of uses of them. The most productive country in potato is china. According to data 2007, Turkey produces 4280 million ton potatoes every year. Potato is in the group of nodule plants. Even though potato production is frequent every place in Turkey, the most productive place is Central part of Turkey especially Nigde and Nevsehir. 43.2% of production is obtained in these cities. According to 2007 data, potato production area 158.500 ha in Turkey. The most significant input is seed for potato since potatoes are reduced by nodes as being vegetative. Even though amount of used seed is predicated on aim, ecologic circumstances, breed, is 200-300 kg/da. Seed registration certification system have been started since 1972 in potato. Until 2007, 68 variety breed were registered but all of them except. Pasinler and Nif are brought from abroad. Pasinler and Nif which are cultivated in Turkey does not hold a place among seed program. There is no domestic breed in potato - seed. For that reason, mutant diversities, which are highly acclimatized to adapt, fertile, substantial against diseases, pests and substantial for storage, are aimed to grow to provide them for farmers. These diversities also must have different elaboration periods and highly weedy starch to being useful for industries. In this study, we used Marfona potato variety which has been grown in large areas for a long time in Turkey. Marfona potato which is registered in 1991 in our country is in middle-early maturity growing group, also it has light yellow as well as peel with its white bloom and big node. Marfona which is highly substantial against virus
Lie transforms and their use in Hamiltonian perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cary, J.R.
1978-06-01
A review is presented of the theory of Lie transforms as applied to Hamiltonian systems. We begin by presenting some general background on the Hamiltonian formalism and by introducing the operator notation for canonical transformations. We then derive the general theory of Lie transforms. We derive the formula for the new Hamiltonian when one uses a Lie transform to effect a canonical transformation, and we use Lie transforms to prove a very general version of Noether's theorem, or the symmetry-equals-invariant theorem. Next we use the general Lie transform theory to derive Deprit's perturbation theory. We illustrate this perturbation theory by application to two well-known problems in classical mechanics. Finally we present a chapter on conventions. There are many ways to develop Lie transforms. The last chapter explains the reasons for the choices made here
Lie-Hamilton systems on curved spaces: a geometrical approach
Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Tobolski, Mariusz
2017-12-01
A Lie-Hamilton system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, a Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra, of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure. Its general solution can be written as an autonomous function, the superposition rule, of a generic finite family of particular solutions and a set of constants. We pioneer the study of Lie-Hamilton systems on Riemannian spaces (sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic plane), pseudo-Riemannian spaces (anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and Minkowski spacetimes) as well as on semi-Riemannian spaces (Newtonian spacetimes). Their corresponding constants of motion and superposition rules are obtained explicitly in a geometric way. This work extends the (graded) contraction of Lie algebras to a contraction procedure for Lie algebras of vector fields, Hamiltonian functions, and related symplectic structures, invariants, and superposition rules.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drago Milošević
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.
Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato
Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.
1997-01-01
The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.
Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten models based on Lie superalgebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammedi, N.
1994-04-01
The affine current algebra for Lie superalgebras is examined. The bilinear invariant forms of the Lie superalgebra can be either degenerate or non-degenerate. We give the conditions for a Virasoro construction, in which the currents are primary fields of weight one, to exist. In certain cases, the Virasoro central charge is an integer equal to the super dimension of the group supermanifold. A Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten action based on these Lie superalgebras is also found. (orig.)
Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie
2013-01-01
Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Low-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over finite fields
Falcón Ganfornina, Óscar Jesús; Núñez Valdés, Juan; Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad; Vasek, Vladimir (Coordinador); Shmaliy, Yuriy S. (Coordinador); Trcek, Denis (Coordinador); Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. (Coordinador); Choras, Ryszard S. (Coordinador); Klos, Zbigniew (Coordinador)
2011-01-01
In this paper we use some objects of Graph Theory to classify low-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over finite fields. The idea lies in the representation of each Lie algebra by a certain type of graphs. Then, some properties on Graph Theory make easier to classify the algebras. As results, which can be applied in several branches of Physics or Engineering, for instance, we find out that there exist, up to isomorphism, six 6-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over Z/pZ, for p = 2, 3, 5. Pl...
