WorldWideScience

Sample records for couch potato lie

  1. Couch Potatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康言

    2007-01-01

    Do you know what a couch potato means?It is not a type of vegetable or a kind of couch.It is a person.In America,the word is often used.You see, in America,a lot of people spend nearly half their free-time watching TV.They do less housework,less charity work and less childcare than watching TV.They stay at home instead of going to a movie or a concert.They think it’s much more comfortable. As there are many channels to choose from,the TV can be interesting,or they can rent a good movie for two dollars and watch it on the VCR.They can sit on a couch and watch TV for hours and hours without stopping.They do nothing all day except watching TV.Even their pets also like watching TV.

  2. Intellectual Couch Potato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-08-01

    What does this say for where we've been and where we're going? The Information Age has brought us closer together. I know more about more people and events than I have ever known. I see this as a good thing. It is easy to keep in touch with friends. It is easy to buy and sell over the Internet, to seek answers on various questions, to gather facts, to improve your mind, etc. However, Joshua Benton of The Dallas Morning News1 cites a U.S. Department of Education report as stating, "Too many teachers make it into American classrooms without knowing the material they're teaching...". This concerns me greatly. With all the advantages afforded to us in an affluent society, then how/why can this be true? Other things in the report mentioned by Benton include (1) criticism of the states for setting low standards for new teachers; (2) colleges of education spending too much time on classroom management and teaching techniques and not enough on subject area content in mathematics, literature, and science; and (3) a call to the states to make it easier for professionals to switch careers into teaching through alternative programs. On the other side of the debate, how can 3 4 months of training in an alternative program bring successful teaching practices into the classroom? Yes, we need more teachers, especially in mathematics and science. Getting the content to these prospective teachers is not a problem. There is the Web, there are many online courses available (more on the way) both in subject areas and pedagogy, and the number of conferences and workshops offered abound. The following pages go into great depth regarding all the wonderful talks, workshops, and entertaining events that you can attend at the Fall 2002, ACS National Meeting, August 18 20. However, you've got to get off the couch and attend! The High School Program is Monday, August 19, from 8:30 until 3:00 at the Park Plaza Hotel. Preregistration is $30. Mahatma Gandhi said, "Live as if you were to die

  3. Couch Potato到Mouse Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈盈

    2006-01-01

    @@ 一、案例描述 过完一个暑假,新学期又开始了.在第一节英语课上,我与学生们谈论起各自的假期生活.大部分学生说:I often watch TV.或是:I often play computer games.我在黑板上写出单词.potato,接着在前面加上另一个单词couch,然后我说:There are many couch potatoes in our class."Couch potato?根长在沙发上的土豆吗?"有一位学生大声问道.

  4. British farmers want "couch potato" removed from dictionary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟守雄

    2005-01-01

    英国种植土豆的农民们纷纷涌上街头游行,强烈要求《牛津英语大词典》把短语“couch potato”从字典中删掉,理由是这个词有损土豆的形象。英国马铃薯委员会计划在伦敦议会大厦及牛津大学出版社的办公室旁举行抗议活动,以迫使《牛津英语大词典》用另一个词“couch slouch”来取代“couch potato”。英国马铃薯委员会代表着大约4000名土豆种植者和加工者,该委员会的市场部主任凯瑟琳·莱思说,他们已经向《牛津英语大词典》的编撰者们写了申诉British potato farm ers were taking to the streets to call forthe expression“couch potato”to be struck from the dictionary onthe grounds that it harm s the veg-etable’s im age.The British Potato Council wantsthe O xford English Dictionary to re-place the expression with the term“couch s...

  5. "Couch-potatoeism" and childhood obesity: The inverse causality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The bulk of cross-sectional studies suggests that lower levels of physical activity are associated with childhood obesity. Although this has led to the general understanding that "couch-potatoes" are fat on account of their inactive lifestyles, cross-sectional studies do not imply causality. On the contrary, the contribution of physical activity to obesity during childhood is currently unclear, and lately, studies have suggested that "couch-potatoeism" could be the result of obesity rather than its cause. Coupled with evidence suggesting that interventions have had little effect on children's physical activity levels as well as on obesity, this inverse causality challenges the role of physical activity in childhood obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Title: Does the difference between physically active and couch potato lie in the dopamine system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Amy M.; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other inactivity related diseases are increasing at an alarming rate especially in Western societies. Because of this, it is important to understand the regulating mechanisms involved in physical activity behavior. Much research has been done in regard to the psychological determinants of physical activity behavior; however, little is known about the underlying genetic and biological factors that may contribute to regulation of this complex trait. It is true that a significant portion of any trait is regulated by genetic and biological factors. In the case of voluntary physical activity behavior, these regulating mechanisms appear to be concentrated in the central nervous system. In particular, the dopamine system has been shown to regulate motor movement, as well as motivation and reward behavior. The pattern of regulation of voluntary physical activity by the dopamine system is yet to be fully elucidated. This review will summarize what is known about the dopamine system and regulation of physical activity, and will present a hypothesis of how this signaling pathway is mechanistically involved in regulating voluntary physical activity behavior. Future research in this area will aid in developing personalized strategies to prevent inactivity related diseases. PMID:20224735

  7. Scaling CouchDB

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    This practical guide offers a short course on scaling CouchDB to meet the capacity needs of your distributed application. Through a series of scenario-based examples, this book lets you explore several methods for creating a system that can accommodate growth and meet expected demand. In the process, you learn about several tools that can help you with replication, load balancing, clustering, and load testing and monitoring. Apply performance tips for tuning your databaseReplicate data, using Futon and CouchDB's RESTful interfaceDistribute CouchDB's workload through load balancingLearn option

  8. CouchDB NoSQL databáze

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with CouchDB database system. The main objective is to characterize the basic features and architecture of CouchDB and to show a practical example of how to work with that database system from two perspectives. To achieve that aim were studied official documents and other literature, providing a sufficient amount of information to write this. The contribution of this work lies in the fact that it serves as a guide for CouchDB, especially for Czech readers, because in ...

  9. Couch Potato到Mouse Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈盈

    2006-01-01

    一、案例描述过完一个暑假,新学期又开始了。在第一节英语课上,我与学生们谈论起各自的假期生活。大部分学生说:I often watch TV.或是:I often play computer games.我在黑板

  10. Fruitcakes & Couch Potatoes, and Other Delicious Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Christine

    This book explains the usage of more than 1,000 food-related expressions in everyday English. The 13 comprehensive chapters of the book cover the entire alphabet of food phrases from "soup to nuts" (or as in the index, from "above the salt" to "zest") as well as cooking and dining terms. The book provides many food…

  11. CouchDB the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J; Slater, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Three of CouchDB's creators show you how to use this document-oriented database as a standalone application framework or with high-volume, distributed applications. With its simple model for storing, processing, and accessing data, CouchDB is ideal for web applications that handle huge amounts of loosely structured data. That alone would stretch the limits of a relational database, yet CouchDB offers an open source solution that's reliable, scales easily, and responds quickly. CouchDB works with self-contained data that has loose or ad-hoc connections. It's a model that fits many real-world

  12. [Phantom holder of CT couch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixia; Zhan, Hongyu; Wang, Di

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a phantom holder in CT couch which adjusted easily and accurately, installed easily. The holder mainly include removing and locking equipment between phantom holder and table top, move horizontally equipment between left and right, rotating equipment between left and right. After holder and table top fixed one part, holder with phantom can move horizontally, front and back, rotate between left and right in a small angle, in order to make operator test phantoms accurately and easily. At the same time, this phantom holder realized free adjustment after first adjustments, which shortened operator work time.

  13. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  14. Characterization of dose impact on IMRT and VMAT from couch attenuation for two Varian couches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Lee, Andrew K; Johnson, Jennifer L; Zhu, Ronald X; Kudchadker, Rajat J

    2011-03-02

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), the use of posterior oblique beams has become common. Beam attenuation by the treatment couch is not negligible when the couch is in the beam portal. In this study, we established the relationship of relative dose vs. beam angle for two Varian 21EX linacs, one equipped with the Exact couch (standard couch) with sliding side support rails, and the other equipped with the Exact image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) carbon fiber couch. Measurements were performed using an ion chamber placed at the center of an acrylic cylindrical phantom positioned at the linac isocenter for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams. Measurements were performed at three different field sizes (3 × 3, 5 × 5, and 10 × 10 cm2), and were repeated with the phantom positioned at different longitudinal locations on the couches. To evaluate beam attenuation by the standard couch in a clinical setting, two test IMRT plans and two test VMAT plans on the standard couch were delivered. The plans were generated with the sliding rails at the "in" position and delivered with the rails at both "in" and "out" positions. The dose difference to the ion chamber was determined. For oblique fields with 6 MV photons, the standard couch attenuated the radiation beam by up to 26.8%, while the carbon fiber IGRT couch attenuated the beam by up to 4.1%. In the clinical evaluation, the highest dose difference between rails set at the "in" and "out" positions was 2.6% in the IMRT case and 2.1% in the VMAT case. The magnitude of potential dose difference has been quantified and could be used for a quick estimation of dose difference due to couch attenuation in IMRT and VMAT.

  15. Couching for cataract in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Couching for cataract is one of the most ancient surgical procedures. Maharshi Sushruta, an ancient Indian surgeon, first described the procedure around 600 BCE in Sushruta Samhita. The procedure, also known as jin pi shu in Mandarin, was introduced to China via the Silk Road during the late West Han Dynasty (206 BCE-9 CE), and it spread throughout China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE). As the procedure was combined with the Chinese concept of acupuncture, jin pi shu was integrated into Chinese medical practice until the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. The government of the Republic of China considered jin pi shu to be unscientific. In 1949, the Communists established the People's Republic of China. Jin pi shu was revitalized by Chairman Mao Zedong (1893-1976), who thought that traditional Chinese medicine, including jin pi shu, was a great treasure. After his death and the opening of China to the external world, many Chinese ophthalmologists pointed out that jin pi shu had relatively high complications and a low success rate, compared to various modern techniques for cataract surgery. This procedure is gradually fading away in China. The use of jin pi shu reflects the history, culture, and political transformation of China. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  17. The couch and the chador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Siamak; Homayounpour, Gohar

    2012-12-01

    The authors present a clinical discussion of the psychic functions of the chador, a veil-like outer garment worn in public by some Iranian women. Drawing on Anzieu's theoretical concept of the skin ego, the authors suggest that the chador does not just cover the body; it may also envelop the psyche and function as a second skin for the ego. The maternal function of a holding environment is symbolically displaced on any clothing that 'hides,''covers,''veils,' or 'dresses' the body. The skin's containing functions are extended through sensory and metonymic mediations to clothes, thus providing an imaginary maternal sack for the person. The clinical vignettes presented here suggest that for some Iranian women the chador may work, on one hand, as a second skin ego and a shield against a perceived intrusive world. On the other hand, it may work as a punitive maternal superego, a 'holding cell' in a jail that paralyses the separation/individuation process. Operating in the service of the patient's resistance and defense, the chador may also function as a psychic refuge and a place to hide on the couch. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    1979-01-01

    Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its

  19. Lie Superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Papi, Paolo; Advances in Lie Superalgebras

    2014-01-01

    The volume is the outcome of the conference "Lie superalgebras," which was held at the Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica, in 2012. The conference gathered many specialists in the subject, and the talks held provided comprehensive insights into the newest trends in research on Lie superalgebras (and related topics like vertex algebras, representation theory and supergeometry). The book contains contributions of many leading esperts in the field and provides a complete account of the newest trends in research on Lie Superalgebras.

  20. SU-E-T-98: Dependence of Radiotherapy Couch Transmission Factors On Field Size and Couch-Isocenter Distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabib, S; Duan, J; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Shen, S; Huang, M; Popple, R; Brezovich, I [UniversityAlabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch is non-negligible in today's radiotherapy treatment. To accurately include couch in dose calculation, we investigated the dependence of couch transmission factors on field size and couch-isocenter distance. Methods: Couch transmission factors for Varian Exact Couch were determined by taking the ratios of ionization of a posterior-anterior beam with and without the couch in the beam path. Measurements were performed at the isocenter using a PTW cylindrical ionization chamber (Model 31030) with an Aluminum buildup cap of 1.1 cm thick for the 6 MV photon beam. Ionization readings for beam sizes ranging from 2 × 2 cm2 to 40 × 40 cm2 were taken. Transmission factors for couch-isocenter distances ranging from 3 cm to 20 cm were also investigated. Results: The couch transmission factors increased with the field size approximately in an exponential manner. For the field sizes that we tested, the transmission factor ranged from 0.976 to 0.992 for couch-isocenter distance of 3 cm. The transmission factor was also monotonically dependent on couch-isocenter separation distance, but in a lighter magnitude. For the tested couch heights, the transmission factor ranged from 0.974 – 0.972 for 2 × 2 cm2 field size and 0.992 – 0.986 for 40 × 40 cm2 field size. The dependence on couch-isocenter distance is stronger for larger field size. Conclusions: The transmission factor of a radiotherapy treatment couch increases with field size of the radiation beam and its distance from the isocenter. Such characterization of the couch transmission factor helps improve the accuracy of couch modeling for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  1. Camera-based independent couch height verification in radiation oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, M.; Louwe, R.J.W.; Biemans-van Kastel, L.; Nieuwenkamp, H.; Zahradnik, R.; Claessen, R.; Seters, R.V.; Huizenga, H.

    2015-01-01

    For specific radiation therapy (RT) treatments, it is advantageous to use the isocenter-to-couch distance (ICD) for initial patient setup.(1) Since sagging of the treatment couch is not properly taken into account by the electronic readout of the treatment machine, this readout cannot be used for in

  2. The impact of treatment couch modelling on RapidArc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanetti, Eugenio; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland)], E-mail: lucozzi@iosi.ch

    2009-05-07

    A planning and dosimetric study was carried out on a cohort of six CT datasets from patients treated for prostate cancer to assess the impact of couch modelling on the accuracy of dose calculation for the volumetric modulated arc technique RapidArc. For each patient, RapidArc plans were optimized using the couch while final dose calculation was performed with different conditions (thin, medium, thick and no couch). Analysis was performed in terms of dose volume histograms, dose difference histograms and 3D-{gamma} tests. Pre-treatment verification measurements were performed using the PTW-729 array in conjunction with the Octavius phantom (PTW, Freiburg); similarly, HU characterization of couch was performed with the same phantom and ion chamber measurements comparing calculations and experimental data. A set of Hounsfield Units (HU) valid for low and high energy and the entire couch length was found as internal structure HU = -960, surface shell HU = -700. Analysis of dose plans showed that differences larger than 1.5 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription might be observed on significant fractions of PTVs. Smaller differences are visible in the medium low-dose regions. Pre-treatment verification on composite delivery confirmed these observations and, at the same time, showed good accuracy of dose calculations in the presence of couch modelling compared to delivery in the same conditions (GAI ranging from 95% to 100%). Results confirmed the reliability of the geometrical model build in the planning system Eclipse, and (i) there is no measurable effect if the wrong segment of the couch is used in the calculations; (ii) there are significant discrepancies of potential clinical impact at the level of the target volumes if calculations are performed without couch and delivery is performed with couch, and (iii) the effect is particularly relevant at low energy (6 MV in this case) that is the configuration clinically used by most of the centres adopting technologies based on

  3. The impact of treatment couch modelling on RapidArc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetti, Eugenio; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca

    2009-05-07

    A planning and dosimetric study was carried out on a cohort of six CT datasets from patients treated for prostate cancer to assess the impact of couch modelling on the accuracy of dose calculation for the volumetric modulated arc technique RapidArc. For each patient, RapidArc plans were optimized using the couch while final dose calculation was performed with different conditions (thin, medium, thick and no couch). Analysis was performed in terms of dose volume histograms, dose difference histograms and 3D-gamma tests. Pre-treatment verification measurements were performed using the PTW-729 array in conjunction with the Octavius phantom (PTW, Freiburg); similarly, HU characterization of couch was performed with the same phantom and ion chamber measurements comparing calculations and experimental data. A set of Hounsfield Units (HU) valid for low and high energy and the entire couch length was found as internal structure HU = -960, surface shell HU = -700. Analysis of dose plans showed that differences larger than 1.5 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription might be observed on significant fractions of PTVs. Smaller differences are visible in the medium low-dose regions. Pre-treatment verification on composite delivery confirmed these observations and, at the same time, showed good accuracy of dose calculations in the presence of couch modelling compared to delivery in the same conditions (GAI ranging from 95% to 100%). Results confirmed the reliability of the geometrical model build in the planning system Eclipse, and (i) there is no measurable effect if the wrong segment of the couch is used in the calculations; (ii) there are significant discrepancies of potential clinical impact at the level of the target volumes if calculations are performed without couch and delivery is performed with couch, and (iii) the effect is particularly relevant at low energy (6 MV in this case) that is the configuration clinically used by most of the centres adopting technologies based on

  4. SU-E-J-76: CBCT Reconstruction of a Full Couch Using Rigid Registration and Pre-Scanned Couch Image and Its Clinical Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, E; Lasio, G; Lee, M; Chen, S; Yi, B [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Only a part of a treatment couch is reconstructed in CBCT due to the limited field of view (FOV). This often generates inaccurate results in the delivered dose evaluation with CBCT and more noise in the CBCT reconstruction. Full reconstruction of the couch at treatment setup can be used for more accurate exit beam dosimetry. The goal of this study is to develop a method to reconstruct a full treatment couch using a pre-scanned couch image and rigid registration. Methods: A full couch (Exact Couch, Varian) model image was reconstructed by rigidly registering and combining two sets of partial CBCT images. The full couch model includes three parts: two side rails and a couch top. A patient CBCT was reconstructed with reconstruction grid size larger than the physical field of view to include the full couch. The image quality of the couch is not good due to data truncation, but good enough to allow rigid registration of the couch. A composite CBCT image of the patient plus couch has been generated from the original reconstruction by replacing couch portion with the pre-acquired model couch, rigidly registered to the original scan. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of this method by comparing treatment plans generated on the original and on the modified scans. Results: The full couch model could be attached to a patient CBCT image set via rigid image registration. Plan DVHs showed 1∼2% difference between plans with and without full couch modeling. Conclusion: The proposed method generated a full treatment couch CBCT model, which can be successfully registered to the original patient image. This method was also shown to be useful in generating more accurate dose distributions, by lowering 1∼2% dose in PTV and a few other critical organs. Part of this study is supported by NIH R01CA133539.

  5. Lie groups and Lie algebras for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for graduate students of theoretical physics (with a background in quantum mechanics) as well as researchers interested in applications of Lie group theory and Lie algebras in physics. The emphasis is on the inter-relations of representation theories of Lie groups and the corresponding Lie algebras.

  6. Reducing patient posture variability using the predicted couch position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruijf, Wilhelmus J.M. de, E-mail: kruijf.de.w@bvi.nl; Martens, Rob J.W.

    2015-10-01

    A method is presented in which the couch position is predicted before the treatment instead of obtaining a reference position at the first treatment fraction. This prevents systematic differences in patient posture between preparation and treatment. In literature, only limited data are available on couch positioning. We position our patients at the planned couch position, allowing a small difference between skin marks and lasers, followed by online imaging. For a 3-month period, our standard deviations (mm) in couch position in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were head and neck—1.6, 2.8, and 2.5; thorax—2.9, 5.5, and 4.5; breast—3.0, 4.1, and 4.0; and pelvis—3.5, 4.0, and 4.7, respectively. We have improved the reproducibility of patient posture in our institute by using the predicted couch position. Our data may serve as a reference for other institutes because the couch position variation is less than that published in literature.

  7. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenner, Hubert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  8. 3-LIE BIALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑞蒲; 程宇; 李佳倩; 孟伟

    2014-01-01

    3-Lie algebras have close relationships with many important fields in mathemat-ics and mathematical physics. This article concerns 3-Lie algebras. The concepts of 3-Lie coalgebras and 3-Lie bialgebras are given. The structures of such categories of algebras and the relationships with 3-Lie algebras are studied. And the classification of 4-dimensional 3-Lie coalgebras and 3-dimensional 3-Lie bialgebras over an algebraically closed field of char-acteristic zero are provided.

  9. A complex of genes involved in adaptation of Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae to induced potato defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petek, M.; Turnšek, N.; Gašparic, M.B.; Novak, M.P.; Gruden, K.; Slapar, N.; Popovic, T.; Štrukelj, B.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is the most important pest of potato in many areas of the world. One of the main reasons for its success lies in the ability of its larvae to counteract plant defense compounds. Larvae adapt to protease inhibitors (PIs) produced in potato leaves

  10. The analytic setting today: using the couch or the chair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This paper re-visits Murray Jackson's 1961 paper in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, 'Chair, couch and countertransference', with the aim of exploring the role of the couch for Jungian analysts in clinical practice today. Within the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP) and some other London-based societies, there has been an evolution of practice from face-to-face sessions with the patient in the chair, as was Jung's preference, to a mode of practice where patients use the couch with the analyst sitting to the side rather than behind, as has been the tradition in psychoanalysis. Fordham was the founding member of the SAP and it was because of his liaison with psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts that this cultural shift came about. Using clinical examples, the author explores the couch/chair question in terms of her own practice and the internal setting as a structure in her mind. With reference to Bleger's (2013) paper 'Psychoanalysis of the psychoanalytic setting', the author discusses how the analytic setting, including use of the couch or the chair, can act as a silent container for the most primitive aspects of the patient's psyche which will only emerge in analysis when the setting changes or is breached.

  11. Solvable quadratic Lie algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Linsheng

    2006-01-01

    A Lie algebra endowed with a nondegenerate, symmetric, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie algebra. In this paper, the author investigates the structure of solvable quadratic Lie algebras, in particular, the solvable quadratic Lie algebras whose Cartan subalgebras consist of semi-simple elements, the author presents a procedure to construct a class of quadratic Lie algebras from the point of view of cohomology and shows that all solvable quadratic Lie algebras can be obtained in this way.

  12. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  13. Stochastic Lie group integrators

    CERN Document Server

    Malham, Simon J A

    2007-01-01

    We present Lie group integrators for nonlinear stochastic differential equations with non-commutative vector fields whose solution evolves on a smooth finite dimensional manifold. Given a Lie group action that generates transport along the manifold, we pull back the stochastic flow on the manifold to the Lie group via the action, and subsequently pull back the flow to the corresponding Lie algebra via the exponential map. We construct an approximation to the stochastic flow in the Lie algebra via closed operations and then push back to the Lie group and then to the manifold, thus ensuring our approximation lies in the manifold. We call such schemes stochastic Munthe-Kaas methods after their deterministic counterparts. We also present stochastic Lie group integration schemes based on Castell--Gaines methods. These involve using an underlying ordinary differential integrator to approximate the flow generated by a truncated stochastic exponential Lie series. They become stochastic Lie group integrator schemes if...

  14. The return of the Freudian Couch®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou; Staunæs, Dorthe; Rathner, Helene

    2013-01-01

    of comfort technology, we explore how the couch participates in transforming intensities and shaping desires by affecting bodies, voices, atmospheres, and relations. We look into the Danish school, which over the past decade has intensified its focus on preparing students to take part in a workforce...

  15. Global concept, local practice: Taiwanese experience of CouchSurfing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Hospitality exchange tourism is a new type of niche tourism, which is highly dependent on the Internet. Through participating in global hospitality exchange networks, such as CouchSurfing, tourists can meet local people who are willing to offer free accommodation, and hosts can also meet people arou

  16. On Murray Jackson's 1961 'Chair, couch and countertransference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Angela

    2015-09-01

    One of the problems facing psychoanalysts of all schools is that theory has evolved at a much faster pace than practice. Whereas there has been an explosion of theory, practice has remained, at least officially, static and unchanging. It is in this sense that Murray Jackson's 1961 paper is still relevant today. Despite the rise of the new relational and intersubjective paradigms, most psychoanalysts, and not a few Jungian analysts, still seem to feel that the couch is an essential component of the analytical setting and process. If the use of the couch is usually justified by the argument that it favours regression, facilitates analytical reverie and protects the patient from the influence of the analyst, over time many important psychoanalysts have come to challenge this position. Increasingly these analysts suggest that the use of the couch may actually be incompatible with the newer theoretical models. This contention is strengthened by some of the findings coming from the neurosciences and infant research. This underlines the necessity of empirical research to verify the clinical effectiveness of these different positions, couch or face-to-face, but it is exactly this type of research that is lacking. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Practical issues in treating heavy patients on a LINAC treatment couch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Patrick; Free, Blair; Cernica, George; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2005-01-01

    Safe delivery of external beam radiation therapy to patients whose weight approaches the tolerance of a treatment couch presents some challenges, particularly if the couch has been in use for several years and has seen significant wear and tear. An analysis of treatment couch design can identify locations that become stressed and could potentially fail when supporting a heavy patient, leading to serious injury. Some practical methods to decrease the likelihood of couch failure are presented in this work. The design and implementation of a lifting apparatus to support the treatment couch is also described.

  18. Lying with Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Monmonier, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Darrell Huff’s How to Lie with Statistics was the inspiration for How to Lie with Maps, in which the author showed that geometric distortion and graphic generalization of data are unavoidable elements of cartographic representation. New examples of how ill-conceived or deliberately contrived statistical maps can greatly distort geographic reality demonstrate that lying with maps is a special case of lying with statistics. Issues addressed include the effects of map scale on geometry and featu...

  19. Parenting by Lying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

  20. A Monte Carlo model of the Varian IGRT couch top for RapidArc QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, T; Gill, B; Duzenli, C; Popescu, I A

    2011-12-21

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effect of couch attenuation on quality assurance (QA) results and to present a couch top model for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation for RapidArc treatments. The IGRT couch top is modelled in Eclipse as a thin skin of higher density material with a homogeneous fill of foam of lower density and attenuation. The IGRT couch structure consists of two longitudinal sections referred to as thick and thin. The Hounsfield Unit (HU) characterization of the couch structure was determined using a cylindrical phantom by comparing ion chamber measurements with the dose predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS). The optimal set of HU for the inside of the couch and the surface shell was found to be respectively -960 and -700 HU in agreement with Vanetti et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 N157-66). For each plan, the final dose calculation was performed with the thin, thick and without the couch top. Dose differences up to 2.6% were observed with TPS calculated doses not including the couch and up to 3.4% with MC not including the couch and were found to be treatment specific. A MC couch top model was created based on the TPS geometrical model. The carbon fibre couch top skin was modelled using carbon graphite; the density was adjusted until good agreement with experimental data was observed, while the density of the foam inside was kept constant. The accuracy of the couch top model was evaluated by comparison with ion chamber measurements and TPS calculated dose combined with a 3D gamma analysis. Similar to the TPS case, a single graphite density can be used for both the thin and thick MC couch top models. Results showed good agreement with ion chamber measurements (within 1.2%) and with TPS (within 1%). For each plan, over 95% of the points passed the 3D gamma test.

  1. Getting Started with GEO, CouchDB, and Nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Mick

    2011-01-01

    Today's mobile devices have GPS and standard APIs to give you access to coordinates-but what can you do with that data? With this concise book, application developers learn how to work with location data quickly and easily, using Node.js, CouchDB, and other open source tools and libraries. Node.js makes it simple to run event code on the Web, and the CouchDB document-oriented database lets you store location data and perform complex queries on it quickly. You'll learn how to get started with these tools, and then use them together to build an example project called MapChat, using HTML and Ja

  2. The guilty couch potato: The role of negative emotions in reducing recovery through media use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinecke, L; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses ego depletion as a mechanism influencing media-based stress recovery processes. Using structural equation modeling, relationships between ego depletion, procrastination, guilt, enjoyment, vitality, and recovery experience were tested using data from an online survey (N = 471).

  3. Scalable Web Application using Node.JS and CouchDB

    OpenAIRE

    Paudyal, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    This report presents design and implementation of a protoype application using server side javascript programming language, node.JS and couchDB as backend database. It scales and evaluates the developed prototype application and the couchDB for their scalability and performance. The report concludes that node.JS is a suitable framework for development of scalable web servers and couchDB as a backend database, though natively not distributed and scalable, can be scaled and distributed across m...

  4. Additive Lie ($\\xi$-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie ($\\xi$-Lie) Derivations on Prime Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    The additive (generalized) $\\xi$-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized. It is shown, under some suitable assumption, that an additive map $L$ is an additive (generalized) Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive (generalized) derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) $\\xi$-Lie derivation with $\\xi\

  5. Gap analysis - potatoes occurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Haan, de S.; Juarez, H.; Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Bernau, V.; Salas, A.; Heider, B.; Simon, R.; Maxted, N.; Spooner, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Records (with and without coordinates) representing germplasm accessions and sightings of the wild relatives of potato. These records were used as input to assess the ex situ conservation urgency of 73 wild relatives of potato

  6. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  7. The ease of lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Spruyt, A.; Meijer, E.H.; Otgaar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Brain imaging studies suggest that truth telling constitutes the default of the human brain and that lying involves intentional suppression of the predominant truth response. By manipulating the truth proportion in the Sheffield lie test, we investigated whether the dominance of the truth response i

  8. The ease of lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Spruyt, A.; Meijer, E.H.; Otgaar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Brain imaging studies suggest that truth telling constitutes the default of the human brain and that lying involves intentional suppression of the predominant truth response. By manipulating the truth proportion in the Sheffield lie test, we investigated whether the dominance of the truth response

  9. Whoppers and White Lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Marti

    1985-01-01

    Lying is a symptom of a much broader problem. Primary motivations are need for acceptance, fear of punishment, and desire for attention. Children learn about honesty through observation, both directly and indirectly. Admitting mistakes, especially to children, is invaluable and can help break the lying syndrome. (MT)

  10. Medicine, lies and deceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, P

    2001-04-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  11. Evasive Lying in Strategic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Khalmetski, Kiryl; Rockenbach, Bettina; Werner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In a sender-receiver game we investigate if sanctions for lying induce more truth-telling. Senders may not only choose between truth-telling and (explicit) lying, but may also engage in evasive lying by credibly pretending not to know. Sanctions promote truth-telling if senders cannot engage in evasive lying. If evasive lying is possible, explicit lying is largely substituted by evasive lying, in line with the notion that evasive lying is perceived as sufficiently less psychologically costly.

  12. Couch height–based patient setup for abdominal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yao Municipal Hospital, Yao (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Tsujii, Katsutomo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kawanabe, Kiyoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    There are 2 methods commonly used for patient positioning in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction: one is the skin mark patient setup method (SMPS) and the other is the couch height–based patient setup method (CHPS). This study compared the setup accuracy of these 2 methods for abdominal radiation therapy. The enrollment for this study comprised 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. For treatments (539 sessions), patients were set up by using isocenter skin marks and thereafter treatment couch was shifted so that the distance between the isocenter and the upper side of the treatment couch was equal to that indicated on the computed tomographic (CT) image. Setup deviation in the A-P direction for CHPS was measured by matching the spine of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of a lateral beam at simulation with that of the corresponding time-integrated electronic portal image. For SMPS with no correction (SMPS/NC), setup deviation was calculated based on the couch-level difference between SMPS and CHPS. SMPS/NC was corrected using 2 off-line correction protocols: no action level (SMPS/NAL) and extended NAL (SMPS/eNAL) protocols. Margins to compensate for deviations were calculated using the Stroom formula. A-P deviation > 5 mm was observed in 17% of SMPS/NC, 4% of SMPS/NAL, and 4% of SMPS/eNAL sessions but only in one CHPS session. For SMPS/NC, 7 patients (30%) showed deviations at an increasing rate of > 0.1 mm/fraction, but for CHPS, no such trend was observed. The standard deviations (SDs) of systematic error (Σ) were 2.6, 1.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and the root mean squares of random error (σ) were 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 0.9 mm for SMPS/NC, SMPS/NAL, SMPS/eNAL, and CHPS, respectively. Margins to compensate for the deviations were wide for SMPS/NC (6.7 mm), smaller for SMPS/NAL (4.6 mm) and SMPS/eNAL (3.1 mm), and smallest for CHPS (2.2 mm). Achieving better setup with smaller margins, CHPS appears to be a reproducible method for abdominal patient setup.

  13. Control of a HexaPOD treatment couch for robot-assisted radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Christian; Ma, Lei; Wilbert, Jürgen; Baier, Kurt; Schilling, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Moving tumors, for example in the vicinity of the lungs, pose a challenging problem in radiotherapy, as healthy tissue should not be irradiated. Apart from gating approaches, one standard method is to irradiate the complete volume within which a tumor moves plus a safety margin containing a considerable volume of healthy tissue. This work deals with a system for tumor motion compensation using the HexaPOD® robotic treatment couch (Medical Intelligence GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany). The HexaPOD, carrying the patient during treatment, is instructed to perform translational movements such that the tumor motion, from the beams-eye view of the linear accelerator, is eliminated. The dynamics of the HexaPOD are characterized by time delays, saturations, and other non-linearities that make the design of control a challenging task. The focus of this work lies on two control methods for the HexaPOD that can be used for reference tracking. The first method uses a model predictive controller based on a model gained through system identification methods, and the second method uses a position control scheme useful for reference tracking. We compared the tracking performance of both methods in various experiments with real hardware using ideal reference trajectories, prerecorded patient trajectories, and human volunteers whose breathing motion was compensated by the system.

