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Sample records for coturnix coturnix japonica

  1. Thermography evaluation of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    João Batista Freire de Souza Jr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine variations in the body surface temperature (TS of quails by infrared thermography. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Biometeorology and Animal Welfare, campus Mossoró/RN, Brazil. Ten adult quails were used, males and females, in a controlled environment. The air temperature (TA was divided into three classes (CT: CT 1 (TA < 18 °C; CT 2 (18  TA < 22 °C CT 3 (TA  22 °C. The cloacal temperature (TC was measured. The TS was measured in three regions (legs, face and feathered region. The analysis of variance for TS revealed a significant effect of the body region, CT and interaction between body region and CT. The region of the face presented TS (33.68 °C higher than the area covered by feathers (24.73 °C and the region of the legs (24.68 °C. The region of legs was the one that suffered the greatest variation in TS. Thus, it is concluded that Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica have a difference in the body surface temperature according to the body region.

  2. Thermography evaluation of japanese quais (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    João Batista Freire de Souza Jr

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine variations in the body surface temperature (TS of quails by infrared thermography. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Biometeorology and Animal Welfare, campus Mossoró/RN, Brazil. Ten adult quails were used, males and females, in a controlled environment. The air temperature (TA was divided into three classes (CT: CT 1 (TA = 22 °C. The cloacal temperature (TC was measured. The TS was measured in three regions (legs, face and feathered region. The analysis of variance for TS revealed a significant effect of the body region, CT and interaction between body region and CT. The region of the face presented TS (33.68 °C higher than the area covered by feathers (24.73 °C and the region of the legs (24.68 °C. The region of legs was the one that suffered the greatest variation in TS. Thus, it is concluded that Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica have a difference in the body surface temperature according to the body region.

  3. Using processed feeds for laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    AE Murakami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the productive performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed different types of processed rations (mash, extruded, or pelleted. One hundred and forty-four 18-w-old quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica were housed in galvanized wire cages and fed a 21.50% CP and 2850 kcal ME/kg basal feed supplied in mash, extruded, or pelleted form. Experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA as a complete randomized design, with three treatments (ration forms and six replicates of eight quails each. When necessary, means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% significance. Quails fed pelleted feed presented higher egg production, feed intake, and egg mass weight as compared to mash- and extruded-diet-fed birds. Under the conditions of the present experiment, it was possible to conclude that the feed physical form did not affect egg quality, except for pelleted diets, which promoted good production performance and high egg mass. However, the use of feed pelleting should be economically analyzed considering the final cost of egg production.

  4. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Ruploh, Tim; Kazek, Agnieszka; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  5. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  6. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

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    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman; Md. Nazmul Hoque; Anup Kumar Talukder; Ziban Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured...

  7. Avaliação de alguns alimentos para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Evaluation of the some feedstuffs for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Claudio Scapinello

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio de digestibilidade foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar os valores energéticos da farinha de carne e ossos, farinha de peixe, farelo de algodão, sorgo e triticale para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Foram utilizadas 288 codornas machos, com 55 dias de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por oito codornas. Utilizou-se a metodologia de coleta total de excretas, sendo que os alimentos substituíram em 30% uma ração-referência à base de milho e farelo de soja. Os coeficientes de metabolização da matéria seca (CMMS e da energia bruta (CMEB do sorgo e do triticale foram superiores (P A digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate energy values of meat-bone meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, sorghum and triticale for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Two hundred and eighty-eight 55day-old male quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six replications, and eight quails per experimental unit. The methodology consisted of total of excretion collection and replacement of 30% reference diet based on corn and soybean meal by feefstuff. The dry matter metabolization coefficients (DMMC and gross energy metabolization coefficients (GEMC of the sorghum and triticale were highest (P < .05. The GEMC (% and corrected aparent metabolizable energy values (kcal/kg resulted in 39.48 and 1,346; 54.59 and 2,425; 27.05 and 1,120; 82.06 and 3,047; 77.69 and 2,908, respectively, for meat-bone meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, sorghum and triticale.

  8. Morfologia testicular e reserva espermática na codorna japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

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    Leonardo Lara e Lanna

    2012-01-01

    Apesar do melhoramento genético e do potencial de crescimento da coturnicultura, a seleção para características reprodutivas recebe baixa prioridade e nenhum parâmetro confiável é utilizado como preditivo da fertilidade em codornas. A localização intra-abdominal dos testículos é o principal entrave para a criação de tal parâmetro. No presente estudo caracterizouse a morfologia testicular e a reserva espermática na codorna japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A biometria e a histomorfometria...

  9. Aspects of the Genotype-Environment Interaction at the Japanese Quail (Coturnix-Coturnix Japonica

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    Teofil Oroian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the problems of genotype-environment interaction at three Coturnix Coturnix Japonica varieties. The environment where the experiment took place is perfect identically for all the activities, to ensure that the observed differences at the followed traits to be strictly attributed to the genotype differences. We analyzed the body weight, eggs weight, eggs large and small diameter, yolk and egg white weight, egg-shell weight. The data were statistically interpreted using the average and dispersal indices estimation, and the significance testing using Student test.

  10. The use of scaning electron microscopy in postvaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium of Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Santin Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of scanning electron microscopy in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica immunized against Newcastle disease. A number of 36 quails were distributed into four groups: T1 fraction three-quarters control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with B1 strain; t4 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. However, the analysis of tracheal fragments by scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, demonstrating intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group.

  11. Adenocarcinoma renal metastático em uma Codorna Japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metastatic renal adenocarcinoma in a Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Uma codorna japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica, fêmea, adulta com 2 anos apresentou parada de postura, emagrecimento, aumento de volume abdominal e morte. Ao exame macroscópico, observou-se ascite, pulmão esquerdo difusamente esbranquiçado, massas esbranquiçadas, de aproximadamente 1,0cm de diâmetro, na região caudal do lobo direito do fígado e na serosa da moela; massas de 0,1 a 0,5cm no mesentério e serosa intestinal; e uma massa de 5,0x2,0cm na fossa do sinsacro, que acometia 90% do parênquima renal e estendia-se ao ovário e oviduto. Na avaliação histopatológica da neoformação renal, observou-se proliferação de células epiteliais formando túbulos, que muitas vezes não apresentavam lúmen, sustentados por um estroma fibrovascular escasso associado à necrose multifocal. As células neoplásicas eram cuboidais, núcleos redondos a ovalados, nucléolos evidentes, citoplasma abundante e eosinofílico, pleomorfismo moderado e poucas figuras mitóticas. Metástases foram observadas de forma difusa no ovário, oviduto e pulmão esquerdo; multifocal na serosa do intestino e focal no fígado e camadas muscular e serosa da moela. Na avaliação imuno-histoquímica, as células tumorais foram positivas para a citoqueratina (clones AE1+AE3 e negativas para a citoqueratina 5/6, o CD10 e a fosfatase alcalina placentária. De acordo com a localização, achados morfológicos e o perfil imuno-histoquímico, conclui-se que o presente relato trata-se de um adenocarcinoma renal metastático.A 2-year-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, female, which stopped egg production presented: weight loss, increased abdominal volume, and death. Macroscopically, it was observed: ascites, whitish left lung, whitish masses measuring 1.0cm in diameter in the caudal right lobe of the liver and in the gizzard serosa; 0.1-0.5cm masses in the mesentery and intestinal serosa; and a 5.0x2.0cm mass in synsacral area that encompassed 90% of the renal

  12. High tannin sorghum in diets of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    P Faquinello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of replacing corn by high tannin sorghum in diets of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica on performance and egg quality. Two hundred and fifty-two quails with 50 weeks of age were evaluated during four periods of 21 days. The treatments consisted of diets containing 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of sorghum, and a control treatment (100% of corn. Diets were formulated so that the levels of energy, protein, amino acids (methionine+cystine and lysine, calcium and phosphorus were similar A completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments, six replicates and seven quails for experimental unit. Evaluated parameters were egg production (%, feed intake, feed: gain ratio (kg/kg and kg/dozen, egg mass (g, egg weight and egg quality (Haugh unit, eggshell percentage, shell thickness and yolk color. The increasing sorghum levels had a negative linear effect (p0.05 in feed intake, egg weight, Haugh unit, eggshell percentage and shell thickness. In conclusion, up to 80% of high tannin sorghum may be used on diets if xanthophyll pigments are added in order to maintain the commercial quality of final products.

  13. Toltrazuril (Baycox) treatment against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Sokół, R; Gesek, M; Raś-Noryńska, M; Michalczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most predominant parasitic disease affecting Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in commercial farms. Coccidiosis as a subclinical infection is difficult to diagnose without parasitological examinations. Oocysts of two Eimeria species, E. bateri and E. tsunodai, were determined in the analysed quail flock. Infected birds were administered Baycox 2.5% at the dose of: group I--7 mg toltrazuril/kg BW per day provided in drinking water (1.5 ml/0.5 1 H2O) that was available 24 h for 2 days, group II--14 mg/kg BW (3 ml/0.5 1 H2O), and group III-- 24.5 mg/kg BW (5 ml/0.5 1 H2O); in groups II and III, the solutions were available 8 h/24 h for 2 days. After the first day of the treatment, the number of excreted oocysts (OPG - oocysts per gram) increased, a steady decrease in oocyst counts began on the second day of Baycox administration and lasted until a three-day period when no oocyst were determined in faecal samples. Regardless of the dose applied, toltrazuril (Baycox) completely eliminated E. bateri coccidia and led to a highly significant reduction in the number of E. tsunodai oocysts. The results suggest that the effectiveness of toltrazuril varies depending on coccidia species and developmental stages of the parasite. From the clinical point of view, the treatment applied significantly reduces the number of coccidia oocysts in commercial flocks of Japanese quails.

  14. Dynamics of crowing development in the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Derégnaucourt, Sébastien; Saar, Sigal; Gahr, Manfred

    2009-06-22

    Species-specific behaviours gradually emerge, via incomplete patterns, to the final complete adult form. A classical example is birdsong, a learned behaviour ideally suited for studying the neural and molecular substrates of vocal learning. Young songbirds gradually transform primitive unstructured vocalizations (subsong, akin to human babbling) into complex, stereotyped sequences of syllables that constitute adult song. In comparison with birdsong, territorial and mating calls of vocal non-learner species are thought to exhibit little change during development. We revisited this issue using the crowing behaviour of domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Crowing activity was continuously recorded in young males maintained in social isolation from the age of three weeks to four months. We observed developmental changes in crow structure, both the temporal and the spectral levels. Speed and trajectories of these developmental changes exhibited an unexpected high inter-individual variability. Mechanisms used by quails to transform sounds during ontogeny resemble those described in oscines during the sensorimotor phase of song learning. Studies on vocal non-learners could shed light on the specificity and evolution of vocal learning.

  15. Profile Triglycerides Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica After Giving Turmeric (Curcuma longa Powder

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    Sukarman Hadi jaya Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the triglyceride profile of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica after being given the parameters of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder; feed intake, profiles of liver triglycerides, profiles of serum triglycerides and profiles of meat triglycerides. This study uses an experimental method with A Completely Randomized Design Pattern. Test animals used were 45 female Japanese quails were divided into 3 groups, namely; P0: quail were not given turmeric powder, P1: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 54 mg/quail/day, P3: quail were given turmeric powder a dose of 108 mg/quail/day. Each group with 5 replications. Each repeat consists of 3 Japanese quails. Provision of treatment every day for 30 days starting from the age of 14 days. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan's test with 95% confidence interval (α = 0.05 level. Analysis of the data used is software Minitab software 16. Results showed that the levels of turmeric powder are given in Japanese quail significant (P˂0.05 on liver triglyceride levels, serum and Japanese quail meat but had no significant effect (P˃0.05 on consumption feed. The results showed that the optimal dose of turmeric powder to lower triglyceride levels of Japanese quail is 108 mg/quail/day as evidenced by the highest decrease in liver triglyceride profiles, profiles of serum triglycerides and triglyceride profiles of Japanese quail meat compared with other treatments.

  16. Effect of early feed restriction on reproductive performance in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Reproductive performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was evaluated following feed restriction (100, 85, and 70% of ad libitum) between 2 to 5 wk of age with three replicates of 12, 2-wk-old chicks per replicate. Body weight, feed conversion, and leucocyte distribution were measured during feed restriction. After experimental feed treatment, BW, age at first egg, egg production, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were evaluated from five replicates of two females and one male per treatment. Feed-restricted female chicks had lower BW from 3 to 5 wk of age, but male weights were depressed only during the most severe restriction at 4 and 5 wk. No treatment differences were observed among BW within a sex from 6 to 13 wk. Body weights at first egg were significantly heavier for females fed 70% ad libitum than for birds on other treatments. Fertility, age at first egg, feed conversion, egg production, and egg weight were unaffected by feed restriction. Although hatchability was unaffected by feed restriction, percentage of late dead and total dead embryos were significantly reduced in eggs from restricted quail. Thirty quail fed 70% of ad libitum control intake had significantly increased egg specific gravity. Feed restriction increased the percentage of heterophils and basophils and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, whereas the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Feed can be restricted to 85 or 70% of ad libitum feed intake from 2 to 5 wk of age without detrimentally affecting reproductive parameters between 6 to 13 wk of age.

  17. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty.

  18. The enantioselective pharmacokinetics metabolism of diniconazole in quail (Coturnix coturnixs japonica).

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    Chen, Jin Hui; Wang, Hui Li; Guo, Bao Yuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jian Zhong

    2013-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diniconazole enantiomers in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Quails were exposed to racemic diniconazole in capsule by oral at dose of 10 mg/kg (body weight). The maximal concentrations observed in blood, heart, liver, and kidney were 3.18, 11.35, 12.32, 15.03 µg/g for S-diniconazole, and 1.13, 3.70, 6.00, 2.60 µg/g for R-diniconazole. The elimination of enantiomers all met the one-compartment model in blood, heart, liver, and kidney well. The elimination half-lives (T1/2) of S-diniconazole were 2.87, 3.85, 5.29, and 4.42 h in blood, heart, liver, and kidney, respectively; the T1/2 of R-diniconazole were 2.44, 3.42, 146.23, and 74.02 h in blood, heart, liver, and kidney, respectively. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) steadily increased from 0.50 to 0.92 in blood samples and 0.91 in heart samples. Meanwhile, the values increased to 0.70 and 0.80 in liver and kidney initially, and then decreased to 0.33 and 0.44 at the end of the experiment. Metabolism was examined as well and it was found that diniconazole was metabolized to 1, 2, 4-triazole, (E)-3-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-yl) acrylaldehyde, (E, S)-(R, S)-4-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-2, 2-dimethyl-5-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-yl) pent-4-ene-1, 3-diol, (E)-4-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-2, 2-dimethyl-5-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-yl) pent-4-enoic acid, and 1, 3-dichlorobenzen in all samples of quail.

  19. Effect of feeding time on the reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

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    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    Several feeding regimens are applied to improve performance of fertile egg production during times of heat stress. During a period of heat stress (34 to 36 degrees C), two feeding periods were used to measure the impact of feeding time on reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix cotunix japonica) between 44 and 60 wk of age. Each feeding time treatment had 25 individually caged male and female pairs. Quail were fed ad libitum between 0600 to 1400 or 1400 to 2200 h daily. Results indicated that feeding between 0600 to 1400 h reduced BW, fertility, hatchability, egg production, and egg specific gravity when compared with the effects of feeding between 1400 to 2200 h. Feeding time had no effect on total embryonic mortality, egg weight, or the period between subsequent ovipositions. The different feeding times affected the distribution curve of oviposition over time. An instrument designed to record oviposition time is described. Results showed that selection of the time of day for application of an 8-h restricted feeding regimen affected BW, fertility, hatchability, egg production, egg specific gravity, and oviposition time in Japanese quail.

  20. Efeito da ingestão de fumonisina B1 no peso corporal e na histopatologia de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Effect of fumonisin B1 on body weight and histopathology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fumonisina B1 (FB1 sobre o peso corpóreo e as vísceras (fígado, rim e coração de codorna poedeira japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica, devido ao escasso dado toxicológico nesta espécie. Quatro grupos, sendo cada um constituído de 32 codornas de linhagem comercial, receberam ração contendo FB1 nas concentrações de 0 (controle, 10, 50 e 250mg kg-1, durante 28 dias. Observou-se uma redução (P0,05, porém as aves do grupo 50 e 250mg kg-1 apresentaram aumento no peso relativo de fígado (PThis research was aimed at evaluating the effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 on body weight and viscera (liver, kidney and heart of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, due to the little toxicological data on this species. Four experimental groups of 32 commercial quails were designed and exposed to ingestion test with feed containing 0 (controls, 10, 50 or 250mg FB1 kg-1 feed, during 28 days. Birds of group 250mg FB1 kg-1 showed lower body weight (P0.05 among treatments. However, the relative weight of liver increased (P<0.05 in quail of groups received 50 and 250mg FB1/kg. Histological changes were observed only in the liver of groups receiving 50 and 250mgFB1 kg-1, which caused moderate biliary duct hyperplasia and multiple foci of hepatic necrosis. The data indicated that AFB1 at levels above 50mg kg-1 in laying Japanese quail.

  1. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

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    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  2. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  3. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  4. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting

  5. The effects of phytosterols on the sexual behavior and reproductive function in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasimi, Mohammad Ibrahim; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). At 15 d of age, 30 male Japanese quails were randomly assigned to 3 groups for the chronic in-vivo experiment. Animals were gavaged daily with single dose of PS suspension (PS dissolved in medium chain triglyceride [MCT]) into the crop sac from 15-100 d of age. Following maturation, a sexual behavior test, semen collection, and test of fertilization ability were performed. Blood was collected by cervical dislocation at 100 day of age for hormones analysis. To observe the direct effects of PS on the testis, interstitial cells of the normal testes were cultured for 24 h. Ovine-LH (O-LH) was used for half of each group to stimulate interstitial cells for testosterone production. The results showed that chronic doses of PS reduced (P sexual behavior by affecting Leydig cell proliferation, and cholesterol trafficking, 17β-HSD expression in the testes of male Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Preparation of biological fish silage and its effect on the performance and meat quality characteristics of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    José Carmen Ramírez Ramírez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to produce fish silage by lactic acid fermentation and evaluate its use in feeding of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. An oven-dried mixture of fish silage and soybean meal (1:1 w/w was used to prepare the diets with different levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30% and evaluate its effect on the performance and meat quality of 160 quails. The inclusion level did not affect the growth and feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield (70.3% and sensory quality of breast meat were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. However, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1n9C, linoleic (C18:2n6C, linolenic (C18:3n3, arachidonic (C20:4n6, cis eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3 and cis docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3 increased in quail breast meat with the inclusion of fish silage:soybean mixture in the diet (p<0.05. Fish silage and its use in quail diets could offer a good alternative for fish waste utilization as feedstuff component for the improvement of fatty acid composition in its breast meat.

  7. Turnover of δ13C replacement of diets with different photosynthetic, cycles eggs in japanese quails eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Guilherme Emygdio Mendes Pimenta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the turnover of 13C by replacing the C3 photosynthetic pathway diet to C4 and C4 to C3 in eggs of japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica using the technique of stable isotopes. Two hundred and sixteen japanese quail, 50 days old, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments in six replications, in an experimental period of 48 days, were used. Prior to 50 days of age, half of quails consumed diet based on C4 plants (corn and the other half based on C3 plants (rice, both containing meat meal and bone meal. There was replacement of those diets during the experimental period,  C3 based diet to C4 and C4 to  C3. A total of six eggs were collected from each treatment per day, according the quails age: 50, 51, 52, 54, 57, 60, 64, 68, 73, 78, 85, 91 and 98 days. To determine the turnover rate, the exponential model of isotopic dilution was employed. The experimental time of 48 days was enough for the total turnover in the eggs, with the incorporation of 99% of the carbon atoms of the new diet. The incorporation speed was slower when replacing diets were from C3 to C4 than C4 to  C3, which can be explained by bromatological differences of the ingredients.

  8. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.

  9. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid in drinking water on reproductive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Mady, M E; Cartwright, A L; Sabri, H M; Mobarak, M S

    2003-07-01

    The impact of acetyl salicylic add (ASA) on reproductive performance during periods of heat stress was studied in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). During a season when daily high temperatures averaged between 34 and 40 degrees C, four treatments each containing four replicates of five males and five females were given 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 g/L ASA in drinking water from 34 to 45 wk of age. At 39 wk of age control quail were lighter than quail fed ASA. Quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA exhibited increased fertility, hatchability, and egg production and decreased late dead and total embryonic mortality. Early dead embryos, pips, chick weight, and egg weight were not different among treatments. The lumen of uterovaginal junction sperm host glands (UVJSHG) from control quail was apparently devoid of spermatozoa, whereas quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA had the greatest apparent accumulation of spermatozoa. Control caudal infundibulum host glands (CPOI) were devoid of spermatozoa in contrast with CPOI from quail receiving ASA. Results show that UVJSHG lumens from quail receiving 1.5 g/L ASA had larger inside diameters than other treatment groups. However, the CPOI inside diameter and the outside diameters of both UVJSHG and CPOI were not affected by ASA. Adding 1.5 g/L ASA to the drinking water of quail under heat stress improved body weight, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, egg production, egg specific gravity, and sperm storage capacity.

  10. Exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura Calcium and phosphorus nutritional requirements of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nunes Martins

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar as exigências nutricionais de cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura, utilizaram-se 512 codornas, em esquema fatorial 4x4 (níveis de P (disponível - 0,27%, 0,32%, 0,37% e 0,42% e níveis de Ca-2,5%, 3,0%, 3,5% e 4,0%, com quatro repetições e oito codornas por unidade experimental. Houve interação linear (p To determine calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P nutritional requirements, 512 laying Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized 4x4 factorial design (P levels available – 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.37%, 0.42%, and CA levels – 2.5%, 3.0%, 3.5%, 4.0%, with four replicates and eight quails per experimental unit. A linear interaction (p < 0.05 was observed between P and Ca levels for production percentage; the P level that maximized the interaction was 0.36% and the Ca level was 3.06%. Ca levels decreased linearly (p < 0.01 feed intake and eggs weight, but increased linearly the egg shell percentage (p < 0.01 and tibia strength (p < 0.05. P levels decreased linearly (p < 0.05 feed conversion (kg/dz and caused a quadratic effect (p < 0.05 on feed intake, feed conversion (kg/kg, shell percentage and P percentage in bone; the optimum levels were, respectively, 0.36%, 0.36%, 0.37% and 0.35%. It may be concluded that the laying Japanese guail nutritional requirements are 2.5%Ca and 0.36% P.

  11. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T1 , T2 and T3, respectively), and diet T1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p foam variables, biochemical composition of foam, semen characteristics and fertility in male Japanese quail.

  12. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum) pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Bruno P.; Helcio R. Borba; Hataânderson Luiz C. dos Santos; Lima,Viviane M.; Walter Flausino; Teixeira-Filho,Walter L.; Lopes,Carlos Wilson G.

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails...

  13. Study on the effect of dry extract of Tribulus terrestris on the forage consumption rate in japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Dimo PENKOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of Vemo Herb® additive on the forage consumption rate in Japanese quail (Pharaoh breed has been conducted. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks with 52 female and 16 male sexually matured Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica distributed in four groups: control group (without additive, first experimental group - 4 mg*kg-1 of live weight for 10 weeks; second experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the first five weeks of the study (after that the product was no more supplemented and third experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the whole study period. It was observed, a tendency of decreasing of the forage consumption rate for the whole experimental period (no statistical significance for all the experimental groups compared to the control group, but some of the weekly differences are significant.

  14. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  15. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  16. Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Shan, Zhengjun; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Li, Pengfu; Lu, Shan

    2017-05-01

    4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a major degradation product of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), is widespread in environment. In this study, the effects of long-term 4-NP exposure in drinking water on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were investigated. A total of 45 quails were evenly divided into 15 groups and administrated with various doses (0.1 μg L(-1), 1.0 μg L(-1), 10 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1), which reflected the environmental concentrations of 4-NP) of 4-NP in drinking water. The results showed that 4-NP in drinking water had no effect on quails' food intake, but significantly decreased the quails' body weights (P water impaired the reproductive ability of Japanese quails, and led to pathological lesions in the male gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Another way to win: Learning and intrasexual competition in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bibiana; Suárez, Laura; Gutiérrez, Germán

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were designed to test whether learning affects the opportunity to obtain cloacal contact with female sexual partners during male-male contests in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the relationship between competitive status and efficiency of access to cloacal contact. Six groups of 3 males each were observed for 40 days. Observed males established stable dominance relationships in which winner status positively correlated with copulatory efficiency. In Experiment 2, the effect of learning on cloacal contact access of the loser male was evaluated. The loser male of each group was trained during 10 consecutive days and then tested together with untrained competitors during 3 days. In the test trials, the conditioned loser male copulated with the female before the other competitors of his group. These results suggest a potential adaptive value of learning in the context of intrasexual competition for mating access. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. RELAÇÃO METIONINA E COLINA DIETÉTICA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO DE CODORNAS JAPONESAS (Coturnix coturnix japonica EM POSTURA

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    Solange de Faria Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between levels of methionine and choline on the performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica at the production stage, using 432 birds at 65 days of age and weighing 155g, in a completely randomized design in 4x2 (methionine x choline factorial arrangement with six replicates and nine birds per unit. The levels of choline and methionine were 0, 200, 400 and 600 ppm and 0.65 and 0.75%, respectively. We analyzed the following variables: egg production (% / hen / day, egg weight (g, egg mass (g egg / hen/ day, feed conversion (g / g and food intake (g / d. We observed a significant interaction for egg production (P ≤ 0.01 and egg mass (P ≤ 0.05 with linear effect for 0.65% methionine and inclusion of increasing levels of choline. There was a quadratic effect of choline levels on feed intake, with 0.65% methionine. The use of choline in diets of quail in production only effects bird performance when 0.65% methionine level is used. Supplementation with choline causes an increase in average egg weight regardless of the level of dietary methionine supplementation.

  19. Effect of catechins on fattening performance, meat quality, some antioxidant and blood parameters and fattening costs in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K; Şentürk, M; Guclu, B K; Sariözkan, S; Eren, M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Quail were fed with a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed on the basal diet with 1.25 or 2.50 g/kg catechin supplementation for 30 d. Fattening performance and meat quality of the quail were estimated. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and some serum biochemical parameters were measured. The results showed that catechin supplementation did not affect live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, carcass dressing or the nutrient composition of breast and thigh meats. The water holding capacity (WHC) of breast meat was increased in the 2.50 g/kg catechin treatment. Catechin supplementation increased the serum TAS, but decreased plasma MDA and liver MDA concentration as well as serum glucose and total cholesterol levels. Serum triglyceride and total protein levels were not affected by catechin supplementation. In conclusion, catechins have effective antioxidant hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic properties, as well as having the potential to increase meat quality in fattening quail. On the other hand, catechin supplementation did not have any negative effect on the fattening performance, meat nutrient composition and fattening costs in fattening quail.

  20. Efek suplementasi minyak ikan lemuru dan L-karnitin dalam rasum komersial terhadap produksi dan kualitas telur burung puyuh (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    ALIK DWI FEBRIANTO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Febrianto AD, Puspitasari R, Sudibya, Hanifa A. 2015. Effect of fish oil supplementation lemuru and L-carnitine in commercial rasum the quail egg production (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Bioteknologi 12: 1-7. This study aims to determine the effect supplementation of lemuru fish oil of L-carnitine and the production and quality of quail eggs. Animals used in this study were 240 female quails aged 45 weeks. Rations used in the form of commercial rations, lemuru fish oil and L-carnitine. The experimental study was conducted using completely randomized design (CRD. The treatments provided include commercial ration without lemuru fish oil and L-carnitine (P0, whereas commercial ration and supplemented with lemuru fish oil level of 1%, 2 %, 3 %, and 4 % containing 0.002 % L-carnitine is referred to as P1, P2, P3, and P4. The results showed that supplementation lemuru fish oil up to 4 % of L-carnitine containing 0.002 % can improve quail egg yolk color but can not fix the variable production and other egg quality. Supplementation lemuru fish oil 1 % and 2 % on commercial ration containing L-carnitine same of 0.002 % can fix quail feed conversion.

  1. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

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    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  2. Nesfatin-1: Localization and expression in avian gonads and its modulation by temporal phase relation of neural oscillations in female Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-12-01

    In a search for new appetite-controlling signals, the peptide nesfatin-1, expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of rodents and humans has been reported to regulate feeding by reducing food intake. Recently it has also been reported that nesfatin-1 might be involved in regulating the reproductive axis in fishes and mammals, but its expression and physiological role if any, is not yet known in birds. In the present study, localization and expression of nesfatin-1 was observed in the testis, ovary and shell gland of poultry species Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Our earlier studies have reported that serotonin precursor 5-HTP and dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8h apart induces gonadal suppression, when given 12h apart leads to gonadal stimulation while other relationships were found ineffective. In the present study intense ir-nesfatin-1 was observed in the regressed ovary (stromal cells) and shell gland (endometrium) of 8-h Japanese quail while in 12-h quail, weak and scarce immunostaining for nesfatin-1 was detected in the hyperactive ovary and shell gland compared to control. These findings led us to conclude that, an inverse relationship exists between ovarian activity (both in the control and simulated conditions) and nesfatin-1 expression. Present avian study, first of its kind, also suggests the role of nesfatin-1 in reproductive regulation possibly via appetite control and energy balance in female Japanese quail and needs to be investigated further in relation to food intake.

  3. Intestinal cestodes of poultry Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia Infundibulum infection in a commercial Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica farm in Apomu, Osun State, Nigeria

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    O.W. Gamra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raillietina echinobothrida and Choanotaenia infundibulum are important species of cosmopolitan cestodes of poultry occurring in the small intestine and transmitted by ants, houseflies and beetles. Ten moribund and fifteen carcasses of Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica with heavy intestinal tapeworm infection were brought to the post-mortem section of the department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. The farmer reported that there was sporadic mortality (11.2% on his farm as he has lost almost 112 birds of a total flock size of 1000 capacity within the space of two weeks as an average of 8 mortalities were recorded per day prior to the time of presentation. Postmortem examination revealed severe emaciation of the breast muscles and protrusion of the keel bone, as intestinal lumen of all the carcasses was severely filled with whitish worms measuring about 15cm-25cm in length as their anterior ends were firmly attached to the intestinal mucosal and dark red exudates (digested blood was seen. Histopathology reveals transverse section of worms associated with sloughing off, necrosis and degeneration of intestinal villi. The worms were confirmed to be Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida. This is the first recorded case of Choanotaenia infundibulum and Raillietina echinobothrida infection in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in Nigeria. This report may be an alert of the possibility of on-going pathogenicity of these poultry cestodes in quails in Nigeria. We strongly encourage quail farmers to frequently change the birds' bedding and always keep it dry which can help to avoid infections because it shortens the survival of the gravid segments and the eggs. Also farmers should put up measures to avoid contamination of feed with ants, houseflies and beetles, and also prevent access of these intermediate hosts to birds as chemical control of flies, ants and termites in poultry houses is essential for the

  4. Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica): an experimental study revealing pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Narayan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-06-01

    Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) is a recognized disease of chickens and Japanese Quails, which is of high economic importance due to its drastic negative effects on egg production in laying birds. The aim of the present study was to better understand the EDS-76 viral disease process in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), since very limited studies have been conducted in this species of birds. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted with infection of EDS-76 virus in laying Japanese quails to reveal pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses of this virus in these birds. By 7, 9 and 13-15 Days Post Infection (DPI), drop as well as aberrant egg production and lower mean egg quality were observed compared to control birds. Significant histopathological changes were observed in genitalia and spleen. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) titres rose rapidly by 2nd week when it became maximum; thereafter declined and maintained at low levels up to 10 week post infection. The mean total protein values in infected quail gradually increased to 4.10±0.05/100 mL without any change in mean albumen value at 12 DPI. In conclusion, the course of the EDS-76 is significant not only in chickens but also in quails even though it occurs occasionally in quails. Explorative pathological, blood biochemical and immunological studies are suggested during EDS-76 viral disease course in quails. This would aid in formulating effective disease prevention and control measures for this economically important disease of poultry.

  5. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Kelsey Caetano-Anolles

    Full Text Available Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight. Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2, and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2. Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP, as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87 in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1 shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  6. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

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    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  8. Extinction of food-reinforced instrumental behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

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    Buriticá, Jonathan; Ortega, Leonardo A; Papini, Mauricio R; Gutiérrez, Germán

    2013-02-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were reinforced with food for traversing a runway for either 18 or 36 trials, administered at a rate of 1 trial per day. Then, all animals received 18 extinction trials. The latency to run from the start box to the goal box was the dependent variable. Extinction was significantly slower in animals that had received 50% partial reinforcement during acquisition, whether relative to a group matched in terms of acquisition trials (36 trials, twice the number of reinforced trials) or relative to a group matched in terms of reinforcements (18 trials). The latter group was also matched in terms of the temporal distribution of acquisition trials with the partial reinforcement group, being trained only on days when the partial group was scheduled to receive a reinforced trial. Thus, there was evidence of a spaced-trial partial reinforcement extinction effect. A comparison of groups receiving large versus small reward magnitudes yielded no evidence of the spaced-trial magnitude of reinforcement extinction effect, even though the large-reward group consumed approximately 3 times more food than the small-reward group. Moreover, a comparison of groups that received 36 versus 18 acquisition trials produced no evidence of the spaced-trial overtraining extinction effect, even though acquisition latencies were significantly lower for the group that received 36 acquisition trials. These results are discussed in relation to comparative research on learning phenomena involving incentive downshift manipulations.

  9. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  10. Perfil hematológico de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica sob estresse térmico Blood profile of japanese quail (Coturnix japonica under thermal stress

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    Gabriela do Amaral da Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na coturnicultura, os limites das variáveis climáticas, como temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, interferem no desempenho produtivo e bem estar das aves. A temperatura de conforto térmico para codornas está entre 18 e 22°C, sendo que o desconforto térmico pode causar estresse, alterando heterófilos e linfócitos circulantes e a relação heterófilo/linfócito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer os níveis de estresse em codornas durante os ciclos de produção com diferentes temperaturas, por meio das alterações no leucograma e da relação heterófilo-linfócito. O presente estudo foi realizado durante quatro ciclos de produção de 200 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica com duração de 22 dias cada (denominados de C1, C2, C3 e C4. As temperaturas médias foram de: 22,4°C (C1; 25,5°C (C2; 23,3°C (C3 e 21,5°C (C4. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 80 codornas em cada um dos ciclos para determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos e dos valores da relação heterófilo-linfócito (H/L. As médias das relações heterófilo/linfócito foram 1,695 em C1; 2,424 em C2; 1,8 em C3 e 1,29 em C4. Comparando-se as médias das relações heterófilo/linfócito entre os quatro ciclos, tem-se que o valor de p foi inferior a 0,0001, exceto entre a primeira e a terceira coleta, cujo valor de p foi não significativo. A heterofilia e linfopenia verificadas e o aumento da relação heterófilo/linfócito nos ciclos, coincidindo com o aumento da temperatura, além do limite de conforto térmico para estas aves, principalmente em C2, é uma evidência de que esses animais foram submetidos a estresse térmico e que as codornas são aves extremamente suscetíveis a variações climáticas.In quail raising the limits of climatic variables such as temperature and relative humidity, affect the performance and welfare of these birds. The thermal comfort temperature for quails is between 18 and 22oC and the discomfort can cause stress by

  11. Levamisole Enhances Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Reduces Shedding of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Tahoora Shomali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Regarding the role of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in reassortment and spreading of avian influenza (AI viruses and inadequate protection of vaccination in this species, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of levamisole as an immunomodulatory agent on cell-mediated immunity (CMI, antibody responses and shedding of H9N2 AI virus in experimentally infected quails. Approach: On day 20 of age, 100 quails randomly allocated into 4 equal groups. Birds in groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with virus where group 1 kept as control. Groups 3 and 4 orally received 15 mg kg-1 levamisole for three consecutive days just before virus inoculation which was repeated 10 days post inoculation (PI only in group 4. Antibody titers and CMI of all birds were assayed by HI and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH test respectively and virus detection in fecal and tracheal samples performed by RT-PCR method. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Levamisole in both regimens had no appreciable effect on antibody titers (p>0.05 while repeated regimen resulted in higher CMI response than group 2 at 48 and 72 h post DTH test (p = 0.011 and p = 0.031 respectively. Total fecal samples positive for virus from birds in group 3 and 4 were 34.4 and 40% lower than group 2 respectively. For trachea, the positive samples were 33.3% (group 3 and 46.7% (group 4 lower than group 2. Moreover; fecal and tracheal samples from levamisole treated birds (especially from group 4 became void of virus earlier than group 2. Conclusion/Recommendations: Levamisole administration in a repeated regimen enhances CMI response against H9N2 AI virus and reduces virus shedding in quails. This may pave the road for further investigations on potential positive effects of this agent on prevention and management of H9N2 AI infections in quail industry.

  12. Effects of Cottonseed Meal on Hematological, Biochemical and Behavioral Alterations in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

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    M. Moazam Jalees, M. Zargham Khan*, M. Kashif Saleemi and Ahrar Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find toxico-pathological effects of cottonseed meal (CSM in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica. Male birds (n=48 were equally divided into four groups (A to D. Three isonitric and isocaloric experimental feeds were formulated by replacing soybean meal with three levels of CSM i.e., 13, 27 and 41%. The respective feed was offered to the birds ad libitum for the duration of experiment (42 days. Clinical signs, behavioral alterations, feed consumption, body weight, absolute and relative organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters along with gross and histopathological lesions were studied. In group B and C, birds were temporarily depressed but later on became active. In group D, birds remained dull and depressed and 66.7% mortality was recorded. Body weight, absolute and relative organ weight was non-significantly different in treatment groups compared with control. Feed intake at week 1 was significantly low in group D while during remaining experiment; it differed non-significantly in all the treatment groups compared with control. Testicular volume at day 21 was significantly (P<0.05 low in group D. Significantly low serum total proteins and albumin in groups B and C and hematocrit values in all the groups and hemoglobin concentration in group D were recorded at day 42 of experiment. It was concluded that CSM 13% level did not have any deleterious effect on the feed conversion and body weight but the reproductive performance of the male Japanese quail was affected.

  13. Influence of 5-HT1A agonist on the feeding behavior of Coturnix japonica (Galliformes: Aves

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    L. C. Reis

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A stimulation on the feeding behavior of quails (Coturnix japonica. The administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 to 5.0 mg/Kg dose-dependently inhibited the food intake in normally fed quails. Greater inhibition was attained with 5.0 mg/kg (0.93 ± 0.21 g vs. 5.83 ± 0.25 g, P < 0.05, 2 h after food offer. A comparable response was obtained from previously fasted quails. At end of 2 h, a higher dose of 8-OH-DPAT induced more intense hypophagy (1.59 ± 0.41 g vs. 6.85 ± 1.04 g, P < 0.0001. Previous treatment with the antagonist 5-HT1A/beta-adrenergic, propranolol, failed to block the inhibitory action of 8-OH-DPAT, but instead, intensified it (controls, 5.22 ± 1.09 g; 8-OH-DPAT, 1.41 ± 0.19 g; propranolol + 8-OH-DPAT, 0.44 ± 0.25 g, P < 0.01, for all comparisons. The administration of an isolated higher dose of propranolol induced a hypophagic action (controls, 4.5 ± 0.8 g vs. propranolol, 2.0 ± 0.2 g, P < 0.01. Current outcomes suggest a possible role of 5-HT1A receptor on the feeding behavior of quails, as opposed to mammals. On the other hand, the intensified hypophagy induced by previous administration of propranolol raises the hypothesis of a beta-adrenergic excitatory mechanism that controls the feeding behavior of quails.

  14. Nicotine induces a conditioned place preference in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

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    Bolin, B Levi; Cornett, Heather L; Barnes, Amanda F; Gill, Karin E; Akins, Chana K

    2012-10-10

    Visual stimuli may play an important role in the development and maintenance of addiction in humans. Research with a visually-oriented animal model such as Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) may provide insight into how visual cues contribute to the addiction process. The aim of the current study was to investigate the rewarding properties of nicotine in male Japanese quail using a biased conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Adult male quail (N=30) were allowed to freely explore the entire CPP apparatus during a place preference pre-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. During nicotine conditioning sessions, quail were administered nicotine (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mg/kg) or saline and were then confined to their initially least preferred chamber. On alternating days, all quail received saline and were confined to their initially preferred chamber. Locomotor activity was assessed in both chambers. The conditioning chambers had yellow or green walls to enhance the visual salience of each context. Following 8 conditioning sessions (4 nicotine; 4 saline), quail were allowed to explore the entire apparatus during a CPP post-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. The results indicated that quail treated with 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg nicotine significantly increased the amount of time they spent in the nicotine-paired chamber compared to saline controls, suggesting that nicotine produced a CPP. Furthermore, quail treated with 0.5mg/kg nicotine showed a significant increase in locomotor activity with repeated treatments. The current findings suggest that nicotine may have a rewarding effect in quail and may tentatively suggest that the neuropharmacological mechanisms that mediate CPP for nicotine are conserved in birds.

  15. Discovery and functional characterization of leptin and its receptors in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an important endocrine regulation factor of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals; however, the existence of a poultry leptin gene (LEP) is still debated. Here, for the first time, we report the cloning of a partial exon 3 sequence of LEP (qLEP) and four different leptin receptor splicing variants, including a long receptor (qLEPRl) and three soluble receptors (qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The qLEP gene had high GC content (64%), which is similar to other reported avian leptin genes. The encoded qLEP protein possessed the conserved pair of cysteine residues that are required to form a lasso knot for full biological activity, but shared relatively low identities with LEPs of other vertebrates. The translated qLEPRl protein contained 1143 amino acids and shared high amino acid sequence identity with a chicken homolog (89% identity). qLEPRl also contained all the motifs, domains, and basic tyrosine residues that are conserved in the LEPRl proteins of other vertebrates. qRT-PCR analysis showed that LEP and the four LEPR variants were expressed extensively in all tissues examined; the expression levels of LEP were relatively high in hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, while the expression levels of the LEPRs were highest in the pituitary. Compared with the expression levels of juvenile qLEP and total qLEPR (including all LEPR variants), the expression levels of mature qLEP and total qLEPR were up-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and down-regulated in the ovary. The expressions of LEP/LEPR increased when fasting and decreased when refeeding in the brain and peripheral tissues of juvenile quail, which suggested that the LEP/LEPR system modulated food intake and energy expenditure, although, unlike in mammals, LEP may actually act to inhibit food intake during fasting, at least in juvenile quail. The results indicate that qLEP and qLEPR have unique expression patterns and that the encoded

  16. Jerarquías sociales y aprendizaje: el papel del condicionamiento pavloviano en la competencia intra sexual en machos de Codorniz japonesa Coturnix Japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Loaiza, Bibiana Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Los dos experimentos que componen este estudio fueron desarrollados con el propósito de evaluar la existencia de un valor adaptativo en el condicionamiento pavloviano en el contexto del establecimiento de relaciones ganador-perdedor asociadas a la competencia por una pareja reproductiva en machos de codorniz japonesa (Coturnix japonica). Fueron tomados dos tipos de medidas, conductuales y moleculares (paternidades). En el experimento 1, se observaron durante 40 días grupos de tres machos acop...