Expansion of the Lie algebra and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Fukui; Zhang Yufeng
2006-01-01
We take the Lie algebra A1 as an example to illustrate a detail approach for expanding a finite dimensional Lie algebra into a higher-dimensional one. By making use of the late and its resulting loop algebra, a few linear isospectral problems with multi-component potential functions are established. It follows from them that some new integrable hierarchies of soliton equations are worked out. In addition, various Lie algebras may be constructed for which the integrable couplings of soliton equations are obtained by employing the expanding technique of the the Lie algebras
3-Lie bialgebras (Lb,Cd and (Lb,Ce
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bai Ruipu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebras, and four-dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ are classified. It is proved that there exist three classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebra which are $(L, C_{c_i}$, $i=1, 2, 3$ (Lemma 3.1, and ten classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ (Theorem 3.2.
Future problems on the storage of potatoes, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Masato
1981-01-01
The effects of different storage methods on the composition, and the properties of potatoes and their suitability for processing were examined using 3 early and 3 late cultivars. When potatoes were stored at room temperature, although the results varied slightly with the cultivars, there was from 3 to 6% decrease in weight by the next spring, the content of starch decreased strikingly from the beginning of storage to around the end of February, the content of total free sugars increased rapidly from around December to the end of February, the amino acid content tended to increase during the storage period, and 65% of the total ascorbic acid in potatoes still remained early in April. Potatoes lost their shape during cooking more easily as they were stored longer. When potatoes were stored at constant temperature of 5 deg C, the decrease in weight occurred more slowly than that at 2 or 10 deg C. As the storage temperature was lower, the amount of both reduced and non-reduced sugars accumulated more, which make fried potatoes brownish. The potatoes stored at 10 deg C had the best color when they were fried, but began to sprout in mid-December. Thus, to ensure long-term supply for making good fried potatoes, potatoes should be stored at 5 deg C, then be kept at 20 - 25 deg C for 1 - 2 weeks to reduce the sugar content before processing. The sprouting of potatoes was inhibited prominently when MH-30 was given during the intermediate stage of tuber enlargement. The potatoes 40 days after harvest, irradiated with 7 or 15 krad and stored at normal temperature lost less weight than those which were not irradiated. (Kaihara, S.)
In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber
Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya
2018-03-01
Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.
Sprout inhibition of potatoes by electron irradiation, (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuta, Junichiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shinichi; Fujishiro, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Tsujii, Yukio; Hori, Shiro
1982-01-01
Sprouting of potatoes are inhibited usually by the gamma-ray irradiation. The buds of potatoes exist in a very thin layer near surface of each tuber. So the inhibition will be performed sufficiently by surface irradiation using electron beams. To irradiate all surfaces of each potato uniformly, the authors prepare a new apparatus which is a conveyer passing under an electron beam scanner of accelerator rotating the potatoes by many rotating rollers. The sprout inhibition experiment of potatoes was performed by following three methods to obtain the performance of this apparatus, and the results were compared. 1) turn over irradiation method --- potatoes were arranged in one layer in plastic baskets and were irradiated on the conveyor. After irradiation, the potatoes were turned over and were irradiated again. 2) rotating irradiation method --- potatoes were rotated on the rotating roller apparatus set on the conveyer and were passed under the electron beam scanner. 3) rotating irradiation method with an improved rotating roller apparatus --- the rotating rollers have many protuberances on their surface to irradiate all of potato surface more uniform. 550 keV electron beams by Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator were used for the irradiation and the irradiated dose was 5 to 20 krad. 40 pieces of potates, ''Danshaku'' variety yielded in June 1981, were irradiated for each dose in the beginning of August. Prior to these irradiation experiments, the dose and dose uniformity were checked by the agar color dosimeters. After the irradiation, potatoes were stored in natural condition and their sprouting was observed. The potatoes irradiated by the improved rotating roller apparatus were almost completely sprout-inhibited by 20 krad irradiation. (author)
Classification of simple flexible Lie-admissible algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okubo, S.; Myung, H.C.