  14. Modeling treatment couches in the Pinnacle treatment planning system: Especially important for arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggar, William Neil, E-mail: wduggar@umc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Nguyen, Alex [Ironwood Cancer and Research Center, Chandler, AZ (United States); Stanford, Jason; Morris, Bart; Yang, Claus C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This study is to demonstrate the importance and a method of properly modeling the treatment couch for dose calculation in patient treatment using arc therapy. The 2 treatment couch tops—Aktina AK550 and Elekta iBEAM evo—of Elekta LINACs were scanned using Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT Simulator. Various parts of the couch tops were contoured, and their densities were measured and recorded on the Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) using the established computed tomography density table. These contours were saved as organ models to be placed beneath the patient during planning. Relative attenuation measurements were performed following procedures outlined by TG-176 as well as absolute dose comparison of static fields of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} that were delivered through the couch tops with that calculated in the TPS with the couch models. A total of 10 random arc therapy treatment plans (5 volumetric-modulated arc therapy [VMAT] and 5 stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]), using 24 beams, were selected for this study. All selected plans were calculated with and without couch modeling. Each beam was evaluated using the Delta{sup 4} dosimetry system (Delta{sup 4}). The Student t-test was used to determine statistical significance. Independent reviews were exploited as per the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core head and neck credentialing phantom. The selected plans were calculated on the actual patient anatomies with and without couch modeling to determine potential clinical effects. Large relative beam attenuations were noted dependent on which part of the couch top beams were passing through. Substantial improvements were also noted for static fields both calculated with the TPS and delivered physically when the couch models were included in the calculation. A statistically significant increase in agreement was noted for dose difference, distance to agreement, and γ-analysis with the Delta{sup 4} on VMAT and SBRT plans. A credentialing review showed

  15. On lying and deceiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, D

    1992-06-01

    This article challenges Jennifer Jackson's recent defence of doctors' rights to deceive patients. Jackson maintains there is a general moral difference between lying and intentional deception: while doctors have a prima facie duty not to lie, there is no such obligation to avoid deception. This paper argues 1) that an examination of cases shows that lying and deception are often morally equivalent, and 2) that Jackson's position is premised on a species of moral functionalism that misconstrues the nature of moral obligation. Against Jackson, it is argued that both lying and intentional deception are wrong where they infringe a patient's right to autonomy or his/her right to be treated with dignity. These rights represent 'deontological constraints' on action, defining what we must not do whatever the functional value of the consequences. Medical ethics must recognise such constraints if it is to contribute to the moral integrity of medical practice.

  16. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  17. Additive Lie (ζ-Lie) Derivations and Generalized Lie (ζ-Lie)Derivations on Prime Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fei QI; Jin Chuan HOU

    2013-01-01

    The additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on prime algebras are characterized.It is shown,under some suitable assumptions,that an additive map L is an additive generalized Lie derivation if and only if it is the sum of an additive generalized derivation and an additive map from the algebra into its center vanishing all commutators; is an additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivation with ζ ≠ 1 if and only if it is an additive (generalized) derivation satisfying L(ζA) =ζL(A) for all A.These results are then used to characterize additive (generalized) ζ-Lie derivations on several operator algebras such as Banach space standard operator algebras and von Neumman algebras.

  18. Lying, honor, and contradiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Gilsenan

    2016-01-01

    .... +Superscript 1 -Superscript With a particular concentration on the manifold practices of what will be called "lying," I shall try to show the way in which individuals in a Lebanese village negotiate...

  19. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  20. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  1. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  2. NOTE: The impact of treatment couch modelling on RapidArc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanetti, Eugenio; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca

    2009-05-01

    A planning and dosimetric study was carried out on a cohort of six CT datasets from patients treated for prostate cancer to assess the impact of couch modelling on the accuracy of dose calculation for the volumetric modulated arc technique RapidArc. For each patient, RapidArc plans were optimized using the couch while final dose calculation was performed with different conditions (thin, medium, thick and no couch). Analysis was performed in terms of dose volume histograms, dose difference histograms and 3D-γ tests. Pre-treatment verification measurements were performed using the PTW-729 array in conjunction with the Octavius phantom (PTW, Freiburg); similarly, HU characterization of couch was performed with the same phantom and ion chamber measurements comparing calculations and experimental data. A set of Hounsfield Units (HU) valid for low and high energy and the entire couch length was found as internal structure HU = -960, surface shell HU = -700. Analysis of dose plans showed that differences larger than 1.5 Gy for a 70 Gy prescription might be observed on significant fractions of PTVs. Smaller differences are visible in the medium low-dose regions. Pre-treatment verification on composite delivery confirmed these observations and, at the same time, showed good accuracy of dose calculations in the presence of couch modelling compared to delivery in the same conditions (GAI ranging from 95% to 100%). Results confirmed the reliability of the geometrical model build in the planning system Eclipse, and (i) there is no measurable effect if the wrong segment of the couch is used in the calculations; (ii) there are significant discrepancies of potential clinical impact at the level of the target volumes if calculations are performed without couch and delivery is performed with couch, and (iii) the effect is particularly relevant at low energy (6 MV in this case) that is the configuration clinically used by most of the centres adopting technologies based on intensity

  3. La destruction de la couche d'ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Theate, Pascal; Brahy, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    L’ozone (O3) est présent dans l’atmosphère terrestre en quantité limitée, avec un maximum de concentration entre 15 et 50 km d’altitude. Cette molécule y joue un rôle essentiel en filtrant les rayons solaires ultraviolets dont les effets sur les êtres vivants peuvent être nocifs. L’influence des activités humaines sur la couche d’ozone stratosphérique s’est manifestée dès le début des années 1980, principalement au dessus de l’Antarctique, où une baisse significative de la quantité totale d’o...

  4. SU-E-T-655: Quantifying the Dosimetric Characteristics of a Calypso Compatible Radiotherapy Treatment Couch with Angular Transmission Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Popple, R; Cardan, R; Huang, M; Tannazi, F; Brezovich, I [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantified the dosimetric characteristics of a Calypso compatible radiotherapy couch using continuously scanned transmission factor as a function of gantry angle. Methods: Radiation dose as a function of gantry angle was measured with an ionization chamber at the center of a 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom placed on Qfix kVue Calypso compatible couch. A 3-D scanner was employed to continuously scan the dose during an arc rotation delivery. Nearly continuous transmission curves of 0.03° step size were obtained from IEC gantry angle 90° to180° for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at three couch longitudinal positions (due to longitudinally non-uniform shape of the couch rails) with rails both at the center and on sides. The transmission curves were evaluated to assess the attenuation by the couch. They were also compared to those of a carbon fiber couch top. Results: The scanned transmission curves of the Calypso comptible couch showed fine details of the couch transmission as a function of gantry angle. The attenuation by the couch varied from 2.4% to 12.9% for the 6 MV photo beam and from 1.8% to 8.9% for the 15 MV photon beam depending on the gantry angle. The attenuation by the flat couch top is only approximately 2 to 3%, but by the rail is much more significant. Because the rails are not uniformly shaped in the longitudinal direction, attenuation by the rail for the same gantry angle varied with the rail longitudinal position. The transmission curves of the carbon fiber couch top are nearly identical to those of the Calypso compatible couch top. Conclusion: The Calypso compatible couch attenuates radiation by 2.4%–12.9% and 1.8%–8.9% for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The attenuation by the rails is much more significant than the flat couch top.

  5. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into susceptible

  6. On the Logic of Lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Ditmarsch (Hans); D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor); Y. Wang (Yanjing); D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); R. Verbrugge

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe look at lying as an act of communication, where (i) the proposition that is communicated is not true, (ii) the utterer of the lie knows (or believes) that what she communicates is not true, and (iii) the utterer of the lie intends the lie to be taken as truth. Rather than dwell on

  7. Lie algebraic noncommutative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip; Samanta, Saurav

    2007-06-01

    We exploit the Seiberg-Witten map technique to formulate the theory of gravity defined on a Lie algebraic noncommutative space-time. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg-Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials, and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  8. Introduction to quantum Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Delius, G W

    1996-01-01

    Quantum Lie algebras are generalizations of Lie algebras whose structure constants are power series in h. They are derived from the quantized enveloping algebras \\uqg. The quantum Lie bracket satisfies a generalization of antisymmetry. Representations of quantum Lie algebras are defined in terms of a generalized commutator. In this paper the recent general results about quantum Lie algebras are introduced with the help of the explicit example of (sl_2)_h.

  9. Lie groups, lie algebras, and representations an elementary introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This textbook treats Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations in an elementary but fully rigorous fashion requiring minimal prerequisites. In particular, the theory of matrix Lie groups and their Lie algebras is developed using only linear algebra, and more motivation and intuition for proofs is provided than in most classic texts on the subject. In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including: a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras motivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C) an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras a self-contained construction of the representations of compac...

  10. Modeling of carbon fiber couch attenuation properties with a commercial treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, I B; Corry, P; Yan, Y; Ratanatharathorn, V; Moros, E G

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the modeling of carbon fiber couch attenuation properties with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS, Pinnacle3, v8.0d). A carbon fiber couch (Brain-Lab) was incorporated into the TPS by automatic contouring of all transverse CT slices. The couch shape and dimensions were set according to the vendor specifications. The couch composition was realized by assigning appropriate densities to the delineated contours. The couch modeling by the TPS was validated by absolute dosimetric measurements. A phantom consisting of several solid water slabs was CT scanned, the CT data set was imported into the TPS, and the carbon fiber couch was auto-contoured. Open (unblocked) field plans for different gantry angles and field sizes were generated. The doses to a point at 3 cm depth, placed at the linac isocenter, were computed. The phantom was irradiated according to the dose calculation setup and doses were measured with an ion chamber. In addition, percent depth dose (PDD) curves were computed as well as measured with radiographic film. The calculated and measured doses, transmissions, and PDDs were cross-compared. Doses for several posterior fields (0 degree, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 75 degrees, 83 degrees) were calculated for 6 and 18 MV photon beams. For model validation a nominal field size of 10 x 10 cm2 was chosen and 100 MU were delivered for each portal. The largest difference between computed and measured doses for those posterior fields was within 1.7%. A comparison between computed and measured transmissions for the aforementioned fields was performed and the results were found to agree within 1.1%. The differences between computed and measured doses for different field sizes, ranging from 5 x 5 cm2 to 25 x 25 cm2 in 5 cm increments, were within 2%. Measured and computed PDD curves with and without the couch agree from the surface up to 30 cm depth. The PDDs indicate a surface dose increase resulting from the carbon fiber

  11. Evaluation of a new six degrees of freedom couch for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidhalter, D.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P. [Division of Medical Radiation Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Wyss, M.; Schaer, N.; Munro, P.; Scheib, S.; Kunz, P. [Varian Medical Systems Imaging Laboratory GmbH, CH-5400 Baden (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the geometric accuracy of a prerelease version of a new six degrees of freedom (6DoF) couch. Additionally, a quality assurance method for 6DoF couches is proposed.Methods: The main principle of the performance tests was to request a known shift for the 6DoF couch and to compare this requested shift with the actually applied shift by independently measuring the applied shift using different methods (graph paper, laser, inclinometer, and imaging system). The performance of each of the six axes was tested separately as well as in combination with the other axes. Functional cases as well as realistic clinical cases were analyzed. The tests were performed without a couch load and with a couch load of up to 200 kg and shifts in the range between −4 and +4 cm for the translational axes and between −3° and +3° for the rotational axes were applied. The quality assurance method of the new 6DoF couch was performed using a simple cube phantom and the imaging system.Results: The deviations (mean ± one standard deviation) accumulated over all performance tests between the requested shifts and the measurements of the applied shifts were −0.01 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.02 cm for the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical axes, respectively. The corresponding values for the three rotational axes couch rotation, pitch, and roll were 0.03°± 0.06°, −0.04°± 0.12°, and −0.01°± 0.08°, respectively. There was no difference found between the tests with and without a couch load of up to 200 kg.Conclusions: The new 6DoF couch is able to apply requested shifts with high accuracy. It has the potential to be used for treatment techniques with the highest demands in patient setup accuracy such as those needed in stereotactic treatments. Shifts can be applied efficiently and automatically. Daily quality assurance of the 6DoF couch can be performed in an easy and efficient way. Long-term stability has to be evaluated in

  12. Lie algebraic Noncommutative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Samanta, S; Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip; Samanta, Saurav

    2007-01-01

    The minimal (unimodular) formulation of noncommutative general relativity, based on gauging the Poincare group, is extended to a general Lie algebra valued noncommutative structure. We exploit the Seiberg -- Witten map technique to formulate the theory as a perturbative Lagrangian theory. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg -- Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  13. Lied Transplant Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1143) evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the proposed Lied Transplant Center at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Statement in not required.

  14. Police lie detection accuracy: the effect of lie scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet

    2009-12-01

    Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.

  15. Implementation of SPARQL Query Engine Based on CouchDB%基于CouchDB的SPARQL查询引擎实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭义; 倪传蕾; 柏文阳

    2014-01-01

    Traditional SPARQL query engines optimize queries in terms of triple pattern as basic unit. This brings too many join operations in the face of SPARQL queries comprising many triple patterns,which lead to much query overhead. In this paper,taking the advantage of storing and quering of document-oriented database,propose a subject-classification approach to store RDF triples. RDF triples are parti-tioned into various classes in terms of identical subjects,and saved to the documents of the database. Triple patterns are classified accord-ing to their subjects as well,composing the query graph based on subject-related block. The method of selectivity estimation is improved on the new query graph. Using a document-oriented databse CouchDB to build a SPARQL query engine,the experiment proves the ap-proach is capable of improving the efficiency of SPARQL basic graph pattern query handling.%传统的SPARQL查询引擎在处理查询时以三元组模式为基本单位做查询优化处理,在三元组模式较多时存在着过多的连接操作,开销比较大。文中基于文档数据库的存储和查询特点,提出一种利用主语分类的方式来存储RDF数据的方法,将不同的RDF三元组按主语分成不同的类,并存入文档数据库的文档中。在处理SPARQL查询时将三元组模式也按照主语分类,构成以主语相关块为单位的查询图,并提出一种基于属性相关性的选择度估计方法来优化查询执行计划。文中利用文档数据库CouchDB实现了新的SPARQL查询引擎,实验证明文中的方法能够提高SPARQL基本图模式查询的效率。

  16. 7 CFR 1207.306 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.306 Potatoes. Potatoes means any or all...

  17. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  18. Telling Lies: The Irrepressible Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma J.; Bott, Lewis A.; Patrick, John; Lewis, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Telling a lie takes longer than telling the truth but precisely why remains uncertain. We investigated two processes suggested to increase response times, namely the decision to lie and the construction of a lie response. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were directed or chose whether to lie or tell the truth. A colored square was presented and participants had to name either the true color of the square or lie about it by claiming it was a different color. In both experiments we found that there was a greater difference between lying and telling the truth when participants were directed to lie compared to when they chose to lie. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared response times when participants had only one possible lie option to a choice of two or three possible options. There was a greater lying latency effect when questions involved more than one possible lie response. Experiment 5 examined response choice mechanisms through the manipulation of lie plausibility. Overall, results demonstrate several distinct mechanisms that contribute to additional processing requirements when individuals tell a lie. PMID:23573277

  19. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley

    2015-01-01

    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  20. Lying because we care: Compassion increases prosocial lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoli, Matthew J; Jampol, Lily; Oveis, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Prosocial lies, or lies intended to benefit others, are ubiquitous behaviors that have important social and economic consequences. Though emotions play a central role in many forms of prosocial behavior, no work has investigated how emotions influence behavior when one has the opportunity to tell a prosocial lie-a situation that presents a conflict between two prosocial ethics: lying to prevent harm to another, and honesty, which might also provide benefits to the target of the lie. Here, we examine whether the emotion of compassion influences prosocial lying, and find that compassion causally increases and positively predicts prosocial lying. In Studies 1 and 2, participants evaluated a poorly written essay and provided feedback to the essay writer. Experimentally induced compassion felt toward the essay writer (Study 1) and individual differences in trait compassion (Study 2) were positively associated with inflated feedback to the essay writer. In both of these studies, the relationship between compassion and prosocial lying was partially mediated by an enhanced importance placed on preventing emotional harm. In Study 3, we found moderation such that experimentally induced compassion increased lies that resulted in financial gains for a charity, but not lies that produced financial gains for the self. This research illuminates the emotional underpinnings of the common yet morally complex behavior of prosocial lying, and builds on work highlighting the potentially harmful effects of compassion-an emotion typically seen as socially beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. On the Logic of Lying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Ditmarsch (Hans); D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe model lying as a communicative act changing the beliefs of the agents in a multi-agent system. With Augustine, we see lying as an utterance believed to be false by the speaker and uttered with the intent to deceive the addressee. The deceit is successful if the lie is believed

  2. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  3. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  4. Pre-Lie Deformation Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsenko, V.; Shadrin, S.; Vallette, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the deformation theory controlled by pre-Lie algebras; the main tool is a new integration theory for preLie algebras. The main field of application lies in homotopy algebra structures over a Koszul operad; in this case, we provide a homotopical description of the associated

  5. Dosimetric characterization of the iBEAM evo carbon fiber couch for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David W.; Christophides, Damianos; Dean, Christopher; Naisbit, Mitchell; Mason, Joshua; Morgan, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, St. James' s Institute of Oncology, Bexley Wing, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Barts and London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, St. James' s Institute of Oncology, Bexley Wing, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics Department, Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, Somerset TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: This study characterizes the dosimetric properties of the iBEAM evo carbon fiber couch manufactured by Medical Intelligence and examines the accuracy of the CMS XiO and Nucletron Oncentra Masterplan (OMP) treatment planning systems for calculating beam attenuation due to the presence of the couch. Methods: To assess the homogeneity of the couch, it was CT scanned at isocentric height and a number of signal intensity profiles were generated and analyzed. To simplify experimental procedures, surface dose and central axis depth dose measurements were performed in a solid water slab phantom using Gafchromic film for 6 and 10 MV photon beams at gantry angles of 0 deg. (normal incidence), 30 deg., and 60 deg. with an inverted iBEAM couch placed on top of the phantom. Attenuation measurements were performed in a cylindrical solid water phantom with an ionization chamber positioned at the isocenter. Measurements were taken for gantry angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. in 10 deg. increments for both 6 and 10 MV photon beams. This setup was replicated in the XiO and OMP treatment planning systems. Dose was calculated using the pencil beam, collapsed cone, convolution, and superposition algorithms. Results: The CT scan of the couch showed that it was uniformly constructed. Surface dose increased by (510{+-}30)% for a 6 MV beam and (600{+-}20)% for a 10 MV beam passing through the couch at normal incidence. Obliquely incident beams resulted in a higher surface dose compared to normally incident beams for both open fields and fields with the couch present. Depth dose curves showed that the presence of the couch resulted in an increase in dose in the build up region. For 6 and 10 MV beams incident at 60 deg., nearly all skin sparing was lost. Attenuation measurements derived using the ionization chamber varied from 2.7% (0 deg.) to a maximum of 4.6% (50 deg.) for a 6 MV beam and from 1.9% (0 deg.) to a maximum of 4.0% (50 deg.) for a 10 MV beam. The pencil beam and

  6. Impact of radiation attenuation by a carbon fiber couch on patient dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Yen; Chou, Wen-Tsae; Liao, Yi-Jen; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Liang, Ji-An; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the difference between the measured and calculated irradiation attenuations obtained using two algorithms and to identify the influence of couch attenuation on patient dose verification. We performed eight tests of couch attenuation with two photon energies, two longitudinal couch positions, and two rail positions. The couch attenuation was determined using a radiation treatment planning system. The measured and calculated attenuations were compared. We also performed 12 verifications of head-and-neck and rectum cases by using a Delta phantom. The dose deviation (DD), distance to agreement (DTA), and gamma index of pencil-beam convolution (PBC) verifications were nearly the same. The agreement was least consistent for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) without the couch for the head-and-neck case, in which the DD, DTA, and gamma index were 74.4%, 99.3%, and 89%, respectively; for the rectum case, the corresponding values were 56.2%, 95.1%, and 92.4%. We suggest that dose verification should be performed using the following three metrics simultaneously: DD, DTA, and the gamma index. PMID:28240236

  7. Collision indicator charts for gantry-couch position combinations for Siemens ONCOR and Elekta Infinity linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stewart J; Culberson, Wes; Flynn, Ryan

    2013-09-06

    Noncoplanar radiation fields from a linear accelerator can be used to deliver radiation dose distributions that are superior to those delivered using coplanar radiation fields. Noncoplanar radiation field arrangements are especially valuable when delivering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Noncoplanar radiation fields, however, are geometrically more challenging to deliver than coplanar radiation fields, and are associated with a greater risk of collisions between the gantry, treatment couch, and patient. Knowledge of which treatment couch offset, treatment couch angle, and gantry angle combinations provide a collision-free radiotherapy delivery is useful in the treatment planning process, as the risk of requiring replanning due to improperly selected treatment parameters can be minimized. Such tables are by default specific to the linear accelerator make and model used for treatment. In this work a set of plots is presented indicating which combination of treatment couch lateral offsets (-10 cm to 10 cm), couch angles (270° to 90°), and gantry angles (0° to 360°), will result in collision-free radiation delivery using Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators equipped with a 160-leaf multileaf collimator and a 550 TxT treatment table, and a Elekta Infinity linear accelerator with an MLCi2 and Elekta iBEAM evo Couchtop EP. The patient was assumed to have a width of 50 cm and a height of 25 cm.

  8. Quantization on nilpotent Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a consistent development of the Kohn-Nirenberg type global quantization theory in the setting of graded nilpotent Lie groups in terms of their representations. It contains a detailed exposition of related background topics on homogeneous Lie groups, nilpotent Lie groups, and the analysis of Rockland operators on graded Lie groups together with their associated Sobolev spaces. For the specific example of the Heisenberg group the theory is illustrated in detail. In addition, the book features a brief account of the corresponding quantization theory in the setting of compact Lie groups. The monograph is the winner of the 2014 Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Prize.

  9. Achieving sustainable cultivation of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every phase of the production cycle impacts the sustainability of potato. Potato physiology determines how genetically encoded developmental attributes interact with local environmental conditions as modified through agricultural practice to produce a perishable crop. In this chapter we highlight ho...

  10. Utilization of optical tracking to validate a software-driven isocentric approach to robotic couch movements for proton radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, Wen C., E-mail: Wen.Hsi@Mclaren.org, E-mail: Wenchien.hsi@sphic.org.cn; Zeidan, Omar A., E-mail: omar.zeidan@orlandohealth.com [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); Law, Aaron; Schreuder, Andreas N., E-mail: niek.schreuder@provisionhp.com [ProCure Training and Development Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: An optical tracking and positioning system (OTPS) was developed to validate the software-driven isocentric (SDI) approach to control the six-degrees-of-freedom movement of a robotic couch. Methods: The SDI approach to movements rotating around a predefined isocenter, referred to as a GeoIso, instead of a mechanical pivot point was developed by the robot automation industry. With robotic couch-sag corrections for weight load in a traditional SDI approach, movements could be accurately executed for a GeoIso located within a 500 mm cubic volume on the couch for treatments. The accuracy of SDI movement was investigated using the OTPS. The GeoIso was assumed to align with the proton beam isocenter (RadIso) for gantry at the reference angle. However, the misalignment between GeoIso and RadIso was quantitatively investigated by measuring the displacements at various couch angles for a target placed at the RadIso at an initial couch angle. When circular target displacements occur on a plane, a relative isocenter shift (RIS) correction could be applied in the SDI movement to minimize target displacements. Target displacements at a fixed gantry angle without and with RIS correction were measured for 12 robotic couches. Target displacements for various gantry angles were performed on three couches in gantry rooms to study the gantry-induced RadIso shift. The RIS correction can also be applied for the RadIso shift. A new SDI approach incorporating the RIS correction with the couch sag is described in this study. In parallel, the accuracy of SDI translation movements for various weight loads of patients on the couch was investigated during positioning of patients for proton prostate treatments. Results: For a fixed gantry angle, measured target displacements without RIS correction for couch rotations in the horizontal plane varied from 4 to 20 mm. However, measured displacements perpendicular to couch rotation plane were about 2 mm for all couches. Extracted

  11. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  12. Lie Subalgebras in a Certain Operator Lie Algebra with Involution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Li SUN; Xue Feng MA

    2011-01-01

    We show in a certain Lie'-algebra,the connections between the Lie subalgebra G+:=G+G*+[G,G*],generated by a Lie subalgebra G,and the properties of G.This allows us to investigate some useful information about the structure of such two Lie subalgebras.Some results on the relations between the two Lie subalgebras are obtained.As an application,we get the following conclusion:Let A (∪) B(X)be a space of self-adjoint operators and L:=A ⊕ iA the corresponding complex Lie*-algebra.G+=G+G*+[G,G*]and G are two LM-decomposable Lie subalgebras of,L with the decomposition G+=R(G+)+S,G=RG+SG,and RG (∪) R(C+).Then G+ is ideally finite iff RG+:=RG+RG*+[RG,RG*]is a quasisolvable Lie subalgebra,SG+:=SG+SG*+[SG,SG*]is an ideally finite semisimple Lie subalgebra,and [RG,SG]=[RG*,SG]={0}.

  13. Glycoalkaloids in potatoes: Content of glycoalkaloids in potatoes for consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Jensen, Udo; Schmidt, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Potatoes contain glycoalkaloids in varying levels depending upon variety, treatment and so on. Glycoalkaloids are potentially toxic at the natural levels in potatoes, and Nordic assessments recommend that the safety levels of total glycoalkaloids (TGA) in new potato varieties should not exceed 100...... mg/kg. Thus the aim of this study was to make a survey of the distribution and contents of TGA in potatoes on the Danish market, including many different and relevant varieties during a 6-year period. A total of 386 samples of potato tubers were analysed for α-solanine and α-chaconine by extraction...

  14. Dynamic trajectory-based couch motion for improvement of radiation therapy trajectories in cranial SRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. Lee [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Thomas, Christopher G., E-mail: Chris.Thomas@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential improvement in external beam stereotactic radiation therapy plan quality for cranial cases using an optimized dynamic gantry and patient support couch motion trajectory, which could minimize exposure to sensitive healthy tissue. Methods: Anonymized patient anatomy and treatment plans of cranial cancer patients were used to quantify the geometric overlap between planning target volumes and organs-at-risk (OARs) based on their two-dimensional projection from source to a plane at isocenter as a function of gantry and couch angle. Published dose constraints were then used as weighting factors for the OARs to generate a map of couch-gantry coordinate space, indicating degree of overlap at each point in space. A couch-gantry collision space was generated by direct measurement on a linear accelerator and couch using an anthropomorphic solid-water phantom. A dynamic, fully customizable algorithm was written to generate a navigable ideal trajectory for the patient specific couch-gantry space. The advanced algorithm can be used to balance the implementation of absolute minimum values of overlap with the clinical practicality of large-scale couch motion and delivery time. Optimized cranial cancer treatment trajectories were compared to conventional treatment trajectories. Results: Comparison of optimized treatment trajectories with conventional treatment trajectories indicated an average decrease in mean dose to the OARs of 19% and an average decrease in maximum dose to the OARs of 12%. Degradation was seen for homogeneity index (6.14% ± 0.67%–5.48% ± 0.76%) and conformation number (0.82 ± 0.02–0.79 ± 0.02), but neither was statistically significant. Removal of OAR constraints from volumetric modulated arc therapy optimization reveals that reduction in dose to OARs is almost exclusively due to the optimized trajectory and not the OAR constraints. Conclusions: The authors’ study indicated that simultaneous couch and gantry motion

  15. Lie groups and automorphic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Lizhen; Xu, H W; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    Lie groups are fundamental objects in mathematics. They occur naturally in differential geometry, algebraic geometry, representation theory, number theory, and other areas. Closely related are arithmetic subgroups, locally symmetric spaces and the spectral theory of automorphic forms. This book consists of five chapters which give comprehensive introductions to Lie groups, Lie algebras, arithmetic groups and reduction theories, cohomology of arithmetic groups, and the Petersson and Kuznetsov trace formulas.

  16. SU-E-T-315: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Top Shift On VMAT Delivery in Absence of Indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M; Jin, H; Ferguson, S; Ahmad, S [Oklahoma Univ. Health Science Ctr., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric effects of couch top shift for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in absence of indexing of immobilization devices. Methods: A total of twelve VMAT treatment plans were selected from three regions (lung, abdomen, and pelvis) to account for the variation of the patient position relative to the couch top. The treatment plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse system. A pinpoint ionization chamber (PTW TN31014) was placed at the center of 16-cm solid water phantom and the dose was delivered using the Varian TrueBeam STx with BrainLAB ExacTrac couch top. To simulate the day-to-day variation of the patient position relative to couch top, the couch top was laterally shifted up to 50 mm, with an increment of 5 mm from 0 to 20 mm; and of 10 mm afterwards, and the phantom was moved back to 0 cm shift for measurement. The dose was also delivered using a Varian tennis racket grid insert at 0 cm shift to simulate the absence of couch top. The treatment plans were delivered with 6, 10, and 15 MV photons using the same leaf sequencing to investigate the energy dependence of couch top shift. The dose difference was normalized to 0 cm shift for the regular couch top for comparison. Results: The percent difference of dose was found to increase with lateral shift for all energies; however, the average differences were close to 0% and the maximum difference was within 1% along the lateral shifts. The differences with the absence of couch top were 2.2±0.5% (6MV), 1.7±0.3% (10MV), and 1.6±0.2% (15MV), respectively. Conclusion: The inclusion of couch top is recommended in treatment planning to minimize the dosimetric uncertainty between calculated and delivered dose even in absence of indexing of immobilization devices in VMAT delivery.

  17. Bosonization and Lie Group Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Yuan K

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a concise quantum operator formula for bosonization in which the Lie group structure appears in a natural way. The connection between fermions and bosons is found to be exactly the connection between Lie group elements and the group parameters. Bosonization is an extraordinary way of expressing the equation of motion of a complex fermion field in terms of a real scalar boson in two dimensions. All the properties of the fermion field theory are known to be preserved under this remarkable transformation with substantial simplification and elucidation of the original theory, much like Lie groups can be studied by their Lie algebras.

  18. Lying relies on the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential geometry on Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho estudamos os aspectos geométricos dos grupos de Lie do ponto de vista da geometria Riemanniana, geometria Hermitiana e geometria Kähler, através das estruturas geométricas invariantes associadas. Exploramos resultados relacionados às curvaturas da variedade Riemanniana subjacente a um grupo de Lie através do estudo de sua álgebra de Lie correspondente. No contexto da geometria Hermitiana e geometria Kähler, para um caso concreto de grupo de Lie complexo, investigaram su...

  20. Affective Priming Caused by Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, arousal increases when telling a lie, as indicated in psychophysiological studies about lie detection. But the emotional valence induced by lying is unknown, though intuition indicates that it may be negative. Indeed, the Electrodermal Activity (EDA, used in such studies, only shows arousal changes during an emotional response. In this study, we examined the emotional valence induced by lying using two tasks. First, in the deceptive task, participants answered “no” to every question regarding the nature of displayed playing cards. Therefore, they told a lie about specific cards. During the task, their EDA was recorded. Secondly, in the figure estimation task, they assessed pictures by “like” or “dislike” after looking at playing cards visibly or subliminally as prime stimuli. We expected them to tend to estimate figures by “dislike” when cards relevant to deception were previously shown. This would mean that an affective priming effect due to telling a lie happened. Actually, this effect was found only when prime stimuli were displayed visibly. This result suggests that lying per se induces negative emotions even without motivation or punishment due to lying. Furthermore, we found that such effect was more blatant in participants whose EDA changes were salient while lying.

  1. Theatres of the lie: 'crazy' deception and lying as drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen, Els van

    2002-08-01

    In this article, the author argues that lying is drama, theatre, which brings about transition, reflection, reversal and involvement of the participants in the drama. By means of ethnographic data of a psychiatric ward, the author shows that lying of mental patients is not pathological, but a ritual of affliction. By using Turner's theory about rituals and performance and Goffman's theory about presentation of the self it will be showed that lying serves the redefinition of reciprocity and solidarity. With the help of Bakhtin's work on Rabelais, the author discusses the nature of the drama of the lie. It is concluded that a perspective on lying as theatre may be of use outside psychiatric wards and will occur in imbalanced power relationships.