  17. Hybridization between the common quail (Coturnix coturnix) and farm-reared quails: state of the art of a conservation problem

    OpenAIRE

    Puigcerver, M.; I. Sanchez-Donoso; Vilà, C.; Sardà-Palomera, F.; Morales-Rodríguez, P.A.; Caballero de la Calle, J.R.; J.D. Rodríguez-Teijeiro

    2013-01-01

    La hibridación entre especies es un fenómeno ampliamente extendido que puede tener consecuencias en la conservación de la biodiversidad. En el presente artículo se hace una revisión del problema de conservación derivado de la suelta de codornices de granja en poblaciones silvestres de codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix). Estas codornices de granja han resultado ser híbridos de codorniz común y codorniz japonesa (Coturnix japonica). Si no existen mecanismos de aislamiento reproductor, estas sue...

  18. Assessing paternity in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica using microsatellite markers - inferences for its mating system and reproductive success

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    ML Gomes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were analyzed in Japanese quails, Coturnix japonica, using different methodologies (PAGE and automated genotyping, in order to evaluate their use in paternity testing. Ten animal triplets composed by a female and two males were used to mate and generate an offspring. Paternity was determined in five-day-old embryos, and the data generated by fluorescent labeled and tailored primers in PCR and further automated genotyping were robust. Three microsatellite markers were polymorphic (Na = 5-8, H E = 0.75 and no loci were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or showed any evidence of linkage disequilibrium (p > 0.05. A slight heterozygote deficiency and some incompatibilities between the female known parent and its offspring that involved homozygous genotypes were observed at GUJ0001 locus and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Although a reduced set of microsatellite primers were applied, it was possible to determine the paternity of 96.87% of the embryos, using combined data of three loci. The approach was useful for parentage inferring in a captive population of C. japonica and the results evidenced a potential polyandric mating system in the species, in which no advantage mechanism of last-male sperm precedence seems to occur.

  19. Anatomical Atlas of the Quail's Ear (Coturnix coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsmann, A; Stoffel, M H; Burkhart, M; Hatt, J-M

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to enhance the anatomical knowledge of the ear of the adult quail (Coturnix coturnix) through the creation of a scaled 3D model utilizing data from micro-CT images. In addition, 17 annotated histological sections of the quail's ear are aligned to their 3D position in the model. The resulting anatomical atlas provides an intuitive insight into the 3D anatomy and can be used for medical education. The model also allows measuring anatomical structures and can thus serve as reference for the quail's auricular anatomy and as a basis to evaluate clinical diagnostic imaging results. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from Phasianus colchicus, Meleagris gallopavo, and Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Won; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Seo, Hee Won; Cho, Byung Wook; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2010-08-15

    To date, immunoglobulin (Ig) genes have only been fully characterized in a small number of aves, which pose a major obstacle to understanding Ig evolution. Thus, we cloned the cDNAs of three immunoglobulin classes, IgA, IgM, and IgY, from Phasianus colchicus, Coturnix japonica, and Meleagris gallopavo. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that the highest degree of sequence homology in all Ig classes was observed between pheasant and turkey whereas the degree of homology between the galliforms and non-galliforms was relatively low compared to that among the galliforms. When the constant region domains of the four human Ig classes were compared with the corresponding regions in aves, the average percent homology between human CH2 and avian CH3, and between human CH3 and avian CH4, was greater than between identical domains in IgA and IgY, which are in partial agreement with the hypothesis that the avian CH2 domain evolved to form the mammalian hinge via domain condensation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the galliform Ig heavy chain constant regions were divided into quail and the common ancestor of chicken, turkey, and pheasant, and that chicken was separated from turkey and pheasant, which were grouped together. These results add to our knowledge of galliform Igs and the diversification of these genes.

  1. Plasma disposition and tissue residue of Moxifloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudah, A; Hasabelnaby, S

    2014-01-01

    The disposition kinetics and the plasma availability of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration at 5 mg/kg body weight. Tissue residue profiles (liver, kidney, lung and muscle) and plasma were also studied after multiple intramuscular and oral administrations of 5 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Following intravenous injection, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/ml and were obtained at 1.40 and 1.87 h (Tmax), post administration, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities following intramuscular and oral administration, respectively, of moxifloxacin were 92.48 and 87.94%. 6. Tissue concentrations following i.m. and p.o. administration were highest in liver and kidney, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lung and muscle. No moxifloxacin residues were detected in tissues and plasma after 120 h after i.m. or oral administration.

  2. Efeito da temperatura de estocagem e do tipo de embalagem sobre a qualidade interna de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica Effect of storage temperature and type of package on the internal quality of eggs from japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de temperatura de estocagem e tipo de embalagem, na qualidade interna de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, Temminck & Schlegel, 1849, no 5º, 10º, 15º e 20º dias experimentais. Utilizaram-se 192 ovos de codornas japonesas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com vinte e quatro tratamentos e oito repetições de um ovo por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de duas temperaturas de estocagem (ambiente e sob refrigeração versus três tipos de embalagem (papel, isopor e plástico, casualizada nas parcelas, versus quatro tempos (5º, 10º, 15º e 20º dias de estocagem, alocados nas subparcelas. As variáveis estudadas foram perda de peso (PP, em porcentagem, altura de albume (AA, em milímetros, e unidade Haugh (UH. Com o aumento do tempo de estocagem, houve redução da altura de albume e da unidade Haugh e aumento da perda de peso de ovos de codornas japonesas, armazenados sob temperatura ambiente. No decorrer do período de estocagem, os valores médios de altura de albume e unidade Haugh de ovos de codornas japonesas, estocados sob refrigeração foram maiores do que as respectivas médias de altura de albume e unidade Haugh de ovos estocados sob temperatura ambiente. O uso da embalagem de isopor proporcionou menor perda de peso dos ovos do que o uso das embalagens de papel e de plástico, independente do tempo e da temperatura de estocagem.The effect of storage temperature and kind of package on the internal quality of eggs from japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th experimental days were evaluated. One hundred and ninety two eggs from japanese quails were used in a completely randomized outline and splitplot scheme, with twenty four treatments and eight replicates of one egg per experimental unit. The treatments were consisted from the combination of two

  3. Complete sequence of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mitochondrial genome and its genetic relationship with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Hayashi, T; Tsudzuki, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2001-12-01

    The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; JQ) is one of the domesticated fowl species of Japan. To provide DNA sequence information for examination of its phylogenetic position in the order Galliformes, the complete sequence of the JQ mitochondria was determined. Sequence analysis revealed that the JQ mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA of 16 697 basepairs (bp), which is smaller than the chicken mitochondrial DNA of 16 775 bp, but the genomic structure of JQ mitochondria was the same as that of the chicken. The sequence homologies of all mitochondrial genes including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), between Japanese quail and chicken ranged from 78.0 to 89.9%. Because the sequences of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes had been reported in five species [Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant: RP), Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken: CH), Perdix perdix (grey partridge: GP), Bambusicola thoracia (Chinese bamboo partridge: CP), and Aythya americana (redhead: RH)], the concatenated nucleotide sequences (2184 bp) and amino acid sequences of these two genes were used in a phylogenetic analysis of JQ against these five species using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. Using the first and second bases of the codons, and the third base of the codons indicated a phylogenic tree of [RH, (RP, GP), (JQ, (CH, CP))]. A phylogenic tree of [RH, JQ, (RP, GP), (CH, CP)] was determined using amino acid sequences. Because the local bootstrap values for the JQ branch in these trees are not high, additional sequence is necessary for construction of a reliable tree.

  4. Expression of Prostaglandin-Synthesizing Enzymes (Cyclooxygenase 1, Cyclooxygenase 2) in the Ovary of the Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodler, D; Sinowatz, F

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase is known to be the ratelimiting enzyme in the production of prostaglandins. So far, in different bird species there have been found two isoforms of cyclooxygenases (COX), cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). These isoforms along with prostaglandins are regarded to possess a determining influence on the success in female reproduction. Only in a few bird species the expression sites of cyclooxygenases have been investigated. In this study we report on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the ovary of the quail (Coturnix japonica) using PCR, immunohistochemistry and non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a distinct signal for COX-1 and COX-2 could be shown in small and large follicles of quail ovary. Antibodies to COX-1 distinctly labelled smooth muscle cells of the stroma, whereas COX-2 showed marked immunostaining in the thecal glands and the ovarian surface epithelium. In the same location, a signal of the corresponding mRNAs of COX-1 and COX-2 was found using in situ hybridization. This expression pattern in the quail is therefore completely different from the localization of COX-1 and COX-2 in the hen and ostrich, which suggests different functions of the cyclooxygenases in this small galliform avian species. According to our results, in quails COX-2 is involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins in the ovary's interstitial glands, which until now have been considered mainly as steroid-secreting cells. COX-1, which is expressed in the smooth muscles of the stroma, possibly plays a role in ovulation.

  5. Comparative cytogenomics of poultry: mapping of single gene and repeat loci in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species.

  6. Effect of tryptophan suplementation in quails (Coturnix coturnix japónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Betancourt López

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and productive parameters of 288 quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica were studied in a commercial farm. They were supplemented with tryptophan as a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Levels of 0 (T1, 1,25 mg/day (T2 and 2,5 mg/day (T3. The control group showed a higher number of birds (P<0,05 with an aggressive position before an external stimulus. This study proves that tryphtophan decreases aggression and stabilizes social behaviour. Similarly, the number of birds with moulted backs was higher in the witness group. During the evaluation period a higher egg weight was observed along with improved food conversion and a higher weight gain in the groups supplemented with tryptophan clearly showing the positive effect of tryptophan.

  7. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  8. Características sensoriais de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica temminck e schlegel, 1849 suplementadas com pigmentantes sintéticos e selenometionina Sensorial characteristics of japanese quail eggs (Coturnix japonica supplemented with synthetic pigments and selenomethionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A substituição do milho pelo sorgo promove redução na pigmentação da gema dos ovos, sendo necessária a inclusão de fontes exógenas de pigmentantes. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar às características sensoriais dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 alimentadas com rações formuladas com sorgo, em substituição total ao milho, com a inclusão de pigmentantes sintéticos amarelo (apocaroteno 10% e vermelho (cantaxantina 10% e selenometionina. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: ração referência; T2: ração com sorgo (RS; T3: RS+apo-éster; T4: RS+apo-éster+cantaxantina e T5: RS+apo-éster+cantaxantina+selenometionina. Utilizaram-se 30 provadores não-treinados para avaliação quanto ao sabor do ovo e cor da gema, analisados pelo Teste de Comparação Pareada -Grau de diferença com 0,05 de probabilidade. Os dados ao serem analisados, utilizando a Tabela de Número Mínimo de Respostas Coincidentes, ao nível de 5% de significância, indicaram que os provadores detectaram diferença na intensidade de sabor e cor entre a amostra padrão e os tratamentos. O grau de diferença para o atributo sabor foi de intensidade leve entre a amostra padrão e os tratamentos T2, T4 e T5. Para o atributo cor, o grau de diferença foi considerado de intensidade leve a grande entre a amostra padrão e a dos tratamentos. Pode-se utilizar os pigmentantes sintéticos apoéster e cantaxantina associados com selenometionina em rações a base de sorgo para codornas japonesas.Synthetic pigments from external sources are supplemented in sorghum replacement diets in the substitution for the corn diet of Japanese quails, in order to compensate the decrease in egg yolk color. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the following synthetic pigments: yellow (apo-ester, red (canthaxanthin, and selenomethionine on sensorial characteristics of eggs laid by Japanese quails fed ration

  9. Seasonal variation in the diet of common quail Coturnix coturnix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-06-03

    Jun 3, 1996 ... breeding (October-November), when insect consumption increased. Overall ... zation of this population is virtually non-existent (Little. 1993). ... nated by invertebrates. No such data ..... management option, if farmers aim to encourage quail popu- lations. ... Biology of the Quail (Coturnix coturnix. Linnaeus ...

  10. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora; José-Rogelio Orozco-Hernández; Idalia de Jesús Ruíz-García; Cristino García de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old) Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i) control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii) 2.0% (w/w), iii) 4.0%; and iv) 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05). The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g) and varied...

  11. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  12. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  13. Identification of the amino acid residues involved in human IgG transport into egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hae-Duck; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko; Murai, Atsushi

    2010-04-01

    In avian species, maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is selectively incorporated into the yolks of maturing oocytes, although the relevance of receptor-mediated uptake is unclear. When administered to birds, several mammalian Igs, including human IgG (hIgG), are also incorporated into the yolks. In the current study, to gain insight into selective Ig transport into yolks, we intended to identify the amino acid residues critical for Ig uptake into egg yolks using alanine and glycine-scanning mutagenesis of 16 residues located along the C(H)2 and C(H)3 domains of hIgG1. Wild-type hIgG1-Fc (WT) and its mutants were synthesized, and their uptakes into the egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were determined. The triple mutation of loop MIS252-254 to GGG resulted in a 40% decrease in Fc uptake in comparison to that of the WT. Furthermore, quartet substitution of HEAL429-432 to GGGG located in an exposed loop at the C(H)3 domain completely abolished Fc uptake into egg yolks. Next, the residues HEAL429-432 were individually substituted with either alanine or glycine. Regardless of the glycine and alanine substitution, single mutations of H (429), E (430) and L (432) significantly reduced Fc uptake compared with WT uptake. Notably, the blood clearance rates of these mutants were equivalent to that of the WT. These results suggest that the clustered residues HEAL429-432 in the C(H)3 domain are important for the hIgG1 transport into the egg yolks. The sequence HEAL is conserved in chicken IgY at positions 550-553 within the C(H)4 domain, which might be involved in its uptake into the egg yolks by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A low dose of an organophosphate insecticide causes dysbiosis and sex-dependent responses in the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Crisol-Martínez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate insecticides have been directly or indirectly implicated in avian populations declining worldwide. Birds in agricultural environments are commonly exposed to these insecticides, mainly through ingestion of invertebrates after insecticide application. Despite insecticide exposure in birds occurring mostly by ingestion, the impact of organophosphates on the avian digestive system has been poorly researched. In this work we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica as an avian model to study short-term microbial community responses to a single dose of trichlorfon at low concentration in three sample origins of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT: caecum, large intestine and faeces. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons as bacterial markers, the study showed that ingestion of insecticide caused significant changes in the GIT microbiome. Specifically, microbiota composition and diversity differed between treated and untreated quail. Insecticide-associated responses in the caecum showed differences between sexes which did not occur with the other sample types. In caecal microbiota, only treated females showed significant shifts in a number of genera within the Lachnospiraceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families. The major responses in the large intestine were a significant reduction in the genus Lactobacillus and increases in abundance of a number of Proteobacteria genera. All microbial shifts in faeces occurred in phylotypes that were represented at low relative abundances. In general, changes in microbiota possibly resulted from contrasting responses towards the insecticide, either positive (e.g., biodegrading bacteria or negative (e.g., insecticide-susceptible bacteria. This study demonstrates the significant impact that organophosphate insecticides have on the avian gut microbiota; showing that a single small dose of trichlorfon caused dysbiosis in the GIT of the Japanese quail. Further research is necessary to

  15. Incubation parameters and compounds of meat type japanese quail (Coturnix japonica eggs stored at low temperatures (7.5 ± 1 ºC / Parâmetros da incubação e componentes dos ovos de codornas japonesas para corte (Coturnix japonica submetidos à estocagem em baixas temperaturas (7,5 ± 1 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Maciel Cardoso

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of egg storage at low temperatures (7.5±1 ºC on incubation parameters and egg compounds of meat type Japanese quail eggs. The egg sampling of meat type Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica was done during 22 consecutive days, totaling 440 eggs. They were individually identified and weighted. They were stored in a domestic refrigerator (7.5±1 ºC and 50% relative humidity. After storage, they were incubated at 37.5ºC with 60%RH and turning every 30 minutes. Hatched chicks were weighted individually. The results showed that the hatchability was satisfactory in all groups. The lowest hatchability was in the eggs stored for 20 days (60%. Egg weight loss during storage reached 3.4% at 20th day. There was no relation between storage period and egg weight loss during incubation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da estocagem em baixa temperatura (7,5±1 ºC sobre os parâmetros de incubação e proporção dos componentes de ovos de codornas japonesas para corte. Foram realizadas coletas de ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica durante 22 dias consecutivos, obtendo-se um total de 440 ovos. Estes foram identificados individualmente e pesados. Os ovos foram submetidos a diferentes períodos de estocagem, variando de zero até vinte dias. Os ovos foram estocados em um refrigerador doméstico (7,5±1 ºC e 50% umidade relativa após a coleta diária. Após a estocagem, os ovos foram incubados a 37,5ºC com 60%UR e viragem automática a cada meia hora. Os pintinhos nascidos foram pesados individualmente. Os resultados demonstraram que a eclodibilidade foi satisfatória em todos os grupos, sendo a eclodibilidade mais baixa nos ovos estocados por 20 dias (60%. A perda de peso dos ovos aumentou de acordo com o aumento dos dias de estocagem com valor máximo de 3,4% nos ovos do 20º dia. Não foi encontrada relação entre o tempo de estocagem e a perda de peso na incubação.

  16. Hibridación entre la codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix y la codorniz de granja: estado de un problema de conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Puigcerver

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibridación entre la codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix y la codorniz de granja: estado de un problema de conservación. La hibridación entre especies es un fenómeno ampliamente extendido que puede tener consecuencias en la conservación de la biodiversidad. En el presente artículo se hace una revisión del problema de conservación derivado de la suelta de codornices de granja en poblaciones silvestres de codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix. Estas codornices de granja han resultado ser, en la mayoría de casos, híbridos de codorniz común y codorniz japonesa (Coturnix japonica. Si no existen mecanismos de aislamiento reproductor, estas sueltas favorecerían la introgresión de genes de codorniz japonesa en las poblaciones de codorniz común; ello conllevaría que se produjera un “enjambre de híbridos” y la sedentarización de las poblaciones de codorniz, lo que comportaría muy probablemente su disminución en Europa. Esta amenaza es real, al haberse demostrado que no hay mecanismos de aislamiento reproductor, ni pre-cigóticos, ni post-cigóticos, ni ecológicos. Sin embargo, datos empíricos sugieren que a pesar de ello no se produce el temido “enjambre de híbridos”, sugiriéndose probablemente una mortalidad diferencial entre las dos especies como una posible explicación. Finalmente, se sugieren algunas medidas de gestión derivadas de la situación actual, entre las que destacaría un control genético que certifique el origen de los individuos criados en granja y la prohibición de efectuar sueltas de codornices japonesas o híbridos.

  17. Aceptabilidad de empanizados enriquecidos con harina de pota (Dosidicus gigas), huevo de codorniz (Coturnix coturnix) y pimiento amarillo (Capsicum annuum)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Hurtado, Emma Del Rosario; Palomino Pezzutti, Ricardo Ramiro; Tamariz Grados, Nelly Norma; Cajaleón Asencios, Delia Haydee; Dextre Mendoza, Rodolfo Willian; Carreño Mundo, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la aceptabilidad de empanizados enriquecidos con harina de pota (Dosidicus gigas), huevo de codorniz (Coturnix coturnix) y pimiento amarillo (Capsicum annuum). Métodos: Optimizar una formulación de alimento listo para el consumo humano, conforme a requisitos: NTP NDECOPI: Harina de trigo, NTP 205. 027. 1996, NTP-CODEX STAN 166:2014 -Barritas, Porciones y Filetes de pescado empanizados o rebozados congelados. Resultados: El aroma, color y textura de los empanizados formula...

  18. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  19. Pathology and Tissue Distribution of an LPAI H5N8 of North American Lineage Isolated from an Outbreak in Commercial Japanese Quail (Coturnix c. japonica) in the Central Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaccini, S; Stoute, S T; Bickford, A A; Shivaprasad, H L

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014. There was mild bilateral swelling of the eyelids and greenish diarrhea in 4/15 live quail submitted. On postmortem examination, there were severe, extensive hemorrhages and multifocal, confluent pale foci in the pancreas in 10/20 birds. Liver gross lesions in five birds ranged from a few pale areas to numerous disseminated foci. Histology revealed moderate to severe necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas with little or no inflammation in most of the birds. Livers had acute multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with fibrin exudation and infiltration of few to large numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes randomly scattered throughout. The AI virus was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells and hepatocytes by IHC targeting the nucleoprotein of the AI virus. A few birds had AI antigen in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, endothelial cells of the lungs, epithelium of the respiratory mucosa, and lamina propria of the intestine. The severity of the lesions observed in this natural outbreak of LPAI in quail was higher than that expected for the pathotypic presentation in this species.

  20. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  1. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  2. Coturnix coturnix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2016 ... disease, principal cause of mortality in the African countries with low or intermediate income. ... de risque dans la survenue de maladies cardio- ..... saturation à partir du 12ème jour. ... liver, meat and perirenal fat in rabbit.

  3. Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) have been used as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soner balcıoğlu

    because they are small, less expensive than chickens and turkeys, have a short ... pattern or growth curve of animals for body weight or body parts is described by growth ..... This study was supported by The Scientific Research Projects Unit of ...

  4. Recovery of Salmonella Gallinarum in the Organs of Experimentally-Inoculated Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Rocha e Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSalmonellosis is an infection caused by specific or non specific serotypes of theSalmonella genus, responsible for losses in the poultry industry. Fowl typhoid, caused by S. Gallinarum (SG is important because it causes elevated mortality in adult birds, leading to economic losses in the poultry industry. This study aimed at quantifying the number of viable SG cells in the liver, spleen, lung, cecum, and reproductive tract (ovary and testicles of experimentally inoculated Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix, as well as SG shedding in their feces. One hundred and two Japanese quails, with four months of age at the beginning of the experiment, were used. The birds were inoculated with three bacterial cultures containing different concentrations (6x104CFU/0.1mL, 2x105 CFU/0.4mL, or 5x106CFU/0.2mL of SG resistant to nalidixic acid. On days 1, 4, 7, and 14 after the inoculation (dpi individual cloacal swabs were collected from six birds per group, which were subsequently sacrificed for organ sampling. The swab samples were streaked directly on plates containing brilliant green agar and nalidixic acid (VBNal. Samples that were negative after 24h, were streaked again. The collected organs were individually macerated and transferred to buffered peptone water at 0.1%. The solutions were immediately diluted serially for CFU counting in VBNal. SG was successfully recovered from one quail, which was inoculated with 2x105 CFU/0.4mL, and from five quails of the group inoculated with 5x106CFU/0.2mL inoculum. All of the analyzed cloacal swab samples were negative. Therefore, this study demonstrated it was difficult to isolate SG from the analyzed organs and that it was not possible to recover thepathogen in the cloacal swabs collected from inoculated quails. These results may be explained by the absence of flagella in SG, inducing weak intestinal immune response in the beginning of the infection and preventing its isolation in cloacal swab samples. The

  5. Relationship between genotype – technological environment and productive performances in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix

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    Vasile Cighi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous growth of living standards and consumption capacity of human society,require raising the share of animal production by: increasing the number of animals, improving theirproductive potential, improving technology and the effective operation of all forage resources. Inachieving these goals and in particular the improvement of the productive potential of animals, aprofound knowledge of the laws and phenomena that lead to the formation, development and evolutionof animal body is imperative. In studying these issues we should consider the following premise: theanimal body, the whole complex of qualities morpho-physiological posed at a time, is the result of theinteraction between hereditary factors and environmental conditions in which the organism develops.To sense the presence of the genotype - environment interaction and its estimation of the productioncharacter in Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix we conducted an experiment using a randomextracted sample of the population, in which we observed egg production according to the duration ofthe photoperiod. The experiment was organized according to an experimental plan which includedrepeated measurement blocks. This has the advantage that it does not have to produce geneticallyuniform biological material, because the same individual is subject to different treatments duringsuccessive periods of time. This fact requires a decrease in the influence of genetic structures on theexperimental results, so that differences arising between experimental variations are due toexperimental treatments applied alone. To determine the genotype – environment interaction for theJapanese quail egg production character, the experimental data was statistically processed by testingthe differences between the average values of two samples (Student and using the analysis ofvariance (Fisher test. From direct analysis of raw data and average values of the egg production inJapanese quail, it can be said

  6. 5种化学品对丽斑麻蜥和日本鹌鹑的毒性研究%Toxicity Assessment of Five Chemicals on Eremias argus and Coturnix japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常静; 杨淞霖; 戴欣; 李济彤; 王会利; 瞿唯钢

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity effects of chemicals have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. In this study, the acute toxicity test method of native reptile-Eremiasarguswas established in order to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals to reptiles. Er-emias argus were exposed to isocyanate, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one, 2,4-dichlorophenol, benzothiazole and diphe-nylketone respectively in acute oral toxicity test. 7 d-LD50 values of lizard were compared with avian model spe-cies-Coturnix japonica. According to the results, 7 d-LD50 values of isocyanate and benzothiazole to E.argus were 125 mg•kg-1 and 500 mg•kg-1 while to C.japonicathe values were 27 mg•kg-1 and 37 mg•kg-1;7 d-LD50 val-ue of 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one, 2,4-dichlorophenol and diphenylketone to E.argus were all greater than 1 000 mg•kg-1 while to C. japonica the values were 909 mg•kg-1 , 787 mg•kg-1 and 528 mg•kg-1 . The results showed that avian could not be used as surrogate species to reflect the chemical toxicity to reptiles exactly. The toxicity of chemicals to reptiles should be paid more attention. Using native lizard as model animal for reptile ecotoxicology studies will benefit the protection of native reptile species and maintain the ecological balance.%目前,在化学品生态风险评价体系中对爬行动物的毒性效应研究较少。本研究参考鸟类急性经口毒性试验建立了我国本土爬行动物———丽斑麻蜥(Eremias argus)的急性毒性测试方法,来评价化学品对爬行动物和鸟类的毒性效应之间的差异。选择异氰酸酯、1,2-苯并异噻唑-3-酮、2,4-二氯苯酚、苯并噻唑和二苯甲酮5种化学品分别对丽斑麻蜥进行暴露实验,并与鸟类模式物种———日本鹌鹑(Coturnix japonica)的急性毒性结果进行比较。结果发现异氰酸酯和苯并噻唑对丽斑麻蜥7 d的半数致死剂量(7 d-LD50)分别为125 mg•kg-1和500 mg•kg-1,而对日本鹌鹑的7 d-LD50值分别为27 mg•kg-1和37 mg•kg-1;1,2-

  7. Análise clínica, radiológica, macroscópica e histológica do úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica, submetido ao implante da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis Clinical, radiological, macroscopical and histological analysis of domestic quail (Coturnix japonica humerus submitted to implant of polyurethane from castor oil polymer (Ricinnus communis

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    Juliano Bolson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia ortopédica, são freqüentes as situações em que o cirurgião se depara com grandes perdas ósseas, provocadas especialmente por traumatismos de alta energia, tumores ou infecções. A reparação dessas fraturas requer grande conhecimento a respeito de materiais que possam ser utilizados para preencher essas falhas. Esses materiais podem ser derivados biológicos, sintéticos ou metálicos. Dentre eles, destacam-se os enxertos ósseos e os implantes de biomateriais. Com o aumento dos animais exóticos, utilizados como animais de estimação, a casuística clínica e cirúrgica dessa especialidade vem crescendo, tanto em clínicas quanto em hospitais veterinários. Particularmente, as aves constituem a maioria desses animais, e entre seus problemas cirúrgicos as fraturas são os de maior destaque. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito clínico, radiológico, macroscópico e histológico da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis implantada no úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica. Para isso, foram utilizadas 20 codornas, machos e fêmeas, separadas aleatoriamente em quatro grupos de cinco animais, os quais receberam o implante no úmero esquerdo, com exame clínico diário durante o período pós-operatório, avaliações radiológica imediata e quinzenal e macroscópica e histológica aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias. Clinicamente não foram observadas alterações locais, regionais nem sistêmicas. Ao exame radiológico, notou-se aumento de densidade local, sem sinais de alteração óssea, dos tecidos circunjacentes, e de sacos aéreos. A análise macroscópica revelou que a poliuretana de mamona não foi absorvida em nenhum dos quatro grupos permanecendo implantada no seio do osso pneumático, porém, notou-se alteração em sua resistência. O exame histopatológico mostra inicialmente mínima reação inflamatória, discreta fibrose ao redor do implante e osteointegração pela presen

  8. Plasma enzyme activities in coturnix quail fed graded doses of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl, malathion, and mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1974-01-01

    Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed diets for 12 weeks containing graded levels of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254), malathion, and mercuric chloride. Birds were bled prior to exposure and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks, and the plasma used to measure the activities of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholinesterase, fructose-diphosphate aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal activity of certain plasma enzymes was noted in birds after 2 and 4 weeks, but these changes were not proportional to dose or exposure time. At 12 weeks increases in each of the activities of plasma enzymes of birds fed organochlorines, and decreases in cholinesterase activity of birds fed malathion or mercuric chloride, were proportional to the log dose of the respective agents. In addition, the pattern of enzyme responses in the 4 experimental groups had changed, and was illustrative of the specific type of substance that had been fed. The data suggest that qualitative and quantitative identification of environmental contaminants in birds, and perhaps a variety of wild animals, may be possible by utilization of multiple plasma enzyme assays. Residue analyses after 12 weeks of feeding showed that DDE accumulated in carcasses and livers at concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those in the diets. In contrast residues of Aroclor 1254 attained in carcasses were identical to, and in livers one-half of, the concentration in the feed. Mercury did not accumulate as much in the tissues; residues attained were one-twentieth or less of those in the feed.

  9. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix.

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    Sébastien Derégnaucourt

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix, the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses. Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  10. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  11. Post–breeding movements and migration patterns of western populations of common quail (Coturnix coturnix: from knowledge to hunting management

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    Rodríguez–Teijeiro, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the patterns of post–breeding movements of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in the Iberian peninsula with the aim of describing its migratory phenology and some physiological features of individuals. This information is needed to adjust hunting seasons in an optimal way. We worked with two data–sets: a captures made in a non–breeding site (Garraf from August to October in 2009 and 2010; b post–breeding recoveries of individuals ringed in Europe and recaptured in Spain between 1933 and 2005. The results showed that post–breeding movements in Garraf occur in two waves: a first wave that occurs around 10 VIII and is mainly composed of non–sexually active yearlings that do not correspond physiologically to migrants, and a second much more intense wave, which occurs around 17 IX and is mainly composed of non–sexually active migrant yearlings. The hunting season in Spain takes place mainly during the first wave, preserving the passage of migrant individuals from Spain and other European countries. Information on the post–breeding movements in other Spanish regions and other European countries where the common quail is a popular game species would improve timing between the hunting season and migration by providing more precise recommendations for hunting management.

  12. Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to Coturnix: Sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiologic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicities of mercuric chloride (HgCl(,2)) and methylmercuric chloride (CH(,3)HgCl) were compared for coturnix (Coturnix coturnix japonica) from hatching to adulthood. Comparisons were based on: (1) Median lethal dosages (LD50) derived by administering single peroral and single intramuscular dosages of mercury, (2) median lethal concentrations (LC50) derived by feeding mercury for 5 days, (3) median toxic concentrations (TC50) derived by feeding mercury 9 weeks and measuring plasma enzyme activity, plasma electrolytes, and other blood constituents, and (4) transient changes of various blood chemistries following a single peroral dose of mercury. Acute peroral and intramuscular LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl increased by two- to threefold for coturnix chicks from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Concomitantly, the LC50s also increased, but the important difference between test procedures was that with both single dose routes of exposure the toxicity ratios, i.e., HgCl(,2)/CH(,3)HgCl, at each age were about 2 to 2.5 compared to about 100 for the LC50s. For example, at 2 weeks of age the peroral LD50s for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl were 42 and 18 mg/kg; the dietary LC50s were 5086 and 47 ppm for HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl. The 9 week feeding trial was not associated with gross effects from either HgCl(,2) at 0.5 to 32 ppm or CH(,3)HgCl at 0.125 to 8 ppm. However, subtle responses were detected for the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase and could be quantified by probit analysis. This quantal procedure was based on establishment of a normal value for each enzyme and classing outliers as respondents. A 'hazard index' based on the TC50 for an enzyme divided by the LD50 or LC50 was introduced. The single oral dosages of HgCl(,2) and CH(,3)HgCl showed that ratios of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and orinthine carbamoyl transferase for the liver and kidneys of adult coturnix were opposite from

  13. Exigência de cálcio para codornas japonesas (coturnix coturnix japonica em postura = Calcium requirement for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in the laying phase

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    Patrícia Araújo Brandão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de cálcio de codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 105 codornas, distribuídas em sete tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal suplementada com calcário calcítico para alcançar sete níveis de cálcio (2,95; 3,10; 3,25; 3,40; 3,55; 3,70 e 3,85%. As variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PD, massa de ovos (MO, conversão por massa de ovos (CMO, conversão por dúzia de ovos (CDO, peso do ovo (PO, peso e percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e gravidade específica. O CR e CMO não foram influenciados pelos níveis de cálcio na dieta. A PD, MO e CDO sofreram efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio, sendo os valores máximos para estas variáveis estimados com os níveis de 3,45; 3,51 e 3,34% de cálcio. O PO aumentou linearmente com os níveis de cálcio na dieta. Foi verificado efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio sobre o peso e percentagem do albúmem e gema e gravidade específica. Recomendasepara codornas japonesas o nível de 3,51% de cálcio da ração para a otimização dos índices de desempenho sem afetar negativamente a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos.This trial was performed to determine the requirements of calcium forJapanese quails during the laying period. A hundred and five quails were distributed in seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with limestone in order to produce seven calcium levels (2.95; 3.10; 3.25; 3.40; 3.55; 3.70 and 3.85%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (CR, egg production (PD, egg mass (MO, conversion per egg mass (CMO, conversion per egg dozen (CDO, egg weight (PO, the weights and percentages of yolk, albumen and shell, and specific gravity. Calcium levels in the diet had no effect on CR and CMO. On the other hand, there was quadratic effect on PD, MO and CDO, and the maximum levels for these variables were estimated with calcium levels of 3.45; 3.51 and 3.34%, respectively. PO increased linearly with calcium levels in the diet. A quadratic effect of calcium levels was seen on the specific gravity and on weight and percentage of albumen and yolk. Calcium levels of 3.51% are recommended for Japanese quails during the laying period in order to optimize performance indexes without affecting negatively the internal and external egg quality.

  14. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); Effekte der Fuetterung strahlenbehandelter Gerste auf wachsende Wachteln (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-07-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [German] In den mit Wachteln durchgefuehrten Fuetterungsexperimenten mit strahlenbehandelter Gerste in Dosen von 2, 10 und 100 kGy konnten bei den analysierten zootechnischen, klinisch-chemischen, haematologischen und immunologischen Parametern keine signifikanten Veraenderungen festgestellt werden, die auf die Strahlenbehandlung der Gerste zurueckzufuehren waeren. Signifikante Abweichungen lagen im physiologischen Streuungsbereich und waren nicht reproduzierbar. (orig.)

  15. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes determinada com codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metabolizable energy of feedstuffs determined in japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento um foi realizado para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn de nove alimentos utilizando codornas japonesas em crescimento. No experimento dois, objetivou-se comparar formulações de rações utilizando EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja determinada para frangos de corte e poedeiras, com aquelas determinadas com codornas com 22 a 27 dias de idade e 65 dias de idade. No experimento um, foram utilizadas 400 codornas em crescimento recebendo uma dieta basal (DB e nove misturas compostas por 70% da DB + 30% dos alimentos testes, totalizando dez tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições de dez aves. No experimento dois, 160 codornas européias em postura receberam três tratamentos durante três períodos de 15 dias de duração, com doze repetições de cinco aves. Os valores de EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg determinados para os alimentos de origem vegetal foram, respectivamente, 3.340 e 3.354 para o milho moído, 2.718 e 2.456 para o farelo de soja, 3.453 e 3.084 para a soja integral extrusada, 1.624 e 1.593 para o farelo de trigo, 4.558 e 3.992 para o farelo de glúten de milho, 3.329 e 3.378 para a farinha de mandioca e 1.238 e 1.223 para a farinha integral da vagem de algaroba e para os alimentos de origem animal, respectivamente, de 2874 e 2453 para a farinha de peixe e 3090 e 2791 para a farinha de vísceras. A EMAn do milho e do farelo de soja estimada com codornas não melhorou o consumo, produção, peso e conversão por massa de ovos, validando o uso da energia desses ingredientes determinada com frangos de corte e poedeiras para compor rações para codornas.The experiment one was carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected ME (AMEn of nine feedstuffs in Japanese quails. The objective of the experiment two was to compare diets formulated with AMEn of corn and soybean meal, usually fed to broilers and laying hens, with diets formulated with AMEn determined in growing (22 days of age and adult quails (65 days of age. In the experiment one, 400 growing quails were fed a basal diet (BD and nine test diets (70% BD + 30% feedstuffs test, with a total of ten diets with four replicates of ten birds each. In the experiment two, 160 European quails were randomized allotted to three treatments, with twelve replicates of five birds, and fed during three periods of fifteen days. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg for vegetal feedstuffs were: 3,340 and 3,354 for corn, 2,718 and 2,456 for soybean meal, 3,453 and 3,084 for integral soybean extruded, 1,624 and 1,593 for wheat bran, 4,558 and 3,992 for corn gluten meal, 3,329 and 3,378 for cassava flour and 1,238 and 1,223 to integral mesquite pods meal. The animal feedstuffs had 2,874 and 2,453 for fish meal and 3,090 and 2,791 for poultry meal. The AMEn of corn and soybean meal estimated for quail did not improve feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed egg mass ratio, supporting the validity of use of energy those ingredients obtained with broiler and laying hens for formulated quail diets.

  16. Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCI 2) and organic (CH3HgCI) mercury chloride was studied in coturnix (Corurnix japonica) by feeding them mercuric compounds (CH3HgCI at concentrations of 0.125,0.5,2 and 8 ppm; HgCI2 at 0.5, 2, 8 and 32 ppm) in ad libitum diets from hatching to adulthood. Differences of response to the mercurials were compared on the basis of selected indicator enzymes and plasma chemistries. Comparisons of response to equivalent concentrations of the two mercurials and dose-response relationships were made at 1,3,5,7 and 9 weeks. Changes of activity were detected for brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the plasma enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (ASA T), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT). Changes of ASA T, LDH and OCT were then quantified by probit analysis and the mercurials were compared through their median effective concentrations (EC50). This quantal procedure was based on the establishment of normal control values for each enzyme and then classifying mercury-treated outliers (more than + 2 SD) as respondents. The EC50 values at 9 weeks for ASA T, LDH and OCT, respectively, were 9, 3 and 63 ppm for HgCl 2, and 5, 1 and 4 ppm for CH3HgCI. These results provided the basis for two hazard indices that were calculated by dividing the EC50 into the oral LD50 and the 5-d dietary LC50. Mercury also had contradictory effects on gonadal maturation in both sexes.

  17. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  18. Effects of Perilla Seed on Blood Lipid Regulation and Lipid Peroxidation of Coturnix coturnix with Hyperlipidemia%紫苏籽对高血脂鹌鹑血脂调节及脂质过氧化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭健民; 陈眷华

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the effect of perilla seed on blood lipid regulation and psroxidation of Coturnix with hyperlipidemia.[Method] The high-lipid diet was fed to establish the high lipid model of Coturnix coturnix. The normal control group, high lipid model group, high dose of perilla seed group(2.5 g/kg), low dose of periUa seed group(0.83 g/kg) were designed to measure the contents of total cholesterol (TC), three acids glyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprctein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutnse (SOD) activity. [Result] All the test groups could decrease TC,TG,LDL-C and MDA content and significantly increase the HDL-C content (p <0.01) and SOD activity(p <0.01) in serum. [Conclusion] Pcrilla seed has the blood lipid regulation and peroxidation function.

  19. 雉鸡、鹧鸪及鹌鹑肾组织结构比较研究%Comparative Study on the Kidney histology of Phasianus Colchicus, Francolinus Pintadeanus and Coturnix Coturnix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何九军; 王昱

    2012-01-01

    利用显微技术对雉鸡(Phasianus colchicus)、鹧鸪(Francolinus pintadeanus)及鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)的肾进行了比较.结果显示:与大多数鸟类相似,肾由许多肾小叶构成,皮质与髓质分界不明显,主要由许多肾单位、集合管和少量的结缔组织组成.肾单位由一个肾小体和一个与其连接的肾小管构成.肾小体体积小,数量多;肾小球结构简单,由一团蟠曲的毛细血管构成.近曲小管上皮细胞游离面有刷状缘,远曲小管和集合管管腔较大,腔面无刷状缘.鹧鸪的肾小球、近曲小管及远曲小管的数量均高于雉鸡和鹌鹑,表明鹧鸪的肾较鹌鹑和雉鸡的肾具有更强的尿液浓缩功能,但需进一步研究.%The kidney structure ofPhasianus colchicus, Francolinus pintadeanusand Coturnix coturnix were compared by light microscope. The result showed that the kidney consists of many reniculi similar to that of most birds. The verge of cortex and medulla in kidney was not clear. The kidney is composed of many nephrons, collecting ducts and a little connective tissue. The nephron comprises a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. The renal corpuscles were small but abundant. The struc- ture of glomerular capillary was very simple and made from convoluted capillaries. The proximal convoluted tubule was lined with a well-developed brush border. The lumen diameters of both distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct were large, and their cell apex had no bush border. The number of glomerular capillary, proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tu- bule ofFrancolinus pintadeanus was more than that ofPhasianus colchicus and Coturnix coturnix. The evidence indicates that the ability of urinary concentration in Francolinus pintadeanuskidney may be stronger than that inCoturnix coturnix andPhasianus colchicus, yet still need further study is needed.

  20. Protein requirement of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica during rearing and laying periods

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    R da TRN Soares

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Two completely randomized trials were conducted to estimate protein requirements of Japanese quails during the rearing and laying periods. In each trial, 150 quails were distributed in five treatments with five repetitions. Crude protein levels in the rearing period were 18, 20, 22, 24 and 26% (Trial 1 and during the laying period were 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24% (Trial 2. A quadratic effect of protein level was observed on weight gain from seven to 35 days (Trial 1. There were no effects of protein levels on feed intake and feed conversion. Protein levels in experimental diets during rearing had no effect on egg production up to 63 days. However, laying was delayed and variation in body weight was greater in quails fed lower protein levels. In Trial 2, a quadratic effect of protein levels was seen on egg production and feed conversion; and a linear effect was seen on mean egg weight and feed intake. Crude protein levels of 23.08% and 21.95% were estimated by regression equations for rearing and laying, respectively.

  1. Neurotrophins and specific receptors in the oviduct tracts of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccio, L; Castaldo, L; D'Angelo, L; Gatta, C; Lucini, C; Cotea, C; Solcan, C; Nechita, E L

    2016-09-01

    Neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF and NT-3) and their specific receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) were studied in the oviduct of egg laying quails. Neurotrophins (NTs) are mainly involved in the development and maintenance of neuronal populations in the central and peripheral nervous system, but also in reproductive system. In this survey, we first studied the morphological organization of the quail oviduct, distinguished in infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina, and then we analyzed the expression and localization of NTs and Trks receptors in the whole tracts. By western blotting we detected that the investigated NTs and Trks receptors are expressed in all oviductal tracts. By immunohistochemistry we were able to define the distribution of NTs and Trks. Specifically, NGF, BDNF and NT3 were localized in lining and ductal epithelial cells, and NGF was also detected in secretory cells of tubular glands and in nervous fibers of vessel wall. TrkA and TrkB were present in the lining and ductal epithelium; TrkA and TrkC were present in nervous fibers of vessel wall in all oviductal tracts. Furthermore, we also observed NGF and BDNF co-localized with TrkA and TrkB in cells of the lining and ductal epithelium, suggesting an autocrine mechanism of action.