1979-01-01
Let A be a finite-dimensional flexible Lie-admissible algebra over the complex field such that A - is a simple Lie algebra. It is shown that either A is itself a Lie algebra isomorphic to A - or A - is a Lie algebra of type A/sub n/ (n greater than or equal to 2). In the latter case, A is isomorphic to the algebra defined on the space of (n + 1) x (n + 1) traceless matrices with multiplication given by x * y = μxy + (1 - μ)yx - (1/(n + 100 Tr (xy) E where μ is a fixed scalar, xy denotes the matrix operators in Lie algebras which has been studied in theoretical physics. We also discuss a broader class of Lie algebras over arbitrary field of characteristic not equal to 2, called quasi-classical, which includes semisimple as well as reductive Lie algebras. For this class of Lie algebras, we can introduce a multiplication which makes the adjoint operator space into an associative algebra. When L is a Lie algebra with nondegenerate killing form, it is shown that the adjoint operator algebra of L in the adjoint representation becomes a commutative associative algebra with unit element and its dimension is 1 or 2 if L is simple over the complex field. This is related to the known result that a Lie algebra of type A/sub n/ (n greater than or equal to 2) alone has a nonzero completely symmetric adjoint operator in the adjoint representation while all other algebras have none. Finally, Lie-admissible algebras associated with bilinear form are investigated
SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N; Laurel, A
2015-01-01
Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the
SU-E-T-234: Daily Quality Assurance for a Six Degrees of Freedom Couch Using a Novel Phantom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woods, K; Woollard, J; Ayan, A; Sandu, A; Sommerfeld, J; Gupta, N [Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH (United States); Laurel, A [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of both translational and rotational movements for a couch with six degrees of freedom (6DoF) using a novel phantom design Methods: An end-to-end test was carried out using two different phantoms. A 6 cm3 cube with a central fiducial BB (WL-QA Sun Nuclear) and a custom fabricated rectangular prism (31 cm x 8 cm x 8 cm), placed on a baseplate with known angular offsets for pitch, roll and yaw with a central fiducial BB and unique surface structures for registration purposes, were used. The end-to-end test included an initial CT simulation for a reference study, setup to an offset mark on each phantom, registration of the reference CT to the acquired cone-beam CT, and final Winston-Lutz delivery at four cardinal gantry angles. Results for both translational and rotational movements were recorded and compared for both phantoms. Results: Translational and rotational measurements were performed with a PerfectPitch (Varian) couch for 10 trials for both phantoms. Distinct translational shifts were [−5.372±0.384mm, −10.183±0.137mm, 14.028±0.155mm] for the cube and [7.520±0.159mm, −9.117±0.101mm, 16.273±0.115mm] for the prototype phantom for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively. Distinct rotational adjustments were [1.121±0.102o, −1.067±0.235o, −2.662±0.380o] for the cube and [2.534±0.059o, 1.994±0.025o, 2.094±0.076o] for the prototype for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Winston-Lutz test results performed after 6DoF couch correction from each cardinal gantry angle ranged from 0.26–0.72mm for the cube and 0.55–0.86mm for the prototype. Conclusion: The prototype phantom is more precise for both translational and rotational adjustments compared to a commercial phantom. The design of the prototype phantom allows for a more discernible visual confirmation of correct translational and rotational adjustments with the prototype phantom. Winston-Lutz results are more accurate for the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Colvill, Emma; Booth, Jeremy; Nill, Simeon
2016-01-01
AND MATERIALS: Ten institutions with robotic(2), gimbaled(2), MLC(4) or couch tracking(2) used common materials including CT and structure sets, motion traces and planning protocols to create a lung and a prostate plan. For each motion trace, the plan was delivered twice to a moving dosimeter; with and without...