  2. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jull Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels. Twenty children (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1.5 years; 40% female were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention. Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C] measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games. Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2

  3. From Couch Potatoes to Critical Learners: A Theoretical Framework for Television Use in EFL/ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Raul Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Television shows have been a traditional outlet for language practices in second language classrooms around the world. However, the only criteria that teachers seem to have to choose said shows are that they are in English and native speakers are involved. This may lead to choosing materials for the sake of watching or selecting materials that do…

  4. Deciding isomorphism of Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    When doing calculations with Lie algebras one of the main problems is to decide whether two given Lie algebras are isomorphic. A partial solution to this problem is obtained by calculating structural invariants. There is also a direct method available which involves the computation of Grobner bases.

  5. The low lying glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Szczepaniak; Eric Swanson

    2003-12-18

    The complete low-lying positive charge conjugation glueball spectrum is obtained from QCD. The formalism relies on the construction of an efficient quasiparticle gluon basis for Hamiltonian QCD in Coulomb gauge. The resulting rapidly convergent Fock space expansion is exploited to derive quenched low-lying glueball masses with no free parameters which are in remarkable agreement with lattice gauge theory.

  6. Lie Symmetries of Ishimori Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    The Ishimori equation is one of the most important (2+1)-dimensional integrable models,which is an integrable generalization of (1+1)-dimensional classical continuous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin equations.Based on importance of Lie symmetries in analysis of differential equations,in this paper,we derive Lie symmetries for the Ishimori equation by Hirota's direct method.

  7. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  8. 7 CFR 948.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 948.5 Section 948.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means and includes all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  9. 7 CFR 953.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 953.5 Section 953.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes...

  10. 7 CFR 946.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 946.5 Section 946.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within...

  11. 7 CFR 947.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 947.5 Section 947.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND SISKIYOU... Definitions § 947.5 Potatoes. Potatoes means all varieties of Irish potatoes grown within the aforesaid...

  12. Electromagnetic guided couch and multileaf collimator tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rune; Ravkilde, Thomas; Worm, Esben Schjødt

    2016-01-01

    of the couch or MLC as recorded by continuous MV portal imaging. The geometric and dosimetric tracking accuracies were measured in tracking experiments with motion phantoms that reproduced four prostate and four lung tumor trajectories. The geometric tracking error in beam's eye view was determined...

  13. The Return of the Freudian Couch®: Managing Affectivity through Technologies of Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juelskjaer, Malou; Staunaes, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the affective "set-up" of Freud's legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension. Through affective encounters with…

  14. Virtual couch shift (VCS) : accounting for patient translation and rotation by online IMRT re-optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, G.H.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2013-01-01

    When delivering conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), discrepancies between the pre-treatment CT/MRI/PET based patient geometry and the daily patient geometry are minimized by performing couch translations and/or small rotations. However, full compensation of, in particular, rotation

  15. The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Mizowaki, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: toru1@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-01-07

    The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 {+-} 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 {+-} 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.

  16. The Return of the Freudian Couch®: Managing Affectivity through Technologies of Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juelskjaer, Malou; Staunaes, Dorthe; Ratner, Helene

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the affective "set-up" of Freud's legendary couch has been exported into modern education relations. The so-called psy-sciences from pedagogy, psychology, and psychiatry have informed self-management in school. Managing self-management has a material-affective dimension. Through affective encounters with the…

  17. The geometric accuracy of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using a 6D robotic couch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, T; Mizowaki, T; Nakata, M; Yano, S; Fujimoto, T; Miyabe, Y; Nakamura, M; Hiraoka, M

    2010-01-07

    The aim of this paper is to assess the overall geometric accuracy of the Novalis system using the Robotic Tilt Module in terms of the uncertainty in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy. We analyzed the following three metrics: (1) the correction accuracy of the robotic couch, (2) the uncertainty of the isocenter position with gantry and couch rotation, and (3) the shift in position between the isocenter and central point detected with the ExacTrac x-ray system. Based on the concept of uncertainty, the overall accuracy was calculated from these values. The accuracy in positional correction with the robotic couch was 0.07 +/- 0.22 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with gantry rotation was 0.35 mm, the positional shift of the isocenter associated with couch rotation was 0.38 mm and the difference in position between the isocenter and the ExacTrac x-ray system was 0.30 mm. The accuracy of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery with the Novalis system in our clinic was 0.31 +/- 0.77 mm. The overall geometric accuracy based on the concept of uncertainty was 0.31 +/- 0.77 mm, which is within the tolerance given in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine report no. 54.

  18. Brave New Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1995-01-01

    By the time Ireland’s terrible potato famine of 1845 had run its course, 1 million people had starved to death. Survivors recalled seeing people dying by the roadside, their mouths stuffed with grass. The cause of the suffering was a virulent fungus known as late blight disease, or Phytophthora infestans,

  19. Lying despite telling the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Alex; Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    According to the standard definition of lying an utterance counts as a lie if the agent believes the statement to be false. Thus, according to this view it is possible that a lie states something that happens to be true. This subjective view on lying has recently been challenged by Turri and Turri (2015) who presented empirical evidence suggesting that people only consider statements as lies that are objectively false (objective view). We argue that the presented evidence is in fact consistent with the standard subjective view if conversational pragmatics is taken into account. Three experiments are presented that directly test and support the subjective view. An additional experiment backs up our pragmatic hypothesis by using the uncontroversial case of making a promise.

  20. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  1. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [Childrens Hospital of LA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives

  2. [Teratogenic effect of potato glycoalkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G

    1993-02-01

    Potato glycoalkaloids were extracted from potato sprout and then analyzed to determine their purity by using TLC and HPLC methods and compare with pure alpha-Solanine and alpha-Chaconine of Sigma. The result indicated that the purity of potato glycoalkaloids is 78. 31%, which contains 73.64% alpha-Solanine and 4.67% alpha-Chaconine. The LD50 of mice was 44.721 +/- 5.860 4 mg/kg. In order to determine the toxicity and teratogenicity of potato glycoalkaloids, the effect of potato glycoalkaloids on Kunming pregnant mice were studied. The results showed that: (1) potato glycoalkaloids have teratogenic effects on embryos of mice. It could induce neural tube defects (NTDs), and may be an important teratogen of NTDs. (2) potato glycoalkaloids have embryo toxicity. It could cause the death of embryos and result in absorbed and dead fetuses. (3) potato glycoalkaloids could evidently affect the development of embryos and lead to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). An interesting phenomena which just like the clinical manifestation of miscarriage in human being was noticed. If potato glycoalkaloids were given to the pregnant mice on the 5th or 6th day of gestation intraabdominally, vaginal bleeding and abortion would occur, and this has not been reported yet. The animal model of NTDs in this experiments supported our hypothesis that sprouted potato could be a teratogen of NTDs.

  3. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: report of AAPM Task Group 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olch, Arthur J; Gerig, Lee; Li, Heng; Mihaylov, Ivaylo; Morgan, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the "tennis racket" style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  4. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, Arthur J., E-mail: aolch@chla.usc.edu [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Southern California and Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Gerig, Lee [Department of Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mihaylov, Ivaylo [Department of Radiation Oncology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Morgan, Andrew [The Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  5. Detecting true lies: police officers' ability to detect suspects' lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Samantha; Vrij, Aldert; Bull, Ray

    2004-02-01

    Ninety-nine police officers, not identified in previous research as belonging to groups that are superior in lie detection, attempted to detect truths and lies told by suspects during their videotaped police interviews. Accuracy rates were higher than those typically found in deception research and reached levels similar to those obtained by specialized lie detectors in previous research. Accuracy was positively correlated with perceived experience in interviewing suspects and with mentioning cues to detecting deceit that relate to a suspect's story. Accuracy was negatively correlated with popular stereotypical cues such as gaze aversion and fidgeting. As in previous research, accuracy and confidence were not significantly correlated, but the level of confidence was dependent on whether officers judged actual truths or actual lies and on the method by which confidence was measured.

  6. Lying aversion and prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Biziou-van-Pol, Laura; Novaro, Arianna; Liberman, Andrés Occhipinti; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the moral conflict between lying aversion and prosociality. What does telling a white lie signal about a person's prosocial tendencies? How does believing a possibly untruthful message signal about a listener's prosocial tendencies? To answer these questions, we conducted a 2x3 experiment. In the first stage we measured altruistic tendencies using a Dictator Game and cooperative tendencies using a Prisoner's dilemma. In the second stage, we used a sender-receiver game to measure aversion to telling a Pareto white lie (i.e., a lie that helps both the liar and the listener), aversion to telling an altruistic white lie (i.e., a lie that helps the listener at the expense of the liar), and skepticism towards believing a possibly untruthful message. We found three major results: (i) both altruism and cooperation are positively correlated with aversion to telling a Pareto white lie; (ii) neither altruism nor cooperation are significantly correlated with aversion to telling an altruistic wh...

  7. Lies, Calculations and Constructions: Beyond How to Lie with Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Darrell Huff’s How to Lie with Statistics remains the best-known, nontechnical call for critical thinking about statistics. However, drawing a distinction between statistics and lying ignores the process by which statistics are socially constructed. For instance, bad statistics often are disseminated by sincere, albeit innumerate advocates (e.g., inflated estimates for the number of anorexia deaths) or through research findings selectively highlighted to attract media coverage (e.g., a recent...

  8. Last Multipliers on Lie Algebroids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mircea Crasmareanu; Cristina-Elena Hreţcanu

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we extend the theory of last multipliers as solutions of the Liouville’s transport equation to Lie algebroids with their top exterior power as trivial line bundle (previously developed for vector fields and multivectors). We define the notion of exact section and the Liouville equation on Lie algebroids. The aim of the present work is to develop the theory of this extension from the tangent bundle algebroid to a general Lie algebroid (e.g. the set of sections with a prescribed last multiplier is still a Gerstenhaber subalgebra). We present some characterizations of this extension in terms of Witten and Marsden differentials.

  9. SU-E-T-417: A Method for Predicting and Correcting the Dosimetric Effect of a Radiotherapy Treatment Couch in Actual Treatment Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J; Shen, S; Wu, X; Huang, M; Benhabib, S; Cardan, R; Popple, R; Brezovich, I [University Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Although radiation attenuation by the treatment couch can be included in the calculation of radiotherapy dose, difference between planned and actual treatment couch positions can generate significant dose discrepancies. We propose a method to predict and correct the dosimetric effect of the couch in actual treatment position. Methods: The couch transmission factor, T, varies with beam angle, G, couch lateral position, x, and vertical position, y, i.e., T=T(x,y,G). If T(x,y,G) is known for a fixed couch vertical position y=h, the transmission of central-axis beam (CAX) T(x,y,G) can be obtained by T(x,y,G)=T(x{sup +},h,G), where x{sup +}=x-(y-h)tan(G) and G is the angle between the beam and the vertical axis. Similarly, the transmission of any off-CAX point can be obtained using a similar formula. We measured CAX couch transmission at a fixed couch vertical position over the couch lateral motion range for all gantry angles by continuously scanning rotating arc beams. A 2D couch transmission correction matrix can thus be generated from T(x,h,G) for each treatment field for the actual couch position. By applying the transmission correction matrix to the planned field dose, the couch effect can be predicted and corrected. To verify this method, we measured couch transmission T(x, y=10cm, G=225°)(225°=IEC 135°) and compared to that obtained from equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225°) over the range of lateral motion with a step size of 2 cm . Results: The measured couch transmission factors T(x, y=10cm, G=225°) are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the equivalent T(x{sup +}, y=3cm, G=225°). The mean difference is 0.00406±0.00135. Conclusion: The couch transmission correction matrix for any couch position and beam angle can be obtained from one set of scanning measurements at a fixed couch vertical position. The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch can be predicted and corrected by applying the couch transmission correction to the planned

  10. Gravitating fluids with Lie symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Msomi, A M; Maharaj, S D

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the underlying nonlinear partial differential equation which arises in the study of gravitating flat fluid plates of embedding class one. Our interest in this equation lies in discussing new solutions that can be found by means of Lie point symmetries. The method utilised reduces the partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation according to the Lie symmetry admitted. We show that a class of solutions found previously can be characterised by a particular Lie generator. Several new families of solutions are found explicitly. In particular we find the relevant ordinary differential equation for all one-dimensional optimal subgroups; in several cases the ordinary differential equation can be solved in general. We are in a position to characterise particular solutions with a linear barotropic equation of state.

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  12. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    are interconnected by long chains with more than 36 residues. The clusters consist of still smaller, very tightly branched building blocks. The clusters direct the semicrystalline structures found inside the starch granules. The crystals, which are ~5.2. nm thick, contain double helices formed from the external...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...... is substituted with low amounts of phosphate groups monoesterified to the C-3 and the C-6 carbons of the glucose units. They seem to align well in the granular structure and have tremendous effects on starch degradation in the potato and functionality of the refined starch. A specific dikinase catalyzes...

  13. Structure of Solvable Quadratic Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lin-sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Killing form plays a key role in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras. It is natural to extend the study to Lie algebras with a nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear form. Such a Lie algebra is generally called a quadratic Lie algebra which occur naturally in physics[10,12,13]. Besides semisimple Lie algebras, interesting quadratic Lie algebras include the Kac-Moody algebras and the Extended Affine Lie algebras.

  14. The mysterious potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, D

    1994-08-01

    Even though it comes from a potentially toxic family and may contain solanine-type alkaloids, the potato has risen from a wild food stuff of South American Indians to one of the world's most useful plants and important food source. Toxicity of the tuber commonly seen today is low, with the sprouts and green skin most often involved in toxic exposures. New cultivars may bring about more disease resistance, new tastes, and possibly a smaller solanine content.

  15. Lie bialgebras of generalized Witt type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Guang'ai; SU; Yucai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, all Lie bialgebra structures on the Lie algebras of generalized Witt type are considered. It is proved that, for any Lie algebra W of generalized Witt type, all Lie bialgebras on W are the coboundary triangular Lie bialgebras. As a by-product, it is also proved that the first cohomology group H1(W, W (x) W) is trivial.

  16. An evaluation on Real Semisimple Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras stem from that of continuous groups founded by Sophus Lie at the end of 19th century. From the beginning, the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras has displayed great value in both theoretical researches and applications.

  17. Cohomology of Heisenberg Lie superalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei; Liu, Wende

    2017-02-01

    Suppose the ground field to be algebraically closed and of characteristic different from 2 and 3. All Heisenberg Lie superalgebras consist of two super-versions of the Heisenberg Lie algebras, 𝔥2m,n and 𝔟𝔞n with m a non-negative integer and n a positive integer. The space of a "classical" Heisenberg Lie superalgebra 𝔥2m,n is the direct sum of a superspace with a non-degenerate anti-supersymmetric even bilinear form and a one-dimensional space of values of this form constituting the even center. The other super-analog of the Heisenberg Lie algebra, 𝔟𝔞n, is constructed by means of a non-degenerate anti-supersymmetric odd bilinear form with values in the one-dimensional odd center. In this paper, we study the cohomology of 𝔥2m,n and 𝔟𝔞n with coefficients in the trivial module by using the Hochschild-Serre spectral sequences relative to a suitable ideal. In the characteristic zero case, for any Heisenberg Lie superalgebra, we determine completely the Betti numbers and associative superalgebra structures for their cohomology. In the characteristic p > 3 case, we determine the associative superalgebra structure for the divided power cohomology of 𝔟𝔞n and we also make an attempt to determine the divided power cohomology of 𝔥2m,n by computing it in a low-dimensional case.

  18. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  19. Writing and querying MapReduce views in CouchDB

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    If you want to use CouchDB to support real-world applications, you'll need to create MapReduce views that let you query this document-oriented database for meaningful data. With this short and concise ebook, you'll learn how to create a variety of MapReduce views to help you query and aggregate data in CouchDB's large, distributed datasets. You'll get step-by-step instructions and lots of sample code to create and explore several MapReduce views through the course of the book, using an example database you construct. To work with these different views, you'll learn how to use the Futon web a

  20. From ISIS to CouchDB: Databases and Data Models for Bibliographic Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ramalho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades bibliographic data has been stored in non-relational databases, and thousands of libraries in developing countries still use ISIS databases to run their OPACs. Fast forward to 2010 and the NoSQL movement has shown that non-relational databases are good enough for Google, Amazon.com and Facebook. Meanwhile, several Open Source NoSQL systems have appeared. This paper discusses the data model of one class of NoSQL products, semistructured, document-oriented databases exemplified by Apache CouchDB and MongoDB, and why they are well-suited to collective cataloging applications. Also shown are the methods, tools, and scripts used to convert, from ISIS to CouchDB, bibliographic records of LILACS, a key Latin American and Caribbean health sciences index operated by the Pan-American Health Organization.

  1. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  2. 21 CFR 102.41 - Potato chips made from dried potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potato chips made from dried potatoes. 102.41... Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.41 Potato chips made from dried potatoes. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as potato chips, except that it...

  3. Finite dimensional quadratic Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Peter; Yates, Luke

    2010-01-01

    We consider a special class of Z_2-graded, polynomial algebras of degree 2, which we call quadratic Lie superalgebras. Starting from the formal definition, we discuss the generalised Jacobi relations in the context of the Koszul property, and give a proof of the PBW basis theorem. We give several concrete examples of quadratic Lie superalgebras for low dimensional cases, and discuss aspects of their structure constants for the `type I' class. Based on the factorisation of the enveloping algebra, we derive the Kac module construction for typical and atypical modules, and a related direct construction of irreducible modules due to Gould. We investigate the method for one specific case, the quadratic generalisation gl_2(n/1) of the Lie superalgebra sl(n/1). We formulate the general atypicality conditions at level 1, and present an analysis of zero-and one-step atypical modules for a certain family of Kac modules.

  4. On Split Lie Triple Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín

    2009-04-01

    We begin the study of arbitrary split Lie triple systems by focussing on those with a coherent 0-root space. We show that any such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. Under certain conditions, it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems.

  5. Couches decorated with bone and ivory: an analysis of findings in habitative and funerary contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianchi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 This article analyses a particular class of Roman Age furnishings: couches decorated with bone and ivory, so as to indicate their typological features and the area of their diffusion. Furthermore, differently from what has been discussed only marginally in the past, a distinction has been made between examples coming from dwellings and those from a funerary context in order to identify the specific characteristics of each particular type. A census of couch in bone and ivory originating in non-funerary contexts, which may have been used as dining couches in the triclinium or as sleeping beds in cubiculi in the domus, has shown that examples are rather rare and almost exclusively comprised of rising head and foot boards, the finials in particular; these were predominantly of two types: heads of waterbirds and Silenus heads. A more detailed analysis of findings has been made for the Cisalpine area with a direct comparison between those found in necropolis and those coming from a domestic environment. (traduzione di Virginia Ridsdale.

  6. Virtual couch shift (VCS): accounting for patient translation and rotation by online IMRT re-optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2013-05-07

    When delivering conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), discrepancies between the pre-treatment CT/MRI/PET based patient geometry and the daily patient geometry are minimized by performing couch translations and/or small rotations. However, full compensation of, in particular, rotations is usually not possible. In this paper, we introduce an online 'virtual couch shift (VCS)': we translate and/or rotate the pre-treatment dose distribution to compensate for the changes in patient anatomy and generate a new plan which delivers the transformed dose distribution automatically. We show for a phantom and a cervical cancer patient case that VCS accounts for both translations and large rotations equally well in terms of DVH results and 2%/2 mm γ analyses and when the various aspects of the clinical workflow can be implemented successfully, VCS can potentially outperform physical couch translations and/or rotations. This work is performed in the context of our hybrid 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator, which can provide translations and rotations but also deformations of the anatomy. The VCS is the first step toward compensating all of these anatomical changes by online re-optimization of the IMRT dose distribution.

  7. CARACTERISATION ELECTROCHIMIQUE DE COUCHES PASSIVES A LA SURFACE DU FER. ROLE DES IMPURETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ROUINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Des études électrochimiques de films passifs de trois types de fer (Fe pur (99,9999%, Fe (99%, et Fe0.97-Si0.03, réalisées en milieu alcalin KOH 1M, sont présentées. Les propriétés électroniques de ces films ont été corrélées avec leur réactivité vis-à-vis du système rédox [Fe(CN6]4-/ [Fe(CN6]3-. On a montré qu’il était possible d’insérer de l’or dans l’épaisseur de la couche passive. Cette insertion se fait au cours des cycles de polarisation dans le domaine (-1,15; 0 V/ECS. L’or inséré dans la couche d’oxyde de fer augmente la stabilité de cette couche et provoque des phénomènes électrocatalytiques au début du domaine transpassif, conduisant à l’apparition de ferrates (VI.

  8. Enregistrement Optique dans des Couches Minces de Tellure Modifiees Par Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Jacques

    Cette etude des proprietes d'enregistrement optique des couches minces de tellure a porte sur l'introduction d'impuretes dans le materiau par le mecanisme d'implantation ionique. Les travaux ont revele des caracteristiques importantes de l'influence de l'implantation d'ions de gaz rares (He ^{+} et Ne^ {+}) et d'ions de Li^{+ } sur les proprietes du milieu enregistreur. Lors de l'implantation des ions de gaz rares, une dose implantee critique et une energie ionique critique ont ete identifiees demarquant des discontinuites dans le comportement des seuils d'ecriture, des coefficients optiques et de la structure cristalline des couches minces de tellure. Ces valeurs critiques dependent fortement des conditions de preparation du materiau et de l'espece d'ions implantee. De plus, l'implantation d'ions Li^{+} a demontre qu'une amelioration importante de la stabilite a long terme des couches minces peut etre obtenue par le processus d'implantation.

  9. Loop Virasoro Lie conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Henan, E-mail: wuhenanby@163.com; Chen, Qiufan; Yue, Xiaoqing [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The Lie conformal algebra of loop Virasoro algebra, denoted by CW, is introduced in this paper. Explicitly, CW is a Lie conformal algebra with C[∂]-basis (L{sub i} | i∈Z) and λ-brackets [L{sub i} {sub λ} L{sub j}] = (−∂−2λ)L{sub i+j}. Then conformal derivations of CW are determined. Finally, rank one conformal modules and Z-graded free intermediate series modules over CW are classified.

  10. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  11. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  12. Isomorphism of Intransitive Linear Lie Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Martins Veloso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that formal isomorphism of intransitive linear Lie equations along transversal to the orbits can be extended to neighborhoods of these transversal. In analytic cases, the word formal is dropped from theorems. Also, we associate an intransitive Lie algebra with each intransitive linear Lie equation, and from the intransitive Lie algebra we recover the linear Lie equation, unless of formal isomorphism. The intransitive Lie algebra gives the structure functions introduced by É. Cartan.

  13. SU-E-T-570: New Quality Assurance Method Using Motion Tracking for 6D Robotic Couches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, W; Cho, J [SungKyunKwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, S [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Y; Choi, D [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To accommodate geometrically accurate patient positioning, a robotic couch that is capable of 6-degrees of freedom has been introduced. However, conventional couch QA methods are not sufficient to enable the necessary accuracy of tests. Therefore, we have developed a camera based motion detection and geometry calibration system for couch QA. Methods: Employing a Visual-Tracking System (VTS, BonitaB10, Vicon, UK) which tracks infrared reflective(IR) markers, camera calibration was conducted using a 5.7 × 5.7 × 5.7 cm{sup 3} cube attached with IR markers at each corner. After positioning a robotic-couch at the origin with the cube on the table top, 3D coordinates of the cube’s eight corners were acquired by VTS in the VTS coordinate system. Next, positions in reference coordinates (roomcoordinates) were assigned using the known relation between each point. Finally, camera calibration was completed by finding a transformation matrix between VTS and reference coordinate systems and by applying a pseudo inverse matrix method. After the calibration, the accuracy of linear and rotational motions as well as couch sagging could be measured by analyzing the continuously acquired data of the cube while the couch moves to a designated position. Accuracy of the developed software was verified through comparison with measurement data when using a Laser tracker (FARO, Lake Mary, USA) for a robotic-couch installed for proton therapy. Results: VTS system could track couch motion accurately and measured position in room-coordinates. The VTS measurements and Laser tracker data agreed within 1% of difference for linear and rotational motions. Also because the program analyzes motion in 3-Dimension, it can compute couch sagging. Conclusion: Developed QA system provides submillimeter/ degree accuracy which fulfills the high-end couch QA. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning. (2013M2A2A

  14. Potatoes in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  15. Informatics in radiology: use of CouchDB for document-based storage of DICOM objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascovsky, Simón J; Delgado, Jorge A; Sanz, Alexander; Calvo, Víctor D; Castrillón, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems traditionally have depended on schema-based Structured Query Language (SQL) databases for imaging data management. To optimize database size and performance, many such systems store a reduced set of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) metadata, discarding informational content that might be needed in the future. As an alternative to traditional database systems, document-based key-value stores recently have gained popularity. These systems store documents containing key-value pairs that facilitate data searches without predefined schemas. Document-based key-value stores are especially suited to archive DICOM objects because DICOM metadata are highly heterogeneous collections of tag-value pairs conveying specific information about imaging modalities, acquisition protocols, and vendor-supported postprocessing options. The authors used an open-source document-based database management system (Apache CouchDB) to create and test two such databases; CouchDB was selected for its overall ease of use, capability for managing attachments, and reliance on HTTP and Representational State Transfer standards for accessing and retrieving data. A large database was created first in which the DICOM metadata from 5880 anonymized magnetic resonance imaging studies (1,949,753 images) were loaded by using a Ruby script. To provide the usual DICOM query functionality, several predefined "views" (standard queries) were created by using JavaScript. For performance comparison, the same queries were executed in both the CouchDB database and a SQL-based DICOM archive. The capabilities of CouchDB for attachment management and database replication were separately assessed in tests of a similar, smaller database. Results showed that CouchDB allowed efficient storage and interrogation of all DICOM objects; with the use of information retrieval algorithms such as map-reduce, all the DICOM metadata stored in the large database were

  16. Cartan Connections and Lie Algebroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crampin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the relationship between two constructions associated with Cartan geometries, both of which involve Lie algebroids: the Cartan algebroid, due to [Blaom A.D., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 358 (2006, 3651–3671], and tractor calculus [Cap A., Gover A.R., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 354 (2001, 1511–1548].

  17. Cartan Connections and Lie Algebroids

    CERN Document Server

    Crampin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a study of the relationship between two constructions associated with Cartan geometries, both of which involve Lie algebroids: the Cartan algebroid, due to [Blaom A.D., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 358 (2006), 3651-3671], and tractor calculus [Cap A., Gover A.R., Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 354 (2001), 1511-1548].

  18. String Topology for Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 Chas and Sullivan showed that the homology of the free loop space of an oriented manifold admits the structure of a Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra. In this paper we give a direct description of this Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra in the case that the manifold is a compact Lie group G. Our answer ...

  19. Acoustic measurement of potato cannon velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes measurement of potato cannon velocity with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. The potato's flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato velocity is simply the flight distance divided by the flight time.

  20. Toward correcting drift in target position during radiotherapy via computer-controlled couch adjustments on a programmable Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Joseph E.; Regmi, Rajesh; Michael Lovelock, D.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Mageras, Gig S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Goodman, Karyn A.; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Mostafavi, Hassan [Ginzton Technology Center, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Real-time tracking of respiratory target motion during radiation therapy is technically challenging, owing to rapid and possibly irregular breathing variations. The authors report on a method to predict and correct respiration-averaged drift in target position by means of couch adjustments on an accelerator equipped with such capability. Methods: Dose delivery is broken up into a sequence of 10 s field segments, each followed by a couch adjustment based on analysis of breathing motion from an external monitor as a surrogate of internal target motion. Signal averaging over three respiratory cycles yields a baseline representing target drift. A Kalman filter predicts the baseline position 5 s in advance, for determination of the couch correction. The method's feasibility is tested with a motion phantom programmed according to previously recorded patient signals. Computed couch corrections are preprogrammed into a research mode of an accelerator capable of computer-controlled couch translations synchronized with the motion phantom. The method's performance is evaluated with five cases recorded during hypofractionated treatment and five from respiration-correlated CT simulation, using a root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD) of the baseline from the treatment planned position. Results: RMSD is reduced in all 10 cases, from a mean of 4.9 mm (range 2.7-9.4 mm) before correction to 1.7 mm (range 0.7-2.3 mm) after correction. Treatment time is increased {approx}5% relative to that for no corrections. Conclusions: This work illustrates the potential for reduction in baseline respiratory drift with periodic adjustments in couch position during treatment. Future treatment machine capabilities will enable the use of 'on-the-fly' couch adjustments during treatment.

  1. Semiclassical states on Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsobanjan, Artur, E-mail: artur.tsobanjan@gmail.com [King’s College, 133 North River Street, Kingston, Pennsylvania 18702 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The effective technique for analyzing representation-independent features of quantum systems based on the semiclassical approximation (developed elsewhere) has been successfully used in the context of the canonical (Weyl) algebra of the basic quantum observables. Here, we perform the important step of extending this effective technique to the quantization of a more general class of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. The case of a Lie algebra with a single central element (the Casimir element) is treated in detail by considering semiclassical states on the corresponding universal enveloping algebra. Restriction to an irreducible representation is performed by “effectively” fixing the Casimir condition, following the methods previously used for constrained quantum systems. We explicitly determine the conditions under which this restriction can be consistently performed alongside the semiclassical truncation.

  2. Symmetry via Lie algebra cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Eastwood, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Killing operator on a Riemannian manifold is a linear differential operator on vector fields whose kernel provides the infinitesimal Riemannian symmetries. The Killing operator is best understood in terms of its prolongation, which entails some simple tensor identities. These simple identities can be viewed as arising from the identification of certain Lie algebra cohomologies. The point is that this case provides a model for more complicated operators similarly concerned with symmetry.

  3. Can Lies Be Detected Unconsciously?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eShanks

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People are typically poor at telling apart truthful and deceptive statements. Based on the Unconscious Thought Theory, it has been suggested that poor lie detection arises from the intrinsic limitations of conscious thinking and can be improved by facilitating the contribution of unconscious thought. In support of this hypothesis, Reinhard, Greifeneder, and Scharmach (2013 observed improved lie detection among participants engaging in unconscious thought. The present study aimed to replicate this unconscious thought advantage using a similar experimental procedure but with an important improvement in a key control condition. Specifically, participants judged the truthfulness of 8 video recordings in three thinking modes: immediately after watching them or after a period of unconscious or conscious deliberation. Results from two experiments (combined N = 226 failed to reveal a significant difference in lie detection accuracy between the thinking modes, even after efforts were made to facilitate the occurrence of an unconscious thought advantage in Experiment 2. The results imply that the unconscious thought advantage in deception detection is not a robust phenomenon.

  4. Particle-like structure of Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    If a Lie algebra structure 𝔤 on a vector space is the sum of a family of mutually compatible Lie algebra structures 𝔤i's, we say that 𝔤 is simply assembled from the 𝔤i's. Repeating this procedure with a number of Lie algebras, themselves simply assembled from the 𝔤i's, one obtains a Lie algebra assembled in two steps from 𝔤i's, and so on. We describe the process of modular disassembling of a Lie algebra into a unimodular and a non-unimodular part. We then study two inverse questions: which Lie algebras can be assembled from a given family of Lie algebras, and from which Lie algebras can a given Lie algebra be assembled. We develop some basic assembling and disassembling techniques that constitute the elements of a new approach to the general theory of Lie algebras. The main result of our theory is that any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero or over R can be assembled in a finite number of steps from two elementary constituents, which we call dyons and triadons. Up to an abelian summand, a dyon is a Lie algebra structure isomorphic to the non-abelian 2-dimensional Lie algebra, while a triadon is isomorphic to the 3-dimensional Heisenberg Lie algebra. As an example, we describe constructions of classical Lie algebras from triadons.

  5. Filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is to generalize a very important type of Lie algebras and superalgebras, i.e., filiform Lie (super)algebras, into the theory of Lie algebras of order F. Thus, the concept of filiform Lie algebras of order F is obtained. In particular, for F = 3 it has been proved that by using infinitesimal deformations of the associated model elementary Lie algebra it can be obtained families of filiform elementary lie algebras of order 3, analogously as that occurs into the theory of Lie algebras [M. Vergne, "Cohomologie des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes. Application à l'étude de la variété des algèbres de Lie nilpotentes," Bull. Soc. Math. France 98, 81-116 (1970)]. Also we give the dimension, using an adaptation of the {sl}(2,{C})-module Method, and a basis of such infinitesimal deformations in some generic cases.