  2. Condition-dependent strategies of eggshell pigmentation: an experimental study of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Miksík, Ivan; Reynolds, S James; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-15

    A relationship has been suggested between eggshell colour and female body condition based on the opposing antioxidant properties of the two main eggshell pigments: the antioxidant biliverdin (blue-green) and the pro-oxidant protoporphyrin (brown). We hypothesized that experimentally food-restricted females with low antioxidant capacity would deposit more protoporphyrin and less biliverdin in their eggshells, resulting in eggshells of reduced brightness but increased colour intensity. Two eggs were collected at the beginning and two at the end of a 2 week period from each of 24 female Japanese quails that were either food restricted or receiving ad libitum food (i.e. controls) during that time. Reflectance spectra were recorded and analysed using spectral shape descriptors, chromatic and achromatic contrasts were computed accounting for avian visual sensitivities, and eggshell pigments were quantified. We examined both spot and background pigmentation and found no significant effect of food restriction on eggshell reflectance. However, food-restricted females in lower body condition increased the deposition of protoporphyrin and decreased the amount of biliverdin invested in their eggshells. We hypothesize that in species laying brown-spotted eggshells, females modulate eggshell pigment investment in response to their body condition. According to this hypothesis, we predict that females maintain eggshell colour to limit visible changes that could be detected by predators and thereby conceal their eggs, although this work has yet to be conducted. We suggest that further experimental work on egg camouflage under different environmental conditions will elaborate on the process of pigment deposition and the physiological costs to females of laying heavily pigmented eggshells.

  3. Hypocholesterolemic effect of karaya saponin in Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2011-12-01

    The effect of karaya saponin supplementation on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in egg yolk were investigated in Japanese quails. A total of 80 Japanese quails aged 5 weeks were equally divided into four groups of 20. Four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg feed) of karaya saponin were included in the basal diet and experiment was lasted for 6 weeks. The cholesterol fractions in the egg yolk and serum were measured by enzymatic assay, and the fatty acid composition in egg yolk was determined by gas chromatography. The results revealed that the supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin significantly reduced (p diet. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in egg yolk was increased (p diet than the control diet. The ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p diet. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of 75 mg/kg karaya saponin may be a feasible means of producing quail eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA content for health conscious consumers.

  4. Serum chemistry reference values in adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) including sex-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, N; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G; Sauerwein, H

    2009-06-01

    Serum chemistry reference values may provide useful information about the physical condition of individuals, making them a useful tool in differentiating normal and healthy animals from abnormal or diseased states. For Japanese quail that are used for producing eggs and meat for human consumption and also as laboratory animals, we aimed to extend the available array of reference values and to compare 16-wk-old adult male versus female birds. In the present study, clinical chemistry data (albumin, total protein, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, bilirubin, cholinesterase, creatinine, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase) in blood serum from up to 125 male and 151 female Japanese quail were established. Statistical comparisons were made between male and female birds. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, cholinesterase, and bilirubin values were higher (P sex-based differences were observed for creatinine and uric acid. The reference values provided are relevant in particular for the use of quail as laboratory animals when responses to specific treatments have to be monitored and appraised.

  5. The ossification of the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, A F; Antonopoulos, J

    2014-08-01

    The onset of ossification centres of the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton of the quail in embryos and juvenile birds were studied. Specimens, which were cleared and were stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S, were examined at the stereomicroscope. The ilium and the pubis began to ossify at the 8th day (E8), whereas the ischium at E9. Perichondral ossification was observed at E6 in the femur, tibia and fibula. A secondary ossification centre was detected in the proximal epiphysis of the tibiotarsus at the 15th post-hatching day (P15). The patella began to ossify at P30. Regarding the tarsal bones tibiale, pre-tibiale and fibulare, ossification was observed at the E15, E12 and E16, respectively. The metatarsals II, III, IV ossified at E7, whereas the metatarsal I at E11. The centres of ossification of the 1st phalanges of all digits were observed at E9. At the same day, the ossification centres of the 2nd phalanx of digits II and III as well as the 3rd phalanx of digit III appeared. At E10, ossification was observed in the 2nd phalanx of digit I, in the 3rd phalanx of digit II and in the 2nd and 3rd phalanx of digit IV. In the 4th phalanx of digit III and in the terminal phalanges of digit IV, ossification was observed at E11. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal sequential pattern of ossification in the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton in this species.

  6. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

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    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  7. AFLP linkage map of the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica

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    Beaumont Catherine

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The quail is a valuable farm and laboratory animal. Yet molecular information about this species remains scarce. We present here the first genetic linkage map of the Japanese quail. This comprehensive map is based solely on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. These markers were developed and genotyped in an F2 progeny from a cross between two lines of quail differing in stress reactivity. A total of 432 polymorphic AFLP markers were detected with 24 TaqI/EcoRI primer combinations. On average, 18 markers were produced per primer combination. Two hundred and fifty eight of the polymorphic markers were assigned to 39 autosomal linkage groups plus the ZW sex chromosome linkage groups. The linkage groups range from 2 to 28 markers and from 0.0 to 195.5 cM. The AFLP map covers a total length of 1516 cM, with an average genetic distance between two consecutive markers of 7.6 cM. This AFLP map can be enriched with other marker types, especially mapped chicken genes that will enable to link the maps of both species and make use of the powerful comparative mapping approach. This AFLP map of the Japanese quail already provides an efficient tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping.

  8. Knee joint morphogenesis of the quail (Coturnix japonica) embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Bahador; Talebhemat, Mahdokht; Hashemnia, Shadi; Shojaeepour, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Knee joint development and its morphogenetic events have been studied in human, chicken and other animal models and differences have been found in the pattern of the knee joint morphogenesis among the studied species. According to the small number of studies which have focused on the chronology of knee morphogenesis, a "morphogenetic timely pattern" is hard to suggest. Quail is an animal model for which there is no information about knee joint morphogenesis. This study was planned to define the time table of the knee joint structures formation in this bird. For this purpose embryonated Japanese quail eggs were incubated for 3 to 12 days. Embryos were removed from their eggs every twelve hours and staged according to Ainsworth et al. The hind limbs of the embryos at the stages 17 to 41 were dissected and 6 μm thick slides were prepared from their knee region. The time of appearance of menisci, ligaments, articular cavity and other knee joint components were identified in the quail embryo. During quail knee morphogenesis we observed the appearance of a three layered interzone, femorotibial cavitation and long bone ossification earlier than in chicken. A hypothesis is presented on the differential role of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee joint on embryonic knee development in birds as compared with humans.

  9. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  10. Effects of oregano (Oregano Onites on performance, hatchability and egg quality parameters of laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Cangir Uyarlar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different inclusion levels of oregano into the diet on daily feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg production, hatchability, egg palatability, egg weight, external and internal egg quality, live weight increase, serum cholesterol and yolk cholesterol level in laying quails. A total of 216 laying quails at 42 days of age were divided into 36 cages, 6 birds in each (4 females and 2 males, 6 cages per thesis. The 1st group was left as control (OR0 without any supplementation of oregano. The other five experimental groups were OR10, OR20, OR30, OR40, and OR50 which were fed with the diets supplemented with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/kg of oregano, respectively. The experiment lasted for 63 days until the quails reached 105 days of age. As a result of this study, 50 g/kg oregano supplementation appeared to be the best as respects taste (P<0.002. The inclusion level of 20 g/kg increased fertility (P<0.02 however, above that level fertility was reduced. This peculiarity of oregano may be taken into account by the poultry breeder companies. For the other segments of the poultry industry, the usage of oregano up to 50 g/kg seemed to be appropriate.

  11. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in Zaria, Nigeria

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    H. A. Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study.

  12. Effect of dexamethasone on differential white blood cell counts and heterophil / lymphocyte ratio in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Orawan Chinrasri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Laying Japanese quails (n = 60, 30 weeks of age reared at the experimental laboratory unit of the Faculty of Technology, Maha Sarakham University, Maha Sarakham province, Thailand. Birds were in cages with wire floors. Randomized Complete Block was the design of the experiment. During the first 4 days of experimental period, quails were fed on a standard commercial diet with four treatments: supplemented with dexamethasone at 4 levels namely 0 (control group, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/kg diet. On days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experimental period, percentage of heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio values of laying quails were examined. The results revealed that percentage of heterophil of laying quail with added dexamethasone at 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg in diets were significantly higher than others (P0.05. After discontinuing dexamethasone administration on day 4 of the experimental period, percentage of heterophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil, monocyte, and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio, of quails recovered to normal within 10 days.

  13. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.

    1988-05-01

    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile.

  14. Histomorphometrical and ultrastructural study of the effects of carbendazim on the magnum of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Wahabu H; Madekurozwa, Mery-Catherine; Groenewald, Herman B

    2013-07-19

    The study investigated the effect of various doses of carbendazim on the morphology of the magnum of the Japanese quail. No morphological changes were observed in the magnum in birds treated with carbendazim at doses of 25 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg bodyweight. A carbendazim dose of 400 mg/kg bodyweight was the lowest dose which caused morphological changes in the magnum. Histologically, carbendazim caused pyknosis and glandular atrophy in the magnum mucosa. Carbendazim also caused significant decreases in the height of the mucosal folds, epithelial height, glandular width and glandular luminal diameter at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg (p magnum pose a potential threat to the egg production and reproduction of exposed birds.

  15. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica Valet DALAM PAKAN TERHADAP PARAMETER HEMATOLOGI DARAH PUYUH (Coturnix-coturnix japonica PEDAGING

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    Astriana Napirah

    2013-10-01

    monocyte count. Addition 1.0% of turmeric meal in quail feed showed the lowest neutrophil percentage (P<0.05, indicated antibacterial activity of curcumin contained in turmeric. The application of turmeric meal up to 1.0% in quail feed showed immunomodulatory activity by decreased neutrophil percentage and stimulated monocyte proliferation in quail blood. (Key words: Turmeric, Quail, Blood profil

  16. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis) on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Mohebali; Mohammad Salarmoini; Neda Eskandarzade

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4) received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) andtest groups (No. 5, 6 and 7) receivedFeSO4 (1%)-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15%FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions:We concluded that up to 10%FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability.

  19. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japônica (codorna japonesa

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    Gilmar F. Vita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioidesLinnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 (codorna japonesa, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução de índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridiae Eimeria. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos de Ascaridiasp. (100,00% e significativa taxa de redução na destruição de oocistos de Eimeriasp. (47,06%. O ensaio in vivodemonstrou alta taxa de redução na contagem de ovos de Ascaridiasp. nas fezes (100,00% e expressiva taxa de redução na contagem de oocistos de Eimeriasp. nas fezes (60,33%. Chenopodium ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  20. Effect of 17ß trenbolone on male and female reproduction in japanese quail (Coturnix japonica japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anabolic steroid 17ß trenbolone (17ß-TB), a known endocrine disruptive chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17ß-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturati...

  1. 鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎性别的DNA分子鉴定%DNA Molecular Sex Identification for Chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail (Coturnix coturnix) Hybrids Early Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑炜; 范丽娜; 翟曼君; 赵宗胜; 李青峰; 梁耀伟; 米拉

    2013-01-01

    According to our previous research, there was an obvious relationship between the early death of chicken(Gallus gallus)-quail(Cotumix cotunux) hybrids and sex differentiation. Meanwhile, current widespread adapted methods to indentify sex differentiation stayed at RNA level, experimental steps complicated and easy to make mistakes, and RNA samples, which are needed to be measured, was quite difficult to preserved longer, but could not be simply employed. So it is necessary to find a more simple and accurate way to identify the early embryo's sexing. In this study, there were two sections for CHD (chromobox-helicase-DNA binding) gene DNA level sex determination, at first,a total of 116 chicken-quail hybrid embryos at different incubate stages (2.5~5 d) was treated as experiment group and 10 mg embryonic organs were used to DNA extraction; then the DNA extraction from blood of 60 sex-known quails (male and female were half-and-half) was regarded as control. Wpkci (W-linked protein kinase C inhibitor) for mRNA level was known as a mature method to identify sexing, and then it is used to check the result of embryos' sex determination in our research. The result showed that CHD 2550F/2718R could identify the sex of chicken-quail hybrid embryos accurately. The amplication size of male embryo tissues was 613 bp and two bands in female were 613 and 446 bp, respectively. The experimental results provide basic data for the chicken-quail hybrids sex determination mechanism.%鸡(Gallus gallus)与鹌鹑(Coturnix coturnix)属间杂交胚胎早期死亡与性别分化存在着一定的关系,寻找简单、准确的早期胚胎性别鉴定方法是深入研究其死亡分子机制的前提.本实验室前期使用Wpkci引物从mRNA水平对早期胚胎进行准确的性别鉴定,而RNA提取对样品质量要求较高,鉴定程序较复杂.因此需要建立更加简单快捷的方法,对鸡与鹌鹑属间杂交早期胚胎进行准确性别鉴定.本

  2. Perfil hematológico de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica) sob estresse térmico Blood profile of japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) under thermal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela do Amaral da Rosa; Luiz André Sorbello; Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich; Marcelo Tadeu Thomaz de Moraes; Edson Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Na coturnicultura, os limites das variáveis climáticas, como temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, interferem no desempenho produtivo e bem estar das aves. A temperatura de conforto térmico para codornas está entre 18 e 22°C, sendo que o desconforto térmico pode causar estresse, alterando heterófilos e linfócitos circulantes e a relação heterófilo/linfócito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer os níveis de estresse em codornas durante os ciclos de produção com diferentes temperatura...

  3. Exigência de lisina para codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica na fase de cria Lysine requirement for growing japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 400 codornas fêmeas com peso médio de 7,3g + 0,3g no período de um a 42 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com 20 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco níveis de lisina total na ração (0,90%; 1,05%; 1,20%; 1,35%; 1,50%. As características avaliadas foram: consumo de ração médio diário (g/ave/dia e acumulado (g/ave/período; peso médio das aves (g, ganho em massa corporal acumulado (g/ave/período, conversão alimentar (g de ração consumida/g de ganho de peso, mortalidade (%/período e uniformidade (%/período. Também foi descrita a curva de crescimento das codornas para cada nível de lisina total utilizado. Não foi verificado efeito significativo para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,05. O nível de 0,90% de lisina total em rações com 20,70% de proteína bruta atendeu às exigências de codornas japonesas durante o período de crescimento, correspondendo a um consumo diário, por ave, de 96,9 mg de lisina total.In a study to establish total lysine requirement for growing japanese quails, 400 female quails 7.3 g + 0.3 g mean body weight were used from one to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with five treatments and four replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. The treatments were five total lysine levels in the diet (0.90 %; 1.05%; 1.20%; 1.35% and 1.50%. The evaluated data were: daily feed intake (g/ bird/ day; total feed intake (g/ bird/ period; body weight (g/ bird; total body weight gain (g/ bird/ period; feed conversion rate (g of feed intake / g of weight gain; mortality (% / period and uniformity (% / period. The growing curve of the quails fed each total lysine level studied was also described. There was no statistical significant effect for all the evaluated data (P > 0.05. The level of 0.90% total lysine in 20.70% crude protein diet met the requirement of japanese quails during growing period, equivalent to a daily total lysine intake of 96.9 mg/ bird.

  4. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, W.M.; Bijma, P.; schinckel, A.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting

  5. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.

  6. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  7. Sperm proteasome degrades egg envelope glycoprotein ZP1 during fertilization of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Yoshizaki, Norio; Dohra, Hideo; Nishio, Shunsuke; Mizushima, Shusei; Hiyama, Gen; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2012-10-01

    At the time of fertilization, the extracellular matrix surrounding avian oocytes, termed the perivitelline membrane (pvm), is hydrolyzed by a sperm-borne protease, although the actual protease that is responsible for the digestion of the pvm remains to be identified. Here, we show evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is functional in the fertilization of Japanese quail. The activities for the induction of the acrosome reaction and binding to ZP3 as revealed by ligand blotting of purified serum ZP1 are similar to those of pvm ZP1. Western blot analysis of purified ZP1 and ZP3 by the use of the anti-ubiquitin antibody showed that only pvm ZP1 was reactive to the antibody. In vitro penetration assay of the sperm on the pvm indicated that fragments of ZP1 and intact ZP3 were released from the pvm. Western blot analysis using the anti-20S proteasome antibody and ultrastructural analysis showed that immunoreactive proteasome was localized in the acrosomal region of the sperm. Inclusion of specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 in the incubation mixture, or depletion of extracellular ATP by the addition of apyrase, efficiently suppressed the sperm perforation of the pvm. These results demonstrate for the first time that the sperm proteasome is important for fertilization in birds and that the extracellular ubiquitination of ZP1 might occur during its transport via blood circulation.

  8. Behavioral response and gene expression changes in fipronil-administered male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Mohammed, Hesham H

    2017-04-01

    Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight. Whereas, the gonadosomatic index was not affected, and histological changes observed in the testes were reversible, particularly by day 45 and day 60 of recovery. Cloacal gland atrophy, reduced foam quantity and a reduction in fertility, sexual and aggressive behaviors, and serum testosterone with elevated estradiol (E2) hormone levels were also observed. All these changes gradually reversed during various recovery periods. Further, alterations in hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene expression, assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were also observed. Specifically, ERα1 was induced after fipronil administration, while the Vtg transcript was elevated during both exposure and recovery periods. Our results showed that fipronil exposure has a profound negative influence on reproductive traits in the male Japanese quail and exhibits an estrogenic activity that can raise the incidence of infertility in males. Nevertheless, most of the changes could be reversed after a recovery period of 30-45 days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfil hematológico de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica) sob estresse térmico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa,Gabriela do Amaral da; Sorbello,Luiz André; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Moraes, Marcelo Tadeu Thomaz de; Oliveira,Edson Gonçalves de

    2011-01-01

    Na coturnicultura, os limites das variáveis climáticas, como temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, interferem no desempenho produtivo e bem estar das aves. A temperatura de conforto térmico para codornas está entre 18 e 22°C, sendo que o desconforto térmico pode causar estresse, alterando heterófilos e linfócitos circulantes e a relação heterófilo/linfócito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer os níveis de estresse em codornas durante os ciclos de produção com diferentes temperatura...

  10. Clinico-hematological and tissue changes induced by butachlor in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Riaz; Khan, Ahrar; Mahmood, Fazal; Rehan, Sarmad; Ali, Farah

    2014-02-01

    The present experiment was executed to determine the pathological effects induced by concurrent feeding of butachlor (chloroacetanilide herbicide) in male Japanese quail. For this purpose mature male quail about 4-5weeks of age were procured from the local market and randomly divided into six equal groups (A-F). Butachlor was mixed in corn oil and administered orally for 30days using crop tube. Four birds from each group were killed at day 10, 20 and 30 of the experiment and blood was collected with and without anticoagulant. The birds in groups (A-D) did not reveal any clinical and behavioral alterations. Clinical signs like watery droppings, dullness, ruffled feather, depression, decrease frequency of crowing, mounting with pen mates and foam production were observed. Maximum intensity of these clinical signs and behavioral alterations were observed in group F throughout the experiment. Significant lower values of erythrocytes, hematocrit percent and hemoglobin were recorded. Significantly increased numbers of erythrocytes with micronuclei, lobed and notched nuclei were observed. Histopathologically, enlarged intertubular space, fewer numbers of round spermatids, necrotic spermatids and admixture of dead spermatids were observed in testes. The results revealed significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and urea concentrations. The results of present experimental study indicated that butachlor induces hematobiochemical and testicular changes in birds.

  11. A pilot study of the genetic variation of phosphorus utilization in young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Rodehutscord, M; Bennewitz, J; Bessei, W

    2014-08-01

    This study estimated the genetic variance components of P utilization in Japanese quail. A parental generation was assembled from an unselected random-bred Japanese fattening quail line. Seven sires and 14 dams were randomly selected, and each sire was paired with 2 dams to produce full and half sibs. A total of 200 unsexed 1-d-old quail with known pedigree were wing-banded and raised during the first 4 d posthatch in groups in floor pens on wood shavings and fed a preexperimental diet that was adequate in all nutrients. Starting on d 5, quail were individually housed in metabolic compartments on P-free filter paper. This started a balance trial with 5 d of adaption and 5 d of total excreta collection. During this balance period, all quail were fed a low-P (3.9 g/kg of DM) corn-soybean meal-based diet with a Ca:P ratio of 1.6:1.0. Phosphorus and Ca utilization were determined individually using the difference in P or Ca intake and the total P or Ca excretion. The average P utilization was 72% and the average Ca utilization was 63%, each with very high variation. Heritabilities were estimated to be 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for P utilization and 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for Ca utilization. Heritabilities were close to the values reported in the literature for broilers and suggest that quail are suitable as a model animal. The SE of the heritability estimates were large. This implies that further studies with a larger sample size are needed to identify genetic and physiological mechanisms that influence P and Ca utilization in Japanese quail.

  12. Production performance and egg quality of quails (Coturnix japonica during several periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to analyze the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails throughout the day when submitted to different lighting programs. In each experiment, birds were submitted to a period of 28 days for adaptation to the lighting program. During the following three days, each day - from 7 am to 7 pm or 9 pm - was divided into six or seven periods of two hours each, and the remaining hours corresponded to another single period. All birds were submitted to the same management practices, and received water and feed ad libitum. The experimental diet was formulated according to NRC (1994 standards. It was observed lower feed intake in the period of 9 pm to 7 am, and a higher incidence of lay from 3 pm to 7 pm, as opposite to hens, which peak of egg laying occurs during the morning. Some controversial results were found among experiments as to eggshell quality during the different periods of the day. Variation on the lighting program had little influence on the other performance and egg quality parameters.

  13. Indirect Measurement of Androgen Release and its Relationship with Sexual Behavior in Coturnix Japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico Iseda, Ivan Dario; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Gutiérrez Domínguez, Germán; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Barragán, Beatriz; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Ortega, Leonardo A.; Texas Christian University

    2009-01-01

    In the present article we describe and analyze the advantages of measuring the cloacal gland of male Japanese quail as a strategy to indirectly evaluate the production of hormones related to sexual behavior in this bird species. The use of animal models in general, and birds in particular, for the study of the relationship between hormones and behavior is first introduced. Arguments for the advantage of using indirect measures of hormone production are presented. Research that shows the corre...

  14. Anatomical and neurochemical definition of the nucleus of the stria terminalis in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, N; Balthazart, J; Absil, P; Grossmann, R; Mülhbauer, E; Viglietti-Panzica, C; Panzica, G C

    1998-06-29

    This study in birds provides anatomical, immunohistochemical, and hodological data on a prosencephalic region in which the nomenclature is still a matter of discussion. In quail, this region is located just dorsal to the anterior commissure and extends from the level of the medial part of the preoptic area at its most rostral end to the caudal aspects of the nucleus preopticus medialis. At this caudal level, it reaches its maximal elongation and extends from the ventral tip of the lateral ventricles to the dorsolateral aspects of the paraventricular nucleus. This area contains aromatase-immunoreactive cells and a sexually dimorphic population of small, vasotocinergic neurons. The Nissl staining of adjacent sections revealed the presence of a cluster of intensely stained cells outlining the same region delineated by the vasotocin-immunoreactive structures. Cytoarchitectonic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization data support the notion that this area is similar and is probably homologous to the medial part of the nucleus of the stria terminalis of the mammalian brain. The present data provide a clear definition of this nucleus in quail: They show for the first time the presence of sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic neurons in this region of the quail brain and provide the first detailed description of this region in an avian species.

  15. Nocturnal plasma levels of melatonin in quails (Coturnix japonica injected with l-5-hydroxy-tryptophan

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    LC. Reis

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the influence of the systemic administration of l-5-hydroxy-tryptophan (L-HTP on the plasma levels of melatonin during the dark period in quails. Throughout daylight, the plasma levels of melatonin did not differ significantly, oscillating between 110.2 ± 15.8 pg.mL-1 and 157.4 ± 34.8 pg.mL-1, from 8 to 16 hours. L-HTP (25 mg.kg-1, through the intracelomic route administered at 18 hours lessened significantly the nocturnal increase of the plasma levels of melatonin (controls, 327.3 ± 20.1 and 315.8 ± 20.9 pg.mL-1 vs. 242.1 ± 24.8 and 217.5 ± 21 pg.mL-1, respectively, at 20 and 24 hours, P < 0.05. The results obtained showed that the administration of LHTP reduced the nocturnal melatonin release, possibly by bringing about an increase in serotonin synthesis and synaptic release in the pineal. Therefore, the serotoninergic transmission from the raphe towards the pineal would constitute a mechanism of modulation of the synthesis and melatonin release in quails.

  16. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  17. Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, John; Beckstead, Robert B; Payne, Jason; Singh, Rakesh K; Mohan, Anand

    2015-08-15

    Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey.

  18. Validation of a disease model in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with the use of Escherichia coli serogroup O2 isolated from a turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, Sukhbir; Smits, Judit E G

    2011-07-01

    This study established a disease model and protocol for bacterial challenge with Escherichia coli serogroup O2 strain EC317 in Japanese quail. Five groups of 10 birds each were injected subcutaneously in the breast with 200 μL of a brain-heart infusion (BHI) culture containing 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(5), or 1 × 10(4) colony-forming units/mL of the test organism, which had been isolated from a turkey with cellulitis and septicemia. Birds in a 6th group were controls that received sterile BHI alone. Localized lesions of cellulitis developed in all of the birds that received E. coli. The morbidity and mortality rates were highest (100%) in the birds receiving the highest dose of E. coli and decreased linearly with decreasing dose (P coli. These findings indicate that this disease challenge protocol can be used to study disease resistance and immunologic consequences of contaminant exposure or other stressors in birds.

  19. Balanço eletrolítico para codornas japonesas (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) na fase de produção

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Marcelo Tadeu Thomaz de

    2012-01-01

    Resumo - A coturnicultura tem despertado interesse por suas vantagens zootécnicas, principalmente por sua precocidade e alta produtividade, entretanto esse desempenho pode ser prejudicado quando as aves são expostas a locais suscetíveis a estresses provocados por calor e/ou frio. Pois causam desequilíbrios acarretando perdas na produção de ovos, pois as aves tendem a produzir ovos menores e de casca mais fina. Para minimizar estes efeitos é realizada a manipulação química do equilíbrio ácido-...

  20. Milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br. como substituto do milho em rações para codornas-japonesas em postura (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de codornas-japonesas em postura alimentadas com níveis crescentes de milheto-grão na ração. Duzentas codornas com 70 dias de idade, submetidas a um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições de 10 aves, receberam níveis de milheto de 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao milho em rações na fase de postura. Foram medidos a produção e o peso dos ovos, o consumo de ração, a mortalidade, a coloração da gema pelo leque colorimétrico, e calculada a conversão alimentar em termos de massa e de dúzia de ovos. Os índices de produtividade das codornas não foram afetados pelos diferentes níveis de substituição estudados e o milheto-grão se constituiu em uma fonte de substituição do milho para codornas-japonesas, devendo-se, porém, incluir na ração uma fonte de pigmentação para a gema dos ovos.

  1. Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells in germinal disc and non-disc regions during follicular growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y; Okamoto, T; Tamura, T

    1996-05-01

    Proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells was analysed during ovarian follicular growth in laying Japanese quail. The birds were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 10 or 4 h before ovulation, that is, before or after a preovulatory LH surge, respectively, and incorporation of BrdU by follicular tissues was detected immunocytochemically. Cells labelled with BrdU were seldom seen in the most immature follicles in the ovarian cortex, whereas many granulosa and thecal cells were labelled with BrdU in medium-sized white yolky follicles (approximately 13.3% and 14.4% in granulosa and theca layers, respectively). Ten and four hours before ovulation, the granulosa cells in the germinal disc and non-disc regions of the third largest yellow yolky follicle (F3) were labelled with BrdU (approximately 8.4% and 9.4% in germinal disc; 6.1% and 9.0% in the non-disc region), but only those in the germinal disc region were labelled (approximately 5.4% and 4.0%) in the largest yellow yolky follicle (F1). The percentage of thecal cells labelled with BrdU 4 h before ovulation was significantly higher than the percentage labelled 10 h before ovulation, and was higher in F3 (approximately 11.7%) than in F1 follicles (approximately 5.4%) 4 h before ovulation. These results show that proliferation of granulosa and thecal cells occurs in both germinal disc and non-disc regions in growing follicles, but when a follicle matures proliferation is reduced and in the case of granulosa cells it is restricted to the germinal disc region.

  2. The effects on steroidogenesis and histopathology of adult male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) testis following pre-pubertal exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Umar M; Madekurozwa, Mary-Catherine; Groenewald, Herman B; Aire, Tom A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of 30-day dietary (pre-pubertal) exposure to different doses (0 (control), 1, 10, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day) of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on Leydig cells of adult male Japanese quails by quantifying the transcript levels for P450 side-chain cleavage (p450scc), P450c17 (CYP17), and 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd) using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, the plasma testosterone levels were analysed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and testis was examined for evidence of gross pathology and histopathology. Our data showed that pre-pubertal exposure to DBP produced alterations in testicular architecture as evident by poorly developed or mis-shaped testis, and altered spermatogenesis due to tubular degeneration and atrophy of seminiferous tubules especially in the high DBP dose (200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. In addition, DBP altered several key enzymes involved in testicular steroidogenesis pathways in an apparent dose-dependent manner. For example, biphasic effects of DBP were observed for P450scc and 3β-hsd mRNA, that were generally increasing at low dose 10 mg/kg, and thereafter, an apparent dose-dependent decrease between 50 and 400mg/kg. The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein was at the lowest detectable limits and therefore not quantifiable. These effects did not parallel the non-significant changes observed for plasma testosterone levels. The present data is consistent with previous reports showing that DBP modulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis in several species, with a potential negative effect on reproduction in those avian species that are vulnerable to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  3. NÍVEIS DE SAL COMUM EM RAÇÕES DE CODORNAS JAPONESAS (Coturnix coturnix japonica EM FINAL DE PRODUÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mary Scatolini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de adição de sal, visando otimizar a produção e qualidade dos ovos de codornas em período final de produção. Utilizaram-se 192 codornas japonesas, em produção, com 54 semanas de idade no início do experimento, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações isoprotéicas e isocalóricas foram balanceadas com a adição de 0,15%, 0,25%, 0,35% e 0,45% de sal comum de modo a fornecer 0,10%; 0,14%; 0,18% e 0,22% de sódio na ração. Analisaram-se os dados utilizando o procedimento GLM do SAS (1999 e para diferenciar as médias,quando necessário, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Não se constataram diferenças estatísticas (P>0,05 para peso médio dos ovos (g, percentagem de postura (%, massa de ovos (g/ave/dia, consumo de ração (g, conversão alimentar por dúzia, gravidade específica, índice gema, unidades Haugh, espessura da casca e percentagem de casca, mas houve efeito (P<0,05 de tratamento sobre a conversão alimentar por quilograma de ovos produzidos, sendo que as aves alimentadas com 0,45% de sal ou 0,22% de sódio apresentaram os piores resultados. Concluiu-se que o nível 0,15% de sal utilizado, correspondente a 0,10% de sódio na dieta, foi suficiente para atender às exigências nutricionais de codornas japonesas em final de produção. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Codornas, produção de ovos, qualidade de ovos, sal, sódio.

  4. CONTENT OF GLYCOGEN IN LIVER AND KETOBODIES IN BLOOD OF JAPANESE QUAILS (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA DURING STARVATION ENVISAGED IN THE METHODS OF BALANCE EXPERIMENTS

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    Petar Batsalov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical indexes “glycogen in liver” and “ketones in blood” of 0-72 hours feed deprived (according to methods for balanced experiments Japanese quails with and without energy additives were determined. There were 2 groups of birds- 1-st without energy supplement, 2-nd- fed with 1 g. glucose per os (as 25% solution – twice in 24 hours. The levels of liver glycogen in all the food-deprived quails were signifi cantly lower from -6910 (12-th hour of starving-to 4960mg/kg (72 hour of starving compared to the levels of the same index in fed birds (11990 mg/kg tissue. In the birds receiving energy additive they were higher compared to those deprived of the additive throughout the experimental period. The content of ketones in blood of the control birds was 0.015 mmol/l. The same index increased to 0.027 mmol/l in the feed and energy additive deprived group after the 36 hour of starving, but in the group became energy support, the contents of ketones were lower for the whole period of starving. The energy additive (1g glucose/24 hours helped the maintenance of the energy metabolism during continuous food depriving of the experimental quails.

  5. PENGARUH SUPLEMENTASI MINYAK IKAN DAN L-KARNITIN DALAM PAKAN JAGUNG KUNING TERFERMENTASI TERHADAP KECERNAAN PAKAN DAN PERFORMA PUYUH (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Sinelsa Wulandari Sani

    2015-02-01

    the diet of fermented yellow corn increased the value of the HDP and improved feed conversion. Substitution of yellow corn with fermented yellow corn in the feed increased dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, extract ether digestibility, egg weight, whereas the addition of L-carnitine 10 ppm in the feed of fermented yellow corn improved the HDP. Suplementation of tuna fish oil 4% in the diets increased egg weight. Suplementation of tuna fish oil and lemuru fish oil in the yellow corn supplemented diets improved feed conversion of quail at production phase. (Key words: Fermented yellow corn, Fish oil, L-carnitine, Growth performance, Japanese quail

  6. EFECTO DEL USO DE ADITIVOS EN DIETAS DE CODORNICES REPRODUCTORES (Coturnix coturnix japonica) BAJO CONDICIONES DE VERANO EN LA COSTA CENTRAL

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    Ciriaco Castañeda, Pedro; Facultad Zootecnia, Dpto. de Produccion Animal de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Roncal Ñañez, Henry David; Ing. Zootecnista (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluaron los efectos de la adición en la dieta de 0.05% del Complejo B, 0.05% de Vitamina C, 0.2% de Bicarbonato de Sodio y 0.05% de Ácido Acetil Salicílico, sobre los parámetros productivos y reproductivos de codornices japonesas en época de verano en la costa central del Perú (Lima), con temperatura ambiental promedio de 25°C. Codornices reproductores (270 hembras y 90 machos) de 48 días de edad, fueron distribuidas en cinco tratamientos (4 con aditivos y una dieta control) con tres rep...

  7. The effect of dietary protein levels and synbiotic on performance parameters, blood characteristics and carcass yields of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica

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    Saeed Hassani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of synbiotic on performance parameters, blood characteristics and carcass yields of Japanese quails fed diets containing different levels of protein. In a completely randomized design with 3 x 3 factorial arrangements, 720-day-old healthy Japanese quails were randomly allocated into 9 groups with 4 replicates of 20 chicks. Treatments consisted of combination of 3 levels of crude protein (CP: A sufficient protein diet (24%, high CP from 0 to 42 days of age; B low protein diet (22.08%, low CP from 0 to 42 days of age; C sufficient protein diet from 0 to 21 days-low protein diet from 21 to 42 (medium CP days of age and three levels of synbiotic, without, recommended and 150% of recommended levels, respectively. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed conversation ratio, feed intake and body weight among treatments due to the interaction of CP and synbiotic levels. However, body weight and daily weight gain and feed conversation ratio improved (P0.05. The effect of CP and synbiotic levels on the carcass yields of quail were not statistically significant (P>0.05.

  8. The effect of different high-fat diets on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in male, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J; Pillay, K; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2015-04-01

    Poultry diets are formulated with additional animal fat or vegetable oils to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. High-fat diet feeding in rats and fish has been shown to result in alterations in the phospholipid composition and cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane, in turn affecting erythrocyte osmotic fragility. In contrast, the few studies performed using high-fat diet feeding in avian species show no changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study made use of the Japanese quail as no data exists on investigation of this species with respect to high-fat diet feeding and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Fifty-seven male quail were randomly divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet (commercial poultry feed) or one of five high-fat diets (commercial poultry feed with 22% of either coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soya bean oil or sunflower oil on a weight/weight basis) for 12 weeks. All birds on the high-fat diets were significantly heavier (p quail erythrocytes. Feeding quail high-energy diets of varying degrees of fatty acid saturation was well tolerated and did not seem to affect the overall health status of the birds. Resistance of avian erythrocytes to modification by excess dietary fat may be a general characteristic of avian erythrocytes.

  9. Interaction of specific temporal phase relations of circadian neural oscillations and long term photoperiodic responses in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-01-01

    Specific temporal phase relations of neural oscillations are reported to regulate gonadal activity in many avian species but their interaction with photo-sexual response are still unclear. Hence in the present study, 3week old Japanese quail maintained in short days (experiment 1) received normal saline (SD control) or serotonin precursor 5-HTP and dopamine precursor l-DOPA injections at the interval of 12h (SD 12-h) for 13days. At 37week of age, one subgroup of SD 12-h received these drugs at the interval of 8-h (SD 12-h+8-h). In the second experiment, 3week old quail were injected with 5-HTP and l-DOPA 8h apart (LD 8-h) and then maintained under long days. At the age of 37weeks, one subgroup of these LD quail was retreated with 5-HTP and l-DOPA at the interval of 8h (LD 8-h+8-h). Cloacal gland volume was monitored weekly up to 45weeks of age in both experiments and other reproductive parameters were monitored at 23 and 45week of age. These results indicate that 12-h phase relation of neurotransmitter precursors not only initiates early onset of scotorefractoriness i.e., full development of gonad even under short-day length but maintains it continuously (a long lasting effect) unlike control and the 8-h relation dissipates it, making the quail scotosensitive. On the other hand, the 8-h phase relation suppresses the gonado-stimulatory effect of long days but this effect is transitory. Thus the 12-h phase relation is gonado-stimulatory under short day conditions and the 8-h relation is gonado-inhibitory even under long days, inducing scotorefractoriness and photorefractoriness, respectively, it is suggested that effects of specific temporal phase relation of circadian neural oscillations similar to photoperiodic effects, are not only mediated by HPG axis but may also modulate the classical photoperiodic responses of Japanese quail.

  10. Apoptosis-mediated testicular alteration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in response to temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive performance of many avian species, including Japanese quail, is reported to be modulated by specific temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations. Accordingly, it has been shown that the serotonin precursor 5-HTP and the dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8 h apart induce gonadal suppression and given 12 h apart lead to gonadal stimulation, while other temporal relationships were found to be ineffective. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8- and 12-h phase relation of neural oscillations on testicular responses including expression of GnRH-I, GnIH, pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive and active executioner caspase-3, and the uncleaved DNA repair enzyme PARP-1. Testicular volume and mass decreased significantly in 8-h quail and increased in 12-h quail compared with controls. Expression of ir-GnIH, p53, Bax and active-caspase-3 increased and that of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 decreased in 8-h quail compared with controls. A TUNEL assay also confirmed testicular regression in these quail. Testes of 12-h quail exhibited significantly increased expression of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that differential response of avian testes to 8- and 12-h phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neural oscillations may be attributed to autocrine/paracrine action of GnIH expression, which is upregulated in regressed testes, leading to apoptotic changes, and downregulated in developed testes, causing apoptotic inhibition. It is concluded that specific phase relation of neural oscillations may modulate the local testicular GnRH-GnIH system and alter the apoptotic mechanism in quail testes. Moreover, these findings highlight the physiological effects of time-dependent drug delivery, including the specific time intervals between two drugs.

  11. Traceability of animal byproducts in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica tissues using carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes

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    C Móri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistent information on meat products consumed by the public is essential. The technique of stable isotopes is a powerful tool to recover consumers' confidence, as it allows the detection of animal byproduct residues in poultry meat, particularly in quail meat. This study aimed at checking the presence of poultry byproduct mixtures in quail diets by applying the technique of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N stable isotopes in quail breast muscle, keel, and tibia. Sixty four one-day-old male quails were obtained from a commercial farm. Birds were housed in an experimental house from one to 42 days of age, and were randomly distributed into 8 experimental treatments, and fed diets containing poultry offal meal (POM, bovine meat and bone meal (MBM or poultry feather meal (PFM, or their mixtures. Four birds per treatment were slaughtered at 42 days of age, and breast (Pectoralis major, keel, and tibia were collected for analyses. The inclusion of animal byproducts in quail diets was detected by 13C e 15N analyses in the tissues of the birds; however, it was not possible to specify which byproducts were used. It was concluded that quail meat can be certified by the technique of stable isotopes.

  12. Exigência de cálcio para codornas japonesas (coturnix coturnix japonica em postura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.247 Calcium requirement for japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in the laying phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.247

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    Jocelyn Santiago Brandão

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento com o objetivo de determinar as exigências de cálcio de codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 105 codornas, distribuídas em sete tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração basal suplementada com calcário calcítico para alcançar sete níveis de cálcio (2,95; 3,10; 3,25; 3,40; 3,55; 3,70 e 3,85%. As variáveis avaliadas foram: consumo de ração (CR, produção de ovos (PD, massa de ovos (MO, conversão por massa de ovos (CMO, conversão por dúzia de ovos (CDO, peso do ovo (PO, peso e percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e gravidade específica. O CR e CMO não foram influenciados pelos níveis de cálcio na dieta. A PD, MO e CDO sofreram efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio, sendo os valores máximos para estas variáveis estimados com os níveis de 3,45; 3,51 e 3,34% de cálcio. O PO aumentou linearmente com os níveis de cálcio na dieta. Foi verificado efeito quadrático dos níveis de cálcio sobre o peso e percentagem do albúmem e gema e gravidade específica. Recomendase para codornas japonesas o nível de 3,51% de cálcio da ração para a otimização dos índices de desempenho sem afetar negativamente a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos.This trial was performed to determine the requirements of calcium for Japanese quails during the laying period. A hundred and five quails were distributed in seven treatments and three repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with limestone in order to produce seven calcium levels (2.95; 3.10; 3.25; 3.40; 3.55; 3.70 and 3.85%. The following variables were evaluated: feed intake (CR, egg production (PD, egg mass (MO, conversion per egg mass (CMO, conversion per egg dozen (CDO, egg weight (PO, the weights and percentages of yolk, albumen and shell, and specific gravity. Calcium levels in the diet had no effect on CR and CMO. On the other hand, there was quadratic effect on PD, MO and CDO, and the maximum levels for these variables were estimated with calcium levels of 3.45; 3.51 and 3.34%, respectively. PO increased linearly with calcium levels in the diet. A quadratic effect of calcium levels was seen on the specific gravity and on weight and percentage of albumen and yolk. Calcium levels of 3.51% are recommended for Japanese quails during the laying period in order to optimize performance indexes without affecting negatively the internal and external egg quality.