Janská, Anna; Svoboda, Pavel; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Kučera, Ladislav; Ovesná, Jaroslava
2018-05-02
The wild relatives of crop species represent a potentially valuable source of novel genetic variation, particularly in the context of improving the crop's level of tolerance to abiotic stress. The mechanistic basis of these tolerances remains largely unexplored. Here, the focus was to characterize the transcriptomic response of the nodes (meristematic tissue) of couch grass (a relative of barley) to dehydration stress, and to compare it to that of the barley crown formed by both a drought tolerant and a drought sensitive barley cultivar. Many of the genes up-regulated in the nodes by the stress were homologs of genes known to be mediated by abscisic acid during the response to drought, or were linked to either development or lipid metabolism. Transporters also featured prominently, as did genes acting on root architecture. The resilience of the couch grass node arise from both their capacity to develop an altered, more effective root architecture, but also from their formation of a lipid barrier on their outer surface and their ability to modify both their lipid metabolism and transporter activity when challenged by dehydration stress. Our analysis revealed the nature of dehydration stress response in couch grass. We suggested the tolerance is associated with lipid metabolism, the induction of transporters and the re-programming of development coordinated by ABA. We also proved the applicability of barley microarray for couch grass stress-response analysis.
Zhang, Qinghui; Driewer, Joseph; Wang, Shuo; Li, Sicong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Dandan; Cao, Yijian; Zhang, Jiaju; Jamshidi, Abolghassem; Cox, Brett W; Knisely, Jonathan P S; Potters, Louis; Klein, Eric E
2017-08-01
The accuracy of a six degree of freedom (6DoF) couch was evaluated using a novel method. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of a 3D phantom (IsoCal) were acquired with different, known combinations of couch pitch and roll angles. Pitch and roll angles between the maximum allowable values of 357 and 3 degrees were tested in one degree increments. A total of 49 combinations were tested at 0 degrees of yaw (couch rotation angle). The 3D positions of 16 tungsten carbide ball bearings (BBs), each 4 mm in diameter and arranged in a known geometry within the IsoCal phantom, were determined in the 49 image sets with in-house software. The BB positions at different rotation angles were determined using a rotation matrix from the original BB positions at zero pitch and roll angles. A linear least squares fit method estimated the rotation angles and differences between detected and nominal rotation angles were calculated. This study was conducted for the case with and without extra weight on the couch. Couch walk shifts for the system were investigated using eight combinations of rotation, roll and pitch. A total of 49 CBCT images with voxel sizes 0.5 × 0.5 × 1.0 mm 3 were taken for the case without extra weight on the couch. The 16 BBs were determined to evaluate the isocenter translation and rotation differences between the calculated and nominal couch values. Among all 49 calculations, the maximum rotation angle differences were 0.10 degrees for pitch, 0.15 degrees for roll and 0.09 degrees for yaw. The corresponding mean and standard deviation values were 0.028 ± 0.032, -0.043 ± 0.058, and -0.009 ± 0.033 degrees. The maximum translation differences were 0.3 mm in the left-right direction, 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction and 0.4 mm in the superior-inferior direction. The mean values and corresponding standard deviations were 0.07 ± 0.12, -0.05 ± 0.25, and -0.12±0.14 mm for the planes described above. With an 80 kg phantom on the couch, the
Cartan determinants, LIE algebra extensions, and the exceptional group series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capps, R.H.
1986-01-01
In this note the author utilizes the determinant of the generalized Cartan matrix for candidate Dynkin systems for two purposes. The first is to provide an uncomplicated criterion for classifying candidate one-root extensions of diagrams for semisimple Lie algebras. The second is to help determine some important properties of related Lie algebras and their representations
Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...
Transitive Lie algebras of vector fields: an overview
Draisma, J.
2011-01-01
This overview paper is intended as a quick introduction to Lie algebras of vector fields. Originally introduced in the late 19th century by Sophus Lie to capture symmetries of ordinary differential equations, these algebras, or infinitesimal groups, are a recurring theme in 20th-century research on
On approximation of Lie groups by discrete subgroups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... The notion of approximation of Lie groups by discrete subgroups was introduced by Tôyama in Kodai Math. Sem. Rep. 1 (1949) 36–37 and investigated in detail by Kuranishi in Nagoya Math. J. 2 (1951) 63–71. It is known as a theorem of Tôyama that any connected Lie group approximated by discrete ...