  6. Transformation groups and Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Nail H

    2013-01-01

    This book is based on the extensive experience of teaching for mathematics, physics and engineering students in Russia, USA, South Africa and Sweden. The author provides students and teachers with an easy to follow textbook spanning a variety of topics. The methods of local Lie groups discussed in the book provide universal and effective method for solving nonlinear differential equations analytically. Introduction to approximate transformation groups also contained in the book helps to develop skills in constructing approximate solutions for differential equations with a small parameter.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  8. Potato virus Y induced changes in the gene expression of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe-Novak, M.; Gruden, K.; Baebler, P.; Krecic-Stress, H.; Kovac, M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Ravnikar, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) causes potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease in sensitive potato cultivars. Gene expression in the disease response of the susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Igor was investigated at different times after infection, using subtract

  9. Comparing Host Plant Resistance, Engineered Resistance, and Insecticide Treatment for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle and Potato Leafhopper in Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Ghidiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say Order Coleoptera and the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris Order Homoptera, are the major insect pests of potato in eastern North America. In two years of field trials, we compared the effectiveness of three pest management options for the control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper: natural host plant resistance (glandular trichomes, engineered resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A gene and a susceptible potato cultivar (Superior with an at-planting application of the insecticide thiamethoxam. Similar and acceptable control of the Colorado potato beetle larvae was obtained with the Bt-cry3A lines and the thiamethoxam treated “Superior” variety. The glandular trichome cultivar had significantly less Colorado potato beetle damage than did the untreated “Superior” in 2004, although damage was significantly greater than in the Bt-cry3A lines and the insecticide-treated potatoes for both years, and was the only treatment that consistently had very little potato leafhopper damage. These data demonstrate that although each type of host plant resistance mechanism (Bt-cry3A or glandular trichomes was as effective as the chemical control against one of the insects, neither provides adequate resistance to both Colorado potato beetle and potato leaf hopper.

  10. The Oculist's Eye: Connections between Cataract Couching, Anatomy, and Visual Theory in the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tawrin

    2017-01-01

    We now know that cataract couching involves depressing an occluded crystalline lens to the bottom of the vitreous chamber, but from the time of Galen until the seventeenth-century cataracts were thought to be separate concretions arising between the crystalline lens and the pupil. From Antiquity through the Renaissance, the combination of visual theory in which the crystalline humor is the author of vision, and surgical experience—that couching cataracts restored some degree of sight—resulted in anatomists depicting a large space between the crystalline lens and the pupil. In the Renaissance, oculists—surgical specialists with little higher education or connections to learned surgery or medicine—overwhelmingly performed eye surgeries. This article examines how the experience and knowledge of oculists, of barber-surgeons, and of learned surgeons influenced one another on questions of anatomy, visual theory, and surgical experience. By analyzing the writings of the oculist George Bartisch (c. 1535–1607), the barber-surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510–1590), and the learned surgeon Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533–1619), we see that the oculists’ understanding of the eye—an eye constructed out of the probing, tactile experience of eye surgery—slowly lost currency among the learned toward the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  11. The extrusion properties of potato granules

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, Eng Teong

    1982-01-01

    Potato granules from different sources were found, on extrusion, to produce potato snacks of variable quality. In some instances strip formation was unsatisfactory, in other instances blistering of the snack occurred on frying. In total, about 20-25 batches of potato granules were examined and classified in relation to these two phenomena. The amylose/amylopectin ratios of these samples of potato granules were determined by the semi-micro potentiometric iodine titration technique, but it was ...

  12. DERIVATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF LIE COLOR ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qingcheng; Zhang Yongzheng

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors obtain some results concerning derivations of fi-nitely generated Lie color algebras and discuss the relation between skew derivation space SkDer(L) and central extension H2(L, F) on some Lie color algebras. Meanwhile, they generalize the notion of double extension to quadratic Lie color algebras, a sufficient con-dition for a quadratic Lie color algebra to be a double extension and further properties are given.

  13. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  14. Sustainable potato production: global case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is grown in over 100 countries throughout the world. As a staple food, potato is the fourth most important crop after rice, wheat, and maize, and has historically contributed to food and nutrition security in the world. Global interest in potato increased sharply in 200...

  15. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are positioned to revolutionize potato by reconstructing it as a diploid inbred-line based crop. Currently, potato is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated tetraploid crop, for which breeding methodologies have not changed substantially in 100 years. Current methods for creating new potato cul...

  16. 7 CFR 945.5 - Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potatoes. 945.5 Section 945.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.5 Potatoes...

  17. Infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian Lie superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural filtration of the infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian Lie superalgebra over a field of positive characteristic is proved to be invariant under automorphisms by characterizing ad-nilpotent elements.We are thereby able to obtain an intrinsic characterization of the Hamiltonian Lie superalgebra and establish a property of the automorphisms of the Lie superalgebra.

  18. SOME RESULTS OF MODULAR LIE SUPERALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present article, the authors give some properties on subinvariant subalgebras of modular Lie superalgebras and obtain the derivation tower theorem of modular Lie superalgebras, which is analogous to the automorphism tower theorem of finite groups.Moreover, they announce and prove some results of modular complete Lie superalgebras.

  19. Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…

  20. A Kind of Braided-Lie Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ We introduce a family of braidedLie algebras.They are Lie algebras in the unifying YetterDrinfeldLong module categoryJJMQQ where J and Q are Hopf algebras.We study their structure and the braidedLie structure of an algebra A in JJM QQ.

  1. Probability on real Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a progressive introduction to non-commutativity in probability theory, summarizing and synthesizing recent results about classical and quantum stochastic processes on Lie algebras. In the early chapters, focus is placed on concrete examples of the links between algebraic relations and the moments of probability distributions. The subsequent chapters are more advanced and deal with Wigner densities for non-commutative couples of random variables, non-commutative stochastic processes with independent increments (quantum Lévy processes), and the quantum Malliavin calculus. This book will appeal to advanced undergraduate and graduate students interested in the relations between algebra, probability, and quantum theory. It also addresses a more advanced audience by covering other topics related to non-commutativity in stochastic calculus, Lévy processes, and the Malliavin calculus.

  2. Attenuation measures of the BrainLAB imaging couch and validation on the treatment planning system Eclipse; Medidas de atenuacao da mesa BrainLAB imaging couch e validacao no sistema de planejamento Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serante, Alexandre R., E-mail: alexandre.serante@gmail.com [Clinica de Radioterapia Inga, Nitero, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Joao G. [Instituto Oncologico, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Neves-Junior, Wellington F.P.; Leite, Joao Paulo S.; Haddad, Cecilia M.K. [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia. Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras

    2015-12-15

    In this work, attenuation measurements were performed for the beams of energy 6 and 15MV for the couch table BrainLAB Imaging Couch, consisting of carbon fiber. The measurements were performed in the Linac Novalis-Tx (Varian) for 5 x 5 and 10 x 10 cm² field sizes, varying gantry positions. The measured data were compared with the values calculated with the treatment planning system Eclipse, calculated with the algorithm AAA, in order to validate the model of the couch included in your library. The highest attenuation for the field size of 10 x 10 cm² was 7,5% and 4,8% for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. With the field size of 5 x 5 cm² the highest attenuation value was 8,1% and 5,3%, for the beams 6 and 15 MV, respectively. Both measured at gantry position 120 deg C. From the attenuation data measured with an ionization chamber, it was possible to modify the model of the couch in Eclipse to obtain the smallest difference between measured and predicted values by the TPS. (author)

  3. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lesiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

  5. Lies and Deception: A Failed Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The traditional view of lying says that lying is a matter of intending to deceive others by making statements that one believes to be false. Jennifer Lackey has recently defended the following version of the traditional view: A lies to B just in case (i) A states that p to B, (ii) A believes that...... is false and (iii) A intends to be deceptive to B in stating that p. I argue that, despite all the virtues that Lackey ascribes to her view, conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) are not sufficient for lying.......The traditional view of lying says that lying is a matter of intending to deceive others by making statements that one believes to be false. Jennifer Lackey has recently defended the following version of the traditional view: A lies to B just in case (i) A states that p to B, (ii) A believes that p...

  6. Clinical Evaluation of a Robotic 6-Degree of Freedom Treatment Couch for Frameless Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevaert, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.gevaert@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Verellen, Dirk; Engels, Benedikt; Depuydt, Tom; Heuninckx, Karina; Tournel, Koen; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; De Ridder, Mark [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the added value of 6-degree of freedom (DOF) patient positioning with a robotic couch compared with 4DOF positioning for intracranial lesions and to estimate the immobilization characteristics of the BrainLAB frameless mask (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), more specifically, the setup errors and intrafraction motion. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 40 patients with 66 brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery and a 6DOF robotic couch. Patient positioning was performed with the BrainLAB ExacTrac stereoscopic X-ray system. Positioning results were collected before and after treatment to assess patient setup error and intrafraction motion. Existing treatment planning data were loaded and simulated for 4DOF positioning and compared with the 6DOF positioning. The clinical relevance was analyzed by means of the Paddick conformity index and the ratio of prescribed isodose volume covered with 4DOF to that obtained with the 6DOF positioning. Results: The mean three-dimensional setup error before 6DOF correction was 1.91 mm (SD, 1.25 mm). The rotational errors were larger in the longitudinal (mean, 0.23 Degree-Sign ; SD, 0.82 Degree-Sign ) direction compared with the lateral (mean, -0.09 Degree-Sign ; SD, 0.72 Degree-Sign ) and vertical (mean, -0.10 Degree-Sign ; SD, 1.03 Degree-Sign ) directions (p < 0.05). The mean three-dimensional intrafraction shift was 0.58 mm (SD, 0.42 mm). The mean intrafractional rotational errors were comparable for the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions: 0.01 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.35 Degree-Sign ), 0.03 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.31 Degree-Sign ), and -0.03 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.33 Degree-Sign ), respectively. The mean conformity index decreased from 0.68 (SD, 0.08) (6DOF) to 0.59 (SD, 0.12) (4DOF) (p < 0.05). A loss of prescribed isodose coverage of 5% (SD, 0.08) was found with the 4DOF positioning (p < 0.05). Half a degree for longitudinal and lateral rotations can be identified as a threshold

  7. Clinical evaluation of a robotic 6-degree of freedom treatment couch for frameless radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thierry; Verellen, Dirk; Engels, Benedikt; Depuydt, Tom; Heuninckx, Karina; Tournel, Koen; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the added value of 6-degree of freedom (DOF) patient positioning with a robotic couch compared with 4DOF positioning for intracranial lesions and to estimate the immobilization characteristics of the BrainLAB frameless mask (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), more specifically, the setup errors and intrafraction motion. We enrolled 40 patients with 66 brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery and a 6DOF robotic couch. Patient positioning was performed with the BrainLAB ExacTrac stereoscopic X-ray system. Positioning results were collected before and after treatment to assess patient setup error and intrafraction motion. Existing treatment planning data were loaded and simulated for 4DOF positioning and compared with the 6DOF positioning. The clinical relevance was analyzed by means of the Paddick conformity index and the ratio of prescribed isodose volume covered with 4DOF to that obtained with the 6DOF positioning. The mean three-dimensional setup error before 6DOF correction was 1.91 mm (SD, 1.25 mm). The rotational errors were larger in the longitudinal (mean, 0.23°; SD, 0.82°) direction compared with the lateral (mean, -0.09°; SD, 0.72°) and vertical (mean, -0.10°; SD, 1.03°) directions (p errors were comparable for the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions: 0.01° (SD, 0.35°), 0.03° (SD, 0.31°), and -0.03° (SD, 0.33°), respectively. The mean conformity index decreased from 0.68 (SD, 0.08) (6DOF) to 0.59 (SD, 0.12) (4DOF) (p error and intrafraction motions need to be evaluated and corrected for. The 6DOF patient positioning with a 6DOF robotic couch to correct translational and rotational setup errors improves target positioning with respect to treatment isocenter, which is in direct relation with the clinical outcome, compared with the 4DOF positioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  9. Learning to lie: Effects of practice on the cognitive cost of lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVan Bockstaele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories on deception posit that lying requires more cognitive resources than telling the truth. In line with this idea, it has been demonstrated that deceptive responses are typically associated with increased response times and higher error rates compared to truthful responses. Although the cognitive cost of lying has been assumed to be resistant to practice, it has recently been shown that people who are trained to lie can reduce this cost. In the present study (n = 42, we further explored the effects of practice on one’s ability to lie by manipulating the proportions of lie and truth-trials in a Sheffield lie test across three phases: Baseline (50% lie, 50% truth, Training (frequent-lie group: 75% lie, 25% truth; control group: 50% lie, 50% truth; and frequent-truth group: 25% lie, 75% truth, and Test (50% lie, 50% truth. The results showed that lying became easier while participants were trained to lie more often and that lying became more difficult while participants were trained to tell the truth more often. Furthermore, these effects did carry over to the test phase, but only for the specific items that were used for the training manipulation. Hence, our study confirms that relatively little practice is enough to alter the cognitive cost of lying, although this effect does not persist over time for non-practiced items.

  10. Deceivers' Responses to Challenges of Their Truthfulness: Difference between Familiar Lies and Unfamiliar Lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Battista, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether a lie's cognitive representation affects deceivers' ability to respond to probing. Shows that behavioral changes made in response to probing varied depending on whether the lie was a familiar lie or an unfamiliar lie but that none of these behaviors were related to judges' ratings of truthfulness. (SR)

  11. SU-C-207-04: Reconstruction Artifact Reduction in X-Ray Cone Beam CT Using a Treatment Couch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasio, G; Hu, E; Zhou, J; Lee, M; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: to mitigate artifacts induced by the presence of the RT treatment couch in on-board CBCT and improve image quality Methods: a model of a Varian IGRT couch is constructed using a CBCT scan of the couch in air. The model is used to generate a set of forward projections (FP) of the treatment couch at specified gantry angles. The model couch forward projections are then used to process CBCT scan projections which contain the couch in addition to the scan object (Catphan phantom), in order to remove the attenuation component of the couch at any given gantry angle. Prior to pre-processing with the model FP, the Catphan projection data is normalized to an air scan with bowtie filter. The filtered Catphan projections are used to reconstruct the CBCT with an in-house FDK algorithm. The artifact reduction in the processed CBCT scan is assessed visually, and the image quality improvement is measured with the CNR over a few selected ROIs of the Catphan modules. Results: Sufficient match between the forward projected data and the x-ray projections is achieved to allow filtering in attenuation space. Visual improvement of the couch induced artifacts is achieved, with a moderate expense of CNR. Conclusion: Couch model-based correction of CBCT projection data has a potential for qualitative improvement of clinical CBCT scans, without requiring position specific correction data. The technique could be used to produce models of other artifact inducing devices, such as immobilization boards, and reduce their impact on patient CBCT images.

  12. SU-E-T-137: Attenuation of Carbon Fiber IGRT Couch Top for SBRT By Using a MapCheck 2 and Ion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, K; Li, B; Lerma, F; Sarfaraz, M [MedStar Health RadAmerica, Mercy Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jacobs, M; Laser, B [Mercy Medical Center Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It is common to use posterior oblique beams in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for regular and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Beam attenuation by the treatment couch is not negligible when the couch is in the beam portal. In this study, we have correlated relative dose versus beam angle through a MapCheck 2TM diode array and an ionization chamber measurement. Methods: A Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator equipped with the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) carbon fiber couch was used for delivery of radiation with different photon energies of 6MV, 15MV and 6MV FFF. A MapCHECK 2TM diode array with a MapPhan was employed for the measurement at three field sizes (3 by 3, 5 by 5, and 10 by 10 cm). The independent measurement was performed with an ionization chamber placed at the center of an acrylic cylindrical phantom at the isocenter. The measured data with the MapCHECK 2TM diode array were averaged over the central 2×2 cm diodes for each measurement. The couch attenuation was deduced from the angular dependence with and without the couch involvement. Results: For the MapCHECK 2TM with MapPhan used only the obvious attenuation was observed at the beam angle between 5 and 10 degree from the angular dependence using a 6MV photon beam. The similar Result was obtained for the MapCHECK 2TM /MapPhan with the couch involvement. The couch attenuation was then deduced from the difference of these two sets of data measurements. Maximum couch attenuation was found up to 4.2% which was verified with the ion chamber measurement. Conclusion: A maximum attenuation of 4.2% was found for the carbon fiber couch top using the MapCHECK 2TM/MapPhan, which is consistent with the ion chamber measurement.

  13. Holomorph of Lie color algebras%Lie color代数的全形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒云

    2007-01-01

    给出Lie color代数全形的一些性质,证明Lie color代数L的全形有分解(H)(L)=L(+)Z(H)(L)(L)的充分必要条件是它是完备Lie color代数.%To the holomorph of Lie color algebras, some properties are studied. A Lie color algebra L is complete if and only if (H)(L) = L(+)Z(H)(L) (L).

  14. Trajectory optimization for dynamic couch rotation during volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Gregory; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Evans, Philip M.; Bedford, James L.

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar radiation beams are often used in three-dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy to reduce dose to organs at risk (OAR) by geometric avoidance. In volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) non-coplanar geometries are generally achieved by applying patient couch rotations to single or multiple full or partial arcs. This paper presents a trajectory optimization method for a non-coplanar technique, dynamic couch rotation during VMAT (DCR-VMAT), which combines ray tracing with a graph search algorithm. Four clinical test cases (partial breast, brain, prostate only, and prostate and pelvic nodes) were used to evaluate the potential OAR sparing for trajectory-optimized DCR-VMAT plans, compared with standard coplanar VMAT. In each case, ray tracing was performed and a cost map reflecting the number of OAR voxels intersected for each potential source position was generated. The least-cost path through the cost map, corresponding to an optimal DCR-VMAT trajectory, was determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Results show that trajectory optimization can reduce dose to specified OARs for plans otherwise comparable to conventional coplanar VMAT techniques. For the partial breast case, the mean heart dose was reduced by 53%. In the brain case, the maximum lens doses were reduced by 61% (left) and 77% (right) and the globes by 37% (left) and 40% (right). Bowel mean dose was reduced by 15% in the prostate only case. For the prostate and pelvic nodes case, the bowel V50 Gy and V60 Gy were reduced by 9% and 45% respectively. Future work will involve further development of the algorithm and assessment of its performance over a larger number of cases in site-specific cohorts.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1578 - Off-Grade potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-Grade potatoes. 51.1578 Section 51.1578... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Off-Grade § 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes...

  16. Essais préliminaires d'un enduit hydraulique pour couche de roulement à longue durée de vie

    OpenAIRE

    DE LARRARD, F; Garcin, F.; F. Hammoum; Travers, F.

    2005-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche international, le LCPC propose une solution technique innovante intitulée " Enduit hydraulique fibré gravillonné (EHFG) ". Il s'agit d'essayer de développer une technique de couche de roulement à longue durée de vie, consistant à étaler, sur une couche de liaison bitumineuse, une couche de mortier fibré à ultra-hautes performances, dans laquelle des gravillons à forte résistance au polissage seraient engravés. Au stade actuel, on a vérifié que ce maté...

  17. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  18. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be underst

  19. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  20. Growth of potatoes for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes research on the utilization of white potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) for space life support systems at the University of Wisconsin-Madison over the period of 1984 to 1993. At full maturity the tuber productivity was 37.5 gm(exp -2) d(exp -1), equating to a growing area requirement for one human (2800 kcal d(exp -1)) of 10.1 m(exp -2). A recirculating nutrient system using slanted trays produced best potato growth and tuber yields when a 2-3 cm layer of gravel or arcillite media was utilized. Potato production was close to maximum under lighting levels of 400 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) of photosynthetic photo flux (PPF) for 24 hours or 800 micromol m(exp -2) s(exp -1) for 12 hours, alternating diurnal temperatures of 22 C and 14 C, relative humidity of 85 percent, and a carbon dioxide level of 1000 micromol m(exp -1). The range of effective concentrations of each separate nutrient is reported. The extensive studies with potatoes in this project have demonstrated that this crop has high productivity of nutritous tubers with a high harvest index in controlled environments, and can fulfill a significant portion of the energy and protein requirements for humans in space.

  1. Quantum Lie theory a multilinear approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the mathematics behind the phrase “quantum Lie algebra”. The numerous attempts over the last 15-20 years to define a quantum Lie algebra as an elegant algebraic object with a binary “quantum” Lie bracket have not been widely accepted. In this book, an alternative approach is developed that includes multivariable operations. Among the problems discussed are the following: a PBW-type theorem; quantum deformations of Kac--Moody algebras; generic and symmetric quantum Lie operations; the Nichols algebras; the Gurevich--Manin  Lie algebras;  and Shestakov--Umirbaev  operations for the Lie theory of nonassociative products.  Opening with an introduction for beginners and continuing as a textbook for graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book can also be used as a reference by more advanced readers. With the exception of the introductory chapter, the content of this monograph has not previously appeared in book form.

  2. Generalized derivations of Lie triple systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present some basic properties concerning the derivation algebra Der (T, the quasiderivation algebra QDer (T and the generalized derivation algebra GDer (T of a Lie triple system T, with the relationship Der (T ⊆ QDer (T ⊆ GDer (T ⊆ End (T. Furthermore, we completely determine those Lie triple systems T with condition QDer (T = End (T. We also show that the quasiderivations of T can be embedded as derivations in a larger Lie triple system.

  3. 3-Leibniz bialgebras (3-Lie bialgebras)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper by use of cohomology complex of $3$-Leibniz algebras, the definitions of Leibniz bialgebras (and Lie bialgebras) are extended for the case of $3$-Leibniz algebras. Many theorems about Leibniz bialgebras are extended and proved for the case of $3$-Leibniz bialgebras ($3$-Lie bialgebras). Moreover a new theorem on the correspondence between $3$-Leibniz bialgebra and its associated Leibniz bialgebra is proved. $3$-Lie bialgebra as particular case of the $3$-Leibniz bialgebra is inv...

  4. Killing Forms of Isotropic Lie Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Malagon, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for computing the Killing form of an isotropic Lie algebra defined over an arbitrary field based on the Killing form of a subalgebra containing its anisotropic kernel. This approach allows for streamlined formulas for many Lie algebras of types E6 and E7 and yields a unified formula for all Lie algebras of inner type E6, including the anisotropic ones.

  5. ALIED: A Theory of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris N. H. Street

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We are very inaccurate lie detectors, and tend to believe what others tell us is the truth more often than we ought to. In fact, studies on lie detection typically describe our tendency to believe others as an error in judgment. Although people may look like hopeless lie detectors, the Adaptive Lie Detector theory (ALIED claims that people are actually making smart, informed judgments. This article explores the ALIED theory and what it means for those wanting to spot a liar.

  6. Computations in finite-dimensional Lie algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cohen

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes progress made in context with the construction of a general library of Lie algebra algorithms, called ELIAS (Eindhoven Lie Algebra System, within the computer algebra package GAP. A first sketch of the package can be found in Cohen and de Graaf[1]. Since then, in a collaborative effort with G. Ivanyos, the authors have continued to develop algorithms which were implemented in ELIAS by the second author. These activities are part of a bigger project, called ACELA and financed by STW, the Dutch Technology Foundation, which aims at an interactive book on Lie algebras (cf. Cohen and Meertens [2]. This paper gives a global description of the main ways in which to present Lie algebras on a computer. We focus on the transition from a Lie algebra abstractly given by an array of structure constants to a Lie algebra presented as a subalgebra of the Lie algebra of n×n matrices. We describe an algorithm typical of the structure analysis of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra: finding a Levi subalgebra of a Lie algebra.

  7. Engel Subalgebras of n-Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald W. BARNES

    2008-01-01

    Engel subalgebras of finite-dimensional n Lie algebras are shown to have similar properties to those of Lie algebras.Using these,it is shown that an n Lie algebra,all of whose maximal subalgebras are ideals,is nilpotent.A primitive 2-soluble n Lie algebra is shown to split over its minimal ideal, and all the complements to its minimal ideal are conjugate.A subalgebra is shown to be a Cartan subalgebra if and only if it is minimal Engel,provided that the field has su .ciently many elements. Cartan subalgebras are shown to have a property analogous to intravariance.

  8. Utilization of Potato Protein Recovered from Wastewater of Potato Starch Factory as Cattle Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of wastewater is discharged from potato starch factories in Hokkaido, Japan. The wastewater contains residual potato constituents such as protein, which are named potato fruit juice (PFJ. A powerful stench is generated from PFJ by anaerobic fermentation. In this study, the isoelectric precipitation technique was applied to recover the potato protein from PFJ. Protein recovery from PFJ by acid isoelectric precipitation at pH 3.0 or less reached 80%. PFJ post-protein recovery at pH 3.0 does not produce a powerful stench. Potato protein recovered from PFJ by acid treatment is a useful feed resource. The PFJ in potato starch factory is a potentially promising resource for the production of potato protein. Wastewater from potato starch factories does not have to be waste or a source of powerful stench, it can be a valuable resource.

  9. Antioxidant activity of potato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Kowalczewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interest in potato juice as a therapeutic agent goes back to the 19th century but its application was not supported by any knowledge about biological activity of this raw material. Factors restricting the medical application of potato juice include its inattractive sensory and functional properties. The aim of the presented investigations was preliminary evaluation of the biological activity of potato juice and the impact on it of some technological operations such as: cryoconcentration and hydrolysis in a membrane reactor. Material and methods. Experiments comprised investigations of antioxidative potentials of fresh potato juice, products of its processing as well as fractions separated because of the size of their molecules using, for this purpose, Folin-Ciocalteu methods and reactions with the ABTS cation radical. Results. The value of the antioxidative potential of fresh potato juice determined by means of the ABTS reagent corresponded to approximately 330 μmol/100 g which is in keeping with literature data. As a result of the cryoconcentration process, the value determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was found to increase only slightly whereas the value determined by means of the ABTS reagent almost tripled. The antioxidative potential was found to grow even more strongly in the case of the application of both methods when the process of enzymatic hydrolysis was employed. The total of 5 protein fractions of molecular masses ranging from 11 000 Da to over 600 000 Da, as well as an organic non-protein fraction of the molecular mass of 600 Da, were obtained as a result of the performed separation. All the examined fractions exhibited antioxidative activities. The highest values determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were recorded for the protein fraction of 80 000 Da mean molecular mass, while using the ABTS reagent – for the organic, non-protein fraction. Conclusions. Potato juice possesses antioxidative activity which

  10. Co-limitation of potato growth by Potato Cyst Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) and Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiani, Z.; Zafari, D.; Rezaee, S.; Arjmandian, A.; Gitti, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Globodera rostochiensis and Rhizoctonia solani are the most important growth limiting factors influencing potato production in Iran. The effects of inoculation with Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) (0, 50, 75 and 100 cysts/3.5 kg soil) and R. solani (with or without inoculation) on potato growth and deve

  11. The structure of complex Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong Hoon

    2001-01-01

    Complex Lie groups have often been used as auxiliaries in the study of real Lie groups in areas such as differential geometry and representation theory. To date, however, no book has fully explored and developed their structural aspects.The Structure of Complex Lie Groups addresses this need. Self-contained, it begins with general concepts introduced via an almost complex structure on a real Lie group. It then moves to the theory of representative functions of Lie groups- used as a primary tool in subsequent chapters-and discusses the extension problem of representations that is essential for studying the structure of complex Lie groups. This is followed by a discourse on complex analytic groups that carry the structure of affine algebraic groups compatible with their analytic group structure. The author then uses the results of his earlier discussions to determine the observability of subgroups of complex Lie groups.The differences between complex algebraic groups and complex Lie groups are sometimes subtle ...

  12. Classification and identification of Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Snobl, Libor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for researchers and practitioners who apply Lie algebras and Lie groups to solve problems arising in science and engineering. The authors address the problem of expressing a Lie algebra obtained in some arbitrary basis in a more suitable basis in which all essential features of the Lie algebra are directly visible. This includes algorithms accomplishing decomposition into a direct sum, identification of the radical and the Levi decomposition, and the computation of the nilradical and of the Casimir invariants. Examples are given for each algorithm. For low-dimensional Lie algebras this makes it possible to identify the given Lie algebra completely. The authors provide a representative list of all Lie algebras of dimension less or equal to 6 together with their important properties, including their Casimir invariants. The list is ordered in a way to make identification easy, using only basis independent properties of the Lie algebras. They also describe certain cl...

  13. Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibral, M.; Dohmen, T.J.; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone

  14. Lie Group Techniques for Neural Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-03

    Lie group techniques for Neural Learning Edinburgh June 2004 Elena Celledoni SINTEF Applied Mathematics, IMF-NTNU Lie group techniques for Neural...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SINTEF Applied Mathematics, IMF-NTNU 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  15. The Killing Forms of Lie Triple Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi Xue; GAO Rui

    2009-01-01

    For Lie triple systems in the characteristic zero setting, we obtain by means of the Killing forms two criterions for semisimplicity and for solvability respectively, and then investigate the relationship among the Killing forms of a real Lie triple system To, the complexification T of To, and the realification of T.

  16. Matrix Lie Algebras and Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Feng; GUO Fu-Kui

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of higher-dimensional Lie algebras are given which can be used to directly construct integrable couplings of the soliton integrable systems. The relations between the Lie algebras are discussed. Finally, the integrable couplings and the Hamiltonian structure of Giachetti-Johnson hierarchy and a new integrable system are obtained, respectively.

  17. Induced Modules of Restricted Lie Superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文德

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we first prove the PBW theorem for reduced universal enveloping algebras of restricted Lie superalgebras. Then the notion of an induced module is introduced and the dimension formula of induced modules is established.Finally, using the results above, we obtain a property of induced modules pertaining to automorphisms of Lie superalgebras and isomorphisms of modules.

  18. On Nambu-Lie 3-algebra representations

    CERN Document Server

    Sochichiu, Corneliu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a recipe to construct matrix representations of Nambu--Lie 3-algebras in terms of irreducible representations of underlying Lie algebra. The case of Euclidean four-dimensional 3-algebra is considered in details. We find that representations of this 3-algebra are not possible in terms of only Hermitian matrices in spite of its Euclidean nature.

  19. Computations in finite-dimensional Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Graaf, W.A. de; Rónyai, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes progress made in context with the construction of a general library of Lie algebra algorithms, called ELIAS (Eindhoven Lie Algebra System), within the computer algebra package GAP. A first sketch of the packagecan be found in Cohen and de Graaf[1]. Since then, in a collaborative

  20. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room.

  1. Lie symmetries and 2D Material Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Inspired from Lie symmetry classification, we establish a correspondence between rank two Lie symmetries and 2D material physics. The material unit cell is accordingly interpreted as the geometry of a root system. The hexagonal cells, appearing in graphene like models, are analyzed in some details and are found to be associated with A_2 and G_2 Lie symmetries. This approach can be applied to Lie supersymmetries associated with fermionic degrees of freedom. It has been suggested that these extended symmetries can offer a new way to deal with doping material geometries. Motivated by Lie symmetry applications in high energy physics, we speculate on a possible connection with (p,q) brane networks used in the string theory compactification on singular Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  2. Characteristics of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Lie Scale and of Extreme Lie Scorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Results of statistical analyses suggest that high lie-scorers respond honestly, and that the Lie Scale for the Eysenck Personality Inventory may reflect a personality dimension of interest rather than an extraneous and undesirable factor to be eliminated. (Author)

  3. M2 to D2 and vice versa by 3-Lie and Lie bialgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aali-Javanangrouh, M.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Using the concept of a 3-Lie bialgebra, which has recently been defined in arXiv:1604.04475, we construct a Bagger-Lambert-Gustavson (BLG) model for the M2-brane on a Manin triple of a special 3-Lie bialgebra. Then by using the correspondence and the relation between those 3-Lie bialgebra with Lie bialgebra, we reduce this model to an N = (4,4) WZW model (D2-brane), such that its algebraic structure is a Lie bialgebra with one 2-cocycle. In this manner by using the correspondence of the 3-Lie bialgebra and Lie bialgebra (for this special 3-Lie algebra) one can construct the M2-brane from a D2-brane and vice versa. (orig.)

  4. A-扩张Lie Rinehart代数%On the A-extended Lie Rinehart Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈酌; 祁玉海

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a brief introduction to the category of Lie Rinehart algebras and introduces the concept of smooth manifolds associated with a unitary,commutative, associative algebra A. It especially shows that the A-extended algebra as well as the action algebra can be realized as the space of A-left invariant vector fields on a Lie group, analogous to the well known relationship of Lie algebras and Lie groups.

  5. The Prevalence of Lying in America: Three Studies of Self-Reported Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serota, Kim B.; Levine, Timothy R.; Boster, Franklin J.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the frequency and the distribution of reported lying in the adult population. A national survey asked 1,000 U.S. adults to report the number of lies told in a 24-hour period. Sixty percent of subjects report telling no lies at all, and almost half of all lies are told by only 5% of subjects; thus, prevalence varies widely and…

  6. Homology of Lie algebra of supersymmetries and of super Poincare Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movshev, M.V. [Department of Mathematics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3651 (United States); Schwarz, A., E-mail: schwarz@math.ucdavis.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xu, Renjun [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-01-11

    We study the homology and cohomology groups of super Lie algebras of supersymmetries and of super Poincare Lie algebras in various dimensions. We give complete answers for (non-extended) supersymmetry in all dimensions {<=}11. For dimensions D=10,11 we describe also the cohomology of reduction of supersymmetry Lie algebra to lower dimensions. Our methods can be applied to extended supersymmetry Lie algebras.