  13. Desempenho produtivo de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica submetidas a diferentes densidades e tipos de debicagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1263 Productive performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica submitted to different beak-trimming densities and types - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1263

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    Marcos Barcelos Café

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da debicagem em codornas japonesas sobre o desenvolvimento na recria e a debicagem combinada com diferentes densidades de alojamento sobre o desempenho na postura. Na recria, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 3 tratamentos (aves não-debicadas, debicadas levemente ou severamente com 10 repetições de 16 aves cada. Na postura, o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial, com 6 tratamentos: 3 tipos de debicagem (nenhuma, leve e severa e 2 densidades (75 cm2/ave e 103 cm2/ave e 4 repetições, com 16 e 22 aves por parcela. Os resultados da fase de recria mostram que as aves submetidas a nenhuma debicagem ou a leve apresentaram melhor peso no final da recria, porém a debicagem severa não afetou a maturidade sexual. Na fase de postura, a debicagem severa resultou em menor mortalidade e desperdício de ração, independentemente da densidade. Conclui-se que a debicagem deve ser realizadaThis experiment evaluated the effects of beak-trimming in japanese quail pullet phase development; and of beak-trimming combined to different housing densities on their laying performance. For the pullet phase, the experiment had a randomized design with three treatments (absent, soft and severe debeaking, each with sixteen-birds repetition. For the laying phase, the experiment had randomized design with factorial scheme, with six treatments: three beak trimmings (absent, soft and severe, two densities (75 cm2/bird or 103 cm2/bird and four repetitions, with 16 or 22 birds per cage. The results in pullet phase showed that quails submitted to absent or soft beak trimming had better weigh at the pullet phase’s end, but hard beak trimming did not affect sexual maturity. During the laying phase, hard beak-trimming resulted in low mortality and better feed conversion, independently of density. This work results showed the advisability of beak trimming

  14. Exigências de mantença e de ganho em proteína e energia em codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica na fase de 15 a 32 dias Maintenance and weight gain in crude protein and metabolizable energy requirements of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica from 15 to 32 days of age

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    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar as exigências de proteína e de energia em 128 fêmeas de codornas japonesas na fase de 15 a 32 dias de idade, pelo método fatorial. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos, composto por quatro repetições de oito aves. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = dieta basal (DB com 24,1% de proteína bruta (PB e 2.900 kcal de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn fornecida à vontade; T2 = 80%; T3 = 60% e T4 = 40% do nível de oferta do T1 (próximo à mantença. No início da fase experimental, quatro grupos (referência de 15 codornas foram abatidos por deslocamento cervical, sem perdas de penas e de sangue. Para as estimativas das exigências de ganho, doze grupos de 15 codornas foram criados paralelamente, alimentados à vontade, e quatro grupos foram abatidos seqüencialmente no 22º, 29º e 32º dia. As aves de todas as parcelas foram abatidas no 32º dia, para estimar as exigências de mantença. As equações de predição para estimar as exigências de mantença e de ganho de codornas japonesas de 15 a 32 dias foram, respectivamente: PB (g/ave/d = 4,752.P0,75 + 0,843.G e EMAn (kcal/ave/d = 91,480.P0,75 + 9,32.G, em que PB é a exigência de proteína bruta; P, o peso vivo (kg; G, o ganho de peso (kg; e EMAn, a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (kcal.An experiment was carried out to estimate dietary crude protein and energy requirements of 128 females of Japanese quails from 15 to 32 days of age, by the factorial method. A completely randomized design with four treatments with four replicates of eight birds was used. The treatments were: T1 = basal diet (BD with 24.1% CP and 2,900 kcal AMEn ad libitum, T2 = 80%, T3 = 60% and T4 = 40% of T1 (close to maintenance. In the beginning of the experimental phase, four groups of 15 quails were slaughtered by cervical displacement. Gain requirements were obtained from twelve groups of 15 quails, reared separately and fed ad libitum, therefore, four groups of fifteen birds were slaughtered at 22, 29 and 32 days of age. At the final of the experiment, all birds from pens were slaughtered to estimate the requirements of maintenance by the comparative slaughter methodology. The prediction models to estimate daily requirements of CP and AMEn for Japanese quails maintenance and gain from 15 to 32 days of age were, respectively: CP (g/bird/d = 4.752.W.75 + 0.865.G and AMEn (kcal/bird/d = 91.480.W.75 + 8.86.G, where CP is crude protein, W is live weight (kg, G is weight gain and AMEn is apparent metabolizable energy nitrogen-corrected (kcal.

  15. Coccidiosis in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: characterization of a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm

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    M Teixeira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about coccidiosis in Japanese quails was carried out in order to identify species of the genus Eimeria and characterize a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm. For this purpose, fecal exams, oocyst counting and morphological study were performed, besides necropsy and histopathology to confirm diagnosis. Three species of the genus Eimeria were found and identified as E. tsunodai, E. uzura and E. bateri. The natural infection was characterized as subclinical because of the mild and nonspecific clinical signs. Nevertheless, coccidiosis was considered an important disease because endogenous stages of the parasites and a high number of oocysts in feces were associated with intestinal lesions. The results suggest that such infection might represent a limiting factor to this branch of the modern poultry industry.

  16. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA(®) -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA(®) -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Comparative weight assessment of some visceral organs in adult pigeon (columbia livia and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica

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    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The work was aimed at comparative assessment of the weights of the heart, liver and lungs in both pigeon and quail and comparism made. In the course of this study twenty birds were used comprsing of ten quails and ten pigeons. The mean weights of the heart in the quail and pigeon were 2.38±0.25g and 2.95±0.22g respectively, this was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Statistical significant differences (P<0.05 was observed for in the liver of the quail and pigeon with a mean weights of 4.53±0.29g and 5.96±0.44g respectively. The lungs from quail and pigeon had their mean weights as 1.83±0.30g and 3.80±0.52g respectively, this was considered significant (P<0.05. The knowledge of the weights of these organs may be useful in giving insight into their anatomical and physiological adaptation which consequently could be useful in breeding programmes or as models for feed formulation and nutrient trials. The baseline data will be valuable for further pharmacological and nutritional investigations involving these organs in the two bird types.

  18. Behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence that serotonin crosses the blood-brain barrier in Coturnix japonica (Galliformes; Aves

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    PA. Polo

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming to reach behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB to serotonin systemically administered in quails. Serotonin injected by a parenteral route (250-1000 µg.kg-1, sc elicited a sequence of behavioral events concerned with a sleeping-like state. Sleeping-like behaviors began with feather bristling, rapid oral movements, blinking and finally crouching and closure of the eyes. Previous administration of 5-HT2C antagonist, LY53857 (3 mg.kg-1, sc reduced the episodes of feather bristling and rapid oral movements significantly but without altering the frequency of blinking and closure of the eyes. Treatment with the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (3 mg.kg-1, sc did not affect any of the responses evoked by the serotonin. Quipazine (5 mg.kg-1, sc a 5-HT2A/2C/3 agonist induced intense hypomotility, long periods of yawning-like and sleeping-like states. Previous ketanserin suppressed gaping responses and reduced hypomotility, rapid oral movements and bristling but was ineffective for remaining responses induced by quipazine. Results showed that unlike mammals, serotonin permeates the BBB and activates hypnogenic mechanisms in quails. Studies using serotoninergic agonist and antagonists have disclosed that among the actions of the serotonin, feather bristling, rapid oral movements and yawning-like state originated from activation of 5-HT2 receptors while blinking and closure of the eyes possibly require other subtypes of receptors.

  19. Comparative morphologic and morphometric studies on the lower respiratory tract of adult Japanese quail (coturnix japonica and pigeon (columbia livia

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    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the comparative evaluation of the morphologic and morphometric parameters of the lower respiratory tract of Japanese quail and that of pigeon. In the course of this work twenty birds (ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were purchased from a poultry market in Sokoto metroplis, Sokoto, Nigeria and used. It was observed in this study that the lower respiratory tract extended from the caudal part of the oral cavity (around the larynx down to the neck and to the thoracic region. The lower respiratory tract structures were the trachea (including the syrinx, the bronchus and the lungs. In the study, all the birds used were adults with mean body weight of 159.51±8.19g and 265.78±4.88g for the Japanese quail and pigeon respectively, this was considered extremely significant (P

  20. Influence of serotonergic transmission and postsynaptic 5-HT2C action on the feeding behavior of Coturnix japonica (Galliformes: Aves

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    P. L. Cedraz-Mercez

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of 5-HT2C receptors and serotonergic transmission in the feeding behavior control of quails. Administration of serotonin releaser, fenfluramine (FEN and 5-HT2C agonists, mCPP and MK212, 1.0 and 3.3 mg/Kg induced significant inhibition of food intake in previously fasted fowls (0.71 ± 0.18 g and 0.47 ± 0.2 g; 0.49 ± 0.22 g and 0.48 ± 0.29 g; 0.82 ± 0.13 g and 0.71 ± 0.16 g, respectively. Control groups ranged from 2.89 ± 0.21 g to 2.97 ± 0.22 g, 60 min after reintroduction of food, P < 0.0001. Similar results were obtained with normally fed quails. Both serotonin releaser and 5-HT2C agonists, in a 3.3 mg/Kg dose, induced hypophagy (FEN, 0.78 ± 0.08 g; mCPP, 0.89 ± 0.07 g; MK212, 1.25 ± 0.17 g vs. controls, 2.05 ± 0.12 g, 120 min after food was presented, P < 0.0001 to P < 0.01. Previous administration of 5-HT2C antagonist, LY53857 (5.0 mg/Kg blocked the hypophagic response induced by 5-HT2C agonists 60 min after food was reintroduced. Current data show a modulatory role of serotonin release and postsynaptic 5-HT2C receptors in the feeding behavior of quails.

  1. Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica

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    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P0.05, their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05. The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05 and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P0.05. The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication as well as being useful for poultry pathologists and clinician, more especially when carrying out postmortem examination.

  2. Expression of microRNA and microRNA processing machinery genes during early quail (Coturnix japonica) embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamis, H; Hossain, M; Cinar, M U; Salilew-Wondim, D; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; Tesfaye, D; Hölker, M; Schellander, K

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are small regulatory RNA molecules that are implicated in regulating and controlling a wide range of physiological processes including cell division, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of 32 miRNA and 18 miRNA processing machinery genes during somite formation in quail embryos. The embryos were collected at stages HH (Hamburger and Hamilton) 4, 6, and 9 of embryo development (19, 24, and 30 h of incubation, respectively). Total RNA including miRNA was isolated from 4 groups of embryos (each group consisting of 6 to 8 embryos) were collected at each of the 3 stages (19, 24, and 30 h). The expression pattern of candidate miRNA and miRNA processing machinery genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that 7 miRNA (let-7a, mir-122, mir-125b, mir-10b, P machinery genes was not significantly increased at 30 h of incubation compared with both 19 and 24 h. Our results suggest that machinery genes for miRNA biogenetic pathways are functional, and hence, miRNA may be involved in the regulation of early quail development. These 7 differentially expressed miRNA are suggested to play critical roles in quail embryo somite formation.

  3. Influence of environmental temperature and electrolyte balance on the performance of quails (Coturnix Coturnix Coturnix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Barbosa Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures have a negative effect on the production efficiency of poultry reared in hot climates. This study evaluated the efficiency of electrolyte supplementation under high environmental temperature conditions by manipulating water and feed electrolyte balance (EB on the survival and performance of European quails. In experiment 1, a completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in four feed EB values (0, 120, 240, 360 mEq/kg, and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC. Feed electrolyte balance was manipulated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. In experiment 2, birds were randomly distributed according to a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in five BE values in the drinking water (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 mEq/L and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 °C. Only sodium bicarbonate was added to the water to obtain the different BE values. The experiments were carried out simultaneously in environmental chambers at constant temperatures with 20- to 37-d-old quails. Most evaluated parameters were influenced by temperature in both experiments. In experiment 1, EB affected water intake and intestinal length. In experiment 2, EB values influenced (p < 0.05 water intake and heart and liver relative weights. Electrolyte balance values of 120 mEq/kg of feed and of 30 mEq/L of drinking water are recommended to increase water intake of grower European quails reared under hot temperature.

  4. MUSCLE FIBER DIAMETER AND FAT TISSUE SCORE IN QUAIL (Coturnix-coturnix japonica L MEAT AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY TURMERIC (Curcuma longa POWDER AND SWANGI FISH (Priacanthus tayenus MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kartikayudha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were evaluate the dietary turmeric powder and swangi fish meal onsize of muscle fiber diameter and fat tissue score of major pectorales and semimembranosus of quailmeat. Research was conducted based on 2x3 of factorial completely randomized design, in which thefirst factor was 2 types of diet, i.e. RA : standard diet; RB : 85% standard diet + 15% swangi fish meal,and the second factor was 3 levels of period time of turmeric powder addition, i.e. P0 : without turmericpowder; P1 : turmeric powder 54 mg/quail/day was given since quail age 210 days old; P2 : turmericpowder 54 mg/quail/day was given since quail age 14 days old. Difference of means between treatmentgroups were analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test in 95% significance level. The results showedthat combined treatment of tumeric powder with RA (P0 : 2.33 μm; P1 : 3.06 μm; P2 : 2.98 μm and RB(P0 : 2.22 μm; P1 : 3.12 μm; P2 : 2.92 μm increased (P<0.05 muscle fiber diameter on majorpectorales significantly. Muscle fiber diameter on semimembranosus were increased (P<0.05 bycombined treatment of tumeric powder with RA (P0 : 2.83 μm; P1 : 3.50 μm; P2 : 3.24 μm and RB (P0= 2.85 μm; P1 = 3.28 μm; P2 = 3.33 μm. In conclusion, combined treatment of RA (standard diet andRB (diet with Swangi fish meal increased (P<0.05 the size of muscle fiber diameter in majorpectorales and semimembranosus.

  5. Forced-Molting methods and their effects on the performance and egg quality of japanese quails (Coturnix japonica in the second laying cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABG Faitarone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the experimental poultry house of the Research and Development Unit of Brotas of Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios do Centro-Oeste, SP, Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of Japanese quails submitted to forced molting aiming at optimizing the use of the same quail flock by promoting a second laying cycle. A total number of 400 67-day-old Japanese quails in lay, previously submitted to 14 days of forced molting, was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments (T1= not submitted to forced molting, T2= 03 days of fasting + fed ad libitum, T3= 01 days of fasting + 13 days of feed restriction, T4= 02 days of fasting + 12 days of feed restriction, and T5= 03 days of fasting + 11 days of feed restriction. Feeds were contained equal nutrient levels, and were formulated according to NRC (1994 recommendations. There were significant differences among the studied treatments. Although the treatment of 3 days of fasting followed by ad libitum feeding resulted in lower egg weight, it promoted better lay percentage, egg mass, and feed conversion ratios (FCR/dz and FCR/kg. On the other hand, 3 days of fasting followed by restricted feeding resulted in higher feed intake and worse feed conversion ratios (FCR/dz and FCR/kg. When birds were not submitted to forced molting, they presented lower lay percentage and egg mass.

  6. Effect of egg turning and incubation time on carbonic anhydrase gene expression in the blastoderm of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, P; Sugden, D; Baggott, G K

    2008-09-01

    1. The gene expression of carbonic anhydrase, a key enzyme for the production of sub-embryonic fluid (SEF), was assessed in turned and unturned eggs of the Japanese quail. The plasma membrane-associated isoforms CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV, and the cytoplasmic isoform CA II, were investigated in the extra-embryonic tissue of the blastoderm and in embryonic blood. 2. Eggs were incubated at 37.6 degrees C, c.60% RH, and turned hourly (90 degrees ) or left unturned. From 48 to 96 h of incubation mRNA was extracted from blastoderm tissue, reverse-transcribed to cDNA and quantified by real-time qPCR using gene-specific primers. Blood collected at 96 h was processed identically. 3. Blastoderm CA IV gene expression increased with the period of incubation only in turned eggs, with maxima at 84 and 96 h of incubation. Only very low levels were found in blood. 4. Blastoderm CA II gene expression was greatest at 48 and 54 h of incubation, subsequently declining to much lower levels and unaffected by turning. Blood CA II gene expression was about 25-fold greater than in the blastoderm. 5. The expression of CA IX in the blastoderm was the highest of all isoforms, yet unaffected by turning. CA XII did not amplify and CA XIV was present at unquantifiable low levels. 6. It is concluded that only gene expression for CA IV is sensitive to egg turning, and that increased CA IV gene expression could account for the additional SEF mass found at 84 to 96 h of incubation in embryos of turned eggs.

  7. The central anorexigenic mechanism of amylin in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) involves pro-opiomelanocortin, calcitonin receptor, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingwei; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2017-08-01

    Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone that exerts anorexigenic effects in humans and animals. We demonstrated that central injection of amylin into chicks affected feeding and related behaviors via the hypothalamus and brainstem, although the molecular mechanisms remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anorexigenic effects of amylin in 7 day-old Japanese quail. Food but not water intake was reduced after intracerebroventricular amylin injection, and the behavior analysis indicated that this was associated with decreased food pecks and preening. Whole hypothalamus and hypothalamic nuclei including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LH) were extracted from quail at 1h post-injection for total RNA isolation. Real time PCR was performed to quantify mRNA abundance of amylin receptors, appetite-associated neuropeptides and monoamine-synthesis-related enzymes. Central amylin injection increased the mRNA abundance of calcitonin receptor (CALCR), receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in the hypothalamus and individual hypothalamic nuclei. Relative quantities of CALCR and POMC mRNA were greater in the ARC of the amylin- than vehicle-treated group. Thus, amylin-mediated effects on food intake may involve POMC, monoamine synthesis, and amylin receptor 1 (a complex of CALCR and RAMP1) in the ARC. Together, these data provide novel insights on the hypothalamic-specific molecular mechanisms of amylin-induced food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Norfloxacin drug induces reproductive toxicity and alters androgen receptor gene expression in testes and cloacal gland of male Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram P; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Dubey, Pawan K; Agrawal, Radha; Singh, Renu; Pandey, Nitin Kumar; Mohan, Jag

    2013-09-01

    In an attempt to investigate the reproductive toxicity of norfloxacin in Japanese quail, male quail were given norfloxacin at 20 mg/kg body weight for 14 d. Then reproductive function and androgen receptor (AR) gene expression was examined in treated and control birds. The results of the present study indicate that fertility, cloacal gland area, sperm concentration, and serum testosterone were reduced significantly (p norfloxacin-treated birds. Upregulation (p norfloxacin-treated birds. Histological observations revealed that norfloxacin induces cellular atrophy in testes and changes in glandular tissue in the cloacal gland. The results of the present study demonstrate that norfloxacin induces testicular toxicity in Japanese quail. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Effect of L-5-Hydroxytryptophan on drinking behavior in Coturnix japonica (Temminck and Schlegel, 1849 (Galliformes: Aves: involvement of renin-angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Cedraz-Mercez

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the role of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-HTP and its relationship with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS on the drinking behavior in Japanese quails. Normally-hydrated quails that received injections of L-HTP (12.5; 25 and 50 mg.kg-1 by the intracoelomic route (ic expressed an increase in water intake, which was inhibited by captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor. In addition, captopril also induced such a response in birds under previous fluid deprivation. High doses of captopril (35-70 mg.kg-1, sc in normally-hydrated quails decreased the spontaneous water intake while low doses of captopril (2-5 mg.kg-1, sc did not prompt water intake after L-HTP administration. Losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist in mammals, did not change the water intake levels in normally-hydrated or water-deprivated birds. Serotonin (5-HT injections did not provoke its known dipsogenic response.

  10. Validation of the doubly labeled water method in Japanese Quail Coturnix c. japonica chicks : is there an effect of growth rate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Boon, PE; Meijer, HAJ

    2000-01-01

    The Doubly Labeled Water (DLW) method was validated against respiration gas analysis in growing Japanese Quail chicks (between 1 week and 3 weeks of age) as well as in birds after having achieved sexual maturity (7 weeks of age). A comparison was made between a strain selected for high growth rates

  11. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  12. Aflatoxin effect on the oocysts morphometry and contribution on the morphology of Eimeria bateri Bhatia, Pandey and Pande, 1965 from the japanese quail Coturnix japonica in Brazil Efeito da aflatoxina sobre a morfometria dos oocistos e contribuição para a morfologia de Eimeria bateri Bhatia, Pandey and Pande, 1965 da Codorna japonesa Coturnix japonica no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno P. Berto; Sergian V. Cardozo; Walter L. Teixeira Filho; Ana Maria R. Ferreira; Lopes,Carlos Wilson G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria bateri oocysts and to evaluate the aflatoxin effect in the morphometry of sporulated oocysts in Japanese quails infected naturally. Of a total of 50 quails naturally infected by E. bateri were randomly divided into two groups with 25 birds each. In one of them, quails were orally administered with aflatoxin in dose of 0.04 mg/kg body weight previously. Both experimental groups shed E. bateri oocysts. These oocysts were subspherical to elli...

  13. Circadian rhythm of activity during the annual phases in the European quail, Coturnix coturnix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumineau, S; Guyomarc'h, C

    2000-09-01

    Migratory birds, such as the European quail, present an annual cycle with the following phases: moult, fattening, migration and reproduction. This study aimed at determining how variations in the circadian rhythm of feeding during the annual cycle took endogenous rhythmic characteristics into account. The birds (n = 8) were maintained under constant dim light from the age of 1 to 9 months. Feeding activity was recorded using infra-red detectors. The birds expressed all the phases, except migration. Activity was arrhythmic when they were moulting. A circadian rhythm of feeding activity appeared during the fattening phase. In males, the circadian period lengthened and the clarity of the rhythm increased during sexual development. These results appear to confirm the effects of physiological state on the temporal organisation of activity. Variations of the circadian rhythm could influence the ability to synchronize with exogenous cycles such as the alternation of day and night.

  14. Digestibilidad de materias primas energeticas extrusadas en la alimentacion de codornices (Coturnix coturnix japonicus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narvaez-Solarte, William; Toro Naranjo, Jenny Paola; Giraldo Murillo, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    .... Con el objetivo de determinar el coeficiente de digestibilidad de los nutrientes del almidon de maiz, el almidon de yuca, el sorgo y el arroz quebrado cuando son extrusados e incluidos en la dieta...

  15. Blood clinical-chemical parameters and feeding history in growing Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks exposed to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and Dechlorane Plus in ovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mona Lykke; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    Blood clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) are used to investigate physiological consequences attributed to exposure to anthropogenic stressors, such as exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and Dechlorane Plus (DP), which are flame retardants (FRs), on avian health. Japanese...... and field experiments....

  16. Genetic selection increases parthenogenesis in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Wells, J B; Young, K M; Rowe, D; McDaniel, C D

    2010-07-01

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, occurs naturally in turkey, chicken, and quail species. In fact, parthenogenesis in turkeys and chickens can be increased by genetic selection. However, it is unknown if genetic selection for parthenogenesis is effective in quail or if selection for parthenogenesis affects egg production. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if the incidence of parthenogenesis in quail could be increased by genetic selection and if selection for this trait affects egg production. To prevent fertilization, 1,090 females were caged separately from males at 4 wk of age and then caged individually at 6 wk of age to monitor egg production. Eggs were collected daily, labeled, and stored for 0 to 3 d. After 10 d of incubation, 20 unfertilized eggs from each hen were examined for the occurrence of parthenogenesis and embryonic growth. In the parent (P) generation and subsequent generations (1 to 4), hens laying eggs containing parthenogenetic development and males whose sisters or mothers exhibited parthenogenesis were used for breeding. There was a linear increase in the percentage of hens exhibiting parthenogenesis as generation of selection increased. With each successive generation, there was a quadratic response in the percentage of eggs positive for parthenogenesis. When compared with the P generation, parthenogenesis was almost 3 times greater for eggs laid by the fourth generation (4.6 to 12.5%, respectively). Even when only hens exhibiting parthenogenesis were examined, the percentage of eggs demonstrating embryonic development responded quadratically with generation of selection. The embryonic size at 10 d of incubation was greater for each subsequent generation when compared with the P generation. There was a linear decrease in both egg production and the average position of an egg in a clutch as generation of selection increased. In conclusion, genetic selection for parthenogenesis increased the incidence of parthenogenesis and embryonic size but decreased egg production and average position of an egg in a clutch as generations of selection increased.

  17. Aspectos morfológicos do ciclo testicular anual de codorna doméstica (Coturnix coturnix da variedade italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Orsi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura histológica do epitélio tubular seminífero e os valores do índice gonadossomático de codorna doméstica da variedade italiana, analisados em todas as estações do ano, permitiram caracterizar que a espermatocitogênese nesta ave tem ritmo constante durante a primavera, a fase mais ativa do ciclo testicular anual, o qual, aparentemente, não cessa durante o inverno e o verão. Por outro lado, uma fase quiescente do ciclo observou-se nos períodos inicial e médio do outono, quando a espermiogênese não se completava, levando à não formação de espermatozóides. Os eventos morfológicos testiculares observados parecem se repetir anualmente, durante as estações, sendo bem típica a quiescência outonal, o que permitiu caracterizar na codorna um padrão testicular cíclico circanual, em termos do ritmo da cinética da espermatogênese.

  18. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  19. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two spec

  20. Bacteriological investigation of microorganisms (Salmonella sp. and other Enterobacteriaceae in common quails (Coturnix coturnix submitted to different forced-molting procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSC Teixeira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella in common quails submitted to forced molting. A total of 240 quails were divided at 40 weeks of age into four groups: CG (control, quails not submitted to molting; FM (fasting method; WM (fed wheat midds ad libitum; and ZM (zinc oxide method. From each group, 10 cloacal swabs, 10 fecal samples, and 20 egg samples were collected before molting (two weeks and after molting (two weeks. The microbiological procedures for Salmonella spp. identification were performed in four steps. The agglutination test, using somatic and flagellar antigens, was used to confirm Salmonella-suspected colonies. According to the methodology applied, none of the samples was positive for Salmonella spp. The results showed that 20.0% of the egg samples from birds submitted to forced molting were contaminated with enterobacteria. It was concluded that, under the conditions of the present experiment, the stress caused by forced molting did not induce infection by Salmonella spp. or increased Enterobacteriaceae contamination levels in the eggs.

  1. Observações morfológicas no epitélio de revestimento da rede testicular (RT) de codorna (Coturnix coturnix) da variedade italiana

    OpenAIRE

    ORSI,Antonio Marcos; Dominiconi, Raquel Fantin; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; da Cruz, Claudinei [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The RT of domestic quail from Italian variety showed mainly an albuginic pattern being represented by tortuous channels lined predominately by a simple cubic epithelium. RT channels extended along the testicular albuginea and penetrates into the epididymal region (ER) through its myoconnective matrix. Passageways were continuous to proximal efferent ducts of the ER. Epithelium lining ultrastructure of RT passageways showed some differences between the spring and the inactive phase at middle f...

  2. EFECTOS DE LA RELACIÓN HEMBRA: MACHO Y EDAD DE LOS REPRODUCTORES EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO DE LA CODORNIZ JAPONESA (Coturnix coturnix japónica)

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Pérez, Jorge; Ingeniero Zootecnista. Práctica Privada (Perú).; Cumpa Gavidia, Marcial Estanislao; Departamento Académico de Producción Animal Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la relación de apareamiento hembra: macho y edad de los reproductores sobre la producción de huevos, fertilidad e incubabilidad de la codorniz japonesa. En este estudio, las codornices reproductoras fueron colocadas en jaulas en relaciones hembra: macho de 3:1, 4:1 y 5:1. Además, las reproductoras fueron separadas en dos grupos de 21 y 47 semanas de edad. Se utilizó el Diseño de Bloques completamente randomizado con arreglo factorial...

  3. The Effects of Yucca schidigera Extract Added to Quail Rations on Egg Production, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜ, Berrin Kocaoğlu

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of rations containing 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm Yucca schidigera extract on egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg quality and some blood parameters of quail. Two hundred and forty, eight-week-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into one control group and three treatment groups of similar mean weight and egg production levels, comprising 60 quail each. A basal diet containing 18% crude protein and 2800 kcal/kg ...

  4. Day length has a major effect on the response of protein synthesis rates to feeding in growing Japanese quail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Watt, PW; Smith, K; Visser, GH

    We investigated the effect of day length on mixed protein fractional synthesis rates (K-S) in 14- and 21-d-old Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) habituated to either a long day length, 18 h light/6 h dark (LDL), or short day length, 6 h light/18 h dark (SDL), with free access to food during the

  5. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  6. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  7. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  8. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  9. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb, we incorporated Pb-contaminated soils or Pb acetate into diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), fed the quail for 15 days, and ...

  10. Day length has a major effect on the response of protein synthesis rates to feeding in growing Japanese quail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Watt, PW; Smith, K; Visser, GH

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of day length on mixed protein fractional synthesis rates (K-S) in 14- and 21-d-old Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) habituated to either a long day length, 18 h light/6 h dark (LDL), or short day length, 6 h light/18 h dark (SDL), with free access to food during the

  11. Perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e biometria do fígado de codornas japonesas

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Anderson de Almeida; Müller,Elisa Sialino; Moraes,George Henrique Kling de; Umigi,Regina Tie; Barreto,Sergio Luiz de Toledo; Ferreira,Ronaldo Martins

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar o perfil da aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase e a biometria do fígado de codornas poedeiras (Coturnix coturnix japonica) de 1 a 25 dias de idade. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo e o peso do fígado e as atividades das aspartato e alanina aminotransferases no fígado utilizando-se 90 codornas de 1 dia de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis idades e cinco repetições, considerando cada animal uma unidade experimental. Aos 1,...

  12. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly...... divided into four groups (15 quails each) and located into four cages for 12 days. Quails were fed with granulated diets given ad libitum and had free access to drinking water. Ag-nano were added to drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 15 and 25 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, the animals were...

  13. Impact of game restocking on common quail populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Donoso, Inés

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix) es una popular ave cinegética en Europa. La suelta masiva de individuos criados en granjas para su caza es una práctica común. Aunque liberar codorniz común está legalmente permitido, existen sospechas sobre la identidad genética de los individuos soltados, pudiendo ser híbridos descendientes de cruces con codornices japonesas domésticas (C. japonica). Los híbridos no presentan el carácter migrador de la codorniz común, que permite que esta su...

  14. Impact of game restocking on common quail populations

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Donoso, Inés

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La codorniz común (Coturnix coturnix) es una popular ave cinegética en Europa. La suelta masiva de individuos criados en granjas para su caza es una práctica común. Aunque liberar codorniz común está legalmente permitido, existen sospechas sobre la identidad genética de los individuos soltados, pudiendo ser híbridos descendientes de cruces con codornices japonesas domésticas (C. japonica). Los híbridos no presentan el carácter migrador de la codorniz común, que permite que esta su...

  15. Effect of Avian Myeloblastosis Virus in the Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Carlo; Macintyre, E. H.

    1966-01-01

    Moscovici, Carlo (University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver), and E. H. Macintyre. Effect of avian myeloblastosis virus in the Japanese quail. J. Bacteriol. 92:1141–1149. 1966.—Avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) induced a spectrum of neoplasms in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) which was similar to that observed in the chicken, with one exception: the total absence of acute myeloblastic leukemia in quail. Studies in vivo as well as in vitro suggested that the cause for this difference may be ascribed to the heterogeneity of AMV and to the genetic makeup of the quail cell. Images PMID:4288797

  16. Parâmetros avaliativos da qualidade física de ovos de codornas (Coturnix coturnix japônica em função das características de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Sousa Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to present aspects related to maintaining the quality of quail eggs addressing the main parameters that must be evaluated and pointing their importance in order to characterize its commercial quality. The excellent performance of quails in posture process depends on a complex interaction between nutrition and a variety of internal factors. The quail egg weight ranges from 9 to 13 grams and is of considerable importance for the assessment of quality. During storage there is loss of egg weight. This loss is associated with the evaporation of water by means the pores of the shell which also determines the increase of the air chamber that affects the specific gravity. The Haugh Unit is the parameter most commonly used to express the quality of the eggs. The higher the value of the Haugh unit, better the quality of the eggs. As regards the quality of eggs, it becomes evident that longer periods of storage, the internal egg quality tends to decrease linearly and sharply to the no refrigerated. The storage temperature is shown associated the rate of changes occurring in the egg during storage.

  17. Prevalencia serológica la enfermedad de newcastle y bronquitis en codornices (coturnix coturnix en el área metropolitana de cúcuta y municipios aledaños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hernández-Corredor

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In the municipalities of Cúcuta, Chinácota, Los Patios, Bochalema and Villa del Rosario, a total of 12 farm was studied to determine the prevalence of the disease of Newcastle and Infectious Bronchitis in quails, due to the scarce information that it has more than enough these illnesses in this species. A prevalence of 50.9% was determined for Newcastle and of 32.7% for Infectious Bronchitis. For what the presence of these two entities discusses in this region and the possible control mechanisms.

  18. Parthenogenesis in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, P; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2016-10-15

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. Also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin Chinese Painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (PV). When these PV hens are mated (PM), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (CM) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. However, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in PM hens, reduces hatchability due to infertility and altered albumen characteristics. Sperm-egg penetration (SEP) holes are indicative of true fertilization and may be useful in identifying if eggs from PM hens exhibit a decrease in fertility versus CM hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if parthenogenesis in PM hens (1) decreases SEP, (2) alters albumen characteristics similar to parthenogenesis in eggs from PV hens, and (3) yields albumen characteristics similar to fertilized eggs containing early mortality. Daily, PV and PM eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 10 days, then broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis and albumen characteristics. Also daily, fresh PM and CM quail eggs were macroscopically examined to determine if an egg was infertile with no embryonic development, parthenogenetic, or fertile. Each of these eggs was then microscopically examined for SEP. For both PV and PM incubated eggs, parthenogenesis decreased albumen pH, O2, and protein concentrations yet increased Ca(2+) and CO2 concentrations versus eggs with no development. For incubated PM eggs, albumen pH and O2 were lower, yet CO2 was higher for eggs containing parthenogens or early dead embryos versus infertile eggs. For SEP, fresh eggs classified as infertile or parthenogenetic from PM and CM hens had similar SEP holes but only one sixth as many SEP holes as eggs classified as fertilized. Eggs from CM hens had 3.5 times as many SEP holes as PM eggs. In conclusion, parthenogenesis that occurs in mated quail hens inhibits fertility and alters albumen characteristics similarly to parthenogenesis in unfertilized eggs and early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs.

  19. The potential use of porphyrins as nondestructive biomarker of contaminant exposure in bird populations; L`uso delle porfirine come biomarker non distruttivo di esposizione in popolazioni aviarie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena, Univ. (Italy). Dip. Biologia Ambientale

    1998-02-01

    In this work the potential use of porphyrins as nondestructive biomarker of contaminant exposure in bird populations was investigated. Three laboratory experiments were carried out using Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) treated with PCBs, methylmercury, hexachlorobenzene and lead (porphyrins were measured in liver and excreta). For the field validation of this approach two studies were carried out on excreta of colonial and fish eating birds. Porphyrins are confirmed to be suitable biomarkers of PCBs, MeHg and HCB exposure in birds, having also shown for the first two a response-dose relationship and a correlation between destructive and nondestructive samples. [Italiano] In questo lavoro viene proposto l`uso delle porfirie come biomarker non distruttivo di esposizione a contaminanti ambientali in popolazioni di uccelli. Lo studio si e` articolato in tre esperimenti di laboratorio su quaglie gaipponesi (Coturnix coturnix japonica) trattate con PCBs, metilmercurio (MeHg), esaclorobenzene (HCB) e piombo (alle quali stato misurato il contenuto porfirinico nel fegato e negli excreta) e in due campionamenti di excreta in popolazioni di uccelli marini coloniali. Le porfirine si sono confermate buoni biomarkers di esposizione ai contaminanti analizzati, inoltre nelle quaglie trattate con PCBs e MeHg le porfirine hanno subto un accumulo dose-dipendente ed stata misurata una correlazione ytra l`accumulo nel fegato e negli excreta.

  20. Culture System for Bobwhite Quail Embryos from the Blastoderm Stage to Hatching

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Atsushi; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Yusuke; Mizushima, Shusei; SHIMADA, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao

    2013-01-01

    Quail are divided phylogenetically into two groups, Old World quail and New World quail. Old World quail, such as the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), belong to the Phasianidae and distributed in the Palaearctic region (Europe, North Africa, and Asia), whereas New World quail, such as the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), belong to the Odontophoridae and are restricted to North and South America. Both the bobwhite quail and the Japanese quail are used as models for avian safety assessm...

  1. Culture system for embryos of blue-breasted quail from the blastoderm stage to hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tamao; Nakane, Yoshifumi; Wadayama, Takahiro; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Ninomiya, Shoko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Makoto; Kagami, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis), the smallest species in the order Galliforms, is a candidate model animal for avian developmental engineering because it is precocious and prolific. This species requires 17 days to hatch and 8 to 9 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of about 50 g, whereas the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) requires 16 days to hatch and 6 to 8 weeks to mature to an adult body weight of 100 to 150 g. The early embryo is the most challenging embryonic stage in terms of culture and manipulation for avian biotechnology. We have evaluated various conditions for the culture of blue-breasted quail embryos from the blastoderm stage to hatching. A hatchability rate of 26% (10/39) is among the best of the various culture conditions examined in the present study and the embryo culture system should facilitate advances in avian biotechnology.

  2. Diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning in birds: Effects of environmental temperature and underfeeding on cholinesterase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity has been used extensively to monitor exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides in wild birds. A series of factorial experiments was conducted to assess the extent to which noncontaminant-related environmental conditions might affect brain ChE activity and thereby confound the diagnosis of OP and CB intoxication. Underfeeding (restricting intake to 50% of control for 21 d or fasting for 1-3 d) or exposure to elevated temperature (36 + 1?C for 1 d) caused only slight reductions (10-17%) in brain AChE activity in adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). This degree of 'reduction' in brain AChE activity is considerably less than the 50% 'inhibition' criterion employed in the diagnosis of insecticide-induced mortality, but nevertheless approaches the 20% 'inhibition' level used as a conservative estimate of sublethal exposure to a known insecticide application.

  3. EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA DE ESTOCAGEM SOBRE A QUALIDADE INTERNA DE OVOS DE CODORNA ARMAZENADOS DURANTE 21 DIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hirasilva Borba Alves de SOUZA; Pedro Alves de SOUZA

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: Com a finalidade de verificar o efeito da temperatura sobre a qualidade de ovos de codorna (Coturnix coturnix japonica), foi realizado um experimento utilizando 1.440 ovos, distribuídos em 2 tratamentos (refrigeração e ambiente) com 5 repetições e 36 ovos por parcela. Semanalmente, ou seja, após períodos de 0, 7, 14 e 21 dias, foram determinados: Unidade Haugh, índice gema, pH do albúmen e da gema, relação ovo/albumina, ovo/gema e ovo/casca; e perda de peso. M...

  4. Classification of the coefficients of variation of parameters evaluated in Japanese quail experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHV Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a classification range of the coefficients of variation (CV of traits used in experiments with eggtype Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The journal Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia was systematically reviewed, using the key word 'quail' during the period of January, 2000 to 2010. The CV of feed intake (g/bird/d, egg production (%/bird/d, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/d, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs (g/dozen, feed conversion ratio per egg mass (g/g, and egg specific gravity (g/mL were collected. For each parameter, CV were classified using the following median (MD and pseudo-sigma (PS ratio as follows: low (CV MD + 2PS. According to the results, it was concluded that each parameter has a specific classification range that should be taken into account when evaluating experimental precision.

  5. Quantitative HPLC of pigments of irregularly coloured eggshells: application to aliquots of powdered shell from quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchein, A

    2012-12-01

    Twelve quail eggshells from farmed Coturnix coturnix japonica were separately ground to fine powder and two aliquots of each (average weights 13.86 mg and 51.90 mg) were extracted with formic acid. Biliverdin (38-284 pmol/mg) and protoporphyrin (841-1666 pmol/mg) were measured by HPLC. There was good agreement between the values for the corresponding samples and with those for two entire eggshells from the same source. The preparation of a homogenate as a powder from heterogeneously pigmented eggshells has the advantage that not all of the sample needs to be initially extracted for analysis and residual material can be stored in a stable form and used for repeat measurements and for longitudinal studies.

  6. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  7. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  8. Anthranilic acid derivatives from Inula japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jiang Qin; Hui Zi Jin; Jian Jun Fu; Xiao Jia Hu; Yan Zhu; Yun Heng Shen; Shi Kai Yan; Wei Dong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Three new anthranilic acid derivatives, N-heneicosanoylanthranilic acid (1b), N-tricosanoylanthranilic acid (1d), N-tetra-cosanoylanthranilic acid (1e), and two known N-arachidylanthranilic acid (1a) and N-docosanoylanthranilic acid (1c) were isolatedfrom the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.2008 Hui Zi Jin. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  10. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos.

  11. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  12. Validation of yield component traits identified by GWA mapping in a rice tropical japonica x tropical japonica RIL mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was developed for genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to explore the five diverse rice (Oryza sativa) subpopulations (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica). RDP1 was evaluated for over 30 agronomic and morphological traits, most of whic...

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK287484 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287484 J043026J21 Q90330|FGFR4_COTCO Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 precurso...r (EC 2.7.10.1) (FGFR-4) (Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like embryonic kinase) - Coturnix coturnix (Common quail) 2.00E-15 ...

  14. UniProt search blastx result: AK288723 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288723 J090063A13 Q90330|FGFR4_COTCO Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 precurso...r (EC 2.7.10.1) (FGFR-4) (Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like embryonic kinase) - Coturnix coturnix (Common quail) 6.00E-31 ...

  15. UniProt search blastx result: AK287946 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287946 J075022P19 Q90330|FGFR4_COTCO Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 precurso...r (EC 2.7.10.1) (FGFR-4) (Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like embryonic kinase) - Coturnix coturnix (Common quail) 7.00E-31 ...

  16. Response surface methodology based optimization for degradation of align in Laminaria japonica feedstuff via fermentation by Bacillus in Apostichopus japonicas farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xitao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: This study provides an alternative and economical way to reduce the algin content in L. japonica through degradation by WB1, making it a promising potential source of feed for cultured L. japonica.

  17. Interação genótipo X ambiente em codornas de postura alimentadas com rações com dois níveis de energia metabolizável Genotype-environment interaction in laying quail fed diet with two levels of metabolizable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cristina Georg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletados dados de peso do ovo, altura de albúmen, espessura da casca, peso corporal e produção total de ovos aos 90 dias de postura de três linhagens de codornas de postura (Coturnix coturnix japonica alimentadas com rações contendo 2.900 ou 2.500 kcal de energia metabolizável para verificar a existência da interação genótipo X ambiente. Utilizou-se o programa computacional MTGSAM, que permite inferência bayesiana, usando amostragem de Gibbs, aplicado a um modelo animal, para estimar os componentes de covariâncias, herdabilidade e correlações genéticas entre os dois ambientes. Por meio dos resultados de herdabilidade e correlações genéticas, concluiu-se que houve interação genótipo X ambiente somente para as características altura de albúmen e espessura da casca. As características peso do ovo e peso corporal são passíveis de ganhos genéticos, independentemente do nível de energia da ração, enquanto a produção de ovos tem baixo potencial para ganhos genéticos se a seleção for baseada em recordes parciais.Data of egg weight, albumen height, shell thickness, body weight and egg production at 90 days of laying from three lines of laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, fed diets with 2,900 kcal or 2,500 kcal metabolizable energy, were used to check the existence of the genotype-environmental interaction. The MTGSAM software program was used, which allows Bayesian inference, using the Gibbs Sampling, applied to an animal model, to estimate the co-variance components, heritability and genetic correlation between both environments. The results of heritability and genetic correlations showed that there was a genotype-environment interaction only for albumen height and shell thickness. The traits egg weight and body weight are susceptible to genetic gains regardless of the diet energy level, while egg production has low potential for genetic gains if the selection is based on partial records.