How (not) to Lie with Benefit-Cost Analysis
Scott Farrow
2013-01-01
Benefit-cost analysis is seen by some as a controversial activity in which the analyst can significantly bias the results. This note highlights some of the ways that analysts can "lie" in a benefit-cost analysis but more importantly, provides guidance on how not to lie and how to better inform public decisionmakers.
Lie and Noether symmetries of systems of complex ordinary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-02
Jul 2, 2014 ... Abstract. The Lie and Noether point symmetry analyses of a kth-order system of m complex ordi- nary differential equations (ODEs) with m dependent variables are performed. The decomposition of complex symmetries of the given system of complex ODEs yields Lie- and Noether-like opera- tors.
Lie Algebroids in Classical Mechanics and Optimal Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Martínez
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We review some recent results on the theory of Lagrangian systems on Lie algebroids. In particular we consider the symplectic and variational formalism and we study reduction. Finally we also consider optimal control systems on Lie algebroids and we show how to reduce Pontryagin maximum principle.
Young children will lie to prevent a moral transgression.
Harvey, Teresa; Davoodi, Telli; Blake, Peter R
2018-01-01
Children believe that it is wrong to tell lies, yet they are willing to lie prosocially to adhere to social norms and to protect a listener's feelings. However, it is not clear whether children will lie instrumentally to intervene on behalf of a third party when a moral transgression is likely to occur. In three studies (N=270), we investigated the conditions under which 5- to 8-year-olds would tell an "interventional lie" in order to misdirect one child who was seeking another child in a park. In Study 1, older children lied more when the seeker intended to steal a toy from another child than when the seeker intended to give cookies to the child. In Study 2, the transgression (stealing) was held constant, but harm to the victim was either emphasized or deemphasized. Children at all ages were more likely to lie to prevent the theft when harm was emphasized. In Study 3, harm to the victim was held constant and the act of taking was described as either theft or a positive action. Children at all ages were more likely to lie when the transgression was emphasized. We conclude that by 5years of age, children are capable of lying to prevent a moral transgression but that this is most likely to occur when both the transgression and the harm to the victim are salient. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory
Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.
2008-01-01
In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.
Children's Lies and Their Detection: Implications for Child Witness Testimony
Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela M.
2012-01-01
The veracity of child witness testimony is central to the justice system where there are serious consequences for the child, the accused, and society. Thus, it is important to examine how children's lie-telling abilities develop and the factors that can influence their truthfulness. The current review examines children's lie-telling ability in…
Lie Algebras Associated with Group U(n)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yufeng; Dong Huanghe; Honwah Tam
2007-01-01
Starting from the subgroups of the group U(n), the corresponding Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A 1 are presented, from which two well-known simple equivalent matrix Lie algebras are given. It follows that a few expanding Lie algebras are obtained by enlarging matrices. Some of them can be devoted to producing double integrable couplings of the soliton hierarchies of nonlinear evolution equations. Others can be used to generate integrable couplings involving more potential functions. The above Lie algebras are classified into two types. Only one type can generate the integrable couplings, whose Hamiltonian structure could be obtained by use of the quadratic-form identity. In addition, one condition on searching for integrable couplings is improved such that more useful Lie algebras are enlightened to engender. Then two explicit examples are shown to illustrate the applications of the Lie algebras. Finally, with the help of closed cycling operation relations, another way of producing higher-dimensional Lie algebras is given.
Internal deformation of Lie algebroids and symplectic realizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carinena, Jose F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zara-goza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Costa, Joana M Nunes da [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3001-454 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, PatrIcia [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal)
2006-06-02
Given a Lie algebroid and a bundle over its base which is endowed with a localizable Poisson structure and a flat connection, we construct an extended bundle whose dual is endowed with an almost-Poisson structure that is a quadratic Poisson structure when a certain compatibility property is satisfied. This new formalism on Lie algebroids describes systems with internal degrees of freedom.