  7. SU-E-T-84: A Survey On Radiotherapy Table Tolerances and Couch Overrides of Over 350 Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Panfil, J; Surucu, M; Roeske, J [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Table overrides are relatively common in radiotherapy, yet are a potential safety concern. The goal of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and table tolerance values used clinically. Methods: A 25 question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the AAPM. In the first part of the survey, participants were asked: if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. In the second part of the survey, individuals were asked to provide table tolerance data for the following sites: brain/head & neck, lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate. Each site was further divided into IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal techniques. Free-text spaces were provided, allowing respondents to enter any table tolerance data they were unable to specify under the treatment sites listed. Results: A total of 361 individuals responded, of which approximately half participated in the couch tolerances portion of the survey. Overall, 86% of respondents’ institutions allow couch tolerance overrides at treatment. Therapists were the most common staff members permitted to perform overrides, followed by physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians, respectively. Of the institutions allowing overrides, 34% reported overriding daily. More than half of the centers require documentation of the override and/or a setup image (acquired after override) to radiographically verify the treatment site. With respect to table tolerances, groups resulting from the free-text responses were at the two extremes; SRS/SBRT were the tightest, while clinical setup/mets/extremities were the most generous. There was no qualitative difference between IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal table tolerances. Conclusion: This work is intended to stimulate a discussion within the radiotherapy community. This discussion, supplemented by the survey results provides an

  8. The evaluation for the usability of the Varian Standard Couch modelingusing Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Mo; Song, Yong Min; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Ji Min; Choi, Byeung Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    When a radiation treatment, there is an attenuation by Carbon Fiber Couch. In this study, we tried to evaluate the usability of the Varian Standard Couch(VSC) by modeling with Treatment Planning System (TPS) VSC was scanned by CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography) of the Linac(Clinac IX, VARIAN, USA), following the three conditions of VSC, Side Rail OutGrid(SROG), Side Rail InGrid(SRIG), Side Rail In OutSpine Down Bar(SRIOS). After scan, the data was transferred to TPS and modeled by contouring Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, Spine Down Bar automatically. We scanned the Cheese Phantom(Middelton, USA) using Computed Tomography(Light Speed RT 16, GE, USA) and transfer the data to TPS, and apply VSC modeled previously with TPS to it. Dose was measured at the isocenter of Ion Chamber(A1SL, Standard imaging, USA) in Cheese Phantom using 4 and 10 MV radiation for every 5° gantry angle in a different filed size(3 X 3 cm{sup 2},10 X 10cm{sup 2}) without any change of MU(=100), and then we compared the calculated dose and measured dose. Also we included dose at the 127° in SRIG to compare the attenuation by Side Bar Upper. Results : The density of VSC by CBCT in TPS was 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and in the case of Spine Down Bar, it was 0.7g/cm{sup 3}. The radiation was attenuated by 17.49%, 16.49%, 8.54%, and 7.59% at the Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, and Spine Down Bar. For the accuracy of modeling, calculated dose and measured dose were compared. The average error was 1.13% and the maximum error was 1.98% at the 170° beam crossing the Spine Down Bar. To evaluate the usability for the VSC modeled by TPS, the maximum error was 1.98% as a result of compassion between calculated dose and measured dose. We found out that VSC modeling helped expect the dose, so we think that it will be helpful for the more accurate treatment.

  9. A Class of Solvable Lie Algebras and Their Hom-Lie Algebra Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-chao; LI Dong-ya; JIN Quan-qin

    2014-01-01

    The finite-dimensional indecomposable solvable Lie algebras s with Q2n+1 as their nilradical are studied and classified, it turns out that the dimension of s is dim Q2n+1+1. Then the Hom-Lie algebra structures on solvable Lie algebras s are calculated.

  10. Estimation of nitrogen pools in irrigated potato production on sandy soil using the model SUBSTOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Prasad

    Full Text Available Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations--a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha(-1 N of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha(-1 N. The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha(-1 N and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn. The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses.

  11. The role of potatoes and potato components in cardiometabolic health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Kurilich, Anne C; Davignon, Jean

    2013-11-01

    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important food crop worldwide and contribute key nutrients to the diet, including vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. Potatoes and potato components have been shown to have favorable impacts on several measures of cardiometabolic health in animals and humans, including lowering blood pressure, improving lipid profiles, and decreasing markers of inflammation. A range of glycemic index (GI) values have been reported for potatoes, and data are sparse regarding the impact of potato consumption on the postprandial glycemic response, especially when potatoes are consumed with other foods. There is a lack of clinical trial data regarding the impact of potatoes on weight management. A small number of human cohort studies have reported beneficial associations between potato consumption as part of a healthy lifestyle and cardiometabolic health. Another small number of human population studies have included potatoes as part of a dietary pattern with other calorie-dense foods and have not reported cardiometabolic benefits. The epidemiological literature should be interpreted with caution due to lack of consistency in both defining dietary patterns that include potatoes and in control for potential confounding variables. Controlled clinical trials are needed to define the impact of potatoes on cardiometabolic health.

  12. Introduction to the theory of Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Godement, Roger

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the general theory of Lie groups. By first considering the case of linear groups (following von Neumann's method) before proceeding to the general case, the reader is naturally introduced to Lie theory. Written by a master of the subject and influential member of the Bourbaki group, the French edition of this textbook has been used by several generations of students. This translation preserves the distinctive style and lively exposition of the original. Requiring only basics of topology and algebra, this book offers an engaging introduction to Lie groups for graduate students and a valuable resource for researchers.

  13. Quasi-big\\`ebres de Lie et cohomologie d'alg\\`ebre de Lie

    CERN Document Server

    Bangoura, Momo

    2010-01-01

    Lie quasi-bialgebras are natural generalisations of Lie bialgebras introduced by Drinfeld. To any Lie quasi-bialgebra structure of finite-dimensional (G, \\mu, \\gamma ,\\phi ?), correspond one Lie algebra structure on D = G\\oplus G*, called the double of the given Lie quasi-bialgebra. We show that there exist on \\Lambda G, the exterior algebra of G, a D-module structure and we establish an isomorphism of D-modules between \\Lambda D and End(\\Lambda G), D acting on \\Lambda D by the adjoint action.

  14. Induced Lie Algebras of a Six-Dimensional Matrix Lie Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-Feng; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    By using a six-dimensional matrix Lie algebra [Y.F. Zhang and Y. Wang, Phys. Lett. A 360 (2006) 92], three induced Lie algebras are constructed. One of them is obtained by extending Lie bracket, the others are higher-dimensional complex Lie algebras constructed by using linear transformations. The equivalent Lie algebras of the later two with multi-component forms are obtained as well. As their applications, we derive an integrable coupling and quasi-Hamiltonian structure of the modified TC hierarchy of soliton equations.

  15. The Frattini Subalgebra of Restricted Lie Superalgebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yun CHEN; Dao Ji MENG; Yong Zheng ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we study the Frattini subalgebra of a restricted Lie superalgebra (L, [p]). We show first that if L = A1 (⊙) A2 (⊙) … (⊙) An, then φp (L) = φp (A1) + φp (A2) +… +φp (An),where each Ai is a p-ideal of L. We then obtain two results: F(L) = φ(L) = J(L) = L(1) if and only if L is nilpotent; Fp(L) and F(L) are nilpotent ideals of L if L is solvable. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions are found for φp-free restricted Lie superalgebras. Finally, we discuss the relationships of E-p-restricted Lie superalgebras and E-restricted Lie superalgebras.

  16. Dormancy and growth vigour of seed potatoes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Dormancy is an important property of seed potatoes. Seed tubers planted too soon after their harvest do not produce plants because of dormancy, or produce low yields because of poor growth vigour. Potato tubers from the same cultivar vary in their duration of dormancy. The first aim of the research

  17. Potato operation: computer vision for agricultural robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Thierry; Lefebvre, Marc; Gil, Sylvia; Brunet, Denis; Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Guegerli, Paul

    1992-03-01

    Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic and computer vision. The paper reports on the current status of this project. It first summarizes the robotic aspects, which consist of locating a potato in a bunch, grasping it, positioning it into the camera field of view, pumping the pulp sample and depositing it into a container. The computer vision aspects are then detailed. They concern locating particular potatoes in a bunch and finding the position of the best germ where the drill has to sample the pulp. The emphasis is put on the germ location problem. A general overview of the approach is given, which combines the processing of both frontal and silhouette views of the potato, together with movements of the robot arm (active vision). Frontal and silhouette analysis algorithms are then presented. Results are shown that confirm the feasibility of the approach.

  18. Sustainable potato production: guidelines for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutaladio, N.; Ortiz, O.; Haverkort, A.J.; Caldiz, D.O.

    2009-01-01

    During the International Year of the Potato, celebrated in 2008, FAO and CIP helped forge partnerships worldwide to address critical aspects of sustainable potato production. This technical guide collates that experience to review technical, socio-economic, policy and institutional factors that

  19. Nitrogen responses and nitrogen management in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.

    2009-01-01

    Innumerable experiments have been carried out to establish the yield response of potato to the rate of nitrogen (N) supply. Given the continuing change in production level of potato and because of the need to maximise the nutrient use efficiency and to reduce losses of harmful nitrogenous compounds

  20. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  1. Ensuring the genetic diversity of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities for advances in the potato crop through genetics are great, since potato has many needs for improvement, and many related species with the traits required are available. Genebanks provide a centralized and specialized resource for providing the services of acquisition, classification, ...

  2. Dormancy and growth vigour of seed potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Dormancy is an important property of seed potatoes. Seed tubers planted too soon after their harvest do not produce plants because of dormancy, or produce low yields because of poor growth vigour. Potato tubers from the same cultivar vary in their duration of dormancy. The first aim of the

  3. Linearization from Complex Lie Point Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Lie point transformations are used to linearize a class of systems of second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs which have Lie algebras of maximum dimension d, with d≤4. We identify such a class by employing complex structure on the manifold that defines the geometry of differential equations. Furthermore we provide a geometrical construction of the procedure adopted that provides an analogue in R3 of the linearizability criteria in R2.

  4. Lie Superalgebras arising from bosonic representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Naihuan

    2012-01-01

    A 2-toroidal Lie superalgebra is constructed using bosonic fields and a ghost field. The superalgebra contains $osp(1|2n)^{(1)}$ as a distinguished subalgebra and behaves similarly to the toroidal Lie superalgebra of type $B(0, n)$. Furthermore this algebra is a central extension of the algebra $osp(1|2n)\\otimes \\mathbb C[s, s^{-1}, t,t^{-1}]$.

  5. Noncommutative geometry with graded differential Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkenhaar, Raimar

    1997-06-01

    Starting with a Hilbert space endowed with a representation of a unitary Lie algebra and an action of a generalized Dirac operator, we develop a mathematical concept towards gauge field theories. This concept shares common features with the Connes-Lott prescription of noncommutative geometry, differs from that, however, by the implementation of unitary Lie algebras instead of associative * -algebras. The general scheme is presented in detail and is applied to functions ⊗ matrices.

  6. Post-Lie algebras and factorization theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Mencattini, Igor; Munthe-Kaas, Hans

    2017-09-01

    In this note we further explore the properties of universal enveloping algebras associated to a post-Lie algebra. Emphasizing the role of the Magnus expansion, we analyze the properties of group like-elements belonging to (suitable completions of) those Hopf algebras. Of particular interest is the case of post-Lie algebras defined in terms of solutions of modified classical Yang-Baxter equations. In this setting we will study factorization properties of the aforementioned group-like elements.

  7. Constructing semisimple subalgebras of semisimple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    de Graaf, Willem A

    2010-01-01

    Algorithms are described that help with obtaining a classification of the semisimple subalgebras of a given semisimple Lie algebra, up to linear equivalence. The algorithms have been used to obtain classifications of the semisimple subalgebras of the simple Lie algebras of ranks <= 8. These have been made available as a database inside the SLA package of GAP4. The subalgebras in this database are explicitly given, as well as the inclusion relations among them.

  8. Lie Admissible Non-Associative Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Mohammad Ahmadi; Ki-Bong Nam; Jonathan Pakinathan

    2005-01-01

    A non-associative ring which contains a well-known associative ring or Lie ring is interesting. In this paper, a method to construct a Lie admissible non-associative ring is given; a class of simple non-associative algebras is obtained; all the derivations of the non-associative simple N0,0,1 algebra defined in this paper are determined; and finally, a solid algebra is defined.

  9. Central extension of graded Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Welte, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the universal central extension of two important classes of so-called root-graded Lie algebras defined over a commutative associative unital ring $k.$ Root-graded Lie algebras are Lie algebras which are graded by the root lattice of a locally finite root system and contain enough $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$-triples to separate the homogeneous spaces of the grading. Examples include the infinite rank analogs of the simple finite-dimensional complex Lie algebras. \\\\ In the thesis we show that in general the universal central extension of a root-graded Lie algebra $L$ is not root-graded anymore, but that we can measure quite easily how far it is away from being so, using the notion of degenerate sums, introduced by van der Kallen. We then concentrate on root-graded Lie algebras which are graded by the root systems of type $A$ with rank at least 2 and of type $C$. For them one can use the theory of Jordan algebras.

  10. The Rheological Property of Potato Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use potato starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly potato starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of potato starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within potato starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Potato starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  11. SU-E-T-777: Use of Tennis Racket and Air Gap Between the Body and Carbon Fiber Couch for Skin Sparing in Radiation Therapy of Prone Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lief, E [Marsden Medical Physics Associates, Pelham, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To reduce the skin dose from the carbon fiber couch scatter in radiation treatment of breast cancer in the prone position. If this issue is not addressed, the prone breast touching the solid carbon fiber couch can absorb significant dose to the skin and cause the skin reaction. Methods: 1. Use of “tennis racket” instead of the solid couch. To check this hypothesis, we measured the dose at the depth of 5 mm in solid water phantom placed on the couch, using a Farmer chamber. A plan for a patient with 6MV beams, gantry angles of 113 and 286 degrees Varian scale was used. It was found that treatment with “tennis racket” instead of the solid carbon fiber couch reduces the surface dose by 5–7%, depending on the beam direction. 2. Use of the air gap between the couch and the body was analyzed using radiochromic film on the surface of the solid water phantom 10 cm thick. Initially the phantom was placed on the couch with the film sandwiched in between. Two fields at the angles of 135 and 315 degrees were used. The measurements were repeated for the air gap of 2 and 5 cm and 6 and 15 MV beams. Results: It was found that a 2-cm gap decreased the surface dose by 3% for a 6 MV beam and by 5.5% for a 15 MV beam. A 5-cm gap reduced the dose by 9% for 6 MV and 13.5% for 15 MV. Conclusion: Use of both methods (combined if possible) can significantly reduce the surface dose in radiation therapy of the prone breast and possible skin reaction. We plan to explore dependence of the dose reduction upon the angle of incidence.

  12. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  13. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked, or otherwise appropriately identified, under the supervision of the official seed...

  14. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170...

  15. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  16. Detection of Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV), Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Virus X (PVX) on Five Potato Varieties by Using of DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik

    2012-01-01

    Potato is a staple food crop that widely grown around the world. Virus infection is main factor that affects great loss of the potato production. Potato virus X(PVX), potato virus Y(PVY),and potato leaf roll virus(PLRV) are top three viruses that result in decreased yield of potato in Indonesia. Therefore, the rapid methods of DAS-ELISA was studied to test tuber samples of five potato varieties, Granola, Atlantik, Raja, Super John, Kalosi, and Masalle. Two simple, rapid, sensitive, reliable...

  17. Fate of toxic potato glycoalkaloids in a potato field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia H; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2009-04-08

    The toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, are present in all parts of the potato plant and are possibly transferred to the terrestrial environment. The amounts of glycoalkaloids in plant, soil, and groundwater were followed in a potato field to investigate their distribution and fate during the season. The amount of glycoalkaloids in the plants was up to 25 kg/ha during maturity and decreased to below 0.63 kg/ha during plant senescence. The glycoalkaloids were detected in the upper soil (up to 0.6 kg/ha); this amount accounted only for a minor fraction of the amount present in the plants. Maximum glycoalkaloid concentration of 2.8 mg/kg dry weight soil was detected in September. Dissipation during winter appeared to be slow because glycoalkaloids were still present in the soil in March. No traces of glycoalkaloids were detected in the groundwater (detection limit 0.2 microg/L). From these results, the leaching potential of the glycoalkaloids is evaluated to be small.

  18. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  19. The Potato Tuber Mitochondrial Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more “extreme” proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...... that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy...... for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms....

  20. A twisted generalization of Lie-Yamaguti algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gaparayi, Donatien

    2010-01-01

    A twisted generalization of Lie-Yamaguti algebras, called Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras, is defined. Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras generalize Hom-Lie triple systems (and susequently ternary Hom-Nambu algebras) and Hom-Lie algebras in the same way as Lie-Yamaguti algebras generalize Lie triple systems and Lie algebras. It is shown that the category of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras is closed under twisting by self-morphisms. Constructions of Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebras from classical Lie-Yamaguti algebras and Malcev algebras are given. It is observed that, when the ternary operation of a Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebra expresses through its binary one in a specific way, then such a Hom-Lie-Yamaguti algebra is a Hom-Malcev algebra.

  1. Detecting true lies:police officers' ability to detect suspects' lies

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Samantha; Vrij, Aldert; Bull, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-nine police officers, not identified in previous research as belonging to groups which are superior in lie detection, attempted to detect truths and lies told by suspects during their videotaped police interviews. Accuracy rates were higher than typically found in deception research and reached levels similar to those obtained by specialized lie detectors in previous research. Accuracy was positively correlated with perceived experience in interviewing suspects and with mentioning cues...

  2. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    CERN Document Server

    Sati, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie (p+1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie (p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane...

  3. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide diminishing in potato slices and strips was studied in relation to frying temperature and some pre-treatments. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8 percent Prior to frying......, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 30 and 70 min; 70 degrees C for 8 and 40 min; 90 degrees C for 2 and 9 min); (ii) immersed in a citric acid solutions of 10 g/L for half an hour Potato...... strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 percent. Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in similar ways to potato slices. Glucose and asparagine contents were determined in potato slices and strips before...

  4. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  5. Characterization of potato leaf starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Stalin; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2004-04-07

    The starch accumulation-degradation process as well as the structure of leaf starch are not completely understood. To study this, starch was isolated from potato leaves collected in the early morning and late afternoon in July and August, representing different starch accumulation rates. The starch content of potato leaves varied between 2.9 and 12.9% (dry matter basis) over the night and day in the middle of July and between 0.6 and 1.5% in August. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the four isolated starch samples showed that the granules had either an oval or a round shape and did not exceed 5 microm in size. Starch was extracted by successive washing steps with dimethyl sulfoxide and precipitated with ethanol. An elution profile on Sepharose CL-6B of debranched starch showed the presence of a material with a chain length distribution between that generally found for amylose and amylopectin. Amylopectin unit chains of low molecular size were present in a higher amount in the afternoon than in the morning samples. What remains at the end of the night is depleted in specific chain lengths, mainly between DP 15 and 24 and above DP 35, relative to the end of the day.

  6. Kinetics of dehydration of potato and development of baked product based on dehydrated potato

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, A.; M.N. Islam; Shaheb, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the kinetics of dehydration of high yielding potato variety (Diamont), to investigate the various process parameters influencing mechanical drying of potatoes and to develop baked product from the dehydrated potato. From the developed equation it was found that the diffusion co-efficient increased with the increase in temperature. The exponential relationship between diffusion co-efficient (De) versus inverse absolute temperature (Tabs-1), activation e...

  7. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  8. Heat toxicant contaminant mitigation in potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Maria; Cortes, Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    was to mitigate the furan and acrylamide formation in potato chips without increasing their oil uptake by optimizing the blanching treatment before final frying. Potato slices were blanched in order to simultaneously leach out ascorbic acid and reducing sugars, the most important precursors of furan...... and acrylamide generation in thermally treated starchy foods. A central composite design was implemented to optimize the temperature-time blanching conditions under which furan, acrylamide and oil content in potato chips were minimized. The optimum blanching conditions were 64 degrees C and 17 min in which...

  9. Riemannian manifolds as Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessers, Victor; van der Veken, Joeri

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we show how Lie-Rinehart algebras can be applied to unify and generalize the elementary theory of Riemannian geometry. We will first review some necessary theory on a.o. modules, bilinear forms and derivations. We will then translate some classical theory on Riemannian geometry to the setting of Rinehart spaces, a special kind of Lie-Rinehart algebras. Some generalized versions of classical results will be obtained, such as the existence of a unique Levi-Civita connection, inducing a Levi-Civita connection on a submanifold, and the construction of spaces with constant sectional curvature.

  10. Split-octonion Lie 3-algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jardino, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We extend the concept of a generalized Lie 3-algebra, known to octonions $\\mathbb{O}$, to split-octonions $\\mathbb{SO}$. In order to do that, we introduce a notational device that unifies the two elements product of both of the algebras. We have also proved that $\\mathbb{SO}$ is a Malcev algebra and have recalculated known relations for the structure constants in terms of the introduced structure tensor. An application of the split Lie $3-$algebra to a Bagger and Lambert gauge theory is also discussed.

  11. Integrability of Lie Systems Through Riccati Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariñena, José F.; de Lucas, Javier

    Integrability conditions for Lie systems are related to reduction or transformation processes. We here analyse a geometric method to construct integrability conditions for Riccati equations following these approaches. This approach provides us with a unified geometrical viewpoint that allows us to analyse some previous works on the topic and explain new properties. Moreover, this new approach can be straightforwardly generalised to describe integrability conditions for any Lie system. Finally, we show the usefulness of our treatment in order to study the problem of the linearisability of Riccati equations.

  12. Integrability of Lie systems through Riccati equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cariñena, José F

    2010-01-01

    Integrability conditions for Lie systems are related to reduction or transformation processes. We here analyse a geometric method to construct integrability conditions for Riccati equations following these approaches. This approach provides us with a unified geometrical viewpoint that allows us to analyse some previous works on the topic and explain new properties. Moreover, this new approach can be straightforwardly generalised to describe integrability conditions for any Lie system. Finally, we show the usefulness of our treatment in order to study the problem of the linearisability of Riccati equations.

  13. Quiver Gauge theories from Lie Superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss quiver gauge models with matter fields based on Dynkin diagrams of Lie superalgebra structures. We focus on A(1,0) case and we find first that it can be related to intersecting complex cycles with genus $g$. Using toric geometry, A(1,0) quivers are analyzed in some details and it is shown that A(1,0) can be used to incorporate fundamental fields to a product of two unitary factor groups. We expect that this approach can be applied to other kinds of Lie superalgebras;

  14. Spiders for rank 2 Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kuperberg, G

    1996-01-01

    A spider is an axiomatization of the representation theory of a group, quantum group, Lie algebra, or other group or group-like object. We define certain combinatorial spiders by generators and relations that are isomorphic to the representation theories of the three rank two simple Lie algebras, namely A2, B2, and G2. They generalize the widely-used Temperley-Lieb spider for A1. Among other things, they yield bases for invariant spaces which are probably related to Lusztig's canonical bases, and they are useful for computing quantities such as generalized 6j-symbols and quantum link invariants.

  15. Lie algebra contractions and separation of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Vinternits, P; Pogosyan, G S; Sissakian, A N

    2001-01-01

    The concept of analytical Lie group contractions is introduced to relate the separation of variables in space of constant nonzero curvature to separation in Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces. The contraction parameter is introduced explicitly into the basis of the Lie algebra, the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the complete set of commuting operators, the coordinates themselves and into the solutions. This enables to obtain asymptotic formulae connecting special functions related to the groups O(n) and O(n,1) to those related to Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean groups

  16. Crocodyliform footprints from “les couches rouges” of the Middle Jurassic of Msemrir, High Atlas, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Hadri, Majid; Boutakiout, Mohamed; GÓMEZ, Fernando; Pérez Lorente, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Se describen dos huellas crocodyliformes de “les couches rouges” del Jurásico Medio del Alto Atlas de las que se destaca su importancia por su escasez en el registro mundial. Las huellas no son comparables con los icnogéneros descritos hasta ahora. La huella del pie es incompleta. Suponemos que es un crocodiliforme continental porque el ambiente sedimentario en el que están las icnitas es fluvial. Finalmente se indica, aunque con unos márgenes de inseguridad amplios, el orde...

  17. Lie Point Symmetries of Differential-Difference Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; TANG Xiao-Yan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the classical Lie group approach is extended to find some Lie point symmetries of differentialdifference equations. It reveals that the obtained Lie point symmetries can constitute a Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra.

  18. Generalized double extension and descriptions of qadratic Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bajo, I; Bordemann, M

    2007-01-01

    A Lie superalgebra endowed with a supersymmetric, even, non-degenerate, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie superalgebra. In this paper we give inductive descriptions of quadratic Lie superalgebras in terms of generalized double extensions.

  19. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  20. The Lie Algebras in which Every Subspace s Its Subalgebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU MING-ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie algebras in which every subspace is its subalgebra (denoted by HB Lie algebras). We get that a nonabelian Lie algebra is an HB Lie algebra if and only if it is isomorphic to g+Cidg, where g is an abelian Lie algebra. Moreover we show that the derivation algebra and the holomorph of a nonabelian HB Lie algebra are complete.

  1. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.

  2. Lying in Business : Insights from Hannah Arendt’s ‘Lying in Politics’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenkhoorn, P.; Graafland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The famous political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt’s theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural tempt

  3. Teaching the Truth about Lies to Psychology Students: The Speed Lying Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Richardson, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    To teach the importance of deception in everyday social life, an in-class activity called the "Speed Lying Task" was given in an introductory social psychology class. In class, two major research findings were replicated: Individuals detected deception at levels no better than expected by chance and lie detection confidence was unrelated…

  4. Lying in Business : Insights from Hannah Arendt’s ‘Lying in Politics’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenkhoorn, P.; Graafland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The famous political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt’s theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural tempt

  5. Lying in Business : Insights from Hannah Arendt’s ‘Lying in Politics’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenkhoorn, P.; Graafland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The famous political philosopher Hannah Arendt develops several arguments why truthfulness cannot be counted among the political virtues. This article shows that similar arguments apply to lying in business. Based on Hannah Arendt’s theory, we distinguish five reasons why lying is a structural

  6. Teaching the Truth about Lies to Psychology Students: The Speed Lying Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Richardson, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    To teach the importance of deception in everyday social life, an in-class activity called the "Speed Lying Task" was given in an introductory social psychology class. In class, two major research findings were replicated: Individuals detected deception at levels no better than expected by chance and lie detection confidence was unrelated…

  7. Why Do Lie-Catchers Fail? A Lens Model Meta-Analysis of Human Lie Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Maria; Bond, Charles F., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research has shown that people are poor at detecting lies. Two explanations for this finding have been proposed. First, it has been suggested that lie detection is inaccurate because people rely on invalid cues when judging deception. Second, it has been suggested that lack of valid cues to deception limits accuracy. A series of 4…

  8. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When truth conflicts with e¢ ciency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high,

  9. Are 'Lying Compositions' Detrimental To Student Growth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ A greater number of primary school students are inventing stories and telling lies when they are supposed to be writing about personal experiences. The Chengdu Business Daily said, of 40 pupils in a grade-four class, 30 wrote about how they struggled with human traffickers or thieves, and 26 pupils admitted they made the stories up.

  10. Lie Algebra of Noncommutative Inhomogeneous Hopf Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lagraa, M

    1997-01-01

    We construct the vector space dual to the space of right-invariant differential forms construct from a first order differential calculus on inhomogeneous quantum group. We show that this vector space is equipped with a structure of a Hopf algebra which closes on a noncommutative Lie algebra satisfying a Jacobi identity.

  11. SAYD modules over Lie-Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Rangipour, B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a general van Est type isomorphism is established. The isomorphism is between the Lie algebra cohomology of a bicrossed sum Lie algebra and the Hopf cyclic cohomology of its Hopf algebra. We first prove a one to one correspondence between stable-anti-Yetter-Drinfeld (SAYD) modules over the total Lie algebra and SAYD modules over the associated Hopf algebra. In contrast to the non-general case done in our previous work, here the van Est isomorphism is found at the first level of a natural spectral sequence, rather than at the level of complexes. It is proved that the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebras do not admit any finite dimensional SAYD modules except the unique one-dimensional one found by Connes- Moscovici in 1998. This is done by extending our techniques to work with the infinite dimensional Lie algebra of formal vector fields. At the end, the one to one correspondence is applied to construct a highly nontrivial four dimensional SAYD module over the Schwarzian Hopf algebra. We then illustrate...

  12. Happiness lies somewhere in your brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅寒

    2007-01-01

    <正> When I was a kid,I defined happinessas being able to afford anything that was de-sired and thus I came up with the conclusionthat happiness lies in the possession of mon-ey.Time turned me tall and smart,also,able

  13. Lie algebras and linear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.; Rahimi, A.

    1972-01-01

    Certain symmetry properties possessed by the solutions of linear differential equations are examined. For this purpose, some basic ideas from the theory of finite dimensional linear systems are used together with the work of Wei and Norman on the use of Lie algebraic methods in differential equation theory.

  14. On Split Lie Triple Systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; M Forero Piulestán

    2010-04-01

    In [4] it is studied that the structure of split Lie triple systems with a coherent 0-root space, that is, satisfying $[T_0,T_0,T]=0$ and $[T_0,T_,T_0]≠ 0$ for any nonzero root and where $T_0$ denotes the 0-root space and $T_$ the -root space, by showing that any of such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. It is also shown in [4] that under certain conditions, a split Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces.

  15. SAYD Modules over Lie-Hopf Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangipour, Bahram; Sütlü, Serkan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a general van Est type isomorphism is proved. The isomorphism is between the Lie algebra cohomology of a bicrossed sum Lie algebra and the Hopf cyclic cohomology of its Hopf algebra. We first prove a one to one correspondence between stable-anti-Yetter-Drinfeld (SAYD) modules over the total Lie algebra and those modules over the associated Hopf algebra. In contrast to the non-general case done in our previous work, here the van Est isomorphism is proved at the first level of a natural spectral sequence, rather than at the level of complexes. It is proved that the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebras do not admit any finite dimensional SAYD modules except the unique one-dimensional one found by Connes-Moscovici in 1998. This is done by extending our techniques to work with the infinite dimensional Lie algebra of formal vector fields. At the end, the one to one correspondence is applied to construct a highly nontrivial four dimensional SAYD module over the Schwarzian Hopf algebra. We then illustrate the whole theory on this example. Finally explicit representative cocycles of the cohomology classes for this example are calculated.

  16. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  17. Climate risks on potato yield in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    The yield of potatoes is affected by water and temperature during the growing season. We study the impact of a suite of climate variables on potato yield at country level. More than ten climate variables related to the growth of potato are considered, including the seasonal rainfall and temperature, but also extreme conditions at different averaging periods from daily to monthly. A Bayesian hierarchical model is developed to jointly consider the risk of heat stress, cold stress, wet and drought. Future climate risks are investigated through the projection of future climate data. This study contributes to assess the risks of present and future climate risks on potatoes yield, especially the risks of extreme events, which could be used to guide better sourcing strategy and ensure food security in the future.

  18. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  19. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  20. Cooking Potatoes: Experimentation and Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity involving a mathematical model of cooking potatoes that can be solved analytically. Highlights the microstructure aspects of the experiment. Provides the key aspects of the results, detailed background readings, laboratory procedures and data analyses. (MM)

  1. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food businesses in East African urban areas. ... We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ... The yellow flesh colour of the sweet potato had a good influence on the final consumer preference of the product.

  2. Production of Bioethanol from Waste Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Duruyurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using primary energy sources in World as fossil fuels, causes air pollution and climate change. Because of these reasons, people looking for renewable energy suppliers which has less carbondioxide and less pollution. Carbon in biofuels is producing from photosynthesis. For this, burning biofuels don’t increase carbondioxide in atmosphere. Scientists predict that plants with high carbonhydrate and protein contents are 21. centuries biofuels. Potatoes are producing over 280 million in whole world and Turkey is 6th potato producer. Turkey produces 5250000 tonne of potatoes. Approximately 20% of potatoes are waste in Niğde. Our study aimed to produce bioethanol from Solanum tuberosum by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result renewable energy sources can be produced from natural wastes.