  18. Efeitos da inclusão do farelo de sementes de jaqueira Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção, pigmentação da gema e umidade fecal em codornas Effect of the addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in dietary on the egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity in japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes do farelo da semente de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção e pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas em 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Aos 42 dias de idade, as aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentadas com rações contendo níveis de 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% do farelo de semente de jaqueira (FSJ. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso dos ovos, massa de ovos, conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos, além do peso e da porcentagem de gema, clara, casca, pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas. O aumento do FSJ na ração piorou linearmente (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of increase levels of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in diet of japanese quails on egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity . A total of 180 japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 42 days oold were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with differents levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10% of jackfruit seeds bran (JSB. The variables feed intake, egg production, egg weigh, egg mass, feed egg mass conversion and feed egg dozen conversion as well as the yolk weight and yolk percentage, egg white, egg shell and egg yolk pigmentation. The data shown that increasing JSB in the diets reduced the egg production and higher feed egg dozen conversion lineally (P<0,05. Therefore the egg yolk pigmentation improved up to 7.44% of JSB in the diet and the dropping humidity was higher up to 4.9% of JSB.The presence of antitrypsin factor is a possible explanation for lower performance on the japanese quails fed diets with increase of JSB fresh. In order to solve this problem e, it is recommended to expose the seeds to a thermal treatment, otherwise the jackfruit seed fresh should not be

  19. Composição química e valor energético de alimentos de origem animal utilizados na alimentação de codornas japonesas Chemical composition and energy value of food of animal origin used in diets for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Santana de Araujo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a composição química e o valor energético de farinhas de resíduos de abatedouro para machos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Foram utilizadas 320 codornas machos, com 32 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco dietas (uma referência e quatro dietas-teste, cada uma avaliada com oito repetições de oito aves por unidade experimental. As farinhas substituíram 25% da dieta-referência e seus valores de energia metabolizável, assim como os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade, foram determinados pelo método de coleta total de excretas. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (kcal/kg e aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio (kcal/kg são, respectivamente, de 2.152 e 2.142 para a farinha de carne e ossos; de 3.139 e 3.137 para a farinha de penas; de 2.658 e 2.651 para a farinha de peixe; e de 3.692 e 3.668 para a farinha de vísceras de aves. Os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade são de 60,51% para farinha de carne e ossos; 59,25% para a farinha de penas; 64,09% para farinha de peixe; e 78,64% para a farinha de vísceras de aves.It was evaluated the chemical composition and energy values of slaughterhouse by-product meal for male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. It was used 320 male quails at 32 days of age, distributed in a complete random experimental design, with five diets (one reference diet and four test diets, each one evaluated with eight replicates with eight birds per experimental unity. Meals replaced 25% of the reference diet and their metabolizable energy values as well as their metabolizability coefficients were determined by using the total excreta method collection. Values of apparent metabolizable energy (kcal/kg and apparent energy corrected for nitrogen balance (kcal/kg are, respectively, 2,152 and 2,142 for meat and bone meal; 3,139 and 3,137 for feather meal; 2,658 and 2,651 for fish meal and 3,692 and 3,668 for

  20. Immunosuppressive activities of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanbin; Li, Zhien; Zhou, Gefei; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong

    2003-12-01

    Effects of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and the serum levels of IgG, IgM, complement C3 and C4 were investigated in the present study. Results showed that oral administration of fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/(kg· d) for 9 days before the hapten challenge significantly inhibited 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; and also inhibited the humoral immunity. Serum C3 and C4 levels were markedly reduced by fucoidan at dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg; and serum IgG and IgM levels were reduced by fucoidan at dose of 300mg/kg. The inhibitory effects of fucoidan on delayed-type hypersensitivity suggested that it may be potential medication for chronic inflammatory diseases in the future.

  1. A transformation model for Laminaria Japonica (Phaeophyta, Laminariales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng; Li, Xin-Ping; Wang, Xi-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    A genetic transformation model for the seaweed Laminaria japonica mainly includes the following aspects: 1. The method to introduce foreign genes into the kelp, L. japonica Biolistic bombardment has been proved to be an effective method to bombard foreign DNA through cell walls into intact cells of both sporophytes and gametophytes. The expression of cat and lacZ was detected in regenerated sporophytes, which suggests that this method could induce random integration of foreign genes. Promoters to drive gene expression

  2. Review and Prospect on Japonica Hybrid Rice Research in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-quan; WANG Shou-hai; WANG De-zheng; LUO Yan-chang; ZHANG Pei-jiang; WU Shuang; DU Shi-yun; XU Chuan-wan

    2005-01-01

    The breeding history and commercial exploitation of japonica hybrid rice in Anhui Province, China over the last threedecades were reviewed. Besides, the bottleneck problems restricting the development of japonica hybrid rice in China weresummarized, and corresponding technological countermeasures were proposed.

  3. Traditional Applications and Phytochemical Investigations of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandigawad Annapurna M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lonicera japonica (Honeysuckle Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae is one of the oldest medicinal plants in known history. Sometimes referred to woodbine was once used widely to treat urinary complaints, asthma etc. Lonicera japonica is an ingredient of herbal tea and has been known thousands of years for its cooling and detoxification effects. According to the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, honeysuckle is taken orally for digestive disorders, enteritis, dysentery, urinary disorders, headache, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant tumors etc. The objective of the present study is to identify the phytochemical constituents of Lonicera japonica in order to understand the nature of the principle components responsible for its medicinal property. Gas chromatography/Mass spectroscopy (GC/MS system was employed to provide a rapid method to make characterization of the bioactive compounds present in the hydroethanolic extract from Lonicera japonica Flowers. Ethanolic extract of flower oil of Lonicera japonica evidenced the presence of multiple components in the extract. The structures of thirty seven compounds found in the hydroethanolic flower oil were suggested mainly by MS data, reference compounds and available mass spectra data in the literature. Flavanoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, terpenes and steroids were found as the main constituents.

  4. Relationship of Parental Indica-Japonica Indexes with Yield and Grain Quality Traits of Japonica Hybrid Rice in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-rong; QIU Fu-lin; HUA Ze-tian; DAI Gui-jin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the main parents (10 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) and their 100 combinations of japonica hybrid rice in northern China as materials, the relationships of parental indica-japonica indexes determined by the methods of the Cheng's index as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with yield and grain quality traits of hybrid rice were studied. For the parents, the Cheng's index (Chi) ranged from 13.5 to 19.3 and the indica index in SSR markers (ADi) were from 0.12 to 0.38. The classification of parents by Chi was not completely consistent with that by ADi. The Chi of male parent was more closely related to hybrid traits than that of female parent, as contrasted to ADi. At the same time, the difference between parents (PD) in Chi was more closely related to hybrid traits than that in ADi. The indica-japonica indexes of parents and their difference between parents appeared quadratic relationship to hybrid traits with the critical extremum. The directions of the correlation of indica-japonica indexes of parents and their differences with hybrid yield traits were on the opposition to those with hybrid grain quality traits. Therefore, the female parent should match the male parent moderately in indica-japonica index to obtain the optimum of hybrid traits, high yield as well as good quality.

  5. Expression of indica rice resistant sources to Brown planthopper(BPH) in indica-japonica hybrids and their utillzation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTibin; XUSuoshun; GUFulin

    1992-01-01

    We studied the genetic mode in transferring BPH-resistance genes from indica varieties to japonica varieties January 1988 to December 1989 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Indica varieties selected on a basis of BPH-resistance genes, i.e., Yankeng 2 (japonica), 02428 (japonica), 40316 (indica-japonica progeny),

  6. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqun; LI Pengcheng; FAN Shoujin

    2008-01-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis.The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically.The results show that:(1) among the six organic solvents,acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85mg/g (calculated with dry L.japonica).

  7. The genetic link between the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and the chicken and junglefowls of the genus Gallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumihito, A; Miyake, T; Takada, M; Ohno, S; Kondo, N

    1995-11-21

    Further comparison of mitochondrial control-region DNA base sequences of 16 avian species belonging to the subfamily Phasianinae revealed the following: (i) Generalized perdicine birds (quails and partridges) are of ancient lineages. Even the closest pair, the common quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and the Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), maintained only 85.71% identity. (ii) The 12 species of phasianine birds previously and presently studied belonged to three distinct branches. The first branch was made exclusively of members of the genus Gallus, while the second branch was made of pheasants of the genera Phasianus, Chrysolophus, and Syrmaticus. Gallopheasants of the genus Lophura were distant cousins to these pheasants. The great argus (Argusianus argus) and peafowls of the genus Pavo constituted the third branch. The position of peacock-pheasants of the genus Polyplectron in the third branch was similar to that of the genus Lophura in the second branch. Members of the fourth phasianine branch, such as tragopans and monals, were not included in the present study. (iii) The one perdicine species, Bambusicola thoracica, was more closely related to phasianine genera Gallus and Pavo than to members of other perdicine genera. The above might indicate that Bambusicola belong to one-stem perdicine lineage that later splits into two sublineages that yielded phasianine birds, one evolving to Gallus, and the other differentiating toward Pavo and its allies.

  8. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Lentil Byproduct on Performance and Oxidative Stability of Eggs in Laying Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty-eight 11-week-old laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica were fed one of the following three diets: (1 control: basal diet with no lentil (Lens culinaris L. byproduct; (2 inclusion of 10% lentil byproduct; (3 inclusion of 20% lentil byproduct. In the recent years, colour sorting machines are used in order to separate red lentils according to their colours. The goal is to select the items which are discoloured, not as ripe as required, or still with hull even after dehulling of lentil seed. During the sorting, a new byproduct called “sorting byproduct” leftover is obtained. The byproduct is cleaner and is of a higher quality than other lentil byproducts. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of different levels of lentil byproduct on laying quail performance. The experimental treatment included 10% or 20% lentil byproduct in the diet, and this was fed to quails aged between 11 and 22 weeks. The inclusion of 10% and 20% levels of lentil byproduct in the diet significantly increased egg production, but feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected. Egg weight decreased significantly following the inclusion of 20% lentil byproduct. The inclusion of lentil byproduct in the diet increased the deposition of yellow yolk pigments and decreased malonaldehyde formation in the yolk.

  9. Relationship of arginine with lysine in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Souza Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship of arginine with lysine for Japanese quails during the period of production, an experiment was conducted using 360 subspecies of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 162 days of age, distributed in a completely randomized design. Diets were formulated with corn, soybean meal, sorghum and wheat bran containing 20.0% crude protein and 2,800 kcal ME/kg. The basal diet contained suboptimal level of lysine equal to 1% and was supplemented with five levels of L-arginine 99% (0.032; 0.083; 0.134; 0.185 and 0.236% to replace the glutamic acid, corresponding to the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine of 1.16, 1.21, 1.26, 1.31 and 1.36. The parameters studied were: feed intake, egg production per hen/day, egg production per hen housed, commercial egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion by egg mass, feed conversion per dozen eggs, weight and percentage of components of the eggs (yolk, albumen and shell and specific gravity. There was no significant effect on the relationship of arginine with digestible lysine in the diet of Japanese quails for any of the parameters examined. The arginine/lysine ratio of 1.16, which corresponds to a daily intake of 288.84 mg of arginine, provides satisfactory performance and egg quality of Japanese quails.

  10. In vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landfill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimba, Chibuisi G; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2016-03-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, a standard test for the genotoxicity screening of xenobiotics, was used to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of landfill leachates in Clarias gariepinus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Rattus norvegicus. These organisms were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations (1-50%) of Olusosun and Aba Eku landfill leachates. At post exposure, peripheral erythrocytes from catfish and quail, and bone marrow cells of quail and rat were subjected to MN analysis following standard protocols. The leachates induced significant increase in MN formation and total nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the peripheral erythrocytes of catfish and quail. NAs occurred in the order; BN > BL > LB > NT in the catfish and BN > BudN > TLN > TN in quail. There was significant increase in MN formation in the bone marrow cells of quail, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes formation in the bone marrow of rats. The concentration dependent significant (p test organisms; and it increased with exposure duration in the catfish. Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste generates leachates containing multiple xenobiotics that are capable of increasing genomic instability among vertebrates inhabiting various ecological habitats.

  11. Effect of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on Japanese quail growth, egg production and plasma metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juráni, M; Lamosová, D; Mácajová, M; Kostál, L; Joubert, E; Greksák, M

    2008-01-01

    1. Birds have been proposed as a suitable model for studies on ageing because of their long life in comparison with similar-sized mammals. However, some weak fliers, such as Galliformes, are the exception to this rule. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the treatment with rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), a natural source of flavonoid antioxidants and compounds with phyto-oestrogenic activity, on postnatal development and egg production of aged Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). 2. Substitution of drinking water with traditional rooibos tea or diet supplementation with ground rooibos tea affected body weight of Japanese quail up to 100 d of age. The body weight of males drinking rooibos tea or eating rooibos-supplemented food decreased significantly. There was a trend toward increased body weight of tea drinking females and a significant increase in the body weight of hens fed the rooibos-supplemented diet. Although rooibos treatment did not significantly increase egg production in young hens, the decrease in egg production of rooibos-treated aged hens (360 d of age) was significantly reduced, regardless of the egg production levels (high - 80%; low - 20%) before the treatment. 3. The results suggest that treatment with rooibos tea positively affected body weight and egg production in quail hens and prolonged the productive period of aged animals. Further studies would be needed to address the question whether these effects are due to the antioxidant or phyto-oestrogenic activities of rooibos.

  12. Magnesium proteinate is more protective than magnesium oxide in heat-stressed quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Cikim, G; Kucuk, O

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with Mg-oxide and Mg-proteinate on performance; nutrient digestibilities; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in serum, liver, and thigh meat; and serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature. The birds (n = 360; 10 d old) were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of 5 birds each in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (temperature, Mg source, Mg level). Birds were maintained in temperature-controlled rooms at 22 degrees C for 24 h/d or 34 degrees C for 8 h/d (0900-1700 h) and fed a basal diet or that diet supplemented with 1 or 2 g Mg-oxide or Mg-proteinate/kg of diet. Heat exposure decreased (P = 0.0001) live weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, and carcass weight in quail fed the basal diet. A linear increase in feed intake (P = 0.008) and body weight (P = 0.001), and improvements in feed efficiency (P = 0.001), carcass weight (P oxide (P oxide in reducing the negative effects of heat stress in quail.

  13. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta; Zielińska, Marlena; Sysa, Pawel; Szmidt, Maciej; Niemiec, Tomasz; Chwalibog, André

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-nano) on microbial profile of caecum and morphology of enterocytes in duodenum of Japanese quail, as a model animal for poultry. Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (10 d old) were randomly divided into four groups (15 quails each) and located into four cages for 12 days. Quails were fed with granulated diets given ad libitum and had free access to drinking water. Ag-nano were added to drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 15 and 25 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, the animals were killed and samples of duodenum and caeca microflora were collected. This initial investigation demonstrated that silver nanoparticles did not influence emphatically microflora of quail caecum; however, water containing 25 mg/kg of Ag-nano significantly increased the population of lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, Ag-nano did not show any damaging properties on enterocytes of duodenal villi.

  14. GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybulin, Olexandr; Sidorik, Evgeniy; Kyrylenko, Sergiy; Henshel, Diane; Yakymenko, Igor

    2012-03-01

    A wide range of non thermal biological effects of microwave radiation (MW) was revealed during the last decades. A number of reports showed evident hazardous effects of MW on embryo development in chicken. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the effects of MW emitted by a commercial model of GSM 900 MHz cell phone on embryo development in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during both short and prolonged exposure. For that, fresh fertilized eggs were irradiated during the first 38 h or 14 days of incubation by a cell phone in "connecting" mode activated continuously through a computer system. Maximum intensity of incident radiation on the egg's surface was 0.2 μW/cm2.The irradiation led to a significant (pGSM 900 MHz cell phone on developing quail embryos signify a possibility for non-thermal impact of MW on embryogenesis. We suggest that the facilitating effect of low doses of irradiation on embryo development can be explained by a hormesis effect induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Future studies need to be done to clarify this assumption.

  15. Storage Period Affects Weight Loss of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Roriz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05 was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%. Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05 during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05 were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the quality of incubated Japanese quail eggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.

  16. Microbiological response of Japanese quail eggs to disinfection and location in the setter during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Szablewski, Tomasz; Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Kontecka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol (75%) disinfection of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) hatching eggs and analysis of microbial contamination of eggs during incubation, depending on their location in the setter. Disinfected eggshells were found to have lower total bacteria (TBC) and fungi (TFC) count. Concerning the vertical location of eggs (top, middle, bottom), disinfected eggs were characterized by similar values of the TBC (x = 1.54 log CFU/shell surface). For eggs without disinfection, it was found that those from middle and bottom levels of the setter had similar and lower TBC (by about 1.22 log CFU/shell surface) as compared to eggs from the top level. No statistically significant differences between levels were found in the case of TFC. Hatch breakouts (dead-in-shell embryos) from non-disinfected eggs were characterized by higher TBC (on average 0.37 log CFU/g). Disinfected eggs, located at the middle and bottom levels of the incubator, had similar and lower TBC in comparison with eggs from the top level. There were no microscopic fungi inside disinfected eggs of hatch breakouts. On the other hand, the non-disinfected eggs, placed on trays from the middle level of the incubator, had greater TFC (by about 0.9 log CFU/g) than those from top and bottom levels. Regardless of whether the eggs were disinfected or not, the largest group of microscopic fungi included Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  17. Effect of different dietary levels of Yucca schidigera powder on the performance, blood parameters and egg yolk cholesterol of laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S; Erdogan, Z; Erdogan, S

    2003-02-01

    A total of 135 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 9 weeks old, were divided into three dietary treatment groups. Three replicates were assigned to each treatment group consisting of 15 birds per cage. The diet was supplemented with 0, 100 and 200 ppm Yucca schidigera powder and given ad libitum to the quails for a period of 14 weeks. Body weight, egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency were not different due to dietary treatments among the groups. Increased egg weight was determined in the control group. Yucca powder supplementation decreased serum glucose, cholesterol triglyceride level in laying quails. Serum total protein concentration was not changed by dietary treatments but albumin level was decreased in quails fed 100 ppm yucca powder. Egg yolk cholesterol concentration was not significantly different among the groups but tended to decline (11.5%) as a result of yucca supplementation. Red Blood Cell (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were not affected by supplementation of yucca powder. However, haemoglobin (HB) concentration was slightly increased and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly increased by 200 ppm yucca powder supplementation to the diet.

  18. Glyceryl trinitrate metabolism in the quail embryo by the glutathione S-transferases leads to a perturbation in redox status and embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, Ghalib K; Hales, Barbara F; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of stage 9 quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induces malformations that were associated in previous studies with an increase in protein nitration. Increased nitration suggests metabolism of GTN by the embryo. The goals of this study were to characterize the enzymes and co-factors required for GTN metabolism by quail embryos, and to determine the effects of in ovo treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione (GSH), on GTN embryotoxicity. GTN treatment of quail embryos resulted in an increase in nitrite, a decrease in total GSH, and an increase in the ratio of NADP(+)/NADPH, indicating that redox balance may be compromised in exposed embryos. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) purified from the whole embryo (K(m) 0.84 mM; V(max) 36 μM/min) and the embryonic eye (K(m) 0.20 mM; V(max) 30 μM/min) had GTN-metabolizing activity (1436 and 34 nmol/min/mg, respectively); the addition of ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of GST activity, decreased GTN metabolism. Peptide sequencing of the GST isozymes indicated that alpha- or mu-type GSTs in the embryo and embryonic eye had GTN metabolizing activity. NAC co-treatment partially protected against the effects of GTN exposure. Thus, GTN denitration by quail embryo GSTs may represent a key initial step in the developmental toxicity of GTN.

  19. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  20. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P brewing yeast was significantly lower (P brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  1. Functional Maturation of Neuroendocrine Gonadal Axis is Altered by Specific Phase Relations of Circadian Neurotransmitter Activity in Japanese Quail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORISPHILLIPS; CHANDRAMOHINICHATURVEDI

    1995-01-01

    The preset study was designed to ascertain the effects of temporal relationship of circadian neural oscillations on puberty attainment and reproductive growth of Japances Quail,Coturnix coturnix japonica,Serotonin and dopamine precursors(5-hydroxytryptophan,5-HTP and L-dihydroxyphenylalanine,L-DOPA,5mg/100g body weight)were injected daily,8and 12h apart in two groups of one-day ld chick,while cotrols received two daily injections of normal saline.Weekly/biweekly observations(body weight,cloacal gland size,testicular volume and activity,ovarian follicular diameter and rate of egg production)were made until 9 weeks of age,when the experiment was terminated.Results indicate that 8 h relationship completely suppressed gonadal growth even under long photoperiod(LD16:8),while a 12 h relationship induced precocious sexual maturity and increased the rate of reproductin(spermatogenesis and egg production).It is concluded that circadian phase relationship of serotonergic and dopaminergic activity may not only determine the onset of reproduction in this pultry species,but may also alter the rate of reproduction possibly by affecting photoperiodic mechanism of reproductive regulation.

  2. Timing of ossification in duck, quail, and zebra finch: intraspecific variation, heterochronies, and life history evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitgutsch, Christian; Wimmer, Corinne; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Hahnloser, Richard; Schneider, Richard A

    2011-07-01

    Skeletogenic heterochronies have gained much attention in comparative developmental biology. The temporal appearance of mineralized individual bones in a species - the species ossification sequence - is an excellent marker in this kind of study. Several publications describe interspecific variation, but only very few detail intraspecific variation. In this study, we describe and analyze the temporal order of ossification of skeletal elements in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, the Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, and the White Pekin duck, a domestic race of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, and explore patterns of intraspecific variation in these events. The overall sequences were found to be conserved. In the duck, variability is present in the relative timing of ossification in the occipital, the basisphenoid and the otic regions of the skull and the phalanges in the postcranium. This variation appears generally in close temporal proximity. Comparison with previously published data shows differences in ossification sequence in the skull, the feet, and the pelvis in the duck, and especially the pelvis in the quail. This clearly documents variability among different breeds.

  3. Oral and intramuscular toxicity of inorganic and organic mercury chloride to growing quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury chloride was compared for Coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica) of different ages from hatch through adulthood by single-dose acute oral and intramuscular injections and by a 5-d dietary trial. Sublethal mercury toxicity was studied by evaluation of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity. CH3HgCl was more toxic than HgCl2 in all tests at each age tested. LD50s consistently increased over the first 4 wk for both acute methods and both mercurials and then stabilized. The striking difference between single-dose acute and 5-d dietary tests was that CH3HgCl averaged about twice as toxic as HgCl2 by both acute methods, compared to 100 times as toxic by the dietary method. For example, at 2 wk of age, the oral LD50s for CH3HgCl and HgCl2 were 18 and 42 mg/kg and the dietary LC50s were 47 and 5086 ppm. When birds were fed HgCl2 and developed clinical signs of intoxication, they could recover once treatment was withdrawn; however, on CH3HgCl, clinical signs often commenced after treatment was withdrawn, and then actually intensified for several days and culminated in death.

  4. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  5. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Cai

    Full Text Available Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3 had the highest (P<0.05 antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%, esters (5.24%, acids (4.87% and alcohols (2.21%. Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of indica and japonica rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indica and japonica are two main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. that differ clearly in morphological and agronomic traits, in physiological and biochemical characteristics and in their genomic structure. However, the proteins and genes responsible for these differences remain poorly characterized. In this study, proteomic tools, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were used to globally identify proteins that differed between two sequenced rice varieties (93-11 and Nipponbare. In all, 47 proteins that differed significantly between 93-11 and Nipponbare were identified using mass spectrometry and database searches. Interestingly, seven proteins were expressed only in Nipponbare and one protein was expressed specifically in 93-11; these differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and proteomic analysis of other indica and japonica rice varieties. This is the first report to successfully demonstrate differences in the protein composition of indica and japonica rice varieties and to identify candidate proteins and genes for future investigation of their roles in the differentiation of indica and japonica rice.

  7. [Study on Commercial Specification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zou, Lin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Li-hua; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yong-qing; Dan, Staerk

    2015-04-01

    To provide the basis data for the institute of commercial specification standard of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. 39 samples of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial of different grades in market were collected, and vernier caliper and electronic balance were used to measure the numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content, browning degree, milden and rot, length, upside diameter, middle diameter and bottom diameter of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, galuteolin,3,5-icaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were detected by HPLC. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used by SPSS to analyze all index data,and the correlation of appearance characteristics and intrinsic active constituents was discussed. The numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content and browning degree were principal component indexes. The length of flower bud showed a significant correlation with galuteolin content, and the browning degree and upside diameter showed a significant correlation with chlorogenic acid content. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial should be divided into four specification grades by sieved indexes.

  8. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  9. Two new diterpenoids from Rabdosia japonica var.glaucocalyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Bao Xiang; Yi Xin Xu; Yang Shen; Li Jin; Hou Peng Wang; Hai Sheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenoids,named glaucocalyxin F and glaucocalyxin X,respectively,were isolated from the whole plant of Rabdosia japonica (Burro.f.) Hara vat.glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara.Their structures was established on the basis of spectral analysis.

  10. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Isodon japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One new ent-kaurane diterpenoid,named maoyecrystal L was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the dried leaves of lsodon japonica.Its structure was established by various spectroscopic means and confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  11. Two New ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new ent-kauranoids, named maoyecrystals A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the dried leaves of Isodon japonica (Burman f.) Hara collected in Tongbai mountains, Henan Province. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data, especially by 2D NMR.

  12. Anti-inflammatory terpenes from flowers of Inula japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng-An; Zhu, Hong; Qin, Nan; Zhou, Jing-Ya; Lee, Eunkyung; Kong, De-Xin; Jin, Mei-Hua; Duan, Hong-Quan

    2014-05-01

    Five new terpenes (1-5) and ten known compounds (6-15) were isolated from Inula japonica, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 3 and 14 showed positive inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production. Furthermore, compound 14 suppressed both leukotriene C4 synthesis and degranulation in c-kit ligand-induced bone marrow-derived mast cells.

  13. Studies on Schistosomiasis japonica and Saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edito Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of the bark of Entada phaseoloides and extracts from tubers of its related specie, Entada parvifolia against Oncomelania quadrasi, the snail intermediate host of Shistosoma japonicum in the Philippines were determined.The commercial gogo bark applied to waters with O. quadrasi, in the proportion of 2 gms/liter will kill 100% of snails within 24 hours. At this concentration miracidia and cercariae of S. japonicum in the same waters will die within one hour, thus, making the water safe or noninfective for some time. At the dose 100 gms/sqm of water-covered terrestial snail habitats, provided previously cleared of vegetations, at least 90% of O. quadrasi will die within 24 hours. These measures can be practical on a self-help basis by inhabitants of schistosomiasis endemic areas where gogo plant grows or where its bark is marketed.At dilution of 1:5,000 saponin extracted from tubers of E. parvifolia killed at least 90% of snails after 24 hours exposure while ethanol (crude saponin and other extracts require at least 1:2,000 concentration to kill at least 90% of O. quadrasi. At these concentrations and the expenses and time involved in the preparation of these extracts, they are not economical or practical for large scale use of molluscicides.It is suggested that methods of extraction and purification which require little time of preparation and a cheaper but of higher recovery rate of molluscicidal principles be developed.Surveys of barrios in three towns of Leyte, endemic for Schistosomiasis japonica using the circum oval-precipitin test (COPT and stool examination in the same subjects were undertaken. Findings show that the use of blood COPT method is advantageous over that of the stool examination in schistosomiasis surveys as its prescribed procedure is simple, specific and more sensitive. Moreover, the prevalence rate it determined was higher than that obtained by the stool examination in all three towns studied with

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes; order Tricladida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masato; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We used two sequencing methods, namely long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer walking, to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Dugesia japonica and most of the mtDNA sequence of Dugesia ryukyuensis. The genome of D. japonica contained 36 genes including 12 of the 13 protein-coding genes characteristic of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The genome of D. ryukyuensis contained 33 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 19 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome from the Dugesia species showed no clear homology with either the Neodermata or other free-living Rhabditophora. This indicates that the platyhelminths exhibit great variability in mitochondrial gene order. This is the first complete sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome of a free-living member of Rhabditophora, which will facilitate further studies on the population genetics and genomic evolution of the Platyhelminthes.

  15. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  16. Genetic Structure and Indica/Japonica Component Changes in Major Inbred Rice Varieties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ping; YUAN Xiao-ping; XU Qun; WANG Cai-hong; YU Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    We used 39 SSR markers to analyze the genetic structure of 304 major Chinese inbred rice varieties,and to compare changes in the indica or japonica components in these varieties that have been widely cultivated from the 1950s to the 1990s in China.The genetic structure analysis showed that these rice varieties were distinctly divided into two populations,indica and japonica.The sub-structure of indica varieties was more complex than that of japonica ones.Among the various lines,late-season indica and early season japonica varieties had simpler genetic backgrounds.The seasonal ecotypes were not quite consistent with the subtypes of genetic structure.Twelve SSR loci with specific differentiation between indica and japonica were used to calculate the indica/japonica components.The differences in indica/japonica components among the five decades were not significant,except for late-season indica varieties in the 1990s,which had a significantly higher japonica component.These results will help to understand the genetic structure of the major Chinese inbred rice varieties and will be useful for indica-japonica hybrid breeding in China.

  17. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  18. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Byoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2(filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively. In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97% than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a

  19. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70% extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and fungal strains belonging to Candida spp. using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. The anti-pathogenic properties were studied by determining the adhesion capacity of microbial strains to inert substrate. The soluble virulence factors were quantified using specific media with different biochemical substrats for revealing haemolysins, lecithinase, gelatinase, lipase, DN-ase, amylase and iron chelating agents. The antibiogram adapted technique assesseded the synergic effects of F. japonica leaves extracts with the clinical used antibiotics for different bacterial strains. The studied extract showed the best antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa (6.25 μL/mL due to phenolic compound identified (epicatechin, rutin and quercetin. In the Gram-positive strains’ case were observed phenotypic changes in the DNA-ase and lechitinase enzymes expression. In the antibioresistance pattern profiling it was observed that F. japonica leaves improved the Kanamycin activity for S. aureus, Colistin for P. aeruginosa and Meropenem for A. baumanii. In this respect, could be assumed that this extract could be used complementarily with antibiotherapy, by inhibiting the specific virulence factors.

  20. Karyotypic analysis of Skimmia japonica (Rutaceae) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomoko; Naiki, Akiyo; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi

    2007-01-01

    A karyotypic analysis of three species of Skimmia (Rutaceae) in East Asia was performed that examined 88 individuals from 53 localities. Chromosome numbers of S. japonica, S. reevesiana and S. arisanensis were 2n=30, 31, 32 (=30+0-2B), 2n=60 and 2n=60, respectively. The chromosome number of S. arisanensis was reported for the first time. All species had a large chromosome pair or quartet (the first pair or quartet) with a median-submedian centromere in the karyotype. In S. japonica the arm ratio of this first pair was considerably variable and showed a geographical pattern. In the northern half of the distribution range, Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and part of Kyushu, the arm ratio was 1-1.2, while in the southern half, part of Kyushu, Ryukyu and Taiwan, the arm ratio was very variable and ranged from 1.2 to 2.4. In S. japonica the first pair was sometimes rather heteromorphic; however, the heteromorphism was not related to sex of the plant.

  1. [Characteristics of canopy structure of super high yielding japonica hybrid rice community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Hengde; Mao, Guojuan

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of canopy structure, such as the numbers of seedling, panicle and grain, the distribution of dry matters in different canopy layers and different organs, and the distributions of LAI and of solar radiation in different canopy layers of super high yielding community of japonica hybrid rice were studied, in comparison with normal japonica rice. The results showed that the total the dry matter weight and the dry matter weight of layers below 40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm and above 80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 32.29%, 29.12%, 13.95%, 16.45% and 100.17% higher those that of normal japonica rice, respectively. The ratios of dry leaf (photosynthetic organ) and of dry panicle (sink organ) weight to total dry weight were 24.8% and 12.8%, respectively, which were greater than those of normal japonica rice, while the ratios of dry sheath and stem (storage organs) weight were 33.6% and 28.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of normal japonica rice. The allotment of LAI in different layers of japonica hybrid rice canopy was reasonable, and the LAI of above 40 cm layer at full heading stage reached 5.44. The solar radiation was well-distributed inside japonica hybrid rice canopy, for example, the solar radiation in layers below 60 cm were 13.1%-37.0% higher, but 5.9%-12.2% lower above 60 cm than that of normal japonica rice. The extinction coefficients of solar radiation in layers below 20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 35.1%, 13.5%, 29.1% and 17.2% lower than that of normal japonica rice, respectively.

  2. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  3. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  4. Organ weight: As Influenced by color, sex and weight group in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarhyel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica to determine the effect of sex, colour and weight group on various organ weights. The birds were housed in deep litter pen at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm. Birds were fed with broiler starter marsh from 5-8 weeks then, layer mash from 8-52 weeks. The birds were divided into various groups (sex, colour and weight groups. The experiment lasted for 52 weeks. Birds were slaughtered and eviscerated. The organs were weighed using sensitive scale and the results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (SPSS 16.0 statistical package and the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Effect of color on organ weight were statistically not significant (p>0.05 except for fat weight, while the effect of sex on organ weight indicated that male and female differed significantly (p

  5. Reproductivity of Japanese quail fed mercuric chloride in the absence of vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was tested at 16 p.p.m. Hg for vitamin D sparing activity by presenting it dietarily in the presence and absence of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC) to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) for 25 days. No gross signs characteristic of mercury poisoning were observed, but some predictable effects of vitamin D deficiency on avian reproduction were manifested within 10 days. Rate of lay, egg shell thickness, and hatchability of fertile eggs decreased markedly for birds on vitamin D-deficient diets. Shell-less eggs were laid by these birds after 20 days and laying stopped entirely on the 23rd day. Laying resumed within 5 days after diets were refortified with 25-HCC. There was no detectable interaction between HgCl2 and vitamin D.

  6. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning.

  7. Responsiveness of 6 to 14 generations of birds to dietary dieldrin toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The lethal dietary toxicity of dieldrin was estimated repeatedly during 8 years of testing young bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Toxicities, quantified as 8-day LC50 values (5 days on toxic diet, followed by 3 days of untreated feed), were estimated at least 18 times per species. Average dietary LC50 values (ppm) and their 95% confidence limits for 14-day-old quail and 10-day-old pheasants and mallards were: bobwhite, 38 (34?42); Japanese quail, 61 (58?64); ring-necked pheasant, 56 (53?59); and mallard, 179 (163?195). No time-related changes were detected in LC50 values for any of the species.

  8. Effect of Sex, Colour and Weight Group on Carcass Characteristics of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarhyel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica to determine the effects of sex, colour and weight group on their carcass characteristics. The birds were housed in deep litter pen at the poultry unit of University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm and fed with broiler starter marsh from 5-8 weeks then later on from 8-52 weeks layer mash were introduced. The birds were divided into various groups (based on sex, colour and weight groups. The experiment lasted for 52 weeks in which the birds were slaughtered and divided into various parts and weighed. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (SPSS 16.0 statistical package and the means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Effect of sex on carcass characteristics were significant (p

  9. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  10. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  11. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  12. Screening on the Pharmacodynemic Active Parts of Protecting Liver of Peristrope japonica (thunb.)Bremek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨希雄; 皮慧芳; 张国欣; 庞雪冰; 吴继洲

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic active parts of protecting liver of Peristrope japonica (thunb.)Bremek were identified. Rat acute liver injury model was induced by D-galactosamine (D-GlaN).The active parts were identified on the whole extraction and 4 fractions. The results showed that the pharmacodynamic active parts of Peristrope japonica were the n-BuOH fraction.

  13. Schistosomiasis japonica: modelling as a tool to explore transmission patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Lv, Shan; Wang, Qing-Yun; Qian, Men-Bao; Liu, Qin; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Modelling is an important tool for the exploration of Schistosoma japonicum transmission patterns. It provides a general theoretical framework for decision-makers and lends itself specifically to assessing the progress of the national control programme by following the outcome of surveys. The challenge of keeping up with the many changes of social, ecological and environmental factors involved in control activities is greatly facilitated by modelling that can also indicate which activities are critical and which are less important. This review examines the application of modelling tools in the epidemiological study of schistosomiasis japonica during the last 20 years and explores the application of enhanced models for surveillance and response. Updated and timely information for decision-makers in the national elimination programme is provided but, in spite of the new modelling techniques introduced, many questions remain. Issues on application of modelling are discussed with the view to improve the current situation with respect to schistosomiasis japonica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  15. Concentrating phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Bacteria Endosymbiont, Wolbachia, Promotes Parasitism of Parasitoid Wasp Asobara japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Hirata, Makiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium that manipulates reproduction of its arthropod hosts to enhance its own spread throughout host populations. Infection with Wolbachia causes complete parthenogenetic reproduction in many Hymenoptera, producing only female offspring. The mechanism of such reproductive manipulation by Wolbachia has been extensively studied. However, the effects of Wolbachia symbiosis on behavioral traits of the hosts are scarcely investigated. The parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica is an ideal insect to investigate this because symbiotic and aposymbiotic strains are available: Wolbachia-infected Tokyo (TK) and noninfected Iriomote (IR) strains originally collected on the main island and southwest islands of Japan, respectively. We compared the oviposition behaviors of the two strains and found that TK strain females parasitized Drosophila melanogaster larvae more actively than the IR strain, especially during the first two days after eclosion. Removing Wolbachia from the TK strain wasps by treatment with tetracycline or rifampicin decreased their parasitism activity to the level of the IR strain. Morphological and behavioral analyses of both strain wasps showed that Wolbachia endosymbionts do not affect development of the host female reproductive tract and eggs, but do enhance host-searching ability of female wasps. These results suggest the possibility that Wolbachia endosymbionts may promote their diffusion and persistence in the host A. japonica population not only at least partly by parthenogenesis but also by enhancement of oviposition frequency of the host females.

  17. Complete plastid genome of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl and comparative analysis in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liqun; Guan, Qijie; Amin, Awais; Zhu, Wei; Li, Mengzhu; Li, Ximin; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-01-01

    Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl (loquat) is an evergreen Rosaceae fruit tree widely distributed in subtropical regions. Its leaves are considered as traditional Chinese medicine and are of high medical value especially for cough and emesis. Thus, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of E. japonica to better utilize this important species. The complete plastid genome of E. japonica is 159,137 bp in length, which contains a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IR, 26,326 bp) separated by large (LSC, 89,202 bp) and small (SSC, 19,283 bp) single-copy regions. The E. japonica plastid genome encodes 112 unique genes which consist of 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Gene structure and content of E. japonica plastid genome are quite conserved and show similarity among Rosaceous species. Five large indels are unique to E. japonica in comparison with Pyrus pyrifolia and Prunus persica, which could be utilized as molecular markers. A total of 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected and most of them are mononucleotide repeats composed of A or T, indicating a strong A or T bias for base composition. The Ka and Ks ratios of most genes are lower than 1, which suggests that most genes are under purifying selection. The phylogenetic analysis described the evolutionary relationship within Rosaceae and fully supported a close relationship between E. japonica and P. pyrifolia.

  18. Transcriptome sequencing and De Novo analysis of Youngia japonica using the illumina platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Peng

    Full Text Available Youngia japonica, a weed species distributed worldwide, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It is an ideal plant for studying the evolution of Asteraceae plants because of its short life history and abundant source. However, little is known about its evolution and genetic diversity. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted for the first time for the comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. The Y. japonica transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 21,847,909 high-quality reads for Y. japonica and assembled them into contigs. A total of 51,850 unigenes were identified, among which 46,087 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 41,752 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. We mapped 9,125 unigenes onto 163 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. In addition, 3,648 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected. Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource currently available for Y. japonica. C4 photosynthesis unigenes were found in the biological process of Y. japonica. There were 5596 unigenes related to defense response and 1344 ungienes related to signal transduction mechanisms (10.95%. These data provide insights into the genetic diversity of Y. japonica. Numerous SSRs contributed to the development of novel markers. These data may serve as a new valuable resource for genomic studies on Youngia and, more generally, Cichoraceae.

  19. Advances and Prospects in Breeding Japonica Rice for Super High Yield in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-fu; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, advances and prospects in breeding japonica rice for super high yield in the northern China were analyzed comprehensively in terms of breeding theories, techniques and practices. The author holds that developing and spreading super rice is an important way to enhance the overall yielding ability of japonica rice and attaining immense expansion of rice production. After theories and technical guidelines for super rice breeding were formulated, which involved the creation of new plant morphology and strong hybrid vigor through crossing indica with japonica subspecies, the optimization of combination of desirable traits via multiple crossing or backcrossing, the assemblage of favorable genes and the integration of ideal plant morphology with the utilization of vigor-major breakthroughs have been made in conventional breeding of japonica super rice. A batch of new super rice varieties marked by superior rice quality and high disease resistance, such as Shennong 265, Shennong 606, and Jijing 88, etc., have been developed and released. In comparison with the advancement in conventional breeding of super rice, progress in hybrid japonica super rice breeding is slower because of climatic and ecological constraint in northern China. Therefore, solving the contradictions between vigor and growth duration, between yield and rice quality, and boosting vastly seed production are still serious challenges for breeders of hybrid japonica rice. Physiological and genetic problems in japonica super rice breeding are also discussed in this paper.

  20. ESTs analyses of Lampetra japonica liver and comparation transcriptome with the jawed vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from the liver of Lampetra japonica. 10077 ESTs were obtained by random selecting clones for sequencing. The results demonstrated that 8515 ESTs were assembled into 648 consensus sequences, represented 2210 unique transcripts, 47.06% of which were predicted as full length cDNAs. In addition, 1562 ESTs were singlets. Using the BLAST to align the assembled ESTs, we found that 93.9% (2053) transcripts shared similarity to sequences published in GenBank databases. The functional annotations to assembled ESTs showed that the genes, involved in immunology, blood coagulation and metabolism of jawed vertebrates, were highly expressed in the liver of L. japonica. Furthermore, 8 potential novel genes were identified. Further comparing liver transcriptome of L. japonica with Fundulus heteroclitus, Mus musculus, Bos Taurus, and Homo sapiens revealed that the genes of Chitinase and Polysaccharides metabolism were more highly expressed in L. japonica than the others, which implied that they may play an important role in immunity of L. japonica. In addition, using the TargetScan, we marked microRNA target within 3′ UTR of L. japonica liver transcriptome. The data indicated that some microRNA targets were homology with the targets embeded in human cancer genes. The result seems to provide a useful clue to the treatment of human cancer. Therefore, the present work will be an important resource for investigating the functional genomics and proteomics of L. japonica as well as evolution of vertebrates.

  1. ESTs analyses of Lampetra japonica liver and comparation transcriptome with the jawed vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from the liver of Lampetra japonica. 10077 ESTs were obtained by random selecting clones for sequencing. The results demonstrated that 8515 ESTs were assembled into 648 consensus sequences, represented 2210 unique transcripts, 47.06% of which were predicted as full length cDNAs. In addition, 1562 ESTs were singlets. Using the BLAST to align the assembled ESTs, we found that 93.9% (2053) transcripts shared similarity to sequences published in GenBank databases. The functional annotations to assembled ESTs showed that the genes, involved in immu-nology, blood coagulation and metabolism of jawed vertebrates, were highly expressed in the liver of L. japonica. Furthermore, 8 potential novel genes were identified. Further comparing liver transcriptome of L. japonica with Fundulus heteroclitus, Mus musculus, Bos Taurus, and Homo sapiens revealed that the genes of Chitinase and Polysaccharides metabolism were more highly expressed in L. japonica than the others, which implied that they may play an important role in immunity of L. japonica. In addi-tion, using the TargetScan, we marked microRNA target within 3′ UTR of L. japonica liver transcriptome. The data indicated that some microRNA targets were homology with the targets embeded in human cancer genes. The result seems to provide a useful clue to the treatment of human cancer. Therefore, the present work will be an important resource for investigating the functional genomics and pro-teomics of L. japonica as well as evolution of vertebrates.