Counting Semisimple Orbits of Finite Lie Algebras by Genus
Fulman, Jason
1999-01-01
The adjoint action of a finite group of Lie type on its Lie algebra is studied. A simple formula is conjectured for the number of split semisimple orbits of a given genus. This conjecture is proved for type A, and partial results are obtained for other types. For type A a probabilistic interpretation is given in terms of card shuffling.
Extracting Low-Lying Lambda Resonances Using Correlation Matrix Techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. S.
2011-01-01
The lowest-lying negative-parity state of the Lambda is investigated in (2+1)-flavour full-QCD on the PACS-CS configurations made available through the ILDG. We show that a variational analysis using multiple source and sink smearings can extract a state lying lower than that obtained by using a standard fixed smeared source and sink operator alone.
On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik] = 0 if j = k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Keywords. Infinite dimensional Lie ...
Internal deformation of Lie algebroids and symplectic realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carinena, Jose F; Costa, Joana M Nunes da; Santos, PatrIcia
2006-01-01
Given a Lie algebroid and a bundle over its base which is endowed with a localizable Poisson structure and a flat connection, we construct an extended bundle whose dual is endowed with an almost-Poisson structure that is a quadratic Poisson structure when a certain compatibility property is satisfied. This new formalism on Lie algebroids describes systems with internal degrees of freedom
A Collaborative Breeding Strategy for Organic Potatoes in the Netherlands
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
2010-01-01
Average potato yields in Dutch organic farming are rather low and variable, due to the disease known as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Potato breeding companies, organic farmers and breeding scientists from the Louis Bolk Institute and Wageningen University, have joined forces in an umbrella
Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...
Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin
2006-01-01
In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.
A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity
Breeding within potato has relied almost entirely on phenotypic selection and little is known of the underlying genetic elements being acted upon. To characterize the effects of this selection on phenotypic and genotypic diversity within cultivated potato, the SolCAP 8300 Infinium SNP chip was utili...
Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting
Claassens, M.M.J.
2002-01-01
Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon
Mapping genetic factors controlling potato - cyst nematode interactions
Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.
1998-01-01
The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera
Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato
Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...
Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-05-18
May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.
Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...
Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...
Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...
Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...
( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...
Potato Production, Usage, and Nutrition--A Review.
Zaheer, Khalid; Akhtar, M Humayoun
2016-01-01
Potato is an economically important staple crop prevailing all across the world with successful large-scale production, consumption, and affordability with easy availability in the open market. Potatoes provide basic nutrients such as-carbohydrates, dietary fiber (skin), several vitamins, and minerals (e.g., potassium, magnesium, iron). On occasion exposures to raw and cooked potatoes impart allergic reactions. Dietary intake of potatoes, especially colored potatoes, play an important role in the production of antioxidant defense system by providing essential nutrient antioxidants, such as vitamins, β-carotene, polyphenols, and minerals. This may help lower the incidence of wide range of chronic and acute disease processes (like hypertension, heart diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative, and other diseases). However, retention of nutrients in potatoes is affected by various cooking and processing methods. Cooking at elevated temperature also produces acrylamide-a suspected carcinogen. Independent and/or collaborative studies have been conducted and reported on the various pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide in heat processed foods. This article reviews the latest research on potato production, consumption, nature of phytochemicals and their health benefits, and allergic reactions to children. Also included is the discovery of acrylamide in processed starch-rich foods including potatoes, mechanism of formation, detection methodologies, and mitigation steps to reduce acrylamide content in food.
Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen
2010-01-01
In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...
In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...
Removing potatoes from children's diets may compromise potassium intake
White potatoes are a forgotten source of nutrients. The goal of this study was to identify the nutritional implications of replacing a composite of white potatoes with a composite of vegetables commonly consumed by children aged 2–18 y (n = 3460) in a nationally representative sample. The NHANES 200...
Colonization of wild potato plants by Streptomyces scabies
The bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing their marketability and profitability. M6 and 524-8 are two closely related inbred diploid lines of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense. After testing in both field and greenhouse assays, it was found that ...