  3. A validation of carbon fiber imaging couch top modeling in two radiation therapy treatment planning systems: Philips Pinnacle3 and BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njeh Christopher F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon fiber (CF is now the material of choice for radiation therapy couch tops. Initial designs included side metal bars for rigidity; however, with the advent of IGRT, involving on board imaging, new thicker CF couch tops without metal bars have been developed. The new design allows for excellent imaging at the expense of potentially unacceptable dose attenuation and perturbation. Objectives We set out to model the BrainLAB imaging couch top (ICT in Philips Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS, to validate the already modeled ICT in BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose treatment planning system and to compute the magnitude of the loss in skin sparing. Results Using CF density of 0.55 g/cm3 and foam density of 0.03 g/cm3, we demonstrated an excellent agreement between measured dose and Pinnacle3 TPS computed dose using 6 MV beam. The agreement was within 1% for all gantry angle measured except for 120o, which was 1.8%. The measured and iPlan RT Dose TPS computed dose agreed to within 1% for all gantry angles and field sizes measured except for 100o where the agreement was 1.4% for 10 cm × 10 cm field size. Predicted attenuation through the couch by iPlan RT Dose TPS (3.4% - 9.5% and Pinnacle3 TPS (2% - 6.6% were within the same magnitude and similar to previously reported in the literature. Pinnacle3 TPS estimated an 8% to 20% increase in skin dose with increase in field size. With the introduction of the CF couch top, it estimated an increase in skin dose by approximately 46 - 90%. The clinical impact of omitting the couch in treatment planning will be dependent on the beam arrangement, the percentage of the beams intersecting the couch and their angles of incidence. Conclusion We have successfully modeled the ICT in Pinnacle3 TPS and validated the modeled ICT in iPlan RT Dose. It is recommended that the ICT be included in treatment planning for all treatments that involve posteriors beams. There is a significant

  4. SU-E-J-258: Inter- and Intra-Fraction Setup Stability and Couch Change Tolerance for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teboh, Forbang R; Agee, M; Rowe, L; Creasy, T; Schultz, J; Bell, R; Wong, J; Armour, E [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Immobilization devices combine rigid patient fixation as well as comfort and play a key role providing the stability required for accurate radiation delivery. In the setup step, couch re-positioning needed to align the patient is derived via registration of acquired versus reference image. For subsequent fractions, replicating the initial setup should yield identical alignment errors when compared to the reference. This is not always the case and further couch re-positioning can be needed. An important quality assurance measure is to set couch tolerances beyond which additional investigations are needed. The purpose of this work was to study the inter-fraction couch changes needed to re-align the patient and the intra-fraction stability of the alignment as a guide to establish the couch tolerances. Methods: Data from twelve patients treated on the Accuray CyberKnife (CK) system for fractionated intracranial radiotherapy and immobilized with Aquaplast RT, U-frame, F-Head-Support (Qfix, PA, USA) was used. Each fraction involved image acquisitions and registration with the reference to re-align the patient. The absolute couch position corresponding to the approved setup alignment was recorded per fraction. Intra-fraction set-up corrections were recorded throughout the treatment. Results: The average approved setup alignment was 0.03±0.28mm, 0.15±0.22mm, 0.06±0.31mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.00±0.35degrees, 0.03±0.32degrees, 0.08±0.45degrees for roll, pitch and yaw respectively. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the couch position was 6.65mm, 10.55mm, and 4.77mm in the L/R, A/P and S/I directions respectively and 0.82degrees, 0.71degrees for roll and pitch respectively. Intra-fraction monitoring showed small average errors of 0.21±0.21mm, 0.00±0.08mm, 0.23±0.22mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.03±0.12degrees, 0.04±0.25degrees, and 0.13±0.15degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw respectively. Conclusion

  5. Etats excites en couche interne de haut spin de neon hautement ionise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Alain

    En plus d'être observés lors de plusieurs phénomènes d'interactions multi- électroniques et multi-atomiques, la description des états excités en couche interne est un test sensible à celle de la corrélation électronique. Suivant une spectroscopie faisceau- lame effectuée antérieurement des régions spectrales de l'ultraviolet et du visible (1800-5300 Å) de néon à 10 MeV, des raies spectrales (d'émission) satellites de celles des transitions hydrogéniques (l = n - 1) et l < n - 1, n = 6 - n' = 7, n = 7 - n' = 8 et n = 8 - n' = 9 du néon lithiumoïde (Ne VIII) sont assignées à l'aide de calculs Hartree-Fock, à des transitions de mêmes nombres quantiques principaux entre des états quadruplet dont le cœur est excité en 1s2s 3S. Quelques raies sont assignées à des transitions entre des niveaux n = 3 pour le Ne VI, VII et IX. Par la suite, les transitions quadruplet, quintuplet et sextuplet n = 2 - n' = 3 et n = 2 - n' = 4 du néon lithiumoïde, bérylliumoïde (Ne VII) et boroïde (Ne VI), respectivement, ont été investiguées par spectroscopie faisceau-lame dans la région spectrale des XUV (60-125 Å). Ces investigations sont supportées par des calculs Hartree-Fock et des régressions linéaires sur les séquences isoélectroniques, effectués en parallèle. Des mesures de la durée de vie moyenne de termes n = 3 ont été réalisées et plusieurs raies sont nouvellement identifiées à des transitions de Ne VI à IX.

  6. SU-E-J-126: An Online Replanning Method for FFF Beams Without Couch Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahunbay, E; Ates, O; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In a situation that couch shift for patient positioning is not preferred or prohibited (e.g., MR-Linac), segment aperture morphing (SAM) can address target dislocation and deformation. For IMRT/VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams, however, SAM method would lead to an adverse translational dose effect due to the beam unflattening. Here we propose a new 2-step process to address both the translational effect of FFF beams and the target deformation. Methods: The replanning method consists of an offline and an online steps. The offline step is to create a series of pre-shifted plans (PSP) obtained by a so called “warm start” optimization (starting optimization from the original plan, rather from scratch) at a series of isocenter shifts with fixed distance (e.g. 2 cm, at x,y,z = 2,0,0 ; 2,2,0 ; 0,2,0; …;− 2,0,0). The PSPs all have the same number of segments with very similar shapes, since the warm-start optimization only adjusts the MLC positions instead of regenerating them. In the online step, a new plan is obtained by linearly interpolating the MLC positions and the monitor units of the closest PSPs for the shift determined from the image of the day. This two-step process is completely automated, and instantaneously fast (no optimization or dose calculation needed). The previously-developed SAM algorithm is then applied for daily deformation. We tested the method on sample prostate and pancreas cases. Results: The two-step interpolation method can account for the adverse dose effects from FFF beams, while SAM corrects for the target deformation. The whole process takes the same time as the previously reported SAM process (5–10 min). Conclusion: The new two-step method plus SAM can address both the translation effects of FFF beams and target deformation, and can be executed in full automation requiring no additional time from the SAM process. This research was supported by Elekta inc. (Crawley, UK)

  7. Development of a multiplex AmpliDet RNA for the simultaneous detection of Potato leafroll virus and Potato virus Y in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Leone, G.O.M.; Verbeek, M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Schoen, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    A novel isothermal multiplex AmpliDet RNA system is described for the simultaneous amplification and detection of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) in seed potatoes. The risk of contamination by carry-over during diagnostic screening is eliminated by performing the reaction in a

  8. Rheological and Thermal Properties of Potato Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Geng; Li Tian-zhen; Zhang Wei-min; Li Hao-nan

    2005-01-01

    Particle size, rheological and thermal properties of potato starch from Yunnan province of China was in-vestigated. The particle size ranges from 0.429-102.3 um determined by laser light-scatter. The major flow type of 6 w/v% potato starch was shear-thinning fluid even the shear rate up to 800·s-1, and the gel formed by 6 w/v% potato starch fell to weak gel for its little difference between G' and G'', high dependence on frequency and low value of G'(Pa). The hardness and cohesiveness of potato starch gel were 31.3 g and 131.9 g·s, respectively. The thermal properties of potato starch were also determined by DSC at the starch:water=3:1. The To, Tp, and ΔH of potato starch were 62.23℃,67.31℃, and 2.22 J·g-1.

  9. Potato: A Favorable Crop for Plant Molecular Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar G B; Ganapathi T R; Bapat V A

    2006-01-01

    Potato is one of the important food crops with a high yield potential and nutritional value. It has been used extensively for molecular farming to produce vaccines, antibodies and industrial enzymes. It has several desirable attributes as a favorable crop for the production of recombinant proteins. Potato tubers were employed for bulk production of recombinant antibodies. Vaccine production in potato has progressed to human clinical trials. Human milk proteins were successfully expressed in potato tubers. Potato hairy roots offer as another attractive system for the production of useful recombinant proteins both as intra cellular and secreted forms. This review describes the use of potato as a prospective host for plant molecular farming.

  10. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  11. The use of potato and sweet potato starches affects white salted noodle quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato and sweet potato starches and derivatives thereof were used to substitute part of the wheat flour in white salted noodle (WSN) manufacture. The quality of the WSN obtained was compared with the quality of WSN made from wheat flour only. When up to 20% of wheat flour was replaced by acetylated

  12. Breeding for improved potato nutrition: High amylose starch potatoes show promise as fiber source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato starch is composed of approximately 75% amylopectin and 25% amylose. We are interested in breeding for higher amylose content, which would increase the fiber content of potato and decrease glycemic index. In order to make progress in a breeding program, we have developed a high throughput ass...

  13. Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Soriano Juan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Ramírez-Rodríguez VR, Frías-Treviño G, Aviña-Padilla K, Silva-Rosales L, Martínez-Soria JP: Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes. Virology Journal 2009, 6:48

  14. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  15. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  16. Dimension of the $c$-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MEHDI ARASKHAN; MOHAMMAD REZA RISMANCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive some inequalities for dimension of the $c$-nilpotent multiplier of finite dimensional Lie algebras and their factor Lie algebras. We further obtain an inequality between dimensions of $c$-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebra $L$ and tensor product of a central ideal by its abelianized factor Lie algebra

  17. Legitimate lies : The relationship between omission, commission, and cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Motro, Daphna

    2016-01-01

    Across four experiments, we show that when people can serve their self-interest, they are more likely to refrain from reporting the truth ( lie of omission) than actively lie ( lie of commission). We developed a novel online "Heads or Tails" task in which participants can lie to win a monetary prize

  18. Whittaker categories and strongly typical Whittaker modules for Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Irfan; Wiesner, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Following analogous constructions for Lie algebras, we define Whittaker modules and Whittaker categories for finite-dimensional simple Lie superalgebras. Results include a decomposition of Whittaker categories for a Lie superalgebra according to the action of an appropriate sub-superalgebra; and, for basic classical Lie superalgebras of type I, a description of the strongly typical simple Whittaker modules.

  19. A Local Characterization of Lie Homomorphisms of Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Miao-xia; ZHANG Jian-hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, linear maps preserving Lie products at zero points on nest algebras are studied. It is proved that every linear map preserving Lie products at zero points on any finite nest algebra is a Lie homomorphism. As an application, the form of a linear bijection preserving Lie products at zero points between two finite nest algebras is obtained.

  20. Lie symmetries for equations in conformal geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Hansraj, S; Msomi, A M; Govinder, K S

    2005-01-01

    We seek exact solutions to the Einstein field equations which arise when two spacetime geometries are conformally related. Whilst this is a simple method to generate new solutions to the field equations, very few such examples have been found in practice. We use the method of Lie analysis of differential equations to obtain new group invariant solutions to conformally related Petrov type D spacetimes. Four cases arise depending on the nature of the Lie symmetry generator. In three cases we are in a position to solve the master field equation in terms of elementary functions. In the fourth case special solutions in terms of Bessel functions are obtained. These solutions contain known models as special cases.

  1. Geodesic models generated by Lie symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Abebe, G Z; Govinder, K S

    2014-01-01

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to the heat flux at the boundary of a shearing and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star when the fluid particles are travelling in geodesic motion. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the junction condition invariant are identified and the optimal system is generated. We use each element of the optimal system to transform the partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation. New exact solutions, which are group invariant under the action of Lie point infinitesimal symmetries, are found. We obtain families of traveling wave solutions and self-similar solutions, amongst others. The gravitational potentials are given in terms of elementary functions, and the line elements can be given explicitly in all cases. We show that the Friedmann dust model is regained as a special case, and we can connect our results to earlier investigations.

  2. Analytic factorization of Lie group representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimperlein, Heiko; Krötz, Bernhard; Lienau, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E......¿=¿(A(G))E¿E¿=¿(A(G))E¿. As a corollary we obtain that E¿E¿ coincides with the space of analytic vectors for the Laplace–Beltrami operator on G.......For every moderate growth representation (p,E)(p,E) of a real Lie group G on a Fréchet space, we prove a factorization theorem of Dixmier–Malliavin type for the space of analytic vectors E¿E¿. There exists a natural algebra of superexponentially decreasing analytic functions A(G)A(G), such that E...

  3. Harmonic analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first one that brings together recent results on the harmonic analysis of exponential solvable Lie groups. There still are many interesting open problems, and the book contributes to the future progress of this research field. As well, various related topics are presented to motivate young researchers. The orbit method invented by Kirillov is applied to study basic problems in the analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups. This method tells us that the unitary dual of these groups is realized as the space of their coadjoint orbits. This fact is established using the Mackey theory for induced representations, and that mechanism is explained first. One of the fundamental problems in the representation theory is the irreducible decomposition of induced or restricted representations. Therefore, these decompositions are studied in detail before proceeding to various related problems: the multiplicity formula, Plancherel formulas, intertwining operators, Frobenius reciprocity, and associated alge...

  4. Constructions of Lie algebras and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Seligman, George B

    1988-01-01

    This book deals with central simple Lie algebras over arbitrary fields of characteristic zero. It aims to give constructions of the algebras and their finite-dimensional modules in terms that are rational with respect to the given ground field. All isotropic algebras with non-reduced relative root systems are treated, along with classical anisotropic algebras. The latter are treated by what seems to be a novel device, namely by studying certain modules for isotropic classical algebras in which they are embedded. In this development, symmetric powers of central simple associative algebras, along with generalized even Clifford algebras of involutorial algebras, play central roles. Considerable attention is given to exceptional algebras. The pace is that of a rather expansive research monograph. The reader who has at hand a standard introductory text on Lie algebras, such as Jacobson or Humphreys, should be in a position to understand the results. More technical matters arise in some of the detailed arguments. T...

  5. ON THE PRIMARY DECOMPOSITION THEOREM OF MODULAR LIE SUPERALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN LIANGYUN; MENG DAOJI

    2005-01-01

    This gives some identities of associative Lie superalgebras and some properties of modular Lie superalgebras. Furthermore, the primry decomposition theorem of modular Lie superalgebras is shown. It is well known that the primary decomposition theorem of modular Lie algebras has played an important role in the classification of the finite-dimensional simple modular Lie algebras (see [5, 6]). Analogously, the primary decomposition theorem of modular Lie superalgebras may play an important role in the open classification of the finite dimensional simple modular Lie superalgebras.

  6. Abstract Lie groups and locally compact topological groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Lech

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a notion of abstract Lie group by means of the mapping which plays the role of the evolution operator. We show some basic properties of such groups very similar to the fundamentals of the infinite dimensional Lie theory. Next we give remarkable examples of abstract Lie groups which are not necessarily usual Lie groups. In particular, by making use of Yamabe theorem we prove that any locally compact topological group admits the structure of abstract Lie group and that the Lie algebra and the exponential mapping of it coincide with those determined by the Lie group structure.

  7. k-symplectic formalism on Lie algebroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, M; De Diego, D Martin [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas (CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM) C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Salgado, M; Vilarino, S [Departamento de XeometrIa e TopoloxIa, Facultade de Matematicas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: mdeleon@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: d.martin@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: modesto.salgado@usc.es, E-mail: silvia.vilarino@usc.es

    2009-09-25

    In this paper we introduce a geometric description of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical field theories on Lie algebroids in the framework of k-symplectic geometry. We discuss the relation between the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian descriptions through a convenient notion of Legendre transformation. The theory is a natural generalization of the standard one; in addition, other interesting examples are studied, in particular, systems with symmetry and Poisson-sigma models.

  8. How to Lie with Bad Data

    OpenAIRE

    De Veaux, Richard D.; Hand, David J.

    2005-01-01

    As Huff’s landmark book made clear, lying with statistics can be accomplished in many ways. Distorting graphics, manipulating data or using biased samples are just a few of the tried and true methods. Failing to use the correct statistical procedure or failing to check the conditions for when the selected method is appropriate can distort results as well, whether the motives of the analyst are honorable or not. Even when the statistical procedure and motives are correct, bad data can produce ...

  9. Lies, Incentives and Self-confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Maggian, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is composed by three chapters, each of them making contributions to three distinct topics in behavioral Economics. The chapters can thus be read independently from each other. The first chapter concerns an experimental analysis which aim is to examine the development of social preferences with respect to age and how they are related with lying behavior of children. The second chapter investigates the role of reciprocity in exacerbating inefficient and opportunistic behavior...

  10. Spherical functions on affine Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, P; Kirillov, A A; Pavel Etingof; Igor Frenkel; Alexander Kirillov Jr

    1994-01-01

    We show that the space of holomorphic functions of a fixed degree on an affine Lie group which take values in a finite-dimensional representation of this group and are equivariant with respect to (twisted) conjugacy coin- cides with the space of conformal blocks of the Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory on an elliptic curve with punctures, or, equivalently,with the space of states of the Chern-Simons topological field theory in genus 1. This provides a group-theoretic realization of the Segal modular functor for elliptic curves. We also show that the the radial part of the second order Laplace operator on an affine Lie group acting in the space of equivariant functions coincides with the operator defining the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection on conformal blocks on elliptic curves, and its eigenfunctions coincide with the correlation functions of conformal blocks. At the critical value of the degree (minus the dual Coxeter number of the underlying simple Lie algebra) there exist higher order Laplace op...

  11. Natural diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Invertases are ubiquitous enzymes that irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose. Plant invertases play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism, plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), invertases are involved in 'cold-induced sweetening' of tubers, an adaptive response to cold stress, which negatively affects the quality of potato chips and French fries. Linkage and association studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tuber sugar content and chip quality that colocalize with three independent potato invertase loci, which together encode five invertase genes. The role of natural allelic variation of these genes in controlling the variation of tuber sugar content in different genotypes is unknown. Results For functional studies on natural variants of five potato invertase genes we cloned and sequenced 193 full-length cDNAs from six heterozygous individuals (three tetraploid and three diploid). Eleven, thirteen, ten, twelve and nine different cDNA alleles were obtained for the genes Pain-1, InvGE, InvGF, InvCD141 and InvCD111, respectively. Allelic cDNA sequences differed from each other by 4 to 9%, and most were genotype specific. Additional variation was identified by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in an association-mapping population of 219 tetraploid individuals. Haplotype modeling revealed two to three major haplotypes besides a larger number of minor frequency haplotypes. cDNA alleles associated with chip quality, tuber starch content and starch yield were identified. Conclusions Very high natural allelic variation was uncovered in a set of five potato invertase genes. This variability is a consequence of the cultivated potato's reproductive biology. Some of the structural variation found might underlie functional variation that influences important agronomic traits such as tuber sugar content. The associations found between specific invertase alleles and

  12. COMPLETE LIE ALGEBRAS WITH l-STEP NILPOTENT RADICALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永存; 孟道冀

    2002-01-01

    The authors first give a necessary and sufficient condition for some solvable Lie algebras with l-step nilpotent radicals to be complete, and then construct a new class of infinite dimensional complete Lie algebras by using the modules of simple Lie algebras. The quotient algebras of this new constructed Lie algebras are non-solvable complete Lie algebras with l-step nilpotent radicals.

  13. Lie algebras with given properties of subalgebras and elements

    CERN Document Server

    Zusmanovich, Pasha

    2011-01-01

    Results about the following classes of finite-dimensional Lie algebras over a field of characteristic zero are presented: anisotropic (i.e., Lie algebras for which each adjoint operator is semisimple), regular (i.e., Lie algebras in which each nonzero element is regular in the sense of Bourbaki), minimal nonabelian (i.e., nonabelian Lie algebras all whose proper subalgebras are abelian), and algebras of depth 2 (i.e., Lie algebras all whose proper subalgebras are abelian or minimal nonabelian).

  14. Classification of filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rosa María

    2016-12-01

    Lie algebras of order 3 constitute a generalization of Lie algebras and superalgebras. Throughout this paper the classification problem of filiform Lie algebras of order 3 is considered and therefore this work is a continuation papers seen in the literature. We approach this classification by extending Vergne's result for filiform Lie algebras and by considering algebras of order 3 of high nilindex. We find the expression of the law to which any elementary filiform Lie algebra of order 3 is isomorphic.

  15. Agronomic performance of locally adapted sweet potato (Ipomoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    limited fertility and inadequate moisture (Bioethics, 2004). Despite sweet potato having a high ... the susceptibility of sweet potato to virus diseases which has caused substantial yield reduction of up to 80%. (Karyeija et al., 2000; Odame et al., ...

  16. Challenges and opportunities for quality seed potato availability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    varieties, poor management practices and lack of quality seed potatoes ... potato production technologies, positive selected seed (PSS) seemed to have the ... of major economic importance worldwide ... it is the third most important food crop.

  17. A review of therapeutic potentials of sweet potato: Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of a plant may inherently differ in their nutritional .... the skin of sweet potato root tubers are also rich source of ..... Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 436- .... Evid Based Complement. Alternat Med ... potato in the presence of food preservatives. Food Sci.

  18. Lie color 代数的商代数%Algebras of quotients of Lie color algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴凤; 周建华

    2004-01-01

    介绍了Lie color 代数的一些性质,如素性、半素性、非退化性等.给出了Lie color 代数的商代数以及弱商代数的概念,并把Lie color 代数的素性和半素性推广到它的商代数上.利用没有非零零化子的理想对Lie color 代数的商代数进行刻画,证明了:若L是Lie color 代数Q的子代数,则Q是L的商代数当且仅当Q理想吸收于L.通过具体构造证明了每一个半素Lie color 代数都有极大商代数,并给出这个极大商代数的等价刻画.

  19. eNAL++: a new and effective off-line correction protocol for rotational setup errors when using a robotic couch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, D.; Luesink, M.; Huizenga, H.; Pasma, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) installed on a linear accelerator can be used to provide fast and accurate automatic six degrees of freedom (6DoF) vector displacement information of the patient position just prior to radiotherapy. These displacement corrections can be made with 6DoF couches, which are primari

  20. Radiobiologically optimized couch shift: A new localization paradigm using cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yimei, E-mail: yhuang2@hfhs.org; Gardner, Stephen J.; Wen, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Gordon, James; Brown, Stephen; Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To present a novel positioning strategy which optimizes radiation delivery by utilizing radiobiological response knowledge and evaluate its use during prostate external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Five patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively in this IRB-approved study. For each patient, a VMAT plan with one 358° arc was generated on the planning CT (PCT) to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Five representative pretreatment cone beam CTs (CBCT) were selected for each patient. The CBCT images were registered to PCT by a human observer, which consisted of an initial automated registration with three degrees-of-freedom, followed by manual adjustment for agreement at the prostate/rectal wall interface. To determine the optimal treatment position for each CBCT, a search was performed centering on the observer-matched position (OM-position) utilizing a score function based on radiobiological and dosimetric indices (EUD{sub prostate}, D99{sub prostate}, NTCP{sub rectum}, and NTCP{sub bladder}) for the prostate, rectum, and bladder. We termed the optimal treatment position the radiobiologically optimized couch shift position (ROCS-position). Results: The dosimetric indices, averaged over the five patients’ treatment plans, were (mean ± SD) 79.5 ± 0.3 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 78.2 ± 0.4 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 11.1% ± 2.7% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 7.6% (NTCP{sub bladder}). The corresponding values from CBCT at the OM-positions were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.8 ± 0.7 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 12.1% ± 5.6% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 51.6% ± 15.2% (NTCP{sub bladder}), respectively. In comparison, from CBCT at the ROCS-positions, the dosimetric indices were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.3 ± 0.6 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 8.0% ± 3.3% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 15.7% (NTCP{sub bladder}). Excessive NTCP{sub rectum} was observed on Patient 5 (19.5% ± 6.6%) corresponding to localization at OM

  1. L’emploi associatif et la reproduction des couches moyennes salariées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Chevalier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse secondaire des enquêtes Emploi de l’Insee entre 1993 et 2002 révèle un accroissement des diplômés universitaires travaillant dans le secteur associatif. Les travaux statistiques sur les associations conduisent à poser que leurs fonctions correspondaient aux domaines privilégiés par les politiques publiques des années 1990, tels que l’éducation, le développement local, la culture ou l’action sociale. Considérant la continuité des fonctions de gestion des rapports sociaux d’une génération à l’autre et la proximité entre les profils culturels requis par les nouvelles missions associatives et ceux des animateurs des ces politiques, cet article interprète l’augmentation relevée comme le signe de la reproduction des couches moyennes salariées à travers les politiques publiques.Employment in non-profit sector and reproduction of service middle classesAnnual surveys carried out by a French statistical institute between 1993 and 2002 show an increasing proportion of at least 25 years old university graduates in non-profit sector. Statistical inquiries about this sector lead to assess that the jobs performed by theses graduates were congruent with issues treated by state public policies of the 90’s, such as education, local development, culture and social services. Considering the similarity between functions of these graduates in social control and the one of their parents and considering too the cultural congruence of these functions with the profile of the state policies officials, this paper concludes that graduates increase in non-profit sector is one of the ways used by public service middle class to reproduce itself through policies.El empleo asociativo y la reproducción de las capas medias asalariadasEl análisis segundario de las encuestas sobre el empleo realizadas por el INSEE (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques entre 1993 y 2002 ponen en relieve un aumento de la

  2. Décohésion d'interfaces dans des couches de NiO sur du nickel industriel de pureté variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirat, B.; Haut, C.; Huntz, A. M.; Andrieux, M.; Feltz, B.

    2003-03-01

    L'oxydation sous air de deux nickel de pureté industrielle mais de provenance différente a été étudiée, principalement à 800^{circ}C. Outre la cinétique d'oxydation et la morphologie des couches de NiO, l'étude a été focalisée sur les caractéristiques mécaniques des couches de NiO. Celles-ci ont été caractérisées à la température ambiante, essentiellement par flexion trois points sous MEB. Si la cinétique d'oxydation des deux métaux industriels est voisine et associée à des morphologies de couches assez complexes mais similaires, il n'en est pas de même pour la majorité des caractéristiques mécaniques. Ainsi, même en prenant en compte l'évolution des caractéristiques mécaniques du nickel avec le temps de traitement, on observe des différences dans les valeurs de KIC des couches de NiO selon la nature du substrat et l'épaisseur de la couche d'oxyde, c'est-à-dire avec la durée de l'oxydation. Enfin et surtout, le comportement vis-à-vis de la décohésion est très différent : il est pratiquement impossible d'écailler les couches de NiO formées sur l'un des nickel, tandis que la décohésion est obtenue avec une relative facilité dans le cas de l'autre nickel. Mais, cette décohésion n'a pas lieu à l'interface métal-oxyde, mais à l'interface oxyde-oxyde, en raison de la formation de deux couches de NiO, l'une interne, l'autre externe.

  3. Classification of four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and their Poisson-Lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Fardad, J.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Haghighatdoost, Gh.

    2017-01-01

    We classify all four-dimensional real Lie bialgebras of symplectic type and obtain the classical r-matrices for these Lie bialgebras and Poisson structures on all the associated four-dimensional Poisson-Lie groups. We obtain some new integrable models where a Poisson-Lie group plays the role of the phase space and its dual Lie group plays the role of the symmetry group of the system.

  4. Native protein recovery from potato fruit juice by ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Lotz, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan F.; Koops, G.H.; Poulsen, Poul Emil

    2002-01-01

    Potato fruit juice, i.e. the stream resulting after the extraction of the starch from the potato, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable for the food market. However, today the recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice with reverse osmosis membranes results in a

  5. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato starch is composed of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately three to one ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potatoes. There is also interest in marketing “baby” potatoes, which are har...

  6. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  7. A serological approach to the identification of potato cyst nematodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schots, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potato cyst nematode species G.rostochiensis and G.pallida are a threat to the cultivation of potatoes. Their presence in the soil embodies a potential financial loss to the farmer either because of harvest reduction, or because of rejection of seed potatoes, and othe

  8. Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgenic stacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, K.R.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.J.; Kim, T.J.; Bergervoet-van Deelen, J.E.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Vossen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into

  9. Physico-chemical and functional properties of potato proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, van G.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: potato proteins, patatin, protease inhibitors, solubility, structure, pH, temperature, ethanol, ionic strength, phenolic compounds, foams, emulsionsIn potato starch manufacture an aqueous byproduct remains that is called potato fruit juice (PFJ). On a dry matter basis PFJ

  10. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large tubers are formed in t

  11. 7 CFR 1207.514 - Exemption for organic potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic potatoes. 1207.514 Section 1207... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.514 Exemption for organic potatoes. (a...

  12. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY... referendum be conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington. DATES: The...

  13. 76 FR 31787 - United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes AGENCY... Standards for Grades of Potatoes. These standards are issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946... to allow mixed colors and/ or types of potatoes when designated as a mixed or specialty pack...

  14. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  15. Increasing genetic gain by reducing ploidy in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato cultivars in major world production regions are tetraploid, wild and cultivated potatoes in the crop’s center of origin range from diploid to hexaploid. Landrace potato varieties cannot be distinguished based on ploidy. Contrary to popular belief, tetraploidy does not appear to be neces...

  16. Acrylamide diminishing in potato chips by using commercial Asparaginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit

    2011-01-01

    of potato chips. Control and asparaginase treated potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min. Potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) Rinsing in distilled water (control A); (ii) Blanching in hot water at 85 °C for 3.5 min (control B...

  17. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter 40 mm, width 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0%). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (1) control...

  18. Cloning and expression of transaldolase from potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehs, C P; Allen, P V; Friedman, M; Belknap, W R

    1996-11-01

    We have isolated a cDNA encoding transaldolase, an enzyme of the pentose-phosphate pathway, from potato (Solanum tuberosum). The 1.5 kb cDNA encodes a protein of 438 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 47.8 kDa. When the potato cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli a 45 kDa protein with transaldolase activity was produced. The first 62 amino acids of the deduced amino acid sequence represent an apparent plastid transit sequence. While the potato transaldolase has considerable similarity to the enzyme from cyanobacteria and Mycobacterium leprae, similarity to the conserved transaldolase enzymes from humans, E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more limited. Northern analysis indicated that the transaldolase mRNA accumulated in tubers in response to wounding. Probing the RNA from various potato tissues indicated that the transaldolase mRNA accumulation to higher levels in the stem of mature potato plants than in either leaves or tubers. These data are consistent with a role for this enzyme in lignin biosynthesis.

  19. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  20. Production of bio ethanol from waste potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber Noufal, Mohamad; Li, Baizhan; Maalla, Zena Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this research, production of ethanol from waste potatoes fermentation was studied using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potato Flour prepared from potato tubers after cooking and drying at 85°C. A homogenous slurry of potato flour prepared in water at solid-liquid ratio 1:10. Liquefaction of potato starch slurry was done with α-amylase at 80°C for 40 min followed by saccharification process which was done with glucoamylase at 65°C for two hr. Fermentation of hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 35°C for two days resulted in the production of 33 g/l ethanol. The following parameters have been analysed: temperature, time of fermentation and pH. It found that Saccharification process is affected by enzyme Amylase 300 concentration and concentration of 1000μl/100ml gives the efficient effect of the process. The best temperature for fermentation process was found to be about 35°C. Also, it noticed that ethanol production increased as a time of fermentation increased but after 48 hr further growth in fermentation time did not have an appreciable effect. Finally, the optimal value of pH for fermentation process was about 5 to 6.

  1. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  2. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lazar

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  3. La maladie cœliaque: une cause rare de fausses couches à répétition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Hmid, Rim Ben; Godcha, Imene; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Boujomaa, Oueslati; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    La maladie cœliaque est un trouble auto-immun associé à une intolérance au Gluten qui a pour effet la destruction progressive des villosités de l’intestin grêle. Les symptômes de la maladie cœliaque sont très divers et peuvent se produire à tout âge. Parmi ces symptômes, la maladie abortive est une circonstance rare de découverte de la maladie cœliaque. Nous rapportons le cas d’une patiente ayant présenté 12 fausses couches successives dont l’étiologie a été enfin rattachée à une maladie cœliaque. PMID:28270902

  4. Almost-Riemannian Geometry on Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Victor; Jouan, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A simple Almost-Riemmanian Structure on a Lie group G is defined by a linear vector field and dim(G)-1 left-invariant ones. We state results about the singular locus, the abnormal extremals and the desingularization of such ARS's, and these results are illustrated by examples on the 2D affine and the Heisenberg groups.These ARS's are extended in two ways to homogeneous spaces, and a necessary and sufficient condition for an ARS on a manifold to be equivalent to a general ARS on a homogeneous ...