  2. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  3. Different gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in Lonicera japonica revealed by transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin eZhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The perennial and evergreen twining vine, Lonicera japonica is an important herbal medicine with great economic value. However, gene expression information for flowers and leaves of L. japonica remains elusive, which greatly impedes functional genomics research on this species. In this study, transcriptome profiles from leaves and flowers of L. japonica were examined using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 239.41 million clean reads were used for de novo assembly with Trinity software, which generated 150,523 unigenes with N50 containing 947 bp. All the unigenes were annotated using Nr, SwissProt, COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. A total of 35,327 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, P≤0.05 between leaves and flowers were detected. Among them, a total of 6,602 DEGs were assigned with important biological processes including Metabolic process, Response to stimulus, Cellular process and etc. KEGG analysis showed that three possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid were up-regulated in flowers. Furthermore, the TF-based regulation network in L. japonica identified three differentially expressed transcription factors between leaves and flowers, suggesting distinct regulatory roles in L. japonica. Taken together, this study has provided a global picture of differential gene expression patterns between leaves and flowers in L japonica, providing a useful genomic resource that can also be used for functional genomics research on L. japonica in the future.

  4. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  5. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers for the clonal shrub Orixa japonica (Rutaceae) using 454 sequencing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Setsuko, Suzuki; Sugai, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a dioecious shrub, Orixa japonica (Rutaceae). Because O. japonica vigorously propagates by vegetative growth, microsatellite markers can be used to identify clonal relationships among its ramets. Methods and Results: Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454 next-generation sequencing. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity for each locus among four populations ranged from two to 10 and from 0.140 to 0.875, respectively. Five of the 16 loci showed a low null allele frequency. Because Orixa is a monotypic genus, cross-amplification in a consubfamilial species, Skimmia japonica, was tested, and only one locus showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers developed for O. japonica contribute to clone identification for studies examining the clonal structure and true sex ratio in the wild. Moreover, five markers that have a low null allele frequency can also be used for estimating mating systems or performing parentage analysis. PMID:27785383

  7. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study...

  8. Antigenic analysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa using anti-Cry j 1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Ito, M; Ito, H; Baba, S; Takagi, I; Yasueda, H; Ohta, N

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, pollen of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa are a yearly source of distress for many people suffering seasonally from allergic rhinitis. To study common epitopes shared by the two species, two monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) were raised against Cry j 1, which is the most predominant allergen in C. japonica. One of the moAbs was found to be reactive even to the major allergen of C. obtusa, demonstrating that the moAb (J1B01) can detect an epitope shared by both species J1B01 strongly inhibited the binding of the major allergens of C. japonica and C. obtusa to IgE of patients who are sensitive to C. japonica and C. obtusa. This finding signifies the importance of the epitope recognized by J1B01.

  9. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  10. Chlorophycean parasite on a marine fish, Sillago japonica (Japanese sillago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuhiko; Akai, Noriko; Liao, Lawrence M; Ikeda, Shota; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki

    2013-12-01

    A green spotted Japanese sillago (Sillago japonica) was caught by a fisherman and brought to the laboratory for pathological inspection. The green spots were abundant on the lateral line and more extensively so within the mouth cavity. In both sites, green spots were embedded within the fish flesh and formed 2-3mm dome-shaped colonies. SEM revealed these colonies to harbor numerous unknown cells with small, surface warts (ornamentations). Molecular analysis showed the cells were Desmodesmus (D. komarekii), a common freshwater coccoid green alga found in ponds and rivers worldwide. It is uncertain how the host fish came to be infected with the alga which was not merely attached externally but embedded within the flesh and inside the mouth cavity. This is the first case of parasitic form of coccoid green algae in marine fish and provides new insights into the variable nature of green algae.

  11. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Chemical Constituents from Cleyera japonica Thunberg Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided investigation of the branches of Cleyera japonica led to the isolation of four phenolic constituents: 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid (1, 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid 4’-O-β-D-xylofuranoside (2, 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (3 and aviculin (4. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies, as well as by comparison with literature data. Tyrosinase inhibition activities were carried out for the isolated compounds using arbutin as a positive control. Among them, compound 2 was identified as a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. It inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 0.078 mM, which is about three times more active than arbutin (IC50 =0.25 mM. All of the compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant.

  12. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  13. Effect of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of Saccharina japonica populations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiuliang; Yao, Jianting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Fuli; Yotsukura, Norishige; Krupnova, Tatiana N.; Duan, Delin

    2017-01-01

    Saccharina japonica is a commercially and ecologically important seaweed and is an excellent system for understanding the effects of domestication on marine crops. In this study, we used 19 selected simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to investigate the influence of domestication on the genetic diversity and structure of S. japonica populations. Wild kelp populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than cultivated populations based on total NA, HE, HO, NP and AR. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC), a neighbour-joining (NJ) tree and STRUCTURE analyses indicated that S. japonica populations could be divided into two groups (a cultivated/introduced group and a wild indigenous group) with significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.0001). Divergent selection, continuous inbreeding and inter-specific hybridization have caused the divergence of these two genetically separate gene pools. The significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern cultivated populations appears to be due to inter-specific hybridization and wild germplasm introduction during the domestication process. In addition, the cultivation of S. japonica has not resulted in any serious genetic disturbance of wild introduced S. japonica populations. An understanding of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of domesticated S. japonica will be necessary for further genetic improvement and effective use of germplasm. PMID:28176848

  14. Independent domestication of Asian rice followed by gene flow from japonica to indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-chia; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi

    2012-05-01

    Results from studies on the domestication process of Asian rice Oryza sativa have been controversial because of its complicated evolutionary history. Previous studies have yielded two alternative hypotheses about the origin(s) of the two major groups of O. sativa: japonica and indica. One study proposes a single common wild ancestor, whereas the other suggests that there were multiple domestication events of different types of wild rice. Here, we provide clear evidence of the independent domestication of japonica and indica obtained via high-throughput sequencing and a large-scale comparative analysis of two wild rice accessions (W1943 and W0106) and two cultivars (a japonica cultivar called "Nipponbare" and an indica cultivar called "Guangluai-4"). The different domestication processes of the two cultivar groups appear to have led to distinct patterns of molecular evolution in protein-coding regions. The intensity of purifying selection was relaxed only in the japonica group, possibly because of a bottleneck effect. Moreover, a genome-wide comparison between Nipponbare, Guangluai-4, and another indica cultivar (93-11) suggests multiple hybridization events between japonica and indica, both before and after the divergence of the indica cultivars. We found that a large amount of genomic DNA, including domestication-related genes, was transferred from japonica to indica, which might have been important in the development of modern rice. Our study provides an overview of the dynamic process of Asian rice domestication, including independent domestication events and subsequent gene flow.

  15. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  16. Youngia japonica (Asteraceae, Lactuceae), una novedad para la Flora adventicia de Argentina Youngia japonica (Asteraceae, Lactuceae), a novelty for the adventitious Flora of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de Youngia japonica, una maleza nativa del Sudeste de Asia. Fue observada como ruderal e invasora de jardines en las provincias de Tucumán y Entre Ríos. Se estima que la llegada de la especie al país es reciente. Se presenta una descripción e ilustraciones de la planta.The presence of Youngia japonica, a weed native of Southeastern Asia, is reported for the first time in Argentina. It was observed as ruderal and invading gardens in Tucum...

  17. Laminaria japonica combined with probiotics improves intestinal microbiota: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Kim, Jinsung; Han, Gajin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hong-Geol; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Laminaria japonica--a widely used ingredient in seaweed kimchi--and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)--a main component of traditional fermented Korean food--may alter human intestinal microbiota composition and have a positive effect on various digestive problems. However, few clinical trials have investigated the potential benefits of L. japonica when combined with LAB for human intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of L. japonica and representative LAB on the human intestine. Forty participants with no known digestive diseases were randomly assigned to one of the two combination groups: (1) L. japonica with LAB and (2) L. japonica with placebo LAB. The study agents were administered for 4 weeks with a 2-week follow-up period. The primary outcome measure was the number of each of the seven LAB species in the human intestine, and the secondary outcome measures included the Korean version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and bowel functions. The primary outcome was evaluated before and after administration of the study agents (0 and 4 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were evaluated at 0, 4, and 6 weeks. Four of the seven LAB species were found to be significantly increased in the L. japonica with the LAB group and five species were significantly different from those of the placebo group. The secondary outcome measures did not change significantly. In conclusion, L. japonica with LAB facilitated the proliferation of beneficial human intestinal microbiota. ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01651741).

  18. Effect of alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the growth of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; TANG Xue-xi; YANG Zhen; YU Zhi-ming

    2006-01-01

    We collected the diseased blades of Laminaria japonica from Yantai Sea Farm from October to December 2002, and the alginic acid decomposing bacterium on the diseased blade was isolated and purified, and was identified as Alteromonas espejiana. This bacterium was applied as the causative pathogen to infect the blades of L. japonica under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the bacterium on the growth of L. japonica, and to find the possibly effective mechanism. Results showed that: (1)The blades of L.japonica exhibited symptoms of lesion,bleaching and deterioration when infected by the bacterium,and their growth and photosynthesis were dramatically suppressed. At the same time, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhanced obviously, and the relative membrane permeability increased significantly. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and free fatty acid in the microsomol membrane greatly elevated, but the phospholipid content decreased. Result suggested an obvious peroxidation and deesterrification in the blades of L. japonica when infected by the bacterium. (2) The simultaneous assay on the antioxidant enzyme activities demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly when infected by the bacterium, but glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) did not exhibit active responses to the bacterium throughout the experiment. (3) The histomorphological observations gave a distinctive evidence of the severity of the lesions as well as the relative abundance in the bacterial population on the blades after infection. The bacterium firstly invaded into the endodermis of L. japonica and gathered around there, and then resulted in the membrane damage, cells corruption and ultimately, the death of L.japonica.

  19. Evidence for inhibition of bacterial luminescence by allelochemicals from Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae), and the role of light and microalgal growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, Marion; de Boer, M. Karin; Tyl, Monika R.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    The marine microalga Fibrocapsa japonica Toriumi and Takano (Raphidophyceae) produces haemolysins, neurotoxins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To quantify potential effects of such bioactive compounds on surrounding organisms the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was exposed to F. japonica culture

  20. Evidence for inhibition of bacterial luminescence by allelochemicals from Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae), and the role of light and microalgal growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, Marion; de Boer, M. Karin; Tyl, Monika R.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    The marine microalga Fibrocapsa japonica Toriumi and Takano (Raphidophyceae) produces haemolysins, neurotoxins and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To quantify potential effects of such bioactive compounds on surrounding organisms the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was exposed to F. japonica culture

  1. Valor energético de alguns alimentos alternativos para codornas japonesas Energy value of some alternative feedstuffs for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Izumi Sakamoto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um ensaio de digestibilidade foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar o valor energético da aveia, da cevada, do resíduo do processamento de mandioca e da semente de linhaça (inteira e moída para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Foram utilizadas 360 codornas machos, com 40 dias de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (ração-referência + cinco alimentos, seis repetições e dez aves por unidade experimental. Foi utilizado o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas, em que os alimentos avaliados substituíram em 20% a ração-referência (RR, à base de milho e farelo de soja. Os coeficientes de metabolização da energia bruta (CMEB da aveia, da cevada e da semente de linhaça (inteira e moída foram superiores ao do resíduo de mandioca. Os CMEB (% e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (kcal/kg e aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio (kcal/kg foram, respectivamente, de 75,37; 3.425 e 3.395 para aveia moída; 75,73; 3.253 e 3.198 para cevada moída; 70,76; 2.312 e 2.316 para resíduo de mandioca; 76,53; 3.774 e 3.704 para linhaça inteira; 76,75; 3.955 e 3.929 linhaça moída.The objective of this trial was to determine the energy value of oat, barley, cassava residue and linseed grain (whole and milled for Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Three hundred and sixty 40-d male quails were assigned to a completely randomized design with six treatments (reference diet + five feedstuffs, six replications and ten birds per pen. The total feces collection was the used methodology. The feedstuffs evaluated were used at a level of 20% replacing the energy source of the reference diet (RD that was based on corn and soybean meal. The gross energy metabolization coefficient (GEMC of oat, barley and linseed were higher than the cassava residue. The GEMC (%, apparent metabolizable energy (kcal/kg and apparent correct metabolizable energy

  2. Determinação do melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas em postura Determination of the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o melhor nível de sal comum para codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica em postura. Foram utilizadas 336 codornas com 13 semanas de idade, alojadas em gaiolas de 118 cm²/codorna durante 84 dias (quatro ciclos de 21 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,20; 0,25; 0,30; 0,35 e 0,45% de sal comum e seis repetições de oito aves por parcela. A cada 21 dias, foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (postura, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e qualidade dos ovos (peso médio do ovo, massa de ovo, porcentagem e espessura da casca e Unidade Haugh. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância e de regressão e as médias comparadas pelo teste Dunnett a 5% de significância. A equação de regressão ajustada não foi significativa para os parâmetros avaliados em função dos níveis de sal na dieta. Entretanto, pela comparação entre as médias, observou-se que, nos tratamentos com a adição de sal, as aves apresentaram melhor desempenho produtivo e qualidade externa dos ovos, sendo que o nível de 0,15% de sal (equivalente a 0,10% de Na e 0,12% de Cl foi suficiente para obtenção destes resultados.The aim of this experiment was to determine the best level of salt for Japanese laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Three hundred and thirty-six quails with 13 weeks of age were housed in cages with 118 cm²/quail for 84 days (four cycles of 21 days each. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with seven treatments (0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.45% of salt with six replicates of eight quails per pen. Every 21 days, the productive performance (% of production, feed intake and feed gain ratio [kg/kg and kg/dozen] and egg quality (average egg weight, egg mass, eggshell percentage and thickness and Unit Haugh were evaluated. Data were submitted to analyses of

  3. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  4. Differentiation of Indica-Japonica rice revealed by insertion/deletion (InDel) fragments obtained from the comparative genomic study of DNA sequences between 93-11 (Indica) and Nipponbare (Japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xingxing; LIU Jing; QIU Yinqiu; ZHAO Wei; SONG Zhiping; LU Baorong

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms from nucleotide insertion/deletions (InDels) in genomic sequences are the basis for developing InDel molecular markers.To validate the InDel primer pairs on the basis of the comparative genomic study on DNA sequences between an Indica rice 93-11 and a Japonica rice Nipponbare for identifying Indica and Japonica rice varieties and studying wild Oryza species,we studied 49 Indica,43 Japonica,and 24 wild rice accessions collected from ten Asian countries using 45 InDel primer pairs.Results indicated that of the 45 InDel primer pairs,41 can accurately identify Indica and Japonica rice varieties with a reliability of over 80%.The scatter plotting data of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that:(i) the InDel primer pairs can easily distinguish Indica from Japonica rice varieties,in addition to revealing their genetic differentiation;(ii) the AA-genome wild rice species showed a relatively close genetic relationship with the Indica rice varieties;and (iii)the non-AA genome wild rice species did not show evident differentiation into the Indica and Japonica types.It is concluded from the study that most of the InDel primer pairs obtained from DNA sequences of 93-11 and Nipponbare can be used for identifying lndica and Japonica rice varieties,and for studying genetic relationships of wild rice species,particularly in terms of the Indica-Japonica differentiation.

  5. Local and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Sophora japonica L.: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xirui; Bai, Yajun; Zhao, Zefeng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), also known as Huai (Chinese: ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree commonly found in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries. The use of this plant has been recorded in classical medicinal treatises of ancient China, and it is currently recorded in both the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. The flower buds and fruits of S. japonica, also known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Fructus Sophorae in China, are most commonly used in Asia (especially in China) to treat hemorrhoids, hematochezia, hematuria, hematemesis, hemorrhinia, uterine or intestinal hemorrhage, arteriosclerosis, headache, hypertension, dysentery, dizziness, and pyoderma. To discuss feasible trends for further research on S. japonica, this review highlights the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of S. japonica based on studies published in the last six decades. Information on the S. japonica was collected from major scientific databases (SciFinder, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI), and "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)" for publications between 1957 and 2015 on S. japonica. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature, government reports, conference papers, as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Approximately 153 chemical compounds, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and other compounds, have been isolated from the leaves, branches, flowers, buds, pericarps, and/or fruits of S. japonica. Among these compounds, several flavonoids and isoflavonoids comprise the active constituents of S. japonica, which exhibit a wide range of biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-osteoporotic, antioxidant, radical scavenging, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antitumor, and

  6. Artificial selection for a green revolution gene during japonica rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenji; Yamasaki, Masanori; Takuno, Shohei; Miura, Kotaro; Katagiri, Satoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Doi, Kazuyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ebana, Kaworu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Innan, Hideki; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    The semidwarf phenotype has been extensively selected during modern crop breeding as an agronomically important trait. Introduction of the semidwarf gene, semi-dwarf1 (sd1), which encodes a gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, made significant contributions to the "green revolution" in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we report that SD1 was involved not only in modern breeding including the green revolution, but also in early steps of rice domestication. We identified two SNPs in O. sativa subspecies (ssp.) japonica SD1 as functional nucleotide polymorphisms (FNPs) responsible for shorter culm length and low gibberellin biosynthetic activity. Genetic diversity analysis among O. sativa ssp. japonica and indica, along with their wild ancestor O. rufipogon Griff, revealed that these FNPs clearly differentiate the japonica landrace and O. rufipogon. We also found a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity around SD1 only in the japonica landrace, not in the indica landrace or O. rufipogon. These findings indicate that SD1 has been subjected to artificial selection in rice evolution and that the FNPs participated in japonica domestication, suggesting that ancient humans already used the green revolution gene.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L. Based on Markers Corresponding to Starch Synthesizing Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Lestari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes related to starch synthesis and the metabolism contribute to a variety of physicochemical properties that determine the eating/cooking qualities of rice. Our previous study suggested that a set of molecular markers was able to estimate the eating quality of japonica rice. The present study reports the genetic diversity of 22 japonica rice varieties based on markers corresponding to starch synthesizing genes. The mean of the polymorphic information content (PIC: 0.135 value and the diversity index (0.171 indicated a low genetic diversity in these varieties. The phylogenetic tree clearly demonstrated three main clusters: 1 cluster I contained seven varieties with similar physicochemical properties; 2 cluster II only showed a Japanese variety, Koshihikari, and 3 cluster III included the most Korean varieties (14 varieties. This phylogenetic analysis did not completely represent the physicochemical properties differentiation of the japonica varieties, although it did reveal an initial clue to the close relationship between Korean rice and the Japanese and Chinese varieties. Notably, these markers were also able to identify a premium japonica rice. The molecular markers and information concerning the genetic relationship would be useful in improving the japonica rice along with its starch quality of in breeding program.

  8. 辽宁杂交粳稻育种有关问题探讨%On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning On the Problems in Japonica Hybrid Rice Breeding in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华泽田; 王彦荣; 王岩; 蔡伟; 代贵金; 郝宪彬

    2001-01-01

    针对目前北方杂交粳稻发展中存在的问题,笔者结合自己多年的育种实践,提出了杂交粳稻育种的研究方向和技术路线。%In view of the existing problems in the development of japonica hybrid rice in Northern China, the authors proposed the research orientation and technical approaches for japonica hybrid rice breeding on the basis of the breeding practices of many years. a) Correctly understand and utilize heterosis in rice. By way of raising yield potential of both parents and making use of the additive effects of genes to increase the standard heterosis of F1 hybrids; To improve grain quality of F1 hybrids, the breeding of quality parents should be intensified because of the negative heterosis in some grain quality characters. b) Ideal plant type should be paid more attention to in japonica hybrid rice breeding. The plant types of both parents should be favourable not only to a full play of F1 heterosis but also to hybrid seed production. c) Explore new germplasms such as japonica male sterile lines with dominant semi-dwarf genes and transgenic herbicide-resistant japonica restorer and enhance the use of them.

  9. Genetic diversity and elite gene introgression reveal the japonica rice breeding in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dan; WANG Jia-yu; WANG Xiao-xue; YANG Xian-li; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abundant genetic diversity and rational population structure of germplasm beneift crop breeding greatly. To investigate genetic variation among geographical y diverse set of japonica germplasm, we analyzed 233 japonica rice cultivars col-lected from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of China, which were released from 1970 to 2011 by using 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 8 functional gene tags related to yield. A total of 195 al eles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.61 per locus, indicating a low level of genetic diversity level among al individuals. The genetic diversity of the cultivars from Jilin Province was the highest among the three geographic distribution zones. Moreover, the genetic diversity was increased slightly with the released period of cultivars from 1970 to 2011. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic differentiation was more diverse within the populations than that among the populations. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree indicated that cultivar clusters based on geographic distribution represented three independent groups, among which the cluster of cultivars from Heilongjiang is distinctly different to the cluster of cultivars from Liaoning. For the examined functional genes, two or three al elic variations for each were detected, except for IPA1 and GW2, and most of elite genes had been introgressed in modern japonica rice varieties. These results provide a valuable evaluation for genetic backgrounds of current japonica rice and wil be used directly for japonica rice breeding in future.

  10. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Sophora japonica Transcriptome Using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophora japonica Linn (Chinese Scholar Tree is a shrub species belonging to the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. In this study, RNA sequencing of S. japonica transcriptome was performed to produce large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis. Approximate 86.1 million high-quality clean reads were generated and assembled de novo into 143010 unique transcripts and 57614 unigenes. The average length of unigenes was 901 bps with an N50 of 545 bps. Four public databases, including the NCBI nonredundant protein (NR, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG, were used to annotate unigenes through NCBI BLAST procedure. A total of 27541 of 57614 unigenes (47.8% were annotated for gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology. Moreover, an interaction network of unigenes in S. japonica was predicted based on known protein-protein interactions of putative orthologs of well-studied plant genomes. The transcriptome data of S. japonica reported here represents first genome-scale investigation of gene expressions in Faboideae plants. We expect that our study will provide a useful resource for further studies on gene expression, genomics, functional genomics, and protein-protein interaction in S. japonica.

  11. Calcium pretreatment increases thermotolerance of Laminaria japonica sporophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wang; Qingyun Yu; Xuexi Tang; Lili Wang

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a secondary messenger in plant signaling,and its concentration changes spatially and temporally during the course of heat stress.In the present study,potassium antimonate was used to visualize calcium localization in blades of a marine macroalga,the juvenile Laminariajaponica sporophytes under heat stress (25 ℃).Result showed that loosely bound calcium was mainly distributed on the cell wall under normal conditions (10 ℃),and flowed into the cytoplasm when exposed to heat.The simutaneous assay on the antioxidant system changes was performed.Oxidative damage,as measured by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) malondialdehyde (MDA) content,increased significantly during heat stress,and calcium pretreatment alleviated oxidative damage.The assay on the activities of six antioxidant enzymes demonstrated that their enzymatic activities were inhibited when exposed to heat stress,but Ca2+ pretreatment effectively attenuated the inhibition.Results in the present study inferred that calcium homeostasis plays an essential role in L.japonica sporophyte when exposed to heat,and calcium pretreatment could improve its thermo-tolerance.

  12. Isolation of Fucoxanthin from the Rhizoid of Laminaria japonica Aresch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jun WANG; Guang-Ce WANG; Ming ZHANG; C. K. TSENG

    2005-01-01

    Fucoxanthin was extracted from the intact rhizoid of Laminariajaponica Aresch with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and then recovered from the DMSO extract by partitioning into ethyl acetate and subse-quent evaporation. Some isolation conditions such as solvent volume and extraction time were screened.The quantity and quality of the extracted fucoxanthin were determined by spectral analysis (absorptionspectra and fluorescence emission spectra). The results indicated that: (1) the average total content offucoxanthin was 122.1 μg in 1 g of fresh L. japonica rhizoid; (2) in comparison with the widely used organicsolvent, acetone, DMSO was much more effective for the extraction of fucoxanthin; (3) both DMSO volumeand extraction time influenced extraction efficiency such as the recovery rate and purity of fucoxanthin (1 gpurity 0.63); (4) when (NH4)2SO4 concentration was in the range of 0.5-1.0 mol/L, the pigments rapidly andentirely moved from DMSO into the ethyl acetate phase; (5) the ethyl acetate and DMSO were recycledusing a rotary evaporator.

  13. The study of antioxidant activities of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xue; Xue Changhu; Cai Yuepiao; Wang Dongfeng; Fang Yu

    2005-01-01

    Two large molecular weight fucoidan fractions F-A and F-B were obtained by water extraction and anion-exchange chromatography and then L-A and L-B with low molecular weight and uronic acid content were prepared by radical process degradation of F-A and F-B. The antioxidant activities of the fucoidan fractions on two oxygen free radicals and Cu2+-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were studied. The results show that all the fucoidan fractions had excellent scavenging capacities on superoxide radical and hypochlorous acid, except the highly sulfated fraction L-B. In LDL oxidation system, low molecular weight fractions L-A and L-B exhibited great inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, however F-A and F-B had little inhibitory effects in this system due to their large molecular weights. The present results suggest that fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is an excellent natural antioxidant and has great potential for preventing the free radical-mediated diseases.

  14. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  15. Novel analgesic peptides from the tree frog of Hyla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuqin; Li, Zhengtao; Liu, Han; He, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Jieqiong; Che, Jing; Li, Cheng; Chen, Wenlin; Lai, Ren; Liu, Jingze

    2014-04-01

    Two novel analgesic peptides (Analgesin-HJ, FWPVI-NH2 and Analgesin-HJ(I5T), FWPVT-NH2) were identified from the skin of the tree frog, Hyla japonica. There are 171 amino acid residues in the precursor encoding analgesin-HJs. The precursor contains 10 copies of mature peptide, which include 9 copies of analgesin-HJ and one copy of analgesin-HJ(I5T). Results from analgesic experiments using mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking, and thermal pain test indicated that this two peptides exerted comparable analgesic activities with morphine. In addition, they had ability to inhibit inflammatory factor secretion induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Considering their easy production, storage, transfer and potential analgesic activity, analgesin-HJs might be exciting leading compounds or templates for the development of novel analgesic agent. In addition, this study might facilitate to understand skin defensive mechanism of amphibians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant lignans and chromone glycosides from Eurya japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Kuo, Li-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hung-Tse; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Kuo, Yao-Haur; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2013-04-26

    Four new 8,8',7,2'-lignans, (+)-ovafolinin B-9'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), (-)-ovafolinin B-9'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (+)-ovafolinin E-9'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), and (-)-ovafolinin E-9'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), two neolignans, eusiderin N (5) and (7S,8R)-3,5,5'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,3'-neolignan-9,9'-diol-4-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), and two new chromone glycosides, 5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one-3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (8), together with 25 known compounds, were isolated from the stems of Eurya japonica. Structural elucidation of compounds 1-8 was established by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques, electronic circular dichroism data, and comparison with reported data. The isolates were evaluated for antioxidant and anti-NO production activities. Compounds 1, 2, 12-20, and 29 (ED50 23.40 μM for 1) demonstrated potent antioxidant activity compared to the positive control α-tocopherol (ED50 27.21 μM). On the other hand, compounds 1, 2, 7-9, 12-20, and 32 showed only weak anti-NO production activity when compared to the positive control quercetin.

  17. Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in loquat fruits (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, José Julián; Roca, María; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-10-29

    Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and nonfluorescent dioxobilane chlorophyll catabolites (NDCCs) are the terminal compounds of the chlorophyll degradation pathway that may display beneficial properties to human health related to their antioxidant properties, which were recently shown. A profile of NCCs/NDCC of the loquat fruit Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. is described. From the 13 known different NCC structures described to date, three have been identified in loquats. Two new structures not defined so far were characterized in loquat fruits: Ej-NCC2, which corresponds to the methyl ester at C13(2) of Bn-NCC1 and in very low amount Ej-NDCC1, the only NDCC found in loquats. Keto-enol tautomerism at the C13(1) position in NCCs is described for the first time as a regular process in chlorophyll catabolism, probably through a nonspecific mechanism since almost all the chlorophyll catabolites structures detected in fruits of loquat present keto and enol tautomers. The results obtained have been possible through a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fitted with a powerful postprocessing software.

  18. Terpenoids from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica inhibiting nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-03-01

    A new sesquiterpenoid, 1, and three new diterpenoids, 3-5, along with five known compounds, 2 and 6-9, were isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined as (1R,4R,6S,7S,9S)-4α-hydroxy-1,9-peroxybisabola-2,10-diene (1), methyl (12E)-16-oxolabda-8(17),12-dien-15-oate (3), (12R)-15-ethoxy-12-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4), and methyl (11E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oate (5) by means of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations at C(4) in 1 and C(12) in 4 were deduced from the circular dichroism (CD) data of the in situ-formed [Rh2 (CF3 COO)4 ] complexes. Inhibitory effects of the isolates on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 2-4, 6, and 7 were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 14.6 and 34.3 μM.

  19. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (Pimprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  20. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance and lipid peroxidation in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, K; Kucuk, O

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested a protective role for lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid, in the prevention of stress including environmental stress. Tomatoes and tomato products are the major dietary source of lycopene. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary tomato powder supplementation on the performance and lipid peroxidation of meat in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to a high ambient temperature of 34 degrees C. A total of 180 ten-day-old male quails were randomly allocated into 6 groups consisting of 10 replicates of 3 birds. Birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (thermoneutral) or 34 degrees C (heat stress) for 8 h/ d (0900 to 1700 h during the study). Birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5.0% of tomato powder. Tomato powder supplementation linearly increased feed intake, live weight gain, and feed conversion (P = 0.01) under heat stress conditions but did not show the same effect at thermoneutral conditions (P > 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased vitamin concentrations in the serum, liver, and muscles of quail. Serum lycopene and vitamin C, E, and A (P = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly in birds at all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in serum, liver (P = 0.001), and muscles linearly decreased in all birds of both thermoneutral and heat stress groups as dietary tomato powder supplementation increased. The results of the study indicate that tomato powder modulates the oxidation-antioxidation system of the muscles in Japanese quail exposed to high ambient temperature.

  1. Tissue distribution, gender- and genotype-dependent expression of autophagy-related genes in avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Piekarski

    Full Text Available As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica. Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis. Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5% between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender-dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R or high (sensitive, S stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species.

  2. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  3. Digestible lysine levels in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Luís Nascimento Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the digestible lysine requirement of Japanese quails in the egg-laying phase. A total of 336 female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica of average initial age of 207 days were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, composed of 6 treatments (lysine levels with 7 replicates and 8 birds per experimental unit, with duration of 84 days. Experimental diets were formulated from a basal diet, with corn and soybean meal, with 2.800 kcal ME/kg and 203.70 g/kg crude protein, showing levels of 9.50; 10.00; 10.50; 11.00; 11.50; and 12.00 g/kg digestible lysine; diets remained isoprotein and isocaloric. The following variables were studied: feed intake (FI; lysine intake (LI; egg production per bird per day (EPBD; egg production per bird housed (EPBH; production of marketable eggs (PME; egg weight (EW; egg mass (EM; utilization efficiency of lysine for egg mass production (UELEM; feed conversion per mass (FCEM; feed conversion per dozen eggs (FCDZ; bird availability (BA; percentages of yolk (Y, albumen (A and shell (S; specific egg weight (SW; nitrogen ingested (NI; nitrogen excreted (NE; and nitrogen balance (NB. Significant effect was only observed for LI, EW, EM, UELEM, FCEM, Y, A and SW. The digestible lysine level estimated in diets for laying Japanese quails is 11.20 g digestible lysine/kg diet, corresponding to an average daily intake of 272.23 mg lysine.

  4. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in breeding condition and not in breeding condition. Within each of these groups, some birds were partially starved before dosage and some were fully fed. Birds were then fed dietary levels of 0, 700, 922, 1214, or 1600 ppm dry weight of p,p?-DDT for a period of 20 days or until death. Birds partially starved before dosage were more susceptible to DDT intoxication than nonstarved ones, and birds not in breeding condition were slightly more so than birds in breeding condition. Similarly, males died earlier than females, and the birds of the lighter weight strain used in the second half of the study died earlier than the birds of the heavier strain used in the first half. The heavier birds of each sex not only survived longer than lighter individuals receiving the same treatments, but they also lost a greater proportion of their weight before death. During the early portion of the dosage period, females in breeding condition were less sensitive to DDT than were females not in breeding condition and males. After 10 days on dosage, however, the cumulative mortality of females in breeding condition rapidly approached that of males and of females not in breeding condition. Food restriction prior to dosage, strains of quail, breeding conditions, and sexes resulted in weight differences and a corresponding accentuation or delay of the effects of the different levels of DDT.

  5. An evaluation of inorganic toxicity reference values for use in assessing hazards to American robins (Turdus migratorius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Sample, Bradley E.

    2017-01-01

    When performing screening-level and baseline risk assessments, assessors usually compare estimated exposures of wildlife receptor species with toxicity reference values (TRVs). We modeled the exposure of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to 10 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn, and V) in spring and early summer, a time when earthworms are the preferred prey. We calculated soil benchmarks associated with possible toxic effects to these robins from 6 sets of published TRVs. Several of the resulting soil screening-level benchmarks were inconsistent with each other and less than soil background concentrations. Accordingly, we examined the derivations of the TRVs as a possible source of error. In the case of V, a particularly toxic chemical compound (ammonium vanadate) containing V, not normally present in soil, had been used to estimate a TRV. In the cases of Zn and Cu, use of uncertainty values of 10 in estimating TRVs led to implausibly low soil screening values. In the case of Pb, a TRV was calculated from studies demonstrating reductions in egg production in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to Pb concentrations well below than those causing toxic effects in other species of birds. The results on quail, which were replicated in additional trials, are probably not applicable to other, unrelated species, although we acknowledge that only a small fraction of all species of birds has been tested. These examples underscore the importance of understanding the derivation and relevance of TRVs before selecting them for use in screening or in ecological risk assessment.

  6. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frésard Laure

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix.

  7. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Zinc and α-Tocopheryl Acetate on Performance and Zinc Concentrations in Egg and Tissues of Japanese Quails

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    Aghaei A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of zinc (ZnO; 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg/kg and Vit E (α-tocopheryl acetate; 0 and 40 IU/kg on egg production, egg quality and Zn content of egg fractions and tissues in Japanese quails. Using a 5 × 2 factorial design, a total of 960 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica at day 70 of age were housed in cages and randomly assigned into one of ten experimental treatments, each with four replicates of 24 birds (16 females and eight males per replicate. Egg production was greater (P < 0.05 in birds fed diets containing 160 mg/kg of zinc (Zn than those fed basal diet (control diet, but vitamin E supplementation had no effect on egg production. Quails fed basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn showed a significant improvement in their feed conversion ratio compared to the other birds. Birds supplemented with 80, 120 and 180 mg/kg Zn had stronger egg shells than those fed the control diet, while shell thickness was lower in birds supplemented with 0 and 40 mg/kg of Zn (P < 0.05. Enrichment of Zn in egg yolk increased when birds received diets supplemented with 80, 120 and 160 mg/kg Zn compare to control group (P < 0.05. Supplementation of diet with Zn increased serum concentration of Zn when fed to quails at 120 mg/kg (P < 0.05. Thigh muscle, thigh bone, and liver Zn concentrations increased with concentration of Zn supplementation (P < 0.05. Vitamin E supplementation had no effects on laying performance, egg shell quality, and Zn concentrations in egg fractions and tissues of Japanese quail.

  8. Transactivation of Latent Marek's Disease Herpesvirus Genes in QT35, a Quail Fibroblast Cell Line, by Herpesvirus of Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kaplan, S. L.; Wakenell, P.; Schat, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    The QT35 cell line was established from a methylcholanthrene-induced tumor in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) (C. Moscovici, M. G. Moscovici, H. Jimenez, M. M. Lai, M. J. Hayman, and P. K. Vogt, Cell 11:95–103, 1977). Two independently maintained sublines of QT35 were found to be positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV)-like genes by Southern blotting and PCR assays. Sequence analysis of fragments of the ICP4, ICP22, ICP27, VP16, meq, pp14, pp38, open reading frame (ORF) L1, and glycoprotein B (gB) genes showed a strong homology with the corresponding fragments of MDV genes. Subsequently, a serotype 1 MDV-like herpesvirus, tentatively name QMDV, was rescued from QT35 cells in chicken kidney cell (CKC) cultures established from 6- to 9-day-old chicks inoculated at 8 days of embryonation with QT35 cells. Transmission electron microscopy failed to show herpesvirus particles in QT35 cells, but typical intranuclear herpesvirus particles were detected in CKCs. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that the following QMDV transcripts were present in QT35 cells: sense and antisense meq, ORF L1, ICP4, and latency-associated transcripts, which are antisense to ICP4. A transcript of approximately 4.5 kb was detected by Northern blotting using total RNA from QT35 cells. Inoculation of QT35 cells with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT)-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) but not with uninfected CEF resulted in the activation of ICP22, ICP27, VP16, pp38, and gB. In addition, the level of ICP4 mRNA was increased compared to that in QT35 cells. The activation by HVT resulted in the production of pp38 protein. It was not possible to detect if the other activated genes were translated due to the lack of serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies. PMID:11024146

  9. An evaluation of inorganic toxicity reference values for use in assessing hazards to American robins (Turdus migratorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Sample, Bradley E

    2017-03-01

    When performing screening-level and baseline risk assessments, assessors usually compare estimated exposures of wildlife receptor species with toxicity reference values (TRVs). We modeled the exposure of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to 10 elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn, and V) in spring and early summer, a time when earthworms are the preferred prey. We calculated soil benchmarks associated with possible toxic effects to these robins from 6 sets of published TRVs. Several of the resulting soil screening-level benchmarks were inconsistent with each other and less than soil background concentrations. Accordingly, we examined the derivations of the TRVs as a possible source of error. In the case of V, a particularly toxic chemical compound (ammonium vanadate) containing V, not normally present in soil, had been used to estimate a TRV. In the cases of Zn and Cu, use of uncertainty values of 10 in estimating TRVs led to implausibly low soil screening values. In the case of Pb, a TRV was calculated from studies demonstrating reductions in egg production in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to Pb concentrations well below than those causing toxic effects in other species of birds. The results on quail, which were replicated in additional trials, are probably not applicable to other, unrelated species, although we acknowledge that only a small fraction of all species of birds has been tested. These examples underscore the importance of understanding the derivation and relevance of TRVs before selecting them for use in screening or in ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:352-359. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Meal and Vitamin E on Productive Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadi F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240, one-day-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica were used to study the effects of Artichoke leaf meal (ALM and vitamin E in diet on growth performance, ileal microbial populations and intestinal morphology in a 42-d trial. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails each, using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Supplementing basal diet with ALM did not improve growth performance at different rearing periods, whereas dietary vitamin E increased feed intake and body weight gain at day 21 of age (P. The ileal populations of lactobacillus and coliforms was not affected by dietary ALM treatments, whereas vitamin E increased the population of total aerobic bacteria (P≤0.04. The ileal villus height (P≤0.01 and crypt depth (P≤0.008 were reduced in quails fed on diets with ALM and vitamin E. The quails fed diets containing 3 percent ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had higher villus height:crypt depth ratio. The thickness of muscularies (P≤0.04 and mucosa (P≤0.0007 layers were decreased in birds fed diets containing ALM than control birds. Birds treated with ALM and vitamin E showed a shorter intestinal length (P≤0.02 and a lower pancereas relative weight. The results of this study showed that supplementing diet by ALM (1.5 and 3% and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E did not improve growth performance, ileal microbiota pupolations and intestinal morphometric indices in Japanese quail.

  11. Sexual Dichromatism of the Damselfly Calopteryx japonica Caused by a Melanin-Chitin Multilayer in the Male Wing Veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Hariyama, Takahiko; De Raedt, Hans A.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2012-01-01

    Mature male Calopteryx japonica damselflies have dark-blue wings, due to darkly coloured wing membranes and blue reflecting veins. The membranes contain a high melanin concentration and the veins have a multilayer of melanin and chitin. Female and immature C. japonica damselflies have brown wings. W

  12. Sexual Dichromatism of the Damselfly Calopteryx japonica Caused by a Melanin-Chitin Multilayer in the Male Wing Veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Hariyama, Takahiko; De Raedt, Hans A.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2012-01-01

    Mature male Calopteryx japonica damselflies have dark-blue wings, due to darkly coloured wing membranes and blue reflecting veins. The membranes contain a high melanin concentration and the veins have a multilayer of melanin and chitin. Female and immature C. japonica damselflies have brown wings.

  13. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  14. Cellulose extraction from Zoysia japonica pretreated by alumina-doped MgO in AMIMCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-26

    In this study, alumina-doped MgO was produced as a solid alkali for lignocellulose pretreatment. Pretreatment with alumina-doped MgO disrupted the lignocellulose structure and significantly reduced the lignin content of the Z. japonica. After pretreatment, Z. japonica showed significant solubility in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The similar high solubility of pretreated Z. japonica samples by original alumina-doped MgO and used alumina-doped MgO also proved that alumina-doped MgO had strong stability, which can be recycled and used repeatedly. The regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose according to FTIR and NMR analyses. Compared to microcrystalline cellulose, only the crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose decreased.

  15. Microsatellite markers for Nuphar japonica (Nymphaeaceae), an aquatic plant in the agricultural ecosystem of Japan1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Shiga, Takashi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuphar species (Nymphaeaceae) are representative aquatic plants in irrigation ponds in Japanese agricultural ecosystems. We developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers for N. japonica and confirmed their utility for its close relatives N. oguraensis var. akiensis and N. ×saijoensis, which originated from natural hybridization between N. japonica and N. oguraensis. Methods and Results: Genetic variation was characterized in 15 polymorphic loci in three populations of N. japonica. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.47 (range = 2−9; n = 32), and the average expected heterozygosity per locus was 0.84 (range = 0.5–1.0); 11 loci were amplified in N. oguraensis var. akiensis and 15 in N. ×saijoensis. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for investigating the levels of genetic diversity within remnant populations of Nuphar taxa and could provide a valuable tool for conservation genetics of these taxa. PMID:28101435

  16. Genetic structure of Camellia japonica L. in an old-growth evergreen forest, Tsushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S; Tomaru, N; Yoshimaru, H; Manabe, T; Yamamoto, S

    2000-06-01

    The spatial genetic structure of Camellia japonica was investigated, using microsatellite markers, in a 4-ha permanent plot within an old-growth forest. Spatial distribution of individuals was also assessed to obtain an insight into spatial relationships between individuals and alleles. Morisita's index of dispersion showed that 518 C. japonica individuals in the plot were clumped, and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient revealed weak genetic structure, indicating a low level of allele clustering. Average I correlograms showed that there was stronger genetic structure over short-distance classes. The clumped distribution of individuals and the positive autocorrelation over short-distance classes may result from the limited seed dispersal and microsite heterogeneity of the stand, while the genetic structure may be weakened by overlapping seed shadow and extensive pollen flow, mediated by animal vectors, and the high outcrossing rate found in C. japonica.