New varieties of potato can feed the poor | IDRC - International ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2013-09-23
Sep 23, 2013 ... According to estimates, farmers spend about 6% of their potato crop income on chemicals to control late blight and other diseases — a high cost that also has environmental ... The project also aims to produce a more nutritious potato by selecting cultivars that can store more minerals, such as zinc and iron.
Bacterial microbiome and nematode occurrence in different potato agricultural soils
Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi are the main plant-parasitic nematodes in potato crops of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Bacterial microbiome (16S rRNA copies per gram of soil) and nematode communities (nematodes per 200 gr of soil) from five different potato farms were analyzed to ...
Potato landraces: description and dynamics in three areas of Ecuador
Monteros, A.R.
2011-01-01
This thesis aims to fill the gap of information on the potato landrace diversity present in farmer fields of Ecuador. Passport data from previous collections (1970’s and 1980’s) were used to identify Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja as representative areas of potato diversity. The status of on-farm
Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...
Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...
Detection of latent infection by Ralstonia solanacearum in potato ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2008-06-03
Jun 3, 2008 ... solanacearum in potato tuber seed certification schemes more so in screening for presence of R. solanacearum in seed ... Bacterial wilt is, after late blight, the most important ... with respect to tuber-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and those ... The potato crop was preceded by maize. Bacterial wilt ...
Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas in inbred potatoes
Targeted mutagenesis using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has been well established in several important crop species, but is in need of improvement in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). For over a century, potatoes have been bred as autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 48), relying on F1 selections and clona...
In potato breeding, fewer chromosomes may be better
The autotetraploid nature of the potato crop hinders breeding progress. In this paper, I describe the advantages of moving to a diploid inbred-hybrid system. This will allow us to reduce the genetic load in potato while assembling desirable combinations of genes. This effort requires us to generate ...
Diversity and evolution of potato mop-top virus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beuch, Ulrike; Beuch, Sofia; Åkerblom, Jonas
2015-01-01
Nearly complete sequences of RNA-CP and 3′-proximal RNA-TGB were determined for 43 samples of potato mop-top virus (PMTV) originating from potato tubers and field soil from Sweden, Denmark and the USA. The results showed limited diversity and no strict geographical grouping, suggesting only a few...
33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw of...
The Potato Association of America: Working for you since 1913
The history and contributions of the Potato Association of America (PAA) to the advancement of the potato industry will be given with specific examples of how the industry has benefitted from the research and extension activities of the PAA. The primary purpose of the poster being to further familia...
Potato carbohydrates: what’s in the middle counts
Potato is one of the world’s most important foods. Accumulation of starch in potato tubers depends on photosynthesis. Maintenance of 100% light capture per unit land area during the target growing season maximizes yields. Warm temperatures increase shoot and tuber respiration rates and depress tuber...
Genetic mapping and pyramiding of resistance genes in potato
Tan, M.Y.A.
2008-01-01
Numerous pathogens can infect potato, but late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) and potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are most damaging. Several species of root knot nematodes (RKN) are an emerging threat. Breeders have successfully deployed disease
Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić, Lj.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.
Ecology and control of Dickeya spp. in potato
Czajkowski, Robert
2011-01-01
Potato blackleg caused by pectinolytic Pectobacterium and Dickeya species is a bacterial disease creating serious economic losses in (seed)potato production worldwide. Effective management to control blackleg is absent and validated, cost-effective detection protocols for blackleg bacteria do not
Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under ...
Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...
A strategy for integrated low-input potato production
Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.
1991-01-01
Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing
Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ONOS
2010-09-06
Sep 6, 2010 ... In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings ...
Quality control in the storage of potatoes for industrial processing
Verdijck, G.J.C.; Tijskens, L.M.M.
2003-01-01
A novel control structure for a potato storage facility is presented that is directly geared at the optimal preservation of product quality. The quality of the stored potatoes is defined as frying colour that depends on sugar concentration. The optimal storage conditions are estimated using models