  5. The graded Lie algebra of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Reiterer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We construct a graded Lie algebra in which a solution to the vacuum Einstein equations is any element of degree 1 whose bracket with itself is zero. Each solution generates a cochain complex, whose first cohomology is linearized gravity about that solution. We gauge-fix to get a smaller cochain complex with the same cohomologies (deformation retraction). The new complex is much smaller, it consists of the solution spaces of linear homogeneous wave equations (symmetric hyperbolic equations). The algorithm that produces these gauges and wave equations is both for linearized gravity and the full Einstein equations. The gauge groupoid is the groupoid of rank 2 complex vector bundles.

  6. The “potato road” and biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31018 i br. III 46007

  7. EFFET DES TRAITEMENTS THERMIQUES SUR LA REACTION ENTRE DES COUCHES MINCES DE TITANE ET DES SUBSTRATS EN ACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Slimani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches minces du titane pur ont été déposées avec la méthode de pulvérisation cathodique sur des substrats en acier, type FF80 K-1 contenants ~1% mass. en carbone. La réaction entre les deux parties du système substrat-couche mince est activée avec des traitements thermiques sous vide dans l’intervalle de températures de 400 à900°Cpendant 30 minutes. Les Spectres de diffraction de rayons x confirment l’inter- diffusion des éléments  chimiques du système résultants la formation et la croissance des nouvelles phases en particulier le carbure binaire TiC ayant des caractéristiques thermomécaniques importantes. L’analyse morphologique des échantillons traités  avec le microscope électronique à balayage (MEB montre l’augmentation du flux de diffusion atomique avec la température de recuit, notamment la diffusion du manganèse et du fer vers la surface libre des échantillons aux températures élevées provoquant la dégradation des propriétés mécaniques des revêtements contrairement au premiers stades d’interaction où on a obtenu des bonnes valeurs de la microdureté.

  8. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  9. Treated wastewater reuse on potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A.; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... increased by 635 and 765 euro ha-1y-1 with FTS and MBR, respectively. Tubers were not contaminated by E. coli found in treated wastewater used for irrigation. The frequency of heavy metal and nitrate detection in tubers were comparable among water sources, as well as for the average contents. Only for boron...

  10. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  11. SU-E-J-244: Validation of a 6D-Robotic-Couch and Image Guidance Radiation Therapy (IGRT) System for Localization in World's First Single-Room Proton Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, L; Klein, E [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Grantham, K [University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Goddu, S [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cessac, R [Mevion Medical Systems, Littleton, MA (United States); Baker, K [Barne-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Mevion S250 proton therapy unit is equipped with a 6D-robotic couch and IGRT system (Verity). The patient alignment process allows corrections in six degrees of freedom: translation (x,y,z), pitch, roll, and yaw (θ,ϑ,ψ). Geometric accuracy of couch corrections and imaging vs. radiation isocenter coincidence were quantified before clinical implementation. Methods: A commercial phantom with sixteen 2mm tungsten BBs was rigidly couch-mounted and imaged with CT. Seventeen rigid translations/rotations of known magnitude were digitally applied to the original CT image using commercial software, validated with Varian OBI system. For each altered image, phantom was mounted on robotic couch in original position, then Verity 2D:2D match (PA-LLAT) was performed using DRRs from altered images. Corrections were recorded and applied, phantom was imaged a second time and residual corrections recorded. Physical measurements verified that applied couch corrections coincided with both physical couch shifts/rotations and known CT image translations/rotations. Additionally, image vs. radiation isocenter coicidence was quantified over couch treatment angles (±90° from setup position) using radiochromic film and an image-guided couch star-shot. Posterior-anterior and left-lateral kV radiographs were taken before each beam was delivered to verify imaging/radiation isocentricity. Results: Verity suggested couch corrections and known CT shifts/rotations agreed within ±1mm (average: Δ lat=0.5mm; Δ vert=0.4mm; Δ long=0.3mm) and ± 0.4° (average: Δ pitch=0.24° Δ roll=0.01°; Δ yaw=0.10°). Physical couch measurements and Verity applied corrections agreed within ± 1mm (average: Δlat=0.5mm; Δvert=0.4mm; Δlong=0.2mm) and ±0.2° (average: Δpitch=0.03°; Δ roll=0.04°; Δ yaw=0.04°). The directionality of all translations and rotations were qualitatively verified. The image vs. radiation isocenter coincidence was <1mm and radiation-isocenter precision was <1mm

  12. Fermionic realisations of simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    de Azcárraga, J A

    2000-01-01

    We study the representation ${\\cal D}$ of a simple compact Lie algebra $\\g$ of rank l constructed with the aid of the hermitian Dirac matrices of a (${\\rm dim} \\g$)-dimensional euclidean space. The irreducible representations of $\\g$ contained in ${\\cal D}$ are found by providing a general construction on suitable fermionic Fock spaces. We give full details not only for the simplest odd and even cases, namely su(2) and su(3), but also for the next (${dim} \\g$)-even case of su(5). Our results are far reaching: they apply to any $\\g$-invariant quantum mechanical system containing ${\\rm dim} \\g$ fermions. Another reason for undertaking this study is to examine the role of the $\\g$-invariant fermionic operators that naturally arise. These are given in terms of products of an odd number of gamma matrices, and include, besides a cubic operator, (l-1) fermionic scalars of higher order. The latter are constructed from the Lie algebra cohomology cocycles, and must be considered to be of theoretical significance simila...

  13. Welcome to the Potato Powered Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Art@CMS initiative, UK artist Rachael Nee worked with a group of international teachers taking part in the 2017 High School Teacher Programme to produce an art installation. The Potato Powered Cosmos represents CERN as an interrelated system of experiment, machine, energy and people. The installation emphasises the importance of CERN’s community - it doesn’t work without human interaction. Art@CMS has produced a ‘how-to’ guide for other art and science teachers who would like to recreate the Potato Powered Cosmos with their students.

  14. Structure, processing, and properties of potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Isabel K.; Kolos, Kimberly R.; Menegaux, Edmond C.; Luo, Huy; Mccuen, Richard H.; Regan, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this experiment and lesson intended for high school students in an engineering or materials science course or college freshmen is to demonstrate the relation between processing, structure, and thermodynamic and physical properties. The specific objectives are to show the effect of structure and structural changes on thermodynamic properties (specific heat) and physical properties (compressive strength); to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics; to compare boiling a potato in water with cooking it in a microwave in terms of the rate of structural change and the energy consumed to 'process' the potato; and to demonstrate compression testing.

  15. Effect of Blanching on Structural Quality of Dried Potato Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté; Quartaert; Meerdink; van't Riet K

    1998-02-16

    Mechanical properties of potato slices were monitored during blanching, as indicators of structural changes. As expected, blanching resulted in weakening of potato structure. Gelatinization, which occurred during the first 2 min, did not promote an immediate weakening of the potato tissue. More than 80% of the changes in mechanical properties occurred during the first 30 min of blanching. Potato slices blanched for 2 and 30 min as well as unblanched ones were dried in a convective air drier at 48 degrees C. Bulk and true density, porosity, and shrinkage were monitored with time. Blanched potatoes resulted in a significantly more compact, less porous product with lower effective water diffusivity than unblanched potatoes. The results indicated that changes that occurred during the first 2 min of blanching had a much greater influence on structural quality of dried potatoes than changes that occurred from 2 to 30 min of blanching.

  16. Histogenesis of potato light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of potato (Solanum tuberosum light sprouts in healthy plants and those infected with potato leaf roll virus (PLRV have been distinguished. Potato light sprouts from healthy tubers differentiate in the early stages to the apical and basal parts, which are characterized by distinct dynamics of growth. Ultrastructural examination of apex meristem and phloem ontogeny was carried out for healthy plants. In the development of potato light sprouts of plants infected with PLRV a great many anomalies have been described. Three types of light sprouts developed from infected tubers. Anatomical investigations indicated a rapid growth of the number of necroses in the phloem, and submicroscopic observations showed the presence of virus particles and cytopathological structures: tubular and vesicular structures, paramural bodies and callose deposits. In the companion cells of the phloem the occurrence of very regular inclusions of virus particles was recorded.

  17. Uncertainty Principles on Two Step Nilpotent Lie Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Ray

    2001-08-01

    We extend an uncertainty principle due to Cowling and Price to two step nilpotent Lie groups, which generalizes a classical theorem of Hardy. We also prove an analogue of Heisenberg inequality on two step nilpotent Lie groups.

  18. Pants on fire: the electrophysiological signature of telling a lie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Foerster, Anna; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Even though electroencephalography has played a prominent role for lie detection via personally relevant information, the electrophysiological signature of active lying is still elusive. We addressed this signature with two experiments in which participants helped a virtual police officer to locate a knife. Crucially, before this response, they announced whether they would lie or tell the truth about the knife's location. This design allowed us to study the signature of lie-telling in the absence of rare and personally significant oddball stimuli that are typically used for lie detection via electrophysiological markers, especially the P300 component. Our results indicate that active lying attenuated P300 amplitudes as well as N200 amplitudes for such non-oddball stimuli. These results support accounts that stress the high cognitive demand of lie-telling, including the need to suppress the truthful response and to generate a lie.

  19. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  20. Twisted Hamiltonian Lie Algebras and Their Multiplicity-Free Representations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling CHEN

    2011-01-01

    We construct a class of new Lie algebras by generalizing the one-variable Lie algebras generated by the quadratic conformal algebras (or corresponding Hamiltonian operators) associated with Poisson algebras and a quasi-derivation found by Xu. These algebras can be viewed as certain twists of Xu's generalized Hamiltonian Lie algebras. The simplicity of these algebras is completely determined. Moreover, we construct a family of multiplicity-free representations of these Lie algebras and prove their irreducibility.

  1. Strengths,Problems,and Recommendations of Potato Staple Food Development in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifang; FAN; Aiping; LAI; Guoquan; LU

    2015-01-01

    China launched the potato staple food strategy in 2015. The potato staple food strategy focuses on increasing potato consumption and promoting potato production through processing and use of potato staple food. This provides new opportunity for development of potato in Zhejiang Province. This paper analyzed development strengths and existing problems of the potato industry in Zhejiang Province. On this basis,it came up with pertinent recommendations for potato staple food development in Zhejiang Province,so as to guide consumption with nutrition,and guide production with consumption,to provide theoretical foundation for development of potato industry in Zhejiang Province.

  2. Preliminary survey of potato virus Y (PVy) strains in potato samples from Kurdistan (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Kamangar, S; De Jonghe, K; Kamangar, S; Maes, M; Smagghe, G

    2010-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is the type species in the potyvirus genus of the family potyviridae. This plant pathogenic virus is transmitted through plant sap inoculation by stem and core grafting and by at least 25 aphid species in a non-persistent manner. According to potato specialists in most parts of the world, PVY is currently considered as the most harmful virus in cultivated potatoes. This is also the case for potato production in Iran. In this project we investigated potato leaves that were collected in the Kurdistan province in Iran for the presence of PVY with use of different biochemical/molecular techniques as ELISA, RT-PCR and qPCR. The different PVY strains, including PVY-O, PVY-N, PVYN-TN, PVY-NWi, were determined by using a triplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the presence of PVY-NWi strains in the potato leaf samples from Kurdistan (Iran). The data are discussed in relation to prevalence of PVY strains in Iran.

  3. Surveys of potato-growing areas and surface water in Lebanon for potato brown and ring rot pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia CHOUEIRI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were carried out over three growing seasons (2013–2015, in the main potato growing areas of Lebanon, to assess the occurrence of potato brown rot caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and potato ring rot caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. A total of 232 potato samples were collected from Bekaa valley and 145 samples from Akkar plain, which are the largest Lebanese areas cropped with potatoes. Composite samples of 200 potato tubers were randomly collected from each field, following procedures laid down in EU legislation. Twelve potato demonstration fields were established in Akkar plain and designed for potato export to European markets: these were also surveyed using the same strategy. Furthermore, a network of 40 sampling sites in Bekaa and 19 sites in Akkar was established to collect surface water. GPS coordinates of potato fields and water sampling sites were recorded to map specific sampling points using Geographic Information System. All samples gave negative results for R. solanacearum and C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus in potatoes and R. solanacearum in water, as indicated using the official EU methods for detection and diagnosis for these pathogens. A monitoring system for R. solanacearum and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has been set up in Lebanon. This will increase the phytosanitary quality of potatoes and provide access to broader international markets.

  4. Lie symmetries and differential galois groups of linear equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, W.R.; Put, M. van der

    2002-01-01

    For a linear ordinary differential equation the Lie algebra of its infinitesimal Lie symmetries is compared with its differential Galois group. For this purpose an algebraic formulation of Lie symmetries is developed. It turns out that there is no direct relation between the two above objects. In co

  5. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  6. Lie Pseudogroups à la Cartan from a Modern Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudilevich, O.

    2016-01-01

    In 1904-05, the mathematician Élie Cartan published two pioneer papers in which he introduced a structure theory for Lie pseudogroups. Lie pseudogroups are mathematical objects that appear in both differential geometry and in the theory of differential equations as local symmetries of geometric stru

  7. Graded Lie Algebra Generating of Parastatistical Algebraic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Si-Cong; YANG Wei-Min; LI Ping

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of graded Lie algebra (We call it Z2,2 graded Lie algebra) is introduced as a framework for formulating parasupersymmetric theories. By choosing suitable Bose subspace of the Z2,2 graded Lie algebra and using relevant generalized Jacobi identities, we generate the whole algebraic structure of parastatistics.

  8. Extremal projectors for contragredient Lie (super)symmetries (short review)

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, V N

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the extremal projectors for contragredient Lie (super)symmetries (finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras, basic classical Lie superalgebras, infinite-dimensional affine Kac-Moody algebras and superalgebras, as well as their quantum $q$-analogs) is given. Some bibliographic comments on the applications of extremal projectors are presented.

  9. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  10. Universal representations of Lie algebras by coderivations

    OpenAIRE

    Petracci, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    A class of representations of a Lie superalgebra (over a commutative superring) in its symmetric algebra is studied. As an application we get a direct and natural proof of a strong form of the Poincare'-Birkhoff-Witt theorem, extending this theorem to a class of nilpotent Lie superalgebras. Other applications are presented. Our results are new already for Lie algebras.

  11. Lie symmetry algebra of one-dimensional nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cui-Mei; Wu Run-Heng; Fu Jing-Li

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry algebra of linear nonconservative dynamical systems is studied in this paper. By using 1-1 mapping,the Lie point and Lie contact symmetry algebras are obtained from two independent solutions of the one-dimensional linear equations of motion.

  12. Central Extension for the Triangular Derivation Lie Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunming LI; Ping XU

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of vector fields on n-dimensional torus,which are called the Triangular derivation Lie algebra.We give the structure and the central extension of Triangular derivation Lie algebra.

  13. Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function.

  14. [Counter-acception or abort and lie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruani, G

    1979-09-01

    In this very short but fiery and violent paper against abortion the author states that most women seeking abortion are actually lying to themselves, pretending they want something which, in reality, they do not want, i.e. an abortion. The laws regulating abortion in most countries are such that a woman is practically forbidden to make an independent decision, despite, or because of the number of counseling sessions and of meetings with doctors that she must go through. Radio, television, newspapers and magazines, friends and relatives, all contribute to make of abortion a run-of-the-mill operation, while it should be seen as scandal, and as the total negation of any maternal instinct.

  15. Lie algebraic noncommuting structures from reparametrisation symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, S

    2007-01-01

    We extend our earlier work of revealing both space-space and space-time noncommuting structures in various models in particle mechanics exhibiting reparametrisation symmetry. We show explicitly (in contrast to the earlier results in our paper \\cite{sg}) that for some special choices of the reparametrisation parameter $\\epsilon$, one can obtain space-space noncommuting structures which are Lie-algebraic in form even in the case of the relativistic free particle. The connection of these structures with the existing models in the literature is also briefly discussed. Further, there exists some values of $\\epsilon$ for which the noncommutativity in the space-space sector can be made to vanish. As a matter of internal consistency of our approach, we also study the angular momentum algebra in details.

  16. On Quantum Lie Nilpotency of Order 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kireeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the free algebras of varieties of associative algebras modulo identities of quantum Lie nilpotency of order 1 and 2. Let q be an invertible element of the ground field K (or of its extension. The element[x,y]q = xy-qyxof the free associative algebra is called a quantum commutator. We consider the algebras modulo identities                                                           [x,y]q = 0                                             (1and                                                      [[x,y]q ,z]q = 0.                                       (2It is natural to consider the aforementioned algebras as the quantum analogs of commutative algebras and algebras of Lie nilpotency of order 2. The free algebras of the varieties of associative algebras modulo the identity of Lie nilpotency of order 2, that is the identity[[x,y] ,z] =0,where [x,y]=xy-yx is a Lie commutator, are of great interest in the theory of algebras with polynomial identities, since it was proved by A.V.Grishin for algebras over fields of characteristic 2, and V.V.Shchigolev for algebras over fields of characteristic p>2, that these algebras contain non-finitely generated T-spaces.We prove in the paper that the algebras modulo identities (1 and (2 are nilpotent in the usual sense and calculate precisely the nilpotency order of these algebras. More precisely, we prove that the free algebra of the variety of associative algebras modulo identity (1 is nilpotent of order 2 if q ≠ ± 1, and nilpotent of order 3 if q = - 1 and the characteristic of K is not equal to 2. It is also proved that the free algebra of the variety of associative algebras modulo identity (2 is nilpotent of order 3 if q3 ≠ 1, q ≠ ± 1, nilpotent of order 4 if q3 = 1, q ≠ 1, and nilpotent of

  17. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p dough with sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p < 0.05). In addition, specific loaf volume of sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm(3)/g) ( p < 0.05). Thus, heat treatment at 90 ℃ to sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  18. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  19. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  20. Photoautotrophic micropropagation of Russet Burbank Potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Astatkie, T.; Mirza, M.; Nowak, J.

    2002-01-01

    The photoautotrophic micropropagation of potato cv. Russet Burbank was investigated. Single node microcuttings were grown for four weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with or without sucrose (30 g l-1) in the growth room at 21/19 °C day/night temperature, with 16-h photoperiod at 150 μmol m-2 s

  1. Photoautotrophic micropropagation of Russet Burbank Potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Astatkie, T.; Mirza, M.; Nowak, J.

    2002-01-01

    The photoautotrophic micropropagation of potato cv. Russet Burbank was investigated. Single node microcuttings were grown for four weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with or without sucrose (30 g l-1) in the growth room at 21/19 °C day/night temperature, with 16-h photoperiod at 150 μmol m-2 s

  2. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    product, in which up to 80% tomatoes were substituted with sweet potato, was found to be organoleptically ... formulation had little influence on the final pH, which ranged from 3.8 to 4.1. Titratable acidity ... system to add value to their produce;.

  3. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  4. Grower price effects of Innate™ potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    The revival of biotechnology applications for potato raises interesting economic questions that we examine here. Technologies of this sort increase supply by decreasing waste and reducing percentage of off-grade product. Increased supply leads, eventually, to reductions in the market price, so that ...

  5. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  6. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie;

    2014-01-01

    the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...

  7. Engineering resistance against potato virus Y.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available, these can not always be employed,

  8. Potato developments in a changing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.U.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this book reflect societal and commercial changes such as consumer behaviour and marketing aspects in relation to fresh and processed potatoes in western, central and eastern Europe. Seed trade between western and central Europe is entering a new stage with altered inspection requireme

  9. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    ) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...

  10. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  11. An Online Potato Pedigree Database Resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berloo, van R.; Hutten, R.C.B.; Eck, van H.J.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    At the Laboratory of Plant Breeding of Wageningen University, a large amount of pedigree data on current and historic potato cultivars and progenitors has been collected over many years. The sources and reasons for collection of these data are discussed. To allow others to use this data set for

  12. A method for detection of mechanical collisions and couch-beam intersections; Un metodo para la prediccion de colisiones mecanicas y de intersecciones del haz con la mesa de tratamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Crelgo Alonso, D.; Gonzalez Sancho, J. M.; Vivanco Parellada, J.; Fernandez Garcia, J.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Pamos Urena, M.; Monserrat Fuertes, T.

    2009-07-01

    Two software applications for avoiding mechanical collisions and beam blocking by the couch are described. The method used is based on a simplified model of the couch cross-sections and a very simple routine. The algorithms employed and the graphical interfaces developed are described, along with several software implementation tests. The accuracy of predictions was within 5 mm, therefore the results are satisfactory despite the simple approach assumed. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. Automorphisms of Strong Homotopy Lie Algebras of Local Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-established procedure of assigning a strong homotopy Lie algebra of local observables to a multisymplectic manifold which can be regarded as part of a categorified Poisson structure. For a 2-plectic manifold, the resulting Lie 2-algebra is isomorphic to a sub Lie 2-algebra of a natural Lie 2-algebra structure on an exact Courant algebroid. We generalize this statement to arbitrary n-plectic manifolds and study automorphisms on the arising Lie n-algebras. Our observations may be useful in studying the quantization problem on multisymplectic manifolds.

  14. Determinantal formulae for the Casimir operators of inhomogeneous Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig [Dpto. Geometria y Topologia, Fac CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias, 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-03-10

    Contractions of Lie algebras are combined with the classical matrix method of Gel'fand to obtain matrix formulae for the Casimir operators of inhomogeneous Lie algebras. The method is presented for the inhomogeneous pseudo-unitary Lie algebras Iu(p,q). This procedure is extended to contractions of Iu(p,q) isomorphic to an extension by a derivation of the inhomogeneous special pseudo-unitary Lie algebras Isu(p-1,q), providing an additional analytical method to obtain their invariants. Further, matrix formulae for the invariants of other inhomogeneous Lie algebras are presented.

  15. Restricted and quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the definition of restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras, the concept of restrictability is by far more tractable than that of a restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra. Moreover, we obtain some properties of p-mappings and restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras. Finally, we give some sufficient conditions for the commutativity of quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras and study how a quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra with zero center and of minimal dimension should be.

  16. Pro-Lie Groups: A Survey with Open Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Hofmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A topological group is called a pro-Lie group if it is isomorphic to a closed subgroup of a product of finite-dimensional real Lie groups. This class of groups is closed under the formation of arbitrary products and closed subgroups and forms a complete category. It includes each finite-dimensional Lie group, each locally-compact group that has a compact quotient group modulo its identity component and, thus, in particular, each compact and each connected locally-compact group; it also includes all locally-compact Abelian groups. This paper provides an overview of the structure theory and the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups, including results more recent than those in the authors’ reference book on pro-Lie groups. Significantly, it also includes a review of the recent insight that weakly-complete unital algebras provide a natural habitat for both pro-Lie algebras and pro-Lie groups, indeed for the exponential function that links the two. (A topological vector space is weakly complete if it is isomorphic to a power RX of an arbitrary set of copies of R. This class of real vector spaces is at the basis of the Lie theory of pro-Lie groups. The article also lists 12 open questions connected to pro-Lie groups.

  17. Evaluation of N-Nitrosamine Formation in Routine Potato Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qajarbeygi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrosamine is amongst carcinogen chemical compounds, which can enter the human body through consumption of food. Potatoes are a root vegetable consumed by many people around the world, however their potential for nitrosamine formation during cooking processes needs to be considered for public health matters. Objectives In this study we evaluated the effect of conventional potato cooking method on N-nitrosamine compound formation. Materials and Methods The amounts of four nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA, N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR were determined in four different potato-baking methods. Sixty potato samples were randomly collected from Hamadan city. Fried potato samples were roasted at 180°C and boiled potato samples were scalded at 120°C. Nitrosamine levels were measured using gas chromatography coupled with electronic ionization detector (GC-EID, and spectrophotometry was used for measuring nitrite. Results Fried samples that were measured by the gas chromatography method had the highest average levels of nitrosamine compounds; NDMA, 5.09 ng kg-1, and NDEA, 8.66 ng kg-1. Low levels of nitrosamine compounds were associated with raw potatoes, in which no nitrosamine compound was detected. Based on the analysis of the potato samples by spectrophotometry, the highest levels of nitrite was found in raw potatoes with a mean of 2.43 mg kg-1 and the lowest levels of nitrite were detected in boiled potatoes with an average of 1.172 mg kg-1. Conclusions Nitrosamine was formed with conventional potato baking methods with the most nitrosamine formation found on the surface fried samples. Nitrites amount in baked potatoes decreased. Generally, the amount of nitrosamine in baked potato samples was lower than acceptable limits.

  18. Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Kataguiri, Karen

    2008-11-01

    We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick's second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This presents an expression that relates BCF with the pesticide elimination rate by the potato, with the pesticide accumulation rate within the potato, with the rate of growth of the potato and with the pesticide degradation rate in the soil. BCF was estimated supposing steady state equilibrium of the quotient between the pesticide concentration in the potato and the pesticide concentration in the soil solution. It is suggested that a negative correlation exists between the pesticide BCF and the soil sorption partition coefficient. The model was built based on the work of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108], in which an expression to calculate the diffusivity of persistent organic substances in potatoes is presented. The model consists in adding to the expression of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108] the hypothesis that the pesticide degrades in the soil. The value of BCF suggests which pesticides should be monitored in potatoes.

  19. Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system; Medida de la atenuacion producida por la mesa de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal y su modelado en un sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact{copyright} treatment couch in a Varian{copyright} Clinac{copyright} 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta{copyright} XiO{copyright} treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).

  20. Inferential modeling and predictive feedback control in real-time motion compensation using the treatment couch during radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peng; D'Souza, Warren D; McAvoy, Thomas J; Ray Liu, K J

    2007-10-07

    Tumor motion induced by respiration presents a challenge to the reliable delivery of conformal radiation treatments. Real-time motion compensation represents the technologically most challenging clinical solution but has the potential to overcome the limitations of existing methods. The performance of a real-time couch-based motion compensation system is mainly dependent on two aspects: the ability to infer the internal anatomical position and the performance of the feedback control system. In this paper, we propose two novel methods for the two aspects respectively, and then combine the proposed methods into one system. To accurately estimate the internal tumor position, we present partial-least squares (PLS) regression to predict the position of the diaphragm using skin-based motion surrogates. Four radio-opaque markers were placed on the abdomen of patients who underwent fluoroscopic imaging of the diaphragm. The coordinates of the markers served as input variables and the position of the diaphragm served as the output variable. PLS resulted in lower prediction errors compared with standard multiple linear regression (MLR). The performance of the feedback control system depends on the system dynamics and dead time (delay between the initiation and execution of the control action). While the dynamics of the system can be inverted in a feedback control system, the dead time cannot be inverted. To overcome the dead time of the system, we propose a predictive feedback control system by incorporating forward prediction using least-mean-square (LMS) and recursive least square (RLS) filtering into the couch-based control system. Motion data were obtained using a skin-based marker. The proposed predictive feedback control system was benchmarked against pure feedback control (no forward prediction) and resulted in a significant performance gain. Finally, we combined the PLS inference model and the predictive feedback control to evaluate the overall performance of the

  1. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene delays senescent sweetening in chipping potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato chip processors require potato tubers that meet quality specifications for fried chip color, and color depends largely upon tuber sugar contents. At later times in storage, potatoes accumulate sucrose, glucose and fructose. This developmental process, senescent sweetening, manifes...

  2. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for processing use, 4. Suitable storage conditions and potato chips processing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Kenji

    1984-03-01

    In order to develop suitable storage conditions in potatoes for processing use, non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes var. Norin No. 1 were stored in containers and in bulk. The contents of reducing sugars were determined and the properties of potato chips were analysed. Reconditioning at 10 deg C and RH 90 % for 4 weeks during an early period of dormancy lowered the content of reducing sugars remarkably in both the non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes which were either stored in containers or in bulk. The optimum conditions for the storage of potatoes were 8 deg C and RH 90 %, which enabled the potatoes to retain their hardness while the content reducing sugars decreased. The potatoes stored under the above conditions gave chips with a fairly good color. In contrast, the non-irradiated potatoes stored for a period of 6 months or longer sprouted and aged, resulting in chips with unsatisfactory color. It was found necessary to use potatoes with low contents of both amino acids and reducing sugars to avoid the browning of chips. Bulk storage which was found to be effective for air circulation through potatoes caused creeping phenomenon. (author).

  3. The thin layer technique and its application to electron microscopy; La technique des couches minces et son application a la microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranc, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-10-15

    This work deals with the technique of thin layers obtained by evaporation under vacuum, in the thickness range extending from a few monoatomic layers to several hundred angstroms. The great theoretical and practical interest of these layers has, it is well known, given rise to many investigations from Faraday onwards. Within the necessarily restricted limits of this study, we shall approach the problem more particularly from the point of view of: - their production; - their use in electron microscopy. A critical appraisal is made, in the light of present-day knowledge, based on our personal experience and on an extensive bibliography which we have collected on the subject. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne la technique des couches minces obtenues par evaporation sous vide, dans le domaine d'epaisseur qui s'etend de quelques couches monoatomiques a plusieurs centaines d'angstroms. L'interet theorique et pratique considerable de ces couches a suscite, comme on sait, de nombreux travaux depuis Faraday. Dans le cadre necessairement restreint de cette these, nous aborderons plus particulierement le point de vue de: - leur obtention; - leur utilisation en microscopie electronique. Il s'agit d'une mise au point critique, a la lumiere des connaissances actuelles, appuyee sur notre experience personnelle et sur une importante bibliographie, qu'il nous a ete donne de reunir a ce sujet. (auteur)

  4. Moving Picture, Lying Image: Unreliable Cinematic Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csönge Tamás

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. According to scholarly literature on the subject, the narrator has to be strongly characterized, or in other words, anthropomorphized. In the case of film, the main problem is that the narrator is either missing or the narration cannot be attributed entirely to them. There is a medial rupture where the apparatus mediates the story instead of a character’s oral or written discourse. The present paper focuses on some important but overlooked questions about the nature of cinematic storytelling through a re-examination of |the lying flashback in Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright. Can a character-narrator control the images the viewer sees? How can the filmic image still be unreliable without having an anthropomorphic narrator? How useful is the term focalization when we are dealing with embedded character-narratives in film?

  5. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  6. Devious Lies: Adventures in Freelance Science Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Observations are given from two freelance science outreach projects undertaken by the author: Tutoring at-risk secondary students and teaching astronomy to 5th-7th graders in a camp retreat environment. Two recurring thematic challenges in these experiences are considered: First the 'Misperception Problem', the institutionalized chasm between the process of doing science and K-12 science education (wherein science is often portrayed as something distant and inaccessible, while ironically children are necessarily excellent scientists). And second the 'Engagement Problem', engaging a student's attention and energy by matching teaching material and--more importantly--teaching techniques to the student's state of development. The objective of this work is twofold: To learn how to address these two challenges and to empower the students in a manner independent of the scientific content of any particular subject. An underlying hypothesis is that confidence to problem solve (a desirable life-skill) can be made more accessible through a combination of problem solving by the student and seeing how others have solved seemingly impossible problems. This hypothesis (or agenda) compels an emphasis on critical thinking and raises the dilemma of reconciling non-directed teaching with very pointed conclusions about the verity of pseudo-science and ideas prevalent about science in popular culture. An interesting pedagogical found-object in this regard is the useful 'devious lie' which can encourage a student to question the assumption that the teacher (and by extension any professed expert) has the right answers.

  7. Relativity symmetries and Lie algebra contractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai-Ning; Kong, Otto C.W., E-mail: otto@phy.ncu.edu.tw

    2014-12-15

    We revisit the notion of possible relativity or kinematic symmetries mutually connected through Lie algebra contractions under a new perspective on what constitutes a relativity symmetry. Contractions of an SO(m,n) symmetry as an isometry on an m+n dimensional geometric arena which generalizes the notion of spacetime are discussed systematically. One of the key results is five different contractions of a Galilean-type symmetry G(m,n) preserving a symmetry of the same type at dimension m+n−1, e.g. a G(m,n−1), together with the coset space representations that correspond to the usual physical picture. Most of the results are explicitly illustrated through the example of symmetries obtained from the contraction of SO(2,4), which is the particular case for our interest on the physics side as the proposed relativity symmetry for “quantum spacetime”. The contractions from G(1,3) may be relevant to real physics.