  17. Development of Japonica Male Sterile Lines Integrating Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Photosensitive Genic Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shou-hai; DU Shi-yun; WANG De-zheng; LI Cheng-quan

    2005-01-01

    It has been previously established that the BT type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is induced by high temperatures,while photosensitive genic male sterility (PGMS) seed sets by low temperatures induce. In the current study, we have bred photosensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (PCMS) lines (2308SA and 2310SA) by crossing the CMS line with the PGMS japonica line with maintainer genes. The sterility of PCMS japonica was consequently controlled by two groups of male sterile genes resulting from the integration of PGMS and CMS genes. The results on plant fertility, at different sowing times, were as follows: (a) Under conditions of natural long-day photoperiod and at temperatures above 35℃, the PGMS gene regulated PCMS japonica sterility - the higher the temperature, the lower the pollen fertility. However, bagged seed sets of PCMS japonica, not exposed to high temperatures, induced the CMS seed set. (b) Exposure to long-day photoperiod and temperature conditions between 35℃ and the critical sterility inducing temperature of PGMS resulted in both PGMS and CMS gene controlled sterility of PCMS japonica, which exhibited stable characteristics. (c) When exposed to critical sterility inducing temperatures or short-day photoperiod and daily high temperatures below 32℃, the BT type of the CMS gene regulated PCMS sterility. Under these conditions, the PGMS gene rendered male sterility insusceptible to occasional cool summer days when this PCMS line, adopted for hybrid seed production, develops into panicle differentiation stage.The present study also investigated the fertility restoration, seed production and combining ability of PCMS japonica so as to optimize its use.

  18. Estrogenic activity of a naringinase-treated extract of Sophora japonica cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Halawany, Ali M; Chung, Mi Hwa; Abdallah, Hossam M; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2010-02-01

    The naringinase-treated methanol extract of Sophora japonica L. (Fabaceae) seeds showed potent estrogen agonist activity. Through bioassay-guided isolation of the main active constituents from the naringinase-treated methanol extract of S. japonica, the aglycones genistein and kaempferol were found to be the main phytoestrogens in the naringinase-treated extract. In addition, kaempferol was nearly equipotent to genistein as an estrogen agonist. Concerning the compounds isolated from the untreated methanol extract, sophoricoside showed weak estrogenic activity on ERbeta only.

  19. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  1. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M Abdallah

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1, sophoricoside (2, sophorabioside (3, sophoraflavonoloside (4, genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2β-D-glucopyranoside (6 and rutin (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  2. Locomotor activity rhythm in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica elvers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Under artificial LD cycles (6, 12, 18 L), the elvers of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, showed a 24 h cycle of locomotor activity rhythm being most active at light transitions: the eels' activity rose to a primary peak after lights-off, followed by a quiescent period during which they buried into the shelters or lying motionlessly on sand for most of the time, and then reached a secondary peak before lights-on. Elvers could resynchronize their activity rhythm with a new photo cycle within 4 d. Moreover, their activity level at dark phase significantly increased as the light period was prolonged: higher activity levels during shorter dark period. However, the elvers did not display clearly the existence of a circadian rhythm under constant light or dark conditions. The timing of daily activity rhythm evidenced in the Japanese eels may occur through the action of the LD cycles with a weak participation of an endogenous circadian system. In all the LD cycles, over 99% of the activity occurred in the dark phase, indicating that the eels were always nocturnally active no matter what time of day it might be. Under 12 L conditions, the eels' activity level and the time outside sand were significantly elevated both at light and dark phases as temperature increased from 10~15 to 20~25 ℃. The activity rhythm pattern (i.e., two peaks occurring around light transitions) did not apparently change among temperatures. However, in contrast with the primary activity peaks immediately after lights-off at 20 and 25 ℃, the timing of the primary peaks at 10 and 15 ℃ showed a latency of a few hours following lights-off, indicating the inhibiting effect of low temperature on the eels' activity.

  3. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species.

  4. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  5. Microsatellite variation between Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Allelic variation in a total of 7 microsatellites was examined between elvers of freshwater eels (Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla). The number of alleles at these loci ranged from 8 to 26. A single test of each locus revealed significant deficits of heterozygotes (P<0.01). Significant departure from expectations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was found for all loci within four subpopulations of A. japonica, which opposes the panmixia hypothesis of Schmidt. Also exact tests of population differentiation based on allelic frequency distribution disagree the hypothesis of random distribution of individuals among populations. Population structure among four populations of A. japonica was revealed with FST value of 0.009 8 (P=0.000 48; 10 000iteration). Pairwise matrixes of FST and RST showed a significant difference between two distantly related species-A. japonica and A. anguilla. Divergent time of the two species calculated by Goldstein method is over 2million years. The results may challenge the Schmidt's theory about the distribution of freshwater eels.

  6. Analysis on Genetic Relationship of Oxya chinensis and Oxya japonica from Xuzhou and Pingshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-zhen; ZHANG Min; GUO Ya-ping; MA En-bo

    2006-01-01

    Genetic relationship among Oxya chinensis populations and Oxya japonica populations collected from Xuzhou City,Jiangsu Province and Pingshan County, Hebei Province, China were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 125 DNA bands ranging from 200 to 2 200 bp were amplified by 10 random primers in DNA samples from 43 grasshopper individuals. One hundred and twenty-three (99%) of these bands were polymorphic. Shannon's index showed that the genetic, diversity within O. chinensis (0.3432) was higher than that of O. japonica (0.2781). Nei's genetic distance between O. chinensis population and O. japonica population from the same area was less than that between populations from two different areas. The dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance of RAPD markers was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA) and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) methods. Cluster analysis indicated that all the individuals were grouped into two main clusters. O. chinensis populations from Xuzhou and Pingshan formed one cluster, and O. japonica populations from the two regions belonged to another cluster. The results demonstrated that RAPD can detect polymorphisms to distinguish minor difference among individuals within species, and among closely related species.

  7. Stem volume Models and Validation for Cryptomeria japonica in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YeonOk; Jung, Sung Cheol; Lumbres, Roscinto Ian; Jeon, Chul Hyun; Kim, Chan Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out to fit different volume equations for Cryptomeria japonica trees in Jeju Experimental Forests, Jeju Island, Korea. A total of 120 Cryptomeria japonica trees were measured and were randomly split into two dataset One is for initial model development (80% of the dataset) and the other is for model validation (20% of the dataset). The two dataset were then combined for the final model development. Coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean difference (MD), absolute mean difference (AMD) were used as evaluation statistics to evaluate the performance of the different models. Results showed that volume models with two independent variables (DBH and total height) had a better performance as compared to models with only one (DBH). The result of model evaluation and validation showed that model 6 (V=aDbHc) was considered best based on the rank analysis among the candidate models. It is hope that the result of this study could help forests managers to easily predict the total volume of Cryptomeria japonica which is important in Carbon stock assessment of the different Cryptomeria japonica forests in Jeju Island, Korea.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Phytochemicals Isolated from Atractylodes japonica against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Hang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been emerging worldwide as one of the most important problems in communities and hospitals. Therefore, new agents are needed to treat acute oral infections from MRSA. In this study, antibacterial compounds from the roots of Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica were isolated and characterized. The compounds were isolated from the root extracts using HPLC-piloted activity-guided fractionations. Four A. japonica compounds were isolated and identified as atractylenolide III (1, atractylenolide I (2, diacetylatractylodiol [(6E,12E-tetradeca-6,12-diene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diol diacetate, TDEYA, 3. and (6E,12E-tetradecadiene-8,10-diyne-1,3-diol (TDEA, 4, which was obtained by hydrolysis of TDEYA. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs was determined in the setting of clinical MRSA isolates. Compound 4 showed anti-MRSA activity with a MIC value of 4-32 μg/mL. The overall results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the extract of A. japonica as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  9. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  10. The storage characters related to indica/japonica diferentiation of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The decline of rice quality and germination ability in the process of storage was a big problem to food production and nanagement. Gas and temperature control was used to decrease storage losing, but selecting germplasm with good storage characters was rare. In practice, it was found that storage characters of indica were better than that of japonica.

  11. [Study on standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on GAP of Lonicera japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-nan; Li, Yong; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-liang; Wang, Pin-shu; Ding, Wan-long

    2015-09-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a method of residue analysis for thiamethoxam and to study its degradation dynamic and final residue and its standard of safe application of thiamethoxam on Lonicera japonica. Samples extracted with methanol by ultrasonication were purified with dichloromethane by liquid-liquid extraction and SPE column and analysed by HPLC-UV. The results showed that average rate was 84.91%-94.44% and RSD 1.74%-4.96% with addition of thiamethoxam in respectively diverse concentration, which meets inspection requirement of pesticide residue. Two kinds of dosages of thiamethoxam were treated- varying from recommended dosage (90 g x hm(-2)) to high dosage (135 g x hm(-2)), Results of two years test showed that thiamethoxam was degraded more than 90% seven days after application and the half - life period of thiamethoxam was 1.54-1.66 d. The digestion rate of thiamethoxam was fast in the L. japonica. The recommended MRL of thiamethoxam in the L. japonica is 0.1 mg x kg(-1), the dosage of 25% thiamethoxam WDG from 90-135 g x hm(-2) is sprayed less than three times a year on L. japonica and 14 days is proposed for the safety interval of the last pesticide application's and harvest's date.

  12. Chemical characterisation of three haemolytic compounds from the microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, M.; Koulman, A; van Rijssel, M; Lutzen, A.; de Boer, M.K.; Tyl, M.R.; Liebezeit, G.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular Structures of the three main haemolytic compounds (Fj1, Fj2 and Fj3) isolated from the ichthyotoxic microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica have been investigated by NMR, LC-ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS, IR, GC-MS and GC-HRMS methods. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids which we identified as:

  13. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-03-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  14. Preliminary analysis of population genetic diversity of cultivated Laminaria japonica sporophyte via AFLP technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Heng; Sui, Zhenghong; Bao, Zhenmin

    2010-03-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic DNA (AFLP) technique was adopted to estimate the population genetic polymorphism among 30 sporophytes of Laminaria japonica collected from a cultivating farm in Rongcheng, China. Three methods were used for genomic DNA extraction from Laminaria japonica sporophyte and only the products obtained using the improved genomic DNA extraction kit method proved qualified for AFLP analysis. The parameters of the method were optimized. Samples of forty milligrams and the cell lysis time of 120 min were suggested to replace the parameters recommended by the manufacturer. Thirty individuals of Laminaria japonica from the same cultivating site were investigated using one pair of selective primers. A total of 21 loci were obtained and 17 of them were polymorphic. The mean percent age of polymorphic loci of this population was 80.95%. The Nei’s gene diversity (H) within this population was 0.3028 and the average Shannon’s Information index (I) was 0.4498. A genetic distance matrix among different individuals was constructed as well. Through this study, an applicable AFLP genetic analysis working system for Laminaria japonica sporophyte was established. The results of this research also revealed a high level of genetic diversity within the studied population.

  15. Chemical characterisation of three haemolytic compounds from the microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, M.; Koulman, A; van Rijssel, M; Lutzen, A.; de Boer, M.K.; Tyl, M.R.; Liebezeit, G.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular Structures of the three main haemolytic compounds (Fj1, Fj2 and Fj3) isolated from the ichthyotoxic microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica have been investigated by NMR, LC-ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS, IR, GC-MS and GC-HRMS methods. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids which we identified as: 6,

  16. Effects of cadmium hyperaccumulation on the concentrations of four trace elements in Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Hyperaccumulators are important in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil. In this study, Cd accumulation and the interactions between Cd and four other trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in Lonicera japonica Thunb. were investigated. As a result of exposure to soil containing 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 ± 0.71 and 286.12 ± 9.38 μg g(-1) DW respectively, without showing symptoms of visible damage to the plants. This suggests that L. japonica has a strong tolerance to Cd. It is proposed that trace metal elements are involved in the Cd-detoxification mechanisms shown by hyperaccumulators. There is a synergistic interaction in accumulation and translocation between Cd and Fe and a significantly negative correlation between Cd and Cu or Zn concentrations in L. japonica plant tissues. The imbalanced trace element concentrations influences detoxification processes to Cd, therefore, L. japonica could be considered as a new Cd-hyperaccumulator model to investigate the metal tolerance strategies of plants.

  17. Effects of Silicon at Different Concentrations on Morphology and Photosynthetic Physiological Mechanism of Japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang CHEN; Liping CAI; Bin ZHOU; Yan SHI; Meng RAO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore effects of silicon at different concentrations on morphology and photosynthetic physiological mechanism of japonica rice. [Method] Seedlings of japonica rice were treated with silicon at different concentrations (0, 30, 80, 130 and 180 mg/L of sodium silicate); silicon contents were measured with Molybdenum blue spectrophotometric method in root, stem and leaf; plant height, root length and number in different treatment groups were measured with tools; chlorophyll a and b, and a/b in leaf and stem of rice in different groups were measured. [Result] Silicon contents in vegetative organs were as follows: stem〉leaf〉 root; when silicon was 80 mg/L, japonica ecotype was shortest; when silicon was 30 mg/L, root length of the rice was shortest and root number was least; when silicon was 30 mg/L, contents of chlorophyll a and b were highest and chlorophyll a/b achieved the peak when silicon was 80 mg/L. [Conclusion] Silicon at proper concen- tration would improve lodging-resistance and efficiency of photosynthesis, further enhancing yield of japonica rice.

  18. Subspecies characteristics in filial generation of cross between indica and japonica rice under different environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai; LIU Hongguang; YANG Li; ZHU Chunjie; WANG Jiayu; YANG Qianhua; XU Zhengjin; ZHENG Jiakui

    2007-01-01

    The recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (hsien or indica) and "Fengjin" (keng or japonica) was grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces to compare the subspecies characteristics under different environments.The results showed that the distribution of Cheng's index was japonicalinous.The population was more japonicalinous in Sichuan than that in Liaoning as a whole.Further analysis indicated that indiea and indica-cline in Sichuan were more indicalinous than those in Liaoning,japonica and japonica-cline in Sichuan were more japonicalinous than those in Liaoning.The effects of environment on six characteristics of Cheng's index were different because of different characters,as well as on the correlations between the six characters,the Cheng's index and the vascular bundle traits.For example,the length of the first and second rachis and leaf pubescence were more japoniealinous in Sichuan than in Liaoning,while the length/width ratio of spikelets and glume color at heading time were more indicalinous in Sichuan than in Liaoning.The vascular bundle characteristics of RILs in different environments changed remarkably.The number of large vascular bundles in panicle neck was less in Sichuan than in Liaoning,while the number of small vascular bundles in panicle neck and second top stem was greater in Sichuan than in Liaoning.The ratio of large to small vascular bundles in panicle neck decreased and the ratio of large vascular bundles between the second top stem and panicle neck increased in Sichuan.Though total trend was the vascular bundle ratio of large to small in indica was greater than that in japonica and the ratio of large vascular bundles in indica was less than that in japonica,it is not appropriate that the vascular bundle ratio of large to small and the ratio of large vascular bundles are regarded as the parameters for subspecies classification in rice.The vascular bundles characteristics from typical indica or

  19. Structure and heterologous expression of the gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein from Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, H; Takada, K; Nakamura, S; Horikoshi, K

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding the cell surface glycoprotein (CSG) of Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 was cloned and sequenced. The structural gene consisted from an open reading frame of 2,586 bp. A potential promoter sequence was found about 150 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Ha. japonica CSG revealed that the mature CSG consisted of 828 amino acids. Five potential N-glycosylation sites were found in the mature sequence. The cloned CSG gene of Ha. japonica was expressed in closely-related halophilic archaea.

  20. Larvicidal efficacy of Cryptomeria japonica leaf essential oils against Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdoe, France P; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lyaruu, Lucile; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-09-04

    Alternative insecticidal compounds with mortality effect against mosquito life cycle stages are currently needed. The compounds should be biodegradable and nontoxic to non-targeted insects. Plant based larvicides provide effective control of vector populations. This study explored Cryptomeria japonica leaf essential oil larvicidal potency against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Essential oils (12.5 to 200 μg/mL) extracted from C. japonica leaves were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. larvae in both the laboratory and semi field in 6 replicates for each dose. Larval mortality readings were taken at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment. C. japonica leaf essential oil yield was 17.06 ± 0.56 mL/kg and 1.60 ± 0.33% (w/w). GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed 22 constituents. Essential oil was more effective against An. gambiae s.s. larvae in the laboratory than in semi field trials. Mortality increased with increasing dosages (12.5 to 200 μg/mL) in the laboratory (31.75 to 100%) and semi field trials (17.75 to 99.5%), respectively. The LC50 value ranged from 5.55 to 63.92 μg/mL in the laboratory, and 8.22 to 134.84 μg/mL in semi field conditions, LC90 value ranged from 41.34 to 205.93 μg/mL in the laboratory and 50.92 to 213.11 μg/mL in semi field conditions. This study has demonstrated the potential of C. japonica leaf essential oil to cause mortality effects to An. gambiae s. s. larval populations, however, further studies need to be conducted under field conditions and also with individual active compounds of C. japonica essential oil.

  1. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2016-06-11

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers.

  3. Exigência de proteína bruta para codornas européias no período de crescimento Crude protein requirement for European quails during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Fridrich

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a exigência de proteína bruta para codornas européias de corte (Coturnix coturnix coturnix nos períodos de 18-28, 28-42 e 42-56 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, constituído de cinco tratamentos, seis repetições e 15 codornas por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais foram formuladas com 18, 20, 22, 24 e 26% de proteína bruta e 2900kCal/kg de energia metabolizável. As exigências de proteína bruta estimadas no período de 18-28 dias de idade para ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e peso corporal foram, respectivamente, 25,7; 25,2 e 25,5%. De 28 a 42 dias de idade, a exigência de proteína bruta para peso corporal foi 24,6%. Não houve efeito significativo do nível de proteína bruta sobre o ganho de peso e conversão alimentar nesse período. De 42 a 56 dias de idade, o efeito do nível de proteína bruta sobre o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e peso corporal não foi significativo. Codornas européias de corte Coturnix coturnix coturnix apresentaram diminuição da exigência de proteína bruta para peso corporal no período 28-42 dias de idade em comparação à exigência no período 18-28 dias de idade. Não foi possível estabelecer o requisito de proteína para peso corporal, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar após o 28º dia de idade.A completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 15 quails per experimental unity was used to estimate crude protein requirements for European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix during the periods 18-28, 28-42 and 42-56 days of age. The experimental diets were formulated with 18, 20, 22, 24, and 26% of crude protein and 2900kcal/kg EM/kg. The protein requirements during 18-28 days of age were respectively 25.7; 25.2 and 25.5% for weight gain, weight gain/feed intake ratio and for body weight. During the 28-42 period the crude protein requirement for body weight was 24.6%, but there was no effect of crude

  4. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  5. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  6. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  7. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF STEPHANIA JAPONICA STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit Bokshi , S.M. Abdur Rahman*, S. K. Sadhu , Ashif Muhammad and Hemayet Hossain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The different fractions of crude methanolic extract of stem of Stephania japonica (Thunb. Miers was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. The various fractions of S. japonica Stem i.e. Ethyl Acetate (EAJS, CHCl3 (CFJS, CCl4 (CTJS and Petroleum ether (PEJS were subjected to free radical scavenging activity. In this investigation, CFJS showed the most significant free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 119.0µg/ml for S. japonica stem. Cytotoxic activity was investigated by brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality assay. The LC50 value of sample CTJS (Carbon Tetrachloride fraction of S. japonica Stem, was 3.0µg/ml is highly most significant. Antibacterial activity was tested by disk diffusion method. The Carbon Tetrachloride soluble fraction showed good antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria at different doses. The Ethyl Acetate soluble fraction shows good activity only against E. coli at different doses.

  9. Allelopathy is involved in the formation of pure colonies of the fern Gleichenia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2013-04-15

    The fern Gleichenia japonica is one of the most widely distributed fern and occurs throughout East to South Asia. The species often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific colonies. However, the potential mechanism for this domination has not yet been described. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that allelochemicals are involved in the formation of G. japonica colonies. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica inhibited the growth of seedlings of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and timothy (Phleum pratense). Increasing extract concentration increased the inhibition. These results suggest that G. japonica contain allelopathic substances. The extract was then purified by several chromatographies with monitoring the inhibitory activity and two growth inhibitory substances causing the allelopathic effect were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to be a novel compound 3-O-β-allopyranosyl-13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool (1) and 18-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13-epitorreferol (2). These compounds inhibited the shoot and root growth of garden cress, lettuce, alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy, ryegrass and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 0.1-1.0mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of root and shoot growth of these test plants ranged from 0.72 to 3.49mM and 0.79 to 3.51mM for compounds 1 and 2, respectively. Concentration of compounds 1 and 2 in soil under the pure colony of G. japonica was 4.9 and 5.7mM, respectively, indicating concentrations over those required for 50% growth inhibition are potentially available under monocultural stands of these ferns. Therefore, these compounds may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by presence of G. japonica and may thus contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this

  10. SSR Marker Analysis on indica-japonica Differentiation of Natural Population of Oryza rufipogon in Yuanjiang, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-li; YANG Xiao-xi; ZHAO Feng-ping; XU Ming-hui

    2006-01-01

    By using 19 pairs of primers that could identify two subspecies (indica and japonica) of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), the indica-japonica differentiation of 56 individuals from the natural population of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) in Yuanjiang was analyzed by SSR (microsatellite DNAs, or simple sequence repeat). Of the 19 pairs of primers, 17 pairs (89.47%) could amplify only one kind of band type among ail of the individuals, but primers RM251 and RM18 could amplify polymorphic band types. The bands amplified by 16 pairs of primers (84.21%) were identical to the indica-japonica diagnostic bands of relevant locus in cultivated rice, including 11 japonica-like loci and 4 indica-like loci. The bands amplified by the other three pairs of primers (RM18, RM202,RM205) were different from indica or japonica diagnostic bands of cultivated rice. The results showed that according to 19 loci analyzed, 84.21% of SSR loci in genomic DNA of common wild rice in Yuanjiang displayed indica-japonica differentiation and 13.79% of the loci still kept primitive, and most of the detected loci were homogenetic in the natural population.

  11. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Propylea japonica (Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey and directly (via pollen exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica.

  12. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-03-16

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica.

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Analysis of SAMe Superfamily to Novelty Phosphoethanolamine N-Methyltransferase Copy in Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase superfamily plays important roles in plant development. The buds of Lonicera japonica are used as Chinese medical material and foods; chinese people began domesticating L. japonica thousands of years ago. Compared to the wild species, L. japonica var. chinensis, L. japonica gives a higher yield of buds, a fact closely related to positive selection over the long cultivation period of the species. Genome duplications, which are always detected in the domestic species, are the source of the multifaceted roles of the functional gene. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the SAMe genes in L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis and further analyzed the roles of the duplicated genes among special groups. The SAMe protein sequences were subdivided into three clusters and several subgroups. The difference in transcriptional levels of the duplicated genes showed that seven SAMe genes could be related to the differences between the wild and the domesticated varieties. The sequence diversity of seven SAMe genes was also analyzed, and the results showed that different gene expression levels between the varieties could not be related to amino acid variation. The transcriptional level of duplicated PEAMT could be regulated through the SAM–SAH cycle.

  14. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767

  15. Efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína e energia sobre o rendimento de carcaça de codornas européias Effect of protein and energy levels on carcass yield of European quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.S. Corrêa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o rendimento de carcaça de codornas européias de corte (Coturnix coturnix coturnix no 42º dia de idade, alimentadas com dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína e dois níveis de energia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com seis repetições e oito codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos constituíram de um fatorial 2×4, ou seja, dois níveis de energia (2900 e 3100kcal EM/kg e quatro níveis de proteína (22, 24, 26 e 28% proteína bruta na dieta. As variáveis estudadas foram: peso vivo, peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, peso de coxa, rendimento de coxa, peso de peito, rendimento de peito, peso de gordura abdominal, rendimento de gordura abdominal, peso de vísceras comestíveis e rendimento de vísceras comestíveis. Não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de energia e nem dos níveis de proteína sobre nenhuma das características de carcaça analisada.The effect of protein and energy levels on 42nd day carcass yield of European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix was evaluated. A completely randomized design with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unit was used. The treatment consist on diets with two energy metabolic levels (2900 and 3100kcal EM/kg and four protein levels (22, 24, 26 and 28% of crude protein. The traits analyzed were body weight and weight and yield of carcass, tight, breast, fat and edible viscera. No significant effects of crude protein and metabolic energy levels on carcass traits were found.

  16. Bioactivities of a New Pyrrolidine Alkaloid from the Root Barks of Orixa japonica

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    Xin Chao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (Z-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of Orixa japonica. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. The compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (LC50 = 232.09 μg/mL, Anopheles sinensis (LC50 = 49.91 μg/mL, and Culex pipiens pallens (LC50 = 161.10 μg/mL. The new alkaloid also possessed nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (LC50 = 391.50 μg/mL and Meloidogynein congnita (LC50 = 134.51 μg/mL. The results indicate that the crude ethanol extract of O. japonica root barks and its isolated pyrrolidine alkaloid have potential for development into natural larvicides and nematicides.

  17. Phenotypic Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the Newly Established japonica / indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazushige SOGAWA; SUN Zong-xiu; QIAN Qian; ZENG Da-li

    2004-01-01

    A new doubled haploid (DH) rice population was established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 (C J-06) and susceptible indica TN1. Sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance of the DH rice lines were evaluated on the basis of non-preference response of WBPH immigrants and honeydew excretion by WBPH females, and appearance of watery lesions in the necrotic discoloration of leaf sheaths ovipositied by WBPH,respectively. Both the major gene resistance to WBPH, sucking inhibitory and ovicidal resistance, showed 1 (resistant): 1 (susceptible) segregation ratio in the DH population. Relative density of WBPH populations and damage scores in the DH population indicated combined functions of both the major resistance genes as well as QTLs affecting the host plant response to WBPH infestations. Thus, the newly developed CJ-06/TN1 DH population could be a useful material to analyze major genes and QTLs for WBPH resistance in japonica rice.

  18. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  19. DENDROECOLOGY OF A 25 YEARS OLD Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. DON. STAND IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Mário Dobner Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814579Cryptomeria japonica is indigenous to the temperate region of Japan, where it is known as ‘sugi’. In Brazil, the plantation of this species is recommended for the highlands and cold regions in the southern, where it is well adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between meteorological variables and growth of a 25 years old Cryptomeria japonica stand. Cross-sectional discs from 30 different trees were collected, within all diametric classes. After dried and sanded, annual rings were measured and correlated with meteorological data by dendrochronological analysis tools. The growth series showed an intercorrelation of 0.668. The radial growth of the species was positively influenced by the minimum temperature of September and by the medium temperature of May. There was no correlation between growth and precipitation, although peaks of growth were observed in years with high precipitation.  

  20. Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) producing (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Evi; Albersmeier, Andreas; Spohn, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons: the chro......We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons...

  1. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  2. Transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae under blue light induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Light has significant effect on the growth and development of Saccharina japonica, but there are limited reports on blue light mediated physiological responses and molecular mechanism. In this study, high-throughput paired-end RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq technology was applied to transcriptomes of S. japonica exposed to blue light and darkness, respectively. Comparative analysis of gene expression was designed to correlate the effect of blue light and physiological mechanisms on the molecular level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RNA-seq analysis yielded 70,497 non-redundant unigenes with an average length of 538 bp. 28,358 (40.2% functional transcripts encoding regions were identified. Annotation through Swissprot, Nr, GO, KEGG, and COG databases showed 25,924 unigenes compared well (E-value <10(-5 with known gene sequences, and 43 unigenes were putative BL photoreceptor. 10,440 unigenes were classified into Gene Ontology, and 8,476 unigenes were involved in 114 known pathways. Based on RPKM values, 11,660 (16.5% differentially expressed unigenes were detected between blue light and dark exposed treatments, including 7,808 upregulated and 3,852 downregulated unigenes, suggesting S. japonica had undergone extensive transcriptome re-orchestration during BL exposure. The BL-specific responsive genes were indentified to function in processes of circadian rhythm, flavonoid biosynthesis, photoreactivation and photomorphogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: Transcriptome profiling of S. japonica provides clues to potential genes identification and future functional genomics study. The global survey of expression changes under blue light will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying blue light induced responses in lower plants as well as facilitate future blue light photoreceptor identification and specific responsive pathways analysis.

  3. Protein markers associated with fertility restoration in japonica rice (Oryza sativaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@As genetic markers, seed storage proteins have characters of high level of polymorphism, less environmental influence, and simple genetic control. In this study, Kinmaze (CK), Liuqianxin A, Liuqianxin B, Liuqianxin R, 77302-1, Ninghui3-2, C57, Chinsurah Boro Ⅱ, TN1, IR8, IR2A, and F1 and F2 of Liuqianxin A/77302-1 were used to detect protein markers associated with fertility restoration in japonica rice.

  4. Extraction and Separation of Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica with Chitosan as Extractant

    OpenAIRE

    Ronge Xing; Song Liu; Huahua Yu; Xiaolin Chen; Yukun Qin; Kecheng Li; Pengcheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is reported. Firstly, chitosan, chitosan-N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HACC), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CPAB) were used to extract the fucoidan. The results showed that chitosan was the optimal extractant compared with the other two extractants. After extraction, different aqueous solutions, including NaCl, KCl, and HCl (pH2), were used to separate fucoidan from chitosan-fucoidan complex. The resul...

  5. Structural analysis of sulfated fucan from Saccharina japonica by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weihua; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-03-22

    Desulfation of a fucoidan from Saccharina japonica by treatment with DMSO-MeOH resulted in partial degradation of polymeric molecules by methanolysis giving rise to a mixture of neutral, monosulfated, and disulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. These oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS. It was found that oligosaccharide structures coincided with the polysaccharide backbone built up mainly of (1→3)-linked fucose residues sulfated at positions 4 and 2.

  6. Optimization of levels of seaweed japonica saccharine and chenopodium quinoa wild in developing cereal bar

    OpenAIRE

    Ana LÃvia Brasil Silva

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed japonica saccharine, popularly known as "Kombu" is a food rich in protein, fiber and micronutrients. This algae has antioxidant properties, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is considered a pseudocereal whose main characteristic is the quality of its protein and is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an ideal food for its nutritional composition is higher than most cereals. The addition of these two ingredien...

  7. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  8. Reproductive strategy of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonan, Zhaxi; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Qin, Le-Zheng; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2017-10-01

    Zostera japonica populations along the coastline of the northwestern Pacific Ocean are declining, mainly due to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Although reproductive strategy is an important factor in achieving population persistence, changes in the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica under anthropogenic disturbances and tidal stresses are largely unknown. Thus, the duration and frequency of flowering, reproductive effort, potential seed production, and seed density in sediments were measured at three study stations (undisturbed upper, undisturbed lower, and disturbed stations), which were classified based on the levels of inundation stress and clamming activity, in monospecific meadows of Z. japonica on the southern coast of Korea. The flowering duration was approximately six months in the disturbed station, with disturbance due to clam harvesting, whereas the duration was about five months in the undisturbed lower station, and only three months in the undisturbed upper station. The maximum flowering frequency was 25.5% in the disturbed station, which was approximately 4- and 2-fold higher than in the undisturbed upper (6.1%) and lower (12.3%) stations, respectively. A similar trend in reproductive effort was also found among the three study stations. Potential seed production was 7850, 6220, and 1560 seeds m-2 in the disturbed, undisturbed lower, and undisturbed upper stations, respectively. The annual maximum seed density in sediments was also higher in the disturbed and undisturbed lower stations than in the undisturbed upper station, but the densities were relatively low (ranging from 71 to 254 seeds m-2) at all three study stations. It was found that the allocation to sexual reproduction was highest in the disturbed station, followed by the undisturbed lower station, and lowest in the undisturbed upper station, suggesting that sexual reproduction in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed and inundated environmental conditions for population

  9. STUDY ON THE BLOOD FAT REGULATION OF THE FUCOIDA-GALACTOSAN SULFATE (FGS) FROM LAMINARIA JAPONICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    FGS was isolated and purified from laminaria japonica by enzymolysis, chromatography methods and so on. The high blood fat model was established by feeding mouse on high fat feedstuff Compared with control group, the concentration of HDL-C, the ratio of HDL-C/TC increased; while the concentration of TC, LDL-C and TG decreased in experimental groups. Conclusion: FGS was an effective serum hipid regulator and can be developed as medicine and heahh food.

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I S; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p

  11. The species of mallophaga in wild birds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, H; Anwar, M; Niak, A

    1975-01-01

    Up to date 2 species of Mallophaga have been reported from birds in Iran. Further studies in Tehran area showed that the wild birds harbour more lice. The following species of Mallophage are reported for the first time from birds in Iran. Anaticola crassicornis from Anas clypeata, Laemobothrion maximum from Falco tinnunculus Laemobothrion sp. from Aquila chrysaetos Alcedoecus annulatus from Alcedo athis, Colpocephalum pectinatum and Strigiphilus sp. from Streptopelia turtur, Amrysidea fulvomaculata from Coturnix coturnix, philopterus picae from pica pica, Philopterus ocellatus and Colpocephalum pectinatum from Athene noctua, Philopterus sp. from Turdus ruficollis, Upupicola upupae from Upupa epops, Amyrsidea hexapilosus from Phasianus colchicus, Colpocephalum sp. from Falco cherrug.

  12. 鹌鹑OBR基因部分序列的克隆测序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝阳; 王庆; 白秀娟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 鹌鹑又称日本鹑,属鸟纲(ayes)、鸡形目(calliformes)、雉科(phasianidae)、鹌鹑属(coturnix),其学名为Coturnix joponica.鹌鹑肉营养丰富,含有多种人体必需的氨基酸,脂肪和胆固醇含量比鸡肉低,蛋白质、铁、钙、磷等含量都较鸡肉高,对人体有特殊的营养价值和保健作用.

  13. Evolutionary conservation ofDmrt gene family in amphibi-ans, reptiles and birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sex determining gene Mab-3 of C. elegans and doublesex of Drosophila contain a common DNA binding motif called a DM domain, both of which regulate similar aspects of sexual development. Human doublesex-related gene DMRT1 has been identified, which also contains the conserved DM-related DNA-binding domain and plays an essential role in gonadal differentiation. We present the amplification of a broad spectrum of DM domain sequences from phylogenetic diverse vertebrates (Cynops orientalis, Chrysemys scripta elegans and Coturnix coturnix) using degenerate PCR. Our results further reveal the unexpected complexity and the evolutionary conservation of the DM domain gene family.

  14. Whole-Genome de novo Sequencing Of Quail And Grey Partridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Burt, Dave;

    2011-01-01

    The development in sequencing methods has made it possible to perform whole genome de novo sequencing of species without large commercial interests. Within the EU-financed QUANTOMICS project (KBBE-2A-222664), we have performed de novo sequencing of quail (Coturnix coturnix) and grey partridge...... comparative studies towards the chicken genome and will aid in identifying evolutionarily conserved sequences within the Galliformes. The obtained sequences from quail and partridge represent a beginning of generating the whole genome sequence for these species. The continuation of establishing the genome...

  15. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  16. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically.

  17. Traits Related to Chilling-Induced Photoinhibition in Leaves of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Su-qin; JI Ben-hua; JIAO De-mao

    2004-01-01

    Physiological indices related to PS Ⅱ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and membrane lipid peroxidation were measured in leaves of indica rice cv Shanyou 63 and japonica rice 9516 at different temperatures and light intensities for four days. No obvious changes in Fv/Fm and MDA were observed in both indica and japonica rice at moderate temperature and medium PFD,implying neither photoinhibition nor photooxidation happened in these cases. In indica rice either at medium temperature with higher PFD or at lower temperature with medium PFD Fv/Fm dropped obviously with no changes in MDA contents, and photoinhibition appeared while photooxidation did not occur. However, D1 protein, Fv/Fm, (A+Z)/(A+Z+V), and SOD activities dropped, and O2 -. production and MDA content increased accordingly, as well as both photoinhibition and photooxidation appeared in two rice varieties at lower temperature and higher PFD. Experiment with inhibitors at lower temperature and higher PFD showed that as compared with japonica rice the decrements appeared in D1 protein contents, SOD activities, and (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) ratios, the xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quench (qN) were inhibited in a more degree, as well as increments of MDA content were greater, thus exhibiting more distinct photoinhibition and photooxidation in indica rice. It is suggested that Fv/Fm and membrane lipid peroxidation product-MDA were the key indices to predict and diagnose photooxidation.

  18. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (pNIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (pNIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in Ardisiae Japonicae Herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Yun; Gao, Wen; Li, Shang-Zhen; Wu, Wei; Li, Pei; Dou, Li-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, E-Hu

    2017-09-19

    Ardisiae Japonicae Herba is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bronchitis conjunctivitis, pneumonia and trauma. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was firstly established for the separation and structural identification of the chemical constituents in Ardisiae Japonicae Herba. A total of 15 compounds including coumarins, flavonoid glycosides, and catechins were identified or tentatively characterized based on their chromatographic behaviors and mass spectral fragmentation and by comparisons with the reference standards. Furthermore, a simple high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method was developed to for the simultaneous determination of five major constituents. Results obtained from method validations including linearity, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery showed that the established method was reliable and accurate. Bergenin and quercitrin were found to be the most abundant constituents and could be served as chemical markers for quality control of Ardisiae Japonicae Herba. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Several Immunostimulants on Phenoloxidase and Hemocytes of the Crab Charybdis japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Tingjun; YU Miaomiao; YANG Lingling; SHI Zhenping; SUN Wenjie; CONG Rishan; YANG Xiuxia; JIANG Guojian

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the stimulating effects of immunostimulants on the autogenous immunocompetence of crabs and the possible mechanisms involved, the immunostimulating effects of β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inactivated Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum on phenoloxidase (PO) and hemocytes of Charybdis japonica were investigated in this study. It was found that the yields and the enzymatic activities of purified PO in C. japonica increased significantly after the crabs were treated with immunostimulants, while the unit enzymatic activities remained almost the same. After treatment with β-1,3-glucan and LPS, the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the number of mitochondria in both semigranular cells and granular cells increased greatly, and the number of cytoplasmic granules decreased but with enlarged volume. However, the corresponding characteristics of hyaline cells remained almost the same. On the other hand, the number of granules in semigranular cells decreased greatly, and the number of mitochondria of hyaline cells increased greatly, after treatment with inactivated vibrios. It may be concluded that the effect of polysaccharide immunostimulants on the innate immune system of C. japonica is different from that of inactivated vibrio immunostimulants. The immunity-enhancing mechanism of polysaccharides in crab autogenous immunocompetence is probably accomplished by the increased yields of PO and total PO activities, while that of inactivated vibrios is probably accomplished by the partially increased yields of PO and total PO activities as well as the significantly improved phagocytotic abilities of semigranular cells and hyaline cells.

  1. Proteomics analysis of UV-irradiated Lonicera japonica Thunb. with bioactive metabolites enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Zheng, Wen; Fu, Zhirong; Li, Wenting; Ma, Luyu; Li, Ke; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui

    2013-12-01

    A previous study showed that the contents of caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids, the major bioactive components in the postharvest Lonicera japonica Thunb., were induced by enhanced ultraviolet (UV)-A or UV-B irradiation. To clarify the UV-responsive key enzymes in the bioactive metabolites biosynthetic pathway and the related plant defense mechanism in L. japonica, 2DE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed. Seventy-five out of 196 differential proteins were positively identified. Based on the functions, these proteins were grouped into nine categories, covering a wide range of molecular processes including the secondary metabolites (caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids) biosynthetic-related proteins, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress, DNA, transport-related proteins, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, cell wall. Of note is the increasing expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase, which was crucial to supply more precursor for the secondary metabolites including caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids. Thus, this study provides both the clues at the protein level for the increase of the two bioactive components upon UV irradiation and the profile of UV-responsive proteins in L. japonica.

  2. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  3. The non-indigenous Paranthura japonica Richardson, 1909 in the Mediterranean Sea: travelling with shellfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MARCHINI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An anthurid isopod new to the Mediterranean Sea has recently been observed in samples from three localities of the Italian coast: the Lagoon of Venice (North Adriatic Sea, La Spezia (Ligurian Sea and Olbia (Sardinia, Tyrrhenian Sea. The specimens collected showed strong affinity to a species originally described from the NW Pacific Ocean: Paranthura japonica Richardson, 1909. The comparison with specimens collected from the Bay of Arcachon (Atlantic coast of France, where P. japonica had been recently reported as non-indigenous, confirmed the identity of the species. This paper reports the most relevant morphological details of the Italian specimens, data on the current distribution of the species and a discussion on the pathways responsible for its introduction. The available data suggest that the presence of this Pacific isopod in several regions of coastal Europe might be due to a series of aquaculture-mediated introduction events that occurred during the last decades of the 1900s. Since then, established populations of P. japonica, probably misidentified, remained unnoticed for a long time.

  4. The Role of TGF-β1 in Mice Hepatic Fibrosis by Schistosomiasis Japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in mice with hepatic fibrosis caused by Schistosomiasis Japonica, ELISA ,VG staining and multimedia color hieroglyph quantitative analysis were used to study the change of the serum TGF-β1, liver collagen fiber and reticular fiber in mice. The level of serum TGF-β1 in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01 orP<0.05) 8, 10, 12 weeks after infected by schistosomiasis. After infection, the level of liver collagen fiber and reticular fiber, and that of TGF -β1 increased over time (P< 0.01 or P<0. 05). In mice infected by Schistosomiasis Japonica, the level of TGF-β1 increased with prolongation of infection time, and with the increase of liver collagen fiber and reticular fiber. TGFβ1 plays an important role of immunomodulation in hepatic fibrosis formation caused by Schistosomiasis Japonica.

  5. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Zhang

    Full Text Available A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.

  6. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.