  8. Low-lying excitations in 72Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y.; Lorusso, G.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Baba, H.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; de Angelis, G.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Isobe, T.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoyborg, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Sahin, E.; Sohler, D.; Shaffner, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2016-03-01

    Low-lying excited states in 72Ni have been investigated in an in-flight fission experiment at the RIBF facility of the RIKEN Nishina Center. The combination of the state-of-the-art BigRIPS and EURICA setups has allowed for a very accurate study of the β decay from 72Co to 72Ni, and has provided first experimental information on the decay sequence 72Fe→72Co→72Ni and on the delayed neutron-emission branch 73Co→72Ni . Accordingly, we report nearly 60 previously unobserved γ transitions which deexcite 21 new levels in 72Ni. Evidence for the location of the so-sought-after (42+) ,(62+) , and (81+) seniority states is provided. As well, the existence of a low-spin β -decaying isomer in odd-odd neutron-rich Co isotopes is confirmed for mass A =72 . The new experimental information is compared to simple shell-model calculations including only neutron excitations across the f p g shells. It is shown that, in general, the calculations reproduce well the observed states.

  9. Invariant Differential Operators for Non-Compact Lie Algebras Parabolically Related to Conformal Lie Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, V K

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators for non-compact semisimple Lie groups. Our starting points is the class of algebras, which we call 'conformal Lie algebras' (CLA), which have very similar properties to the conformal algebras of Minkowski space-time, though our aim is to go beyond this class in a natural way. For this we introduce the new notion of {\\it parabolic relation} between two non-compact semisimple Lie algebras g and g' that have the same complexification and possess maximal parabolic subalgebras with the same complexification. Thus, we consider the exceptional algebra E_{7(7)} which is parabolically related to the CLA E_{7(-25)}, the parabolic subalgebras including E_{6(6)} and E_{6(-6)} . Other interesting examples are the orthogonal algebras so(p,q) all of which are parabolically related to the conformal algebra so(n,2) with p+q=n+2, the parabolic subalgebras including the Lorentz subalgebra so(n-1,1) and its analogs so(p-1,...

  10. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  11. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on potato virus M (PVM) occurrence in potato fields in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosahebi, G; Koohi-Habibi, M; Okhovvat, S M

    2005-01-01

    57 native potato tuber samples collected from different potato growing region of Iran, planted on single rows in Karaj College experimental station. Plant samples of each single row plus 9.25 Fresh foliage samples collected from fields under new introduced cultivars were tested for potato virus (PVM) infection during growing season. Also 78 weeds and field crops belonging to Solonacae and Leguminosae from or neighboring to potato field were tested. Results indicated that PVM was not found on any plant other than potatoes. PVM was detected on 16 samples of 57 old vars, Virus was not seen in any samples collected from fields under new varieties. Results show that PVM is limiting in this crop. PVM detecting is difficult using assay hosts. Best test plants were French bean var Red kidney, Showing pinpoint necrotic LL, also Datura metel and Nicotiana debneyi are useful for virus detection showing chlorotic local lesion. Also microprecipition and gel diffusion test can be used for virus detection but Elisa was the best method. PVM infected plant showed 11-19.5 percent yield decrease in 3 cultivars tested.

  13. Adaptive optimization by 6 DOF robotic couch in prostate volumetric IMRT treatment: rototranslational shift and dosimetric consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Silvia; Placidi, Lorenzo; Azario, Luigi; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Greco, Francesca; Damiani, Andrea; Mantini, Giovanna; Frascino, Vincenzo; Piermattei, Angelo; Valentini, Vincenzo; Balducci, Mario

    2015-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and dosimetric relevance of translational and rotational shifts on IGRT prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using Protura six degrees of freedom (DOF) Robotic Patient Positioning System. Patients with cT3aN0M0 prostate cancer, treated with VMAT simultaneous integrated boost (VMAT-SIB), were enrolled. PTV2 was obtained adding 0.7 cm margin to seminal vesicles base (CTV2), while PTV1 adding to prostate (CTV1) 0.7 cm margin in all directions, except 1.2 cm, as caudal margin. A daily CBCT was acquired before dose delivery. The translational and rotational displacements were corrected through Protura Robotic Couch, collected and applied to the simulation CT to obtain a translated CT (tCT) and a rototranslated CT (rtCT) on which we recalculated the initial treatment plan (TP). We analyzed the correlation between dosimetric coverage, organs at risk (OAR) sparing, and translational or rotational displacements. The dosimetric impact of a rototranslational correction was calculated. From October 2012 to September 2013, a total of 263 CBCT scans from 12 patients were collected. Translational shifts were errors are of dosimetric significance in sparing OAR and in target coverage. This is relevant for femoral heads and rectum because of major distance from isocenter, and for seminal vesicles because of irregular shape. No correlation was observed between translational and rotational errors. A study considering the intrafractional error and the deformable registration is ongoing.

  14. SU-E-J-46: Evaluation of the Accuracy of a Six Degree of Freedom Robotic Couch Using ConeBeam CT Images of the Isocal Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q; Driewer, J; Wang, S; Li, S; Zheng, D; Zhu, X; Zhen, W; Wahl, A; Lin, C; Thompson, R; Zhou, S; Enke, C [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The accuracy of Varian PerfectPitch six degree of freedom (DOF) robotic couch was examined using Varian Isocal phantom and cone-beam CT (CBCT) system. Methods CBCT images of the Isocal phantom were taken at different pitch and roll angles. The pitch and roll angles were varied from 357 to 3 degrees in one degree increments by input from service console, generating a total of 49 combinations with couch angle (yaw) zero. The center positions of the 16 tungsten carbide BBs contained in the Isocal were determined with in-house image processing software. Expected BBs positions at different rotation angles were determined mathematically by applying a combined translation/rotation operator to BB positions at zero pitch and roll values. A least square method was used to minimize the difference between the expected BB positions and their measured positions. In this way rotation angles were obtained and compared with input values from the console. Results A total of 49 CBCT images with voxel sizes 0.51 mm × 0.51 mm × 1 mm were used in analysis. Among the 49 calculations, the maximum rotation angle differences were 0.1 degree, 0.15 degree, and 0.09 degree, for pitch, roll, and couch rotation, respectively. The mean ± standard-deviation angle differences were 0.028±0.001 degree, −0.043±0.003 degree, and −0.009±0.001 degree, for pitch, roll, and couch rotation, respectively. The maximum isocenter shifts were 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.4 mm in x, y, z direction respectively following IEC6127 convention. The mean isocenter shifts were 0.07±0.02 mm, −0.05±0.06 mm, and −0.12±0.02 mm in x, y and z directions. Conclusion The accuracy of the Varian PerfectPitch six DOF couch was studied with CBCTs of the Isocal phantom. The rotational errors were less than 0.15 degree and isocenter shifts were less than 0.5 mm in any direction. This accuracy is sufficient for stereotactic radiotherapy clinical applications.

  15. eNAL++: a new and effective off-line correction protocol for rotational setup errors when using a robotic couch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Daan; Luesink, Mark; Huizenga, Henk; Pasma, Kasper L

    2015-11-08

    Cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) installed on a linear accelerator can be used to provide fast and accurate automatic six degrees of freedom (6DoF) vector displacement information of the patient position just prior to radiotherapy. These displacement corrections can be made with 6DoF couches, which are primarily used for patient setup correction during stereotactic treatments. When position corrections are performed daily prior to treatment, the correction is deemed "online". However, the interface between the first generation 6DoF couches and the imaging software is suboptimal. The system requires the user to select manually the patient and type the match result by hand. The introduction of 6DoF setup correction for treatments, other than stereotactic radiotherapy, is hindered by both the high workload associated with the online protocol and the interface issues. For these reasons, we developed software that fully integrates the 6DoF couch with the linear accelerator. To further reduce both the workload and imaging dose, three off-line 6DoF correction protocols were analyzed. While the protocols require significantly less imaging, the analysis assessed their ability to reduce the systematic rotation setup correction. CBCT scans were acquired for 19 patients with intracranial meningioma. The total number of CBCT scans was 856, acquired before and after radiotherapy treatment fractions. The patient positions were corrected online using a 6DoF robotic couch. The effects on the residual rotational setup error for three off-line protocols were simulated. The three protocols used were two known off-line protocols, the no action level (NAL) and the extended no action level (eNAL), and one new off-line protocol (eNAL++). The residual setup errors were compared using the systematic and random components of the total setup error. The reduction of the rotational setup error of these protocols was optimized with respect to the required workload (i.e., number of CBCTs required

  16. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  17. THE STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF POTATO PRODUCED IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BULARCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analyzed and interpreted the main statistical indicators of potato produced in Romania. First of all, we start by presenting some information about potatoes: origin and appearance, their importance and necessity in the life of people and animals. Then on the basis of the specific statistical indicators, it was interpreted the evolution of the cultivated area, the percentage of the main counties in the cultivated area with potatoes, the average yield per hectare, as well as the import and export of potatoes in a given period. Each indicator was analyzed and corresponding remarks and conclusions have been drawn.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE GLYCOALKALOIDS CONTENT FROM POTATO TUBERCULES (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORGIA WIDMANN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinations concerning the glycoalkaloids content were made over four potato varieties (Hansa, Sieglinde, Nicola and Linda obtained from a private German source, country in which potatoes are cultivated and consumed frequently. Potatoes have been cultivated in classic conditions, as well as in biodynamic conditions.The glycoalkaloids complex and their aglycones had been obtained through a sequence of operations, like extractions with several specific solvents at reflux and in backward flow, hydrolysis, lyophilisation etc.The determinations concerning the glycoalcaloids content of the four studied potato varieties were accomplished comparatively for both culture modes, in classic and biodynamic conditions.

  19. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  20. Purification and characterization of potato leafroll virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani, A; Stace-Smith, R

    1979-10-15

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was purified from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with yields of 0.4-0.6 mg/kg of foliage. The virus sedimented as a single component of 127 S. An antiserum prepared against purified virus had a maximum titer of 1:1024 in agar gel double diffusion tests. PLRV had a buoyant density of 1.39 g/ml and an estimated nucleic acid content of 28%. The nucleic acid had a molecular weight of 2.0 x 10(6) and was degraded by RNase but not by DNase, indicating that the PLRV nucleic acid is RNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the RNA molecule was 34.5 S and after treatment with formaldehyde, 20.7 S. Dissociated coat protein migrated as a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the average subunit molecular weight was 26,300. PLRV should be considered a member of the luteovirus group.

  1. Cartan geometries and their symmetries a Lie algebroid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Crampin, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In this book we first review the ideas of Lie groupoid and Lie algebroid, and the associated concepts of connection. We next consider Lie groupoids of fibre morphisms of a fibre bundle, and the connections on such groupoids together with their symmetries. We also see how the infinitesimal approach, using Lie algebroids rather than Lie groupoids, and in particular using Lie algebroids of vector fields along the projection of the fibre bundle, may be of benefit. We then introduce Cartan geometries, together with a number of tools we shall use to study them. We take, as particular examples, the four classical types of geometry: affine, projective, Riemannian and conformal geometry. We also see how our approach can start to fit into a more general theory. Finally, we specialize to the geometries (affine and projective) associated with path spaces and geodesics, and consider their symmetries and other properties.

  2. Lie transforms and their use in Hamiltonian perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, J.R.

    1978-06-01

    A review is presented of the theory of Lie transforms as applied to Hamiltonian systems. We begin by presenting some general background on the Hamiltonian formalism and by introducing the operator notation for canonical transformations. We then derive the general theory of Lie transforms. We derive the formula for the new Hamiltonian when one uses a Lie transform to effect a canonical transformation, and we use Lie transforms to prove a very general version of Noether's theorem, or the symmetry-equals-invariant theorem. Next we use the general Lie transform theory to derive Deprit's perturbation theory. We illustrate this perturbation theory by application to two well-known problems in classical mechanics. Finally we present a chapter on conventions. There are many ways to develop Lie transforms. The last chapter explains the reasons for the choices made here.

  3. k-Symplectic Lie systems: theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, J.; Vilariño, S.

    2015-03-01

    A Lie system is a system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of vector fields: a so-called Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra. We suggest the definition of a particular class of Lie systems, the k-symplectic Lie systems, admitting a Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra of Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to the presymplectic forms of a k-symplectic structure. We devise new k-symplectic geometric methods to study their superposition rules, t-independent constants of motion and general properties. Our results are illustrated through examples of physical and mathematical interest. As a byproduct, we find a new interesting setting of application of the k-symplectic geometry: systems of first-order ordinary differential equations.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  5. Caractérisations structurale et morphologique des couches minces de CuInS2 et d'In-S "airless spray"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, N.; Belgacem, S.; Amlouk, M.; Bennaceur, R.; Abdelmoula, K.; Belhadj Amara, A.

    1994-03-01

    We have prepared CuInS2 thin layers by airless spray "S.P.A." in order to use them as an absorber in a photovoltaic cell. The X-ray diffraction analysis has showed that these layers are well crystallized with a privileged (112) principal orientation for a ratio of the concentrations in the pulverized solution x=frac[Cu^I][In^{III]}=1.1. After heat treatment under vacuum the crystallization have been clearly improved. The structural analysis of the thin CuInS2 layers have revealed that a secondary phases of In2S3 and In6S7 are present. Thus we have realized by the same technique thin In-S layers whose structural and morphological properties have been studied. This analysis has showed that the In-S layers are well crystallized for a ratio y=frac[In^{3+]}[S^{2-]}=0.6 in the spray solution. The In-S layers are essentially formed by a β-In2S3 material. Although the In6S7 phase appears to the detriment of β-In2S3 phase for y= 0.75. Nous avons préparé des couches minces de CuInS2, par pulvérisation chimique réactive sans air "P.S.A.", en vue de leur utilisation en tant qu'absorbeur dans un dispositif photovoltaïque. L'analyse par diffraction X a montré que ces couches sont bien cristallisées et que l'orientation principale (112) est privilégiée pour un rapport de concentrations x=frac[Cu^I]{[In^{III}]}=1,1 dans la solution à pulvériser. Après le traitement thermique sous vide la cristallisation est nettement améliorée. L'analyse structurale des couches minces de CuInS2 a révélé que ces couches renferment des phases secondaires d'In2S3 et d'In6S7. Ainsi nous avons réalisé par la même technique "P.S.A.", des couches minces d'In-S dont nous avons étudié les propriétés structurales et morphologiques, Cette analyse a montré que les couches d'In-S sont bien cristallisées. Pour un rapport de concentrations en solution de pulvérisation y=frac[In^{3+]}[S^{2-]}=0,6 les couches d'In-S sont surtout formées du matériau β-In2S3. Alors que la phase In6S7

  6. Potato cv. Romano reaction to primary and secondary infection with potato necrotic strain Y virus (PVYNTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary infections with PVYNTN were investigated on forty plants of the potato cv. Romano inoculated in a greenhouse in Serbia in 2012 and 2013. PVY isolates were collected from the potato growing region of Čačak and identified by ELISA and RT-PCR methods. The sequence of the Serbian isolate 3D (Acc. No. KJ946936 showed 100% match with seven PVY isolates deposited in GenBank and described as NTN. A significant difference was detected between PVYNTN symptoms exibited on leaves of the cv. Romano under primary and secondary infections. The findings are significant because they are based on symptoms observed, so that it is clear that there are two distinct types of infection: primary and secondary. Symptoms of primary and secondary infection were the same on potato tubers and had the form of necrotic rings.

  7. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of Relativistic Hamiltonian System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Hui; YAN Xiang-Hong; LI Hong; CHEN Pei-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the relativistic Hamiltonian system are studied. The definition and criterion of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the relativistic Hamiltonian system are given. The relationship between them is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained.An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Zhong; Fu Hao; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Firstly,the discrete generalized Hamiltonian canonical equations and discrete energy equation of nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems are derived from discrete Hamiltonian action.Secondly,the determining equations and structure equation of Lie symmetry of the system are obtained.Thirdly,the Lie theorems and the conservation quantities are given for the discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Finally,an example is discussed to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Magnetic pseudo-differential Weyl calculus on nilpotent Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Beltita, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    We develop a pseudo-differential Weyl calculus on nilpotent Lie groups which allows one to deal with magnetic perturbations of right invariant vector fields. For this purpose we investigate an infinite-dimensional Lie group constructed as the semidirect product of a nilpotent Lie grup and an appropriate function space thereon. We single out an appropriate coadjoint orbit in the semidirect product and construct our pseudo-differential calculus as a Weyl quantization of that orbit.

  10. Lie symmetries and invariants of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Rong-Wan; Chen Li-Qun

    2004-01-01

    According to the theory of the invariance of ordinary differential equations under the infinitesimal transformations of group, the relations between Lie symmetries and invariants of the mechanical system with a singular Lagrangian are investigated in phase space. New dynamical equations of the system are given in canonical form and the determining equations of Lie symmetry transformations are derived. The proposition about the Lie symmetries and invariants are presented. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result in this paper.

  11. A new kind of graded Lie algebra and parastatistical supersymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the usual Z2 graded Lie algebra is generalized to a new form, which may be called Z2,2 graded Lie algebra. It is shown that there exist close connections between the Z2,2 graded Lie algebra and parastatistics, so the Z2,2 can be used to study and analyse various symmetries and supersymmetries of the paraparticle systems.

  12. ON THE NOETHER SYMMETRY AND LIE SYMMETRY OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅凤翔; 郑改华

    2002-01-01

    The Noether symmetry is an invariance of Hamilton action under infinitesimal transformations of time and the coordinates. The Lie symmetry is an invariance of the differential equations of motion under the transformations. In this paper, the relation between these two symmetries is proved definitely and firstly for mechanical systems. The results indicate that all the Noether symmetries are Lie symmetries for Lagrangian systems meanwhile a Noether symmetry is a Lie symmetry for the general holonomic or nonholonomic systems provided that some conditions hold.

  13. Construction of Lie algebras and invariant tensors through abelian semigroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, Fernando; RodrIguez, Eduardo; Salgado, Patricio [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: fizaurie@gmail.com, E-mail: edurodriguez@udec.cl, E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl

    2008-11-01

    The Abelian Semigroup Expansion Method for Lie Algebras is briefly explained. Given a Lie Algebra and a discrete abelian semigroup, the method allows us to directly build new Lie Algebras with their corresponding non-trivial invariant tensors. The Method is especially interesting in the context of M-Theory, because it allows us to construct M-Algebra Invariant Chern-Simons/Transgression Lagrangians in d = 11.

  14. Noether-Lie Symmetry of Generalized Classical Mechanical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Wen-Zhi; ZHANG Xiao-Ni; WANG Shun-Jin; FANG Jian-Hui; WANG Peng; DING Ning

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the Noether-Lie symmetry and conserved quantities of generalized classical mechanical system are studied. The definition and the criterion of the Noether Lie symmetry for the system under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups are given. The Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity deduced from the Noether-Lie symmetry are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  15. Sectional and Ricci Curvature for Three-Dimensional Lie Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulas for the Riemann and Ricci curvature tensors of an invariant metric on a Lie group are determined. The results are applied to a systematic study of the curvature properties of invariant metrics on three-dimensional Lie groups. In each case the metric is reduced by using the automorphism group of the associated Lie algebra. In particular, the maximum and minimum values of the sectional curvature function are determined.

  16. The index of centralizers of elements of reductive Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    For a finite dimensional complex Lie algebra, its index is the minimal dimension of stabilizers for the coadjoint action. A famous conjecture due to Elashvili says that the index of the centralizer of an element of a reductive Lie algebra is equal to the rank. That conjecture caught attention of several Lie theorists for years. In this paper we give an almost general proof of that conjecture.

  17. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  18. Valorization of potato peel: a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pranav D; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Puranik, Nikhil Manoj; Jambhulkar, Swapnil Jaygopal; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2017-06-14

    Potato is the fourth main crop consumed worldwide and is an important constituent in the human diet. Consequently, potato is widely used in food-processing industries. However, these industries generate massive amounts of potato peel (PP) as a by-product, which is usually considered a waste, and is discarded. Interestingly, recent research suggests that PP is a valuable source of bioactive compounds, which can be converted into value-added products. In this study, we review the physicochemical composition and valorization of PP. In addition to being used as a dietary fiber or medicine, the value-added products obtained by the fermentation of PP have multiple uses, including their use as adsorbents, biocomposites and packaging materials. These products can also be used in energy production, biopolymer film development, corrosion inhibition and the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals. The biorefinery approach for PP will increase the value of this waste by producing an array of value-added products and reducing extensive waste generation.

  19. Boolean-Lie algebras and the Leibniz rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazso, Fueloep [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Labos, Elemer [Neurobiology Research Group, United Research Organization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, H-1450 Budapest, PO Box 95 (Hungary)

    2006-06-02

    Using internal negations acting on Boolean functions, the notion of Boolean-Lie algebra is introduced. The underlying Lie product is the Boolean analogue of the Poisson bracket. The structure of a Boolean-Lie algebra is determined; it turns out to be solvable, but not nilpotent. We prove that the adjoint representation of an element of the Boolean-Lie algebra acts as a derivative operator on the space of Boolean functions. The adjoint representation is related to the previously known concept of the sensitivity function. Using the notion of adjoint representation we give the definition of a temporal derivative applicable to iterative dynamics of Boolean mappings.

  20. The Lie algebra of infinitesimal symmetries of nonlinear diffusion equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Paul H.M.; Gragert, Peter K.H.

    1983-01-01

    By using developed software for solving overdetermined systems of partial differential equations, the authors establish the complete Lie algebra of infinitesimal symmetries of nonlinear diffusion equations.

  1. The structure of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Antonio J.; Sánchez, José M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the class of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras as the natural extension of the one of split Hom-Lie algebras and so of split Lie algebras. We show that an arbitrary split regular BiHom-Lie algebra L is of the form L = U +∑jIj with U a linear subspace of a fixed maximal abelian subalgebra H and any Ij a well described (split) ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik ] = 0 if j ≠ k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its simple ideals.

  2. Construction of the elliptic Gaudin system based on Lie algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-ke; LIANG Hong; PENG Dan-tao; YANG Tao; YUE Rui-hong

    2007-01-01

    Gaudin model is a very important integrable model in both quantum field theory and condensed matter physics.The integrability of Gaudin models is related to classical r-matrices of simple Lie algebras and semi-simple Lie algebra.Since most of the constructions of Gaudin models works concerned mainly on rational and trigonometric Gaudin algebras or just in a particular Lie algebra as an alternative to the matrix entry calculations often presented, in this paper we give our calculations in terms of a basis of the typical Lie algebra, An, Bn, Cn, Dn, and we calculate a classical r-matrix for the elliptic Gaudin system with spin.

  3. On Integrable Roots in Split Lie Triple Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.J.CALDER(O)N MART(I)N

    2009-01-01

    We focus on the notion of an integrable root in the framework of split Lie triple systems T with a coherent 0-root space. As a main result, it is shown that if T has all its nonzero roots integrable, then its standard embedding is a split Lie algebra having all its nonzero roots integrable. As a consequence, a local finiteness theorem for split Lie triple systems, saying that whenever all nonzero roots of T are integrable then T is locally finite, is stated. Finally, a classification theorem for split simple Lie triple systems having all its nonzero roots integrable is given.

  4. Optimal Control Theory on almost-Lie Algebroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jozwikowski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP) to the geometric setting of almost-Lie (AL) algebroids -- objects which generalize Lie algebroids. The result may be understood as a very general reduction scheme for optimal control problems (OCPs). It covers the standard PMP, as well as gives necessary optimality conditions for symmetric OCPs on Lie groups, principal bundles, and Lie groupoids. We do not assume the symmetry of boundary conditions. The ideas are based on a very general concept of homotopy of admissible paths on AL algebroids. Our framework works for OCPs with fixed-end-points and general boundary conditions.

  5. 3-Lie bialgebras (Lb,Cd and (Lb,Ce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Ruipu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebras, and four-dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ are classified. It is proved that there exist three classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie coalgebras with two-dimensional derived algebra which are $(L, C_{c_i}$, $i=1, 2, 3$ (Lemma 3.1, and ten classes of four dimensional $3$-Lie bialgebras of type $(L_b, C_c$ (Theorem 3.2.

  6. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores.

  7. The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2014-09-01

    Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and α-amylase StAmy23, β-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both α-amylase and β-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers.

  8. The unlucky potato: Study of consumer risk perception toward a GM-potato using mental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    The second generation of GMO aims at providing consumers with food that has a clear health benefit such as rice with enhanced nutrient levels or potatoes with a lower level of natural toxin. The new generation with health enhancing attributes is predicted to reduce consumer skepticism toward use...... of GMO in food production, but a new and ongoing study on consumers' risk perception in regard to a GMO potato reveals that other barriers for acceptance of GMO food exist, barriers such as personal eating history....

  9. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    for the north polar layered deposits. BU stands for basal unit, an ice-sand deposit that lies beneath parts of the north polar layered deposits. The Shallow Radar instrument was provided by the Italian Space Agency. Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  10. Classical r-matrices of real low-dimensional Jacobi-Lie bialgebras and their Jacobi-Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei-Aghdam, A.; Sephid, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this research we obtain the classical r-matrices of real two and three dimensional Jacobi-Lie bialgebras. In this way, we classify all non-isomorphic real two and three dimensional coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras and their types (triangular and quasitriangular). Also, we obtain the generalized Sklyanin bracket formula by use of which, we calculate the Jacobi structures on the related Jacobi-Lie groups. Finally, we present a new method for constructing classical integrable systems using co...

  11. On the Correct Use of Statistical Tests: Reply to "Lies, damned lies and statistics (in Geology)"

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Forum in EOS entitled "Lies, damned lies and statistics (in Geology)", Vermeesch (2009) claims that "statistical significant is not the same as geological significant", in other words, statistical tests may be misleading. In complete contradiction, we affirm that statistical tests are always informative. We trace the erroneous claim of Vermeesch (2009) to a mistake in the interpretation of the chi-square test. Furthermore, using the same catalog of 118,415 earthquakes of magnitude 4 or greater and occurring between Friday 1st January 1999 and Thursday, 1 January 2009 (USGS, http://earthquake.usgs.gov), we show that the null hypothesis that "the occurrence of earthquakes does not depend on the day of the week" cannot be rejected (p-value equal to p=0.46), when taking into account the two well-known effects of (i) catalog incompleteness and (ii) aftershock clustering. This corrects the p-value p=4.5 10^{-18} found by P. Vermeesch (2009), whose implementation of the chi-square test assumes that the 1...

  12. Lie Algebroids in Classical Mechanics and Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martínez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We review some recent results on the theory of Lagrangian systems on Lie algebroids. In particular we consider the symplectic and variational formalism and we study reduction. Finally we also consider optimal control systems on Lie algebroids and we show how to reduce Pontryagin maximum principle.

  13. Quantum Lie algebras of type A$_{n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Sudbery, A I

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the quantised enveloping algebra of sl(n) contains a quantum Lie algebra, defined by means of axioms similar to Woronowicz's. This gives rise to Lie algebra-like generators and relations for the locally finite part of the quantised enveloping algebra, and suggests a canonical Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt basis.

  14. Poisson Manifolds, Lie Algebroids, Modular Classes: a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief summary of the main properties of Poisson manifolds and Lie algebroids in general, we survey recent work on the modular classes of Poisson and twisted Poisson manifolds, of Lie algebroids with a Poisson or twisted Poisson structure, and of Poisson-Nijenhuis manifolds. A review of the spinor approach to the modular class concludes the paper.

  15. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  16. Structures of W(2.2 Lie conformal algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lamei

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we study conformal derivations, central extensions and conformal modules for this Lie conformal algebra. Also, we compute the cohomology of this Lie conformal algebra with coefficients in its modules. In particular, we determine its cohomology with trivial coefficients both for the basic and reduced complexes.

  17. Construction of Lie Superalgebras from Triple Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Any simple Lie superalgebras over the complex field can be constructed from some triple systems. Examples of Lie superalgebras $D(2,1;\\alpha)$, G(3) and F(4) are given by utilizing a general construction method based upon $(-1,-1)$ balanced Freudenthal-Kantor triple system.

  18. Lie Symmetry and Hojman Conserved Quantity of Maggi Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chu-le; XIE Jia-fang

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry of Maggi equations is studied. Its determining equation and restriction equation of nonholonomic constraint are given. A Hojman conserved quantity can be deduced directly by using the Lie symmetry. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  19. Lying in Children's Fiction: Morality and the Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The telling of lies is significant in fiction written for children, and is often (though not in all cases) performed by child protagonists. Lying can be examined from at least three perspectives: philosophical, moral and aesthetic. The moral and the aesthetic are the most significant for children's literature. Morality has been subtly dealt with…

  20. Social and Cognitive Correlates of Children's Lying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The relation between children's lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3-8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children's subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their…

  1. THE KILLING FORMS AND DECOMPOSITION THEOREMS OF LIE SUPERTRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhixue; Jia Peipei

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the Killing form of a Lie supertriple system (LSTS) and that of its imbedding Lie superalgebra (LSA) are investigated, and a unique decomposition theorem for a quasiclassical LSTS with trivial center is established by means of the parallel decomposition theorem for a quasiclassical LSA.

  2. The index of geometric operators on Lie Groupoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflaum, M.J.; Posthuma, H.; Tang, X.

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the cohomological index theorem for elliptic elements in the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie groupoid previously proved by the authors. We prove a Thom isomorphism for Lie algebroids which enables us to rewrite the "topological side" of the index theorem. This results in index formu

  3. Superderivations for a Family of Lie Superalgebras of Special Type*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN XIU-MEI; ZOU XU-JUAN; LIU WEN-DE

    2011-01-01

    By means of generators, superderivations are completely determined for a family of Lie superalgebras of special type, the tensor products of the exterior algebras and the finite-dimensional special Lie algebras over a field of characteristic p > 3. In particular, the structure of the outer superderivation algebra is concretely formulated and the dimension of the first cohomology group is given.

  4. Computations with reachable elements in simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    de Graaf, Willem

    2010-01-01

    We report on some computations with reachable elements in simple Lie algebras of exceptional type within the SLA package of GAP4. These computations confirm the classification of such elements by Elashvili and Grelaud. Secondly they answer a question from Panyushev. Thirdly they show in what way a recent result of Yakimova for the Lie algebras of classical type extends to the exceptional types.

  5. Poisson-Lie T-Duality and Bianchi Type Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, M A

    1999-01-01

    All Bianchi bialgebras have been obtained. By introducing a non-degenerate adjoint invariant inner product over these bialgebras the associated Drinfeld doubles have been constructed, then by calculating the coupling matrices for these bialgebras several \\sigma-models with Poisson-Lie symmetry have been obtained. Two simple examples as prototypes of Poisson-Lie dual models have been given.

  6. Intrinsic characteristic classes for a local Lie group

    CERN Document Server

    Abadoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    For a local Lie group M we define odd order cohomology classes. The first class is an obstruction to globalizability of the local Lie group. The third class coincides with Godbillon-Vey class in a particular case. These classes are secondary as they emerge when curvature vanishes.

  7. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  8. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff...: Deborah Simmons, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs,...

  9. Construction and use of a physical map of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, T.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding the growing world population is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st century. Potato, being the fourth crop in the human diet, after maize, wheat and rice, plays an important role in this respect. Like other crops, potato is exposed to a range of potentially yield-reducing factors:

  10. A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding within potato has relied almost entirely on phenotypic selection and little is known of the underlying genetic elements being acted upon. To characterize the effects of this selection on phenotypic and genotypic diversity within cultivated potato, the SolCAP 8300 Infinium SNP chip was utili...

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  12. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of simila...

  13. Whole sales market for fresh potatoes in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. JALONOJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates a conditional mean and conditional variance model for producer prices of fresh potatoes. The results suggest that potato price movements are volatile exhibiting a symmetric and non-stationary process. Prices respond symmetrically to exogenous shocks and the shocks are, thereafter, predicted to prevail in prices to the end of the marketing year. The persistency of the price shocks makes potato price movements unpredictable and, therefore, increases price risks of holding potato inventories. The estimates indicate elastic price response with respect to annual potato yield shocks. A ten percent yield increase is predicted to decrease prices by 20%. The information on inventory levels is included in prices and this information is not increased by surveying the inventory levels. Because of the elastic price response, the largest risk for a farmer is an exceptionally large total yield of potatoes. Information on the aggregate potato yield, which arrives during the growing season, will be quickly incorporated in prices. Therefore, pre-harvest hedging strategies are more efficient than after-harvest hedging strategies in managing potato price risks.

  14. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  15. Neonicotinoids as seed potato treatments to control wireworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiting, H.F.; Ester, A.

    2009-01-01

    A series of field trials were carried out from 2000 to 2003. Neonicotinoid insecticides applied as seed potato treatments at planting were tested to control wireworms in potato crops. Compounds were applied as drench or spray. Neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid at rates of 35, 70, 88, and 175 g

  16. 33 CFR 117.167 - Little Potato Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Potato Slough. 117.167 Section 117.167 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.167 Little Potato Slough. The draw...

  17. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  18. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta.

  19. Resistance to Erwina spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or E . chrysanthemi (Ech). Incidence of blackleg negatively affects the quality of seed potatoes. Disease control relies on phytosanitary

  20. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.