  7. Infecção natural por Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas comercializadas em mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp. in domestic fowls sold at local markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saucier Gomes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a ocorrência, a morfometria de oocistos e os períodos patentes de Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas, patos (Anas platyrhynchos, pintos (Gallus gallus e codornas (Coturnix japonica, naturalmente infectadas, provenientes de dois mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Houve diferenças quanto à ocorrência da infecção entre os dois locais e entre pintos e patos, mas não entre codornas. Para a morfometria, foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas medidas dos diâmetros maior e menor e para o índice morfométrico calculado (P0,05. Na comparação do período de eliminação, patos tiveram um maior período com maiores quantidades de oocistos eliminados. Codornas e pintos apresentaram dinâmica de eliminação semelhante e não houve diferença quanto à concentração de oocistos. Pintos foram mais susceptíveis à infecção seguidos por patos e codornas. Pode-se concluir que a infecção natural por Cryptoporidium sp. foi frequente nas aves estudadas. Patos, pintos e codornas podem ser disseminadores do protozoário em mercados municipais do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Assim, podem constituir risco de infecção.The objective of the current study was comparing the dynamic and occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the morphometry and elimination period of oocysts in naturally infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, chickens (Gallus gallus and Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica from two local markets of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. There were significant differences considering the occurrence of infection between the two markets, and also between chickens and ducks, but not among Japanese quails. Also, significant statistical differences were observed in morphometry, considering the major and minor diameters of oocysts and the calculated morphometric index (P0.05. According to the elimination period, ducks eliminated oocysts for a longer period and in a higher number

  8. Pigmentantes naturais em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas em postura Natural pigments on sorghum-based rations for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar os efeitos do uso de pigmentantes naturais e extratos de marigold e páprica em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica, com 98 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, composto por cinco tratamentos e seis repetições com seis aves cada. O experimento foi dividido em seis períodos de quatro dias, totalizando 24 dias. Foram analisados o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas. A cor da gema foi avaliada a cada quatro dias durante 24 dias pelo método do escore colorimétrico DSM. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas, à exceção da cor da gema. O extrato de marigold proporcionou escore colorimétrico da gema equivalente ao das aves alimentadas com milho. A suplementação associada dos extratos de marigold e páprica proporcionou maior escore colorimétrico e em menor tempo. A utilização de pigmentantes naturais deve ser analisada considerando o escore colorimétrico que se deseja obter e o custo da suplementação de cada fonte comercial.The objective was to evaluate the effects of natural pigments from marigold extract and paprika to Japanese quails fed sorghum-based diets. One hundred and eight Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica, with 98 days of age were distributed in a complete randomized design in a split plot arrangement, with five treatments and six replicates of six birds each. The experiment was divided into six periods of four days each, totaling 24 days. Parameters productive performance and quail egg quality were evaluated. Yolk color was evaluated every 4 days for 24 days by the DSM colorimetric score method. There was no effect of experimental diets on performance or quality of quail egg, except for egg yolk color. The extract of marigold promoted yolk color scores equivalent to those

  9. Efficient indica and japonica rice identification based on the InDel molecular method: Its implication in rice breeding and evolutionary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong Lu; Xingxing Cai; Xin Jin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient molecular method for the accurate and efficient identification of indica and japonica rice was created based on the poly-morphisms of insertion/deletion (InDel) DNA fragments obtained from the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to the entire genomic sequences of indica (93-11) and japonica rice (Nipponbare). The 45 InDel loci were validated experimentally by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 44 typical indica and japonica rice varieties, including 93-11 and Nipponbare. A neutrality test of the data matrix generated from electrophoretic banding patterns of various InDel loci indicated that 34 InDel loci were strongly associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica rice. More extensive analyses involving cultivated rice varieties from 11 Asian countries, and 12 wild Oryza species with various origins confirmed that indica and japonica characteristics could accurately be determined via calculating the average frequency of indica- or japonica-specific alleles on different InDel loci across the rice genome. This method was named as the "InDel molecular index" that combines molecular and statistical methods in determining the indica and japonica characteristics of rice varieties. Compared with the traditional methods based essentially on morphology, the InDel molecular index provides a very accurate, rapid, simple, and efficient method for identifying indica and japonica rice. In addition, the InDel index can be used to determine indica or japonica characteristics of wild Oryza species, which largely extends the utility of this method. The InDel molecular index provides a new tool for the effective selection of appropriate indica or japonica rice germplasm in rice breeding. It also offers a novel model for the study of the origin, evolution, and genetic differentiation of indica and japonica rice adapted to various environmental changes.

  10. Characterization of genome-wide microsatellites of Saccharina japonica based on a preliminary assembly of Illumina sequencing reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Cui, Cuiju; Sun, Juan; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-06-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) function widely and locate dependently in genome. However, their characteristics are often ignored due to the lack of genomic sequences of most species. Kelp ( Saccharina japonica), a brown macroalga, is extensively cultured in China. In this study, the genome of S. japonica was surveyed using an Illumina sequencing platform, and its microsatellites were characterized. The preliminarily assembled genome was 469.4 Mb in size, with a scaffold N50 of 20529 bp. Among the 128370 identified microsatellites, 90671, 25726 and 11973 were found in intergenic regions, introns and exons, averaging 339.3, 178.8 and 205.4 microsatellites per Mb, respectively. These microsatellites distributed unevenly in S. japonica genome. Mononucleotide motifs were the most abundant in the genome, while trinucleotide ones were the most prevalent in exons. The microsatellite abundance decreased significantly with the increase of motif repeat numbers, and the microsatellites with a small number of repeats accounted for a higher proportion of the exons than those of the intergenic regions and introns. C/G-rich motifs were more common in exons than in intergenic regions and introns. These characteristics of microsatellites in S. japonica genome may associate with their functions, and ultimately their adaptation and evolution. Among the 120140 pairs of designed microsatellite primers, approximately 75% were predicted to be able to amplify S. japonica DNA. These microsatellite markers will be extremely useful for the genetic breeding and population evolution studies of kelp.

  11. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the 100kb Region Containing the Pi-kh Locus Between indica and japonica Rice Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.P. Kumar; V. Dalal; N.K. Singh; T.R. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    We have recently cloned a pathogen inducible blast resistance gene Pi-kh from the indica rice line Tetep using a positional cloning approach. In this study, we carried out structural organization analysis of the Pi-kh locus in both indica and japonica rice lines. A 100 kb region containing 50 kb upstream and 50 kb downstream sequences flanking to the Pi-kh locus was selected for the investigation. A total of 16 genes in indica and 15 genes in japonica were predicted and annotated in this region. The average GC content of indica and japonica genes in this region was 53.15% and 49.3%, respectively. Both indica and japonica sequences were polymorphic for simple sequence repeats having mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotides. Sequence analysis of the specific blast resistant Pi-kh allele of Tetep and the susceptible Pi-kh allele of the japonica rice line Nipponbare showed differences in the number and distribution of motifs involved in phosphorylation, resulting in the resistance phenotype in Tetep.

  13. Prospect of the QTL-qSB-9Tq utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice against sheath blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major QTL-qSB-9Tq conferring partial resistance to rice (Oryza sativa L.) sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) has been verified on chromosome 9 of the indica rice cultivar, Teqing. In this study, the prospect of this QTL utilized in molecular breeding program of japonica rice for sheath blight resistance was investigated. Most of the japonica rice cultivars showed lower level of sheath blight resistance than the indica rice cultivars. At the corresponding site of qSB-9Tq, nine typical japonica rice culfivars from different ecological regions or countries proved to possess the susceptible allele(s). Introgression of qSB-9Tq into these cultivars enhanced their resistance level by decreasing sheath blight score of 1.0 (0.5-1.3), which indicated that qSB-9Tq had a large potential in strengthening the resistance of japonica rice to sheath blight. The use of the three molecular markers, which were polymorphic between Teqing and many japonica rice cultivars, promotes the application of qSB-9Tq in a concrete molecular breeding program.

  14. The formation of pollen in male flowers and yearly atmospheric pollen counts of Cryptomeria japonica in the following year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Taira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of yearly atmospheric pollen counts is a very important component in the prevention of allergenic symptoms. We investigated the relationship between atomspheric pollen counts and the formation of male flowers of Cryptomeriajaponica D. Don (C. japonica. An atmospheric pollen survey of C. japonica was conducted from 1983 to 1996 using a Durham’s sampler. A regression analysis was performed between the total pollen count and July temperature in previous years. The atmospheric pollen counts of C. japonica had a high positive correlation with the mean temperature in July of the previous year. However, the predicted using average mean July temperature records of the previous year were insufficient, especially in years following high pollen count. In experimental conditions, using 60 C. japonica trees in pots, the formation of male flowers was shown to increase with a rise in incubation temperature. In a forest of C. japonica, our results showed that the length and weight of new needle growth from old needles, which produced many flowers in the previous year, were shorter and lighter, respectively. These aerobiological and plant physiological studies provide evidence that a smaller number of pollen counts are a common result in a year following one in which many male flowers are produced, even if the mean July temperature of that year was high.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Marine Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria as Revealed by Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of 'Candidatus Scalindua japonica'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Mizuto, Keisuke; Kimura, Zenichiro; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-09-11

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria affiliated with the genus 'Candidatus Scalindua' are responsible for significant nitrogen loss in oceans, and thus their ecophysiology is of great interest. Here, we enriched a marine anammox bacterium, 'Ca. S. japonica' from a Hiroshima bay sediment in Japan, and comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of 'Ca. S. japonica' were conducted. Sequence of the 4.81-Mb genome containing 4,019 coding regions of genes (CDSs) composed of 47 contigs was determined. In the proteome, 1,762 out of 4,019 CDSs in the 'Ca. S. japonica' genome were detected. Based on the genomic and proteomic data, the core anammox process and carbon fixation of 'Ca. S. japonica' were further investigated. Additionally, the present study provides the first detailed insights into the genetic background responsible for iron acquisition and menaquinone biosynthesis in anammox bacterial cells. Comparative analysis of the 'Ca. Scalindua' genomes revealed that the 1,502 genes found in the 'Ca. S. japonica' genome were not present in the 'Ca. S. profunda' and 'Ca. S. rubra' genomes, showing a high genomic diversity. This result may reflect a high phylogenetic diversity of the genus 'Ca. Scalindua'. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  17. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg, to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ouyang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. METHODOLOGY: The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3- to a C(4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4 resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4-based resource in September. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  18. Analysis of Saccharina japonica transcriptome using the high-throughput DNA sequencing technique and its vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiayuan; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Saccharina is one of the most important cold-water living marine brown algal genera. In this study we ana-lyzed the transcriptome of S. japonica, which belongs to the 1 000 Plants (OneKP) Project, by using a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique. About 5.16 GB of raw data were generated, and 65 536 scaffolds with an average length of 454 bp were assembled with SOAP de novo assembly method. In total, 19 040 unigenes were identified by BLAST;25 734 scaffolds were clustered into 37 Gene ontology functional groups;6 760 scaffolds were classified into 25 COG categories, as well as 2 665 scaffolds that were assigned to 306 KEGG pathways. Majority of the unigenes exhibited more similarities to algae including brown algae and diatom than other cyanobacteria, marine diatom, and plant. Saccharina japonica has the outstanding capability to accumulate halogen such as Br and I via halogenation processes from seawater. We acquired 42 different vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (vHPO) in S. japonica transcriptome data, including 5 segments of vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase (vIPO) and 37 segments of vanadium-de-pendent bromoperoxidase (vBPO). Complicated analyses of identified fulllength S. japonica vBPO1 and S. japonica vBPO2 revealed the importance of vBPO among species of brown algae and the strong relationship between marine algal vBPOs and vIPOs. This study will enhance our understanding of the biological charac-teristics and economic values of S. japonica species.

  19. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  20. Fallopia japonica, a Natural Modulator, Can Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Yehia Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is controlled by the decrease of intracellular drug accumulation, increase of detoxification, and diminished propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters with intracellular metabolic enzymes contribute to the complex and unresolved phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR. Natural products as alternative medicine have great potential to discover new MDR inhibitors with diverse modes of action. In this study, we characterized several extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plants (N = 16 for their interaction with ABC transporters, cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activities and their cytotoxic effect on different cancer cell lines. Fallopia japonica (FJ (Polygonaceae shows potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 P-glycoprotein activity about 1.8-fold when compared to verapamil as positive control. FJ shows significant inhibitory effect (39.81% compared with the known inhibitor ketoconazole and 100 μg/mL inhibited GST activity to 14 μmol/min/mL. FJ shows moderate cytotoxicity in human Caco-2, HepG-2, and HeLa cell lines; IC50 values were 630.98, 198.80, and 317.37 µg/mL, respectively. LC-ESI-MS were used to identify and quantify the most abundant compounds, emodin, polydatin, and resveratrol, in the most active extract of FJ. Here, we present the prospect of using Fallopia japonica as natural products to modulate the function of ABC drug transporters. We are conducting future study to evaluate the ability of the major active secondary metabolites of Fallopia japonica to modulate MDR and their impact in case of failure of chemotherapy.

  1. Subspecific Characteristics and Classification of Rice Varieties Developed Through Indica and Japonica Crossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-jin; LI Jin-quan; HUANG Rui-dong; JIANG Jian; CHEN Wen-fu; ZHANG Long-bu

    2005-01-01

    Six characteristics, i.e., hull color, chaff and leaf pubescences, length of 1st and 2nd rachis, grain length/width ratio and phenol reaction, of rice progenies from indica and japonica crossing were studied using the Cheng's index classification method. The results indicated that F1 generations performed more like indica, while F2 generations were approximately in a normal distribution. Both of the rice progenies were more affected by indica and female parents than by japonica and male parents. Among the six Cheng's index traits of the parents and F1 generations, and between the traits and Cheng's indexes, significant correlations (both at α=0.05 and α=0.01) were found in most cases. No significant correlations were found among the 6 Cheng's index traits of F2 generations in most cases, but significant correlations (α=0.01) existed between these traits and Cheng's indexes. The six Cheng's index traits of F2 ranged successively, and many individuals showed over-parent genetics, with the same trends in both direct cross and reciprocal cross. Among the 6 index traits,chaff and leaf pubescences almost presented in a two-peak value, while the others in a mono-peak value. The hull color,phenol reaction and length of 1 st and 2nd rachis were distributed in deviation, with the first two traits presented more in japonica individuals and the last trait more in indica. The grain length/width ratios were nearly in a normal distribution.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive components in Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun; Tang, Dan

    2007-06-01

    This study presents a new HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of seven major components, namely chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, loganin, sweroside, secoxyloganin, rutin and luteolin 7-O-glucoside in Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal herb derived from the caulis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. These seven compounds, belonging to the chemical types of phenolic acids, iridoids and flavonoids, were separated on a C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) with the column temperature at 30 degrees C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous acetic acid (0.4%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution of 10% B at 0-12 min, 10-17% B at 12-25 min and 17% B at 25-35 min. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength was set at 245 nm. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.10 to 0.23 microg/mL and the limit of quantification (S/N = 10) ranged from 0.69 to 3.56 microg/mL. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 > 0.9990) within the test ranges. The intra- and inter-day precisions as determined from sample solutions were below 1.24 and 2.28%, respectively. The recoveries for seven compounds were found to range from 94.2 to 103.6%. This verified method has been successfully applied to evaluation of commercial samples of Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae from different markets in China.

  3. Characterization of the promoter region of biosynthetic enzyme genes involved in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Yamada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs, a plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4’OMT and CYP719A1 were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4’OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed.

  4. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm...

  5. New data about optic properties of biominerals from some brown algae Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamirsky, I. E.; Chung, G.; Gutnikov, S. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    For the first time we made an attempt to study morphological types of phytoliths in the same species of multicellular brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica) growing in different locations. However, in all samples only shapeless silicon dioxide particles were found. Some of them had rough edges, the other had smooth edges. We assume that the rough-edged shapeless phytolithes were formed within cells and smooth-edged - in the intercellular space. Verification of this assumption needs confirmation by detection of similar structures in the tissues of live algae.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of three mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Qixuan; Lu, Guoqing; Wang, Chenghui

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic classification of three mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis, E. hepuensis, and E. japonica) has long been controversial. In this study, the complete mitogenomes of the three crabs were reported. The three mitogenomes were conserved in the organization of genes with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Nucleotide variations among the crabs were identified in both coding and non-coding regions. In addition, variable numbers of tandem repeats in control region were identified in the mitten crabs. The mitogenome sequences provide a valuable resource to elucidate taxonomic relationship and evolutionary history of the three mitten crabs.

  7. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) attracts drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Ono, M; Asada, S; Yoshida, T

    1991-12-01

    The discovery that drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) pollinate the oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) is reported. Drones are attracted to the orchid flower aroma mainly during their mating flights in April through May. Some drones cluster on the flower racemes and others insert their heads deep into the flowers. Drones with pollinia on their scutellum visit other orchids, which facilitates pollination. Individual workers and swarming colonies are also strongly attracted by the flower aroma, but the allopatric western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is not attracted.

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated GUS gene transfer to Sophora japonica L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-ying; Wang Hua-fang; Yin Wei-lun; Zhu Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Sophorajaponica was standardized using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that harbored the binary vector pBI121 containing genes for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransterase (npt Ⅱ). S. japonica transformants were selected by the ability of the leaf explants to produce kanamycin-resistant calli that regenerated into kanamycin-resistant plantlets. Successful transformation was confirmed by histochemical assay for GUS activity, PCR analysis and Southern blot. The period of nearly two months was required for the regeneration of transgenic plantlets from the explants. The transformed plants resembled their parents in morphology.

  9. DNA damage in gill cells of Corbicula japonica exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vladimirovna Slobodskova

    2015-06-01

    The results are presented as the percentage distribution of nuclei in the various damage classes and summarized in an index of DNA integrity or genetic damage index GDI (Cavas, Kohen, 2008: The results from our study showed significant level of DNA damage from the C. japonica which were collected from polluted sites. Unpolluted sites were described as with no or minimal DNA strand breaks. Mollusks collected at polluted areas (estuary Razdolnaya river, lagoon Tihaya showed high levels of DNA damage, GDI is equal to 3.22±0.2 and 3.11±0.7 in gills respectively. C. japonica obtained from a ‘clean’ areas (estuary Artemovka river, estuary Partizanskaya river demonstrate less high level of DNA damage destruction, GDI is equal to 0,6±0,08 and 0,71±0,12 in gills respectively. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, a decomposition product of polyunsaturated fatty acids hydro peroxides were determined by the TBA reaction. The absorbance was read at 532 nm after removal of substances (TBARS formed was calculated by using an extinction coefficient of 1.56*105 M-1 cm -1 formed per g dry weight. C. japonica sampled at Artemovka estuary, Partizanskaya estuary, Razdolnaya estuary, Tihaya lagoon showed LPX level (3.46±0.59, 5.62±0.82, 12.85±0.52, 15.32±1.13 nmol TBARS/g dry wt in gills respectively. In conclusion, it can be noted that in the course of the experiment we found a clear relationship between the amount of DNA damage and the level of peroxidation products (MDA in the gills of bivalve C. japonica, collected from sites with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. It should be emphasized that the shellfish that live in polluted areas are likely to be in a state of oxidative stress, which is one of the causes the degradation of DNA.

  10. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  11. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You; TANG Xuexi; LI Yongqi; YU Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminariajaponica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 (901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No. 1 (RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance (P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility (Rf), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  12. Antibacterial low-molecular-weight compounds produced by the marine bacterium Rheinheimera japonica KMM 9513(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinovskaya, Natalia I; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I

    2017-05-01

    Strain KMM 9513(T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore and selected due to its ability to inhibit indicator bacterial growth. The strain KMM 9513(T) has been recently described as a novel species Rheinheimera japonica. This study was undertaken to determine which substances produced by strain KMM 9513(T) could be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. Eight compounds were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract of R. japonica KMM 9513(T). The structures of five diketopiperazines (4-8) and diisobutyl-, dibutyl- and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (1-3) were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of NMR data, by Marfey method and optical rotation data. The structures of diketopiperazines were determined as cyclo-(L-valyl-L-proline), cyclo-(L-valyl-D-proline), cyclo-(L-phenylalanyl-L-proline), cyclo-(L-leucyl-L-proline), and cyclo-(L-phenylalanyl-D-proline). Compounds 1-3, 5 and 8 revealed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis and/or Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. In this paper, we describe the isolation and structural elucidation of the isolated compounds 1-8. This is the first report of the characterisation of low molecular weight antibacterial metabolites produced by a member of the genus Rheinheimera.

  13. Programmed cell death in Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) tissues infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gaoge; LIN Wei; ZHANG Lijing; YAN Xiaojun; DUAN Delin

    2004-01-01

    TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a sensitive and valid method for detecting DNA cleavage in programmed cell death (PCD). Using this method, DNA cleavage was observed in Laminaria japonica sporophytic tissues, which were infected with alginic acid decomposing bacterium. It was found that DNA cleavage occurred 5 min after the infection, the fragments with 3′-OH groups of cleaved nuclear DNA increased with time of infection and spread from the infection site. Although no typical DNA ladder (200 bp/180 bp) was detected by routine agarose gel electrophoresis, the cleavage of nuclear DNA fragments of 97~48.5 kb could be detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using CaspGLOWTM fluorescein active caspase-3 staining method, caspase-3 activity has been detected in response to the infection of alginic acid decomposing bacterium. Our results are similar to the observations in hypersensitive response (HR) of higher plant, suggesting that the rapid cell death of L. Japonica infected by alginic acid decomposing bacterium might be involved in PCD, and indicating that the occurrence of PCD is an active defense process against the pathogen's infection.

  14. Blooming biology and pollen abundance of Anemone japonica Houtt.= Anemone x hybrida hort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out between 2002 and 2003 and in 2005 in the Botanical Garden in Lublin. The blooming and the pollen flow of Anemone japonica Houtt. (=A. x hybrida hort were observed. The blooming of the perennial took place in the middle and end of summer. The number of flowers per inflorescence and the mass of pollen produced in anthers significantly depended on insolation conditions and were greater on sunny plots. Anemone japonica is characterized by the variability of many features which directly influence the amount of delivered pollen. The number of stamens varied from 175 to 507 per flower, the mass of pollen from 1.1mg to 4.9 mg per 100 anthers, the number of flowers from 25 to 118 per one inflorescence and from 355⋅m-2 to 2202⋅m-2. Therefore the pollen efficiency varied widely from 1.3g⋅m-2 to 27.7g⋅m-2 and reached 15.3 g ⋅ m-2 on average.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in cordate gametophytes of two ferns, Angiopteris lygodiifolia and Osmunda japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Sakoda, Aki; Ebihara, Atsushi; Yukawa, Tomohisa; Imaichi, Ryoko

    2013-01-01

    Mycorrhizal symbiosis is common among land plants including pteridophytes (monilophytes and lycophytes). In pteridophytes with diplohaplontic life cycle, mycorrhizal formations were mostly reported for sporophytes, but very few for gametophytes. To clarify the mycorrhizal association of photosynthetic gametophytes, field-collected gametophytes of Angiopteris lygodiifolia (Marattiaceae, n = 52) and Osmunda japonica (Osmundaceae, n = 45) were examined using microscopic and molecular techniques. Collected gametophytes were mostly cut into two pieces. One piece was used for light and scanning microscopic observations, and the other for molecular identification of plant species (chloroplast rbcL sequences) and mycorrhizal fungi (small subunit rDNA sequences). Microscopic observations showed that 96 % (50/52) of Angiopteris and 95 % (41/43) of Osmunda gametophytes contained intracellular hyphae with arbuscules and/or vesicles and fungal colonization was limited to the inner tissue of the thick midribs (cushion). Fungal DNA analyses showed that 92 % (48/52) of Angiopteris and 92 % (35/38) of Osmunda have sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which were highly divergent but all belonged to Glomus group A. These results suggest that A. lygodiifolia and O. japonica gametophytes consistently form arbuscular mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal formation in wild fern gametophytes, based on large-scale sampling with molecular identification of host plant species, was demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Bo; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    An eco-friendly approach for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using aqueous Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract was investigated. The reduction of silver ions in solution was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 435 nm was observed. The proper condition to biosynthesize AgNPs using E. japonica leaf extract was optimized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurement (DLS). The biosynthesised nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), DLS, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD and EDX analyses confirmed the crystalline character of AgNPs and the presence of elemental silver. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, and their average particle size determined by TEM was about 20 nm. Furthermore the AgNPs were found to exhibit effective antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Cytological features of oogenesis and their evolutionary significance in the fern Osmunda japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-Guo; Dai, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Quan-Xi

    2012-03-01

    The development of the egg and canal cells in the fern Osmunda japonica Thunb. was studied during oogenesis by transmission electron microscopy. The mature egg possesses no fertilization pore and no typical egg envelope. In addition, an extra wall formed around the canal cells during oogenesis and apparently blocked protoplasmic connections between the egg and the canal cells. The periodic acid Schiff (PAS) reaction revealed that the extra wall was most likely composed of polysaccharides. Maturation of the egg was accompanied by the formation of a separation cavity above the egg and by some changes in the morphology of the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles. The chromatin of the nucleus becomes condensed and the upper surface of the nucleus becomes closely associated with the plasmalemma. Amyloplasts in the egg cytoplasm were numerous and conspicuous, with most in close proximity to the nucleus. Finally, the cytoplasm on one side of the egg became vesiculated and the overlying plasmalemma was easily disrupted. These cytological features of the egg and the canal cells during oogenesis in O. japonica are markedly different from those of the leptosporangiate ferns and suggest a significant evolutionary divergence in reproductive cellular features between Osmundaceae and leptosporangiate ferns.

  18. Optimization of saccharification and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) from seaweed, Saccharina japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Suk; Cho, YuKyeong; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol was produced using the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method with macroalgae polysaccharide from the seaweed Saccharina japonica (Sea tangle, Dasima) as biomass. The seaweed was dried by hot air, ground with a hammer mill and filtered with a 200-mesh sieve prior to pretreatment. Saccharification was carried out by thermal acid hydrolysis with H(2)SO(4) and the industrial enzyme, Termamyl 120 L. To increase the yield of saccharification, isolated marine bacteria were used; the optimal saccharification conditions were 10% (w/v) seaweed slurry, 40 mM H(2)SO(4) and 1 g dcw/L isolated Bacillus sp. JS-1. Using this saccharification procedure, the reducing sugar concentration and viscosity were 45.6 ± 5.0 g/L and 24.9 cp, respectively, and the total yield of the saccharification with optimal conditions and S. japonica was 69.1%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out for ethanol production. The highest ethanol concentration, 7.7 g/L (9.8 ml/L) with a theoretical yield of 33.3%, was obtained by SSF with 0.39 g dcw/L Bacillus sp. JS-1 and 0.45 g dcw/L of the yeast, Pichia angophorae KCTC 17574.

  19. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  20. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.. Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  1. [Effects of spacing on the yields and canopy structure of japonica rice at full heading stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-peng; Wang, Shu; Huang, Yuan-cai; Jia, Bao-yan; Wang, Yan; Zeng, Qun-yun

    2015-11-01

    With three panicle types of rice varieties and hybrids in Liaoning as entries, the effects of spacing of Japonica rice on light interception capacity, population light distribution, light conversion efficiency at full heading stage and yield were studied. The results showed that the leaf area indices at full heading stage, closely related to light interception, increased first and then decreased with the decrease of transplanting density. The extinction coefficient in one day increased first and then decreased, and the K value increased with the increase of planting density. Yield was positively correlated with canopy extinction coefficient and inclinations of the upper three leaves. In terms of energy efficiency, the yields were positively correlated to flag leaf stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate. At the configuration of high (15 cm x 25 cm) and low (20 cm x 30 cm and 20 cm x 35 cm) densities, Japonica rice could increase light interception capability and optical conversion efficiency, but could not obtain high and stable yields due to limitation by lodging and panicles of per unit area, respectively. At the configurations of 15 cm x 30 cm and 20 cm x 25 cm, it was easy to get adequate panicles, optimize the structure of the canopy, reduce lodging risk, and obtain high yield.

  2. Eriobotrya japonica seed biocomposite efficiency for copper adsorption: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic and desorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mehwish; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Munawar; Noreen, Saima

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove pollutants from wastewater; however, composites are gaining more importance due to their excellent adsorption properties. Bentonite composite with Eriobotrya japonica seed was prepared and used for the adsorption of copper (Cu) metal from aqueous media. The process variables such as pH, Cu(II) ions initial concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were optimized for maximum Cu(II) adsorption. At pH 5, adsorbent dose 0.1 g, contact time 45 min, Cu(II) ions initial concentration 75 mg/L and temperature 45 °C, maximum Cu(II) adsorption was achieved. Desorption studies revealed that biocomposite is recyclable. Langmuir, Freundlich and Harkins-Jura isotherms as well as pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were applied to understand the adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) suggest that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the adsorption data. Results showed that biocomposite was more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption in comparison to individuals native Eriobotrya japonica seed biomass and Na-bentonite.

  3. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Joo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, normal butanol (n-BuOH, and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+-taxifolin, afzelin, (−-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively.

  4. Allergy-preventive effects of chlorogenic acid and iridoid derivatives from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hisae; Ogawa, Yuko; Iwaoka, Emiko; Ishiguro, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Allergy-preventive activity of flower buds of Lonicera japonica THUNB. was found in the 35% EtOH extract (LJ) using an in vivo assay, The assay system uses monitoring of a decrease in blood flow (BF) in the tail vein of mice subjected to sensitization with hen-egg white lysozyme (HEL). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the 35% EtOH extract led to isolation of chlorogenic acid (1) and three known iridoid derivatives, loganin (2), secoxyloganin (3) and sweroside (4), all of which inhibited the BF decrease. This suggested that the flower buds of L. japonica and compounds isolated from them have allergy-preventive properties. The structure-activity relationship of iridoid derivatives, morroniside (5), geniposide (6), asperuloside (7), aucubin (8) and catalpol (9), were also tested using the same bioassay method. Compounds 2-5 and 9 having the sp(3) atom at C-8 showed an allergy-preventive effect, while compounds 6, 7 and 8 having a double bond at C-7, C-8 did not.

  5. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  6. Metabolism of polychaete Neanthes japonica Izuka: relations to temperature, salinity and body weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XIAN Weiwei; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    Polychaete Neanthesjaponica is a species geographically specific in China and Japan with important scientific implication and commercial value. In this study, the relations of body weight, salinity and temperature to oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of N. japonica were determined. Threedifferent groups in body weight (large: 2.34±0.36 g, middle: 1.50±0.21 g and small: 0.62±0.12 g) were set for all experiments. Results show that the body weight is negatively related to the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion; and the relationship is significant. The oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion at 24℃ decreased at salinity from 5 to 30 and increased above 30, indicating that both lower and higher salinity are adverse and certain degree of salinity stress is necessary for enhancing the energy demand. At salinity 30, rising temperature from 18℃ to 30℃, the oxygen consumption increased before 27℃ and then decreased. However, the relation of ammonia excretion and temperature seems more complex. Two-way ANOVA shows that salinity, temperature and body weight all have a significant effect on the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of the worm. Moreover, interaction between salinity/temperature and body weight is also significant. O:N (oxygen/nitrogen) ratio varies greatly in this case from 5.97 to 463.22, indicating that N. japonica can regulate the type of metabolic substrate against environment changes.

  7. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  8. Indica-Japonica differentiation of rice cultivars viewed from variations in key characters and isozymes, with special reference to landraces from the Himalayan hilly areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, R; Morishima, H

    1992-07-01

    To assess the extent of differentiation into the Indica and Japonica types of Asian rice in its diversity center, we investigated landraces collected from the hilly areas of Nepal, Sikkim and Assam. We examined variations in four key characters and six isozyme loci known to be diagnostic for classifying Indica and Japonica types, and compared the results with those from a control set of rice cultivars representing the whole of Asia. The hill cultivars showed a high level of genetic diversity in key characters as well as in isozymes. A marked feature found in their character variation was the occurrence of various atypical cultivars that were intermediate between the Indica and Japonica types. With respect to isozymes, however, the hill cultivars could be classified mostly as either Indicas or Japonicas, although the patterns of allelic association were more random than in the control cultivars. Indica-Japonica variation in key characters and in isozymes corresponded well with each other in the controls, but not in the hill cultivars. This means that nonrandom association in characters as well as in genes (gametic disequilibrium) is not fully developed in the diversity center. Populations of hill cultivars were highly polymorphic genetically, but did not show a trend to Indica-Japonica differentiation within their populations. The process of Indica-Japonica differentiation is discussed in view of these observations.

  9. Variation along ITS markers across strains of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) suggests hybridisation events and recent range expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, WHCF; de Boer, MK; Vrieling, EG; Connell, LB; Gieskes, WWC

    2001-01-01

    The flagellate micro-alga Fibrocapsa japonica can form harmful algal blooms:along all temperate coastal regions of the world. The species was first observed in coastal waters of Japan and the western US in the 1970s-, it has been reported regularly worldwide since. To unravel whether this apparent r

  10. Diaphorina citri Induces Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus Plant Volatiles to Repel and Reduce the Performance of Propylaea japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S.; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants. PMID:28083006

  11. Molecular basis underlying the S5-dependent reproductive isolation and compatibility of indica/japonica rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Zhang, Meijing; Lu, Jufei; Wang, Hongmei; Lin, Bing; Liu, Qiaoquan; Chao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chunxia; Gu, Minghong; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-03-01

    The S5 locus regulates spikelet fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa). There are three alleles at the S5 locus, including an indica allele (S5i), a japonica allele (S5j), and a wide-compatibility allele (S5n). This study analyzed the molecular basis for S5-dependent reproductive isolation and compatibility of indica/japonica rice hybrids. Three S5 alleles were expressed at extremely low levels, and only in the ovary. S5n was more similar to S5i in both RNA and protein expression profiles. The S5 locus was not essential for embryo sac development, although deleterious interactions between S5i and S5j resulted in reduced rates of spikelet fertility. The yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between S5-encoded proteins. The results indicated that the S5i- and S5j-encoded eukaryotic aspartyl proteases formed both homodimers and heterodimers, whereas the S5n-encoded aspartyl protease was incapable of dimerization. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a single amino acid difference between S5i- and S5j-encoded aspartyl proteases (phenylalanine/leucine at residue 273) was primarily responsible for embryo sac abortion. The S5 locus may have promoted the subspeciation of indica and japonica, but it also enables gene flow between them.

  12. Essential oil from Cryptomeria japonica induces apoptosis in human oral epidermoid carcinoma cells via mitochondrial stress and activation of caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Kim, Ji-Young

    2012-03-30

    Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica) has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle), and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The essential oil induced the apoptosis of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the sub-G1 ratio. The essential oil also induced rapid and transient caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP of the KB cells. Treating the cells with the oil also caused changes in the mitochondrial level of the Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The essential oil of C. japonica may have potential as a cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agent.

  13. Diaphorina citri Induces Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus Plant Volatiles to Repel and Reduce the Performance of Propylaea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants.

  14. Identification of SNPs in closely-related temperate japonica rice cultivars using restriction enzyme-phased sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very low polymorphism in the germplasm typically used by breeding programs poses a significant bottleneck with regarding to molecular breeding and the exploitation of breeding materials for quantitative trait analyses. California rice varieties, derived from a very small base of temperate japonica g...

  15. Evaluation of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers for Chamaecyparis obtusa based on expressed sequence tag information from Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, A; Tsumura, Y

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and evaluated sequence-tagged site (STS) primers based on expressed sequence-tag information derived from sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) for use in hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa), a species that belongs to a different family (although it appears to be fairly closely related to sugi). Of the 417 C. japonica STS primer pairs we screened, 120 (approximately 30%) were transferable and provided specific PCR amplification products from 16 C. obtusa plus trees. We used haploid megagametophytes to investigate the homology of 80 STS fragments between C. obtusa and C. japonica and to identify orthologous loci. Nearly 90% of the fragments showed high (>70%) degrees of similarity between the species, and 35 STSs indicated homology to entries with the same putative function in a public DNA database. Of the 120 STS fragments amplified, 72 showed restriction fragment length polymorphisms; in addition, the CC2430 primers detected amplicon length polymorphism. We assessed the inheritance pattern of 27 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, using 20 individuals from the segregation population. All the markers analyzed were consistent with the marker inheritance patterns obtained from the screening panel, and no markers (except CC2716) showed significant (Pobtusa. Most of the markers should also provide reliable anchor loci for comparative mapping studies of the C. obtusa and C. japonica genomes.

  16. Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

  17. Sympatric spawning but allopatric distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata: temperature- and oceanic current-dependent sieving.

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    Yu-San Han

    Full Text Available Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24 °C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them "temperate" and "tropical" eels, respectively.

  18. Naturally occurrence of Sr and Ca in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.; Aoki, T.; Ko, S.; Yoshida, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Distribution profiles of Sr and Ca occurring naturally in the stem of a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) were determined using PIXE. The average concentration of Sr was around 7.5 ppm and the average Ca concentration was about 540 ppm. (author)

  19. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  20. Essential Oil from Cryptomeria japonica Induces Apoptosis in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells via Mitochondrial Stress and Activation of Caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle, and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The essential oil induced the apoptosis of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the sub-G1 ratio. The essential oil also induced rapid and transient caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP of the KB cells. Treating the cells with the oil also caused changes in the mitochondrial level of the Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The essential oil of C. japonica may have potential as a cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agent.

  1. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae in Northeast China.

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    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  2. Effect of growth rate and body mass on resting metabolic rate in galliform chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we asked whether within-species variation in chick resting metabolic rate was related to variation in growth and whether this relationship changed during development in three galliform species (turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, guinea fowl, Numida meleagris, and Japanese quail, Coturnix co

  3. Morfo-anatomia das folhas da nespereira Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae Leaf morpho-anatomy of loquat Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. de Souza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Eriobotrya japonica, Rosaceae, é uma espécie conhecida popularmente como nespereira, cujas folhas são empregadas na medicina tradicional como agente hipoglicemiante e no tratamento de doenças da pele. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar morfo-anatomicamente as folhas, a fim de fornecer subsídios farmacognósticos ao controle de qualidade da droga vegetal e taxonômicos à família. O material botânico foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas são simples, alternas, lanceoladas, de limbo inteiro e margem denteada. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula espessada e levemente estriada. Tricomas tectores unicelulares longos são encontrados em ambas as faces, sendo numerosos na abaxial. A folha é hipoestomática, revelando estômatos anomocíticos. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e os feixes vasculares de pequeno porte são colaterais e podem apresentar extensão de bainha. A nervura principal possui formato biconvexo e o pecíolo circular, sendo ambos percorridos por feixes vasculares anficrivais. Foram observados idioblastos contendo cristais de oxalato de cálcio, mucilagem e compostos fenólicos.The leaves of Eriobotrya japonica , Rosaceae, popularly known as loquat, are used in folk medicine for their hypoglycemic properties and to treat cutaneous diseases. The aim of this work was to study the leaf morpho-anatomy of the drug for pharmacognostic and taxonomic purposes. The botanical material was prepared for the usual optical and scanning microtechniques. The leaves are simple, alternate and lanceolate, with entire blade and dentate margins. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated by a thick and slightly striated cuticle. Both surfaces are hairy, particularly the lower, with long unicellular non-glandular trichomes. Anomocytic stomata occur exclusively on the lower surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the small bundles are collateral and may

  4. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain.

  5. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar “Zenith” root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected “Zenith” roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of “Zenith” root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of “Zenith” root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain

  6. Chemical Constituents of Sophora japonica Leaves%槐叶化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁义平; 束晓云; 唐于平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in the leaves of Sophora japonica. Method:The constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Result: Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as quercetin ( 1 ),kaempferol (2) , isorhamnetin (3), genistein ( 4 ) , prunetin (5) , daidzein ( 6 ), calycosin (7), pyrocatechol (8) , protocatechuric acid (9), eicosyl behenate (10) , eicosanol ( 11 ), behenic acid (12) ,β-sitosterol (13) ,stigmasterol ( 14 ) and daucosterol ( 15 ). Conclusion: All of the constituents are obtained in the leaves of S. japonica; among them, compounds 7-10, 12 and 14 are reported in this species for the first time. The results are helpful for the comprehensive utilization of pagoda tree resources.%目的:研究槐Sophora japonica L.叶的化学成分.方法:采用有机溶剂提取,反复硅胶柱色谱和重结晶法进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和波谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:从槐叶二氯甲烷萃取部分共分离得到了3个黄酮醇,4个异黄酮以及8个其他类成分,分别鉴定为槲皮素(quercetin,1),山柰酚(kaempferol,2),异鼠李素(isorhamnetin,3),染料木素(genistein,4),樱黄素(prunetin,5),大豆黄素(daidzein,6),毛蕊异黄酮(calycosin,7),儿茶酚(pyrocatechol,8),原儿茶酸(protocatechuric acid,9),二十二烷酸二十烷酯(eicosyl behenate,10),二十醇(eicosanol,11),二十二烷酸(behenic acid,12),β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,13),豆甾醇(stigmasterol,14)和胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,15).结论:这些化合物均为首次从槐叶中分离得到,其中化合物7~10,12,14为首次从该种植物中分得,这些研究为槐叶及槐资源的综合利用提供了基础.

  7. Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have reported about the effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on vascular tissue. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) can promote either inhibition or stimulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, depending upon the intensity and time of exposure to the MF. To investigate the possible effects of ELF-MF on vascular processes, it is necessary to employ methods that allow parameterization of the vascular network. Vascular network is a structure with fractal geometry; therefore, fractal methods have been used to evaluate its morphometric complexity. Here, we used the lacunarity parameter (complementary method of fractal analysis) and multifractal analyses to investigate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac membrane (YSM) of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) with and without exposure to an external MF of 1 mT and 60 Hz. Lacunarity results showed that the vascular density was lower for the group exposed to the magnetic field for 9 h/day. In addition, multifractal analysis showed reduced vascularization in the experimental groups (6 h/day and 9 h/day of exposure to MF). Furthermore, multifractal analysis showed difference between the groups exposed for 12 and 24 h/day. Using multifractal methods (generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum), it was possible to characterize the vascular network of the quail embryo YSM as a multifractal object, therefore proving this method to be a more appropriate application than the traditional monofractal methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  9. Activity and Safety of Inhaled Itraconazole Nanosuspension in a Model Pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Inoculated Young Quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlaź, Piotr; Knaga, Sebastian; Kasperek, Kornel; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa; Jeżewska-Witkowska, Grażyna; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Wyska, Elżbieta; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Rundfeldt, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is frequently reported in parrots, falcons, and other birds held in captivity. Inhalation is the main route of infection for Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in both acute and chronic disease conditions. Itraconazole (ITRA) is an antifungal commonly used in birds, but its administration requires repeated oral dosing, and the safety margin is narrow. To investigate the efficacy of inhaled ITRA, six groups of ten young quails (Coturnix japonica) were inoculated intratracheally with 5 × 10(6) spores (3 groups) or 5 × 10(7) spores (3 groups). Animals were exposed to nebulized ITRA nanosuspension as 10 % suspension or 4 % suspension, once daily for 30 min, starting 2 h after inoculation for 6 days. Control groups were exposed to nebulized saline for the same period of time. Survival and clinical scores were evaluated, and animals were subjected to gross pathology. In control animals, aspergillosis resulted in systemic disease without pulmonary or air sac granulomas. Animals died from multiple organ failure. Inhalation of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension blocked lethality and prevented disease-related symptoms in the quails exposed to the low dose of spores, while the disease course in quails inoculated with the high-spore dose was retarded. Inhalation of 4 % ITRA nanosuspension was less effective. Both inhalations were well tolerated, and gross pathology did not reveal signs of local toxicity. The data indicate that inhaled administration of 10 % ITRA nanosuspension is capable of alleviating an acute A. fumigatus infection in quails. A lower ITRA concentration may be only active in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.

  10. Mapping of panda plumage color locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panda (s is an autosomal recessive mutation, which displays overall white plumage color with spots of wild-type plumage in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica. In a previous study, the s locus was included in the same linkage group as serum albumin (Alb and vitamin-D binding protein (GC which are mapped on chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome 4 (GGA4. In this study, we mapped the s locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail by linkage analysis. Results Segregation data on the s locus were obtained from three-generation families (n = 106. Two microsatellite markers derived from the Japanese quail chromosome 4 (CJA04 and three microsatellite markers derived from GGA4 were genotyped in the three-generation families. We mapped the s locus between GUJ0026 and ABR0544 on CJA04. By comparative mapping with chicken, this locus was mapped between 10.0 Mb and 14.5 Mb region on GGA4. In this region, the endothelin receptor B subtype 2 gene (EDNRB2, an avian-specific paralog of the mammalian endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB, is located. Because EDNRB is responsible for aganglionic megacolon and spot coat color in mouse, rat and equine, EDNRB2 is suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus. Conclusion The s locus and the five microsatellite markers were mapped on CJA04 of the Japanese quail. EDNRB2 was suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus.

  11. Sperm-egg interaction is mediated by a sperm-associated body in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M Golam; Sasanami, Tomohiro; Mori, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the holes in the inner vitelline membrane of fertile eggs of the quail Coturnix japonica, which remain after the spermatozoa pass through. It was shown that the light-microscopically observable 'holes' correspond mostly to electron-microscopically defined 'disks', and, to a lesser extent (about 5%), real holes. Immunofluorescent staining of the vitelline membranes with an antiquail ZPC antiserum was used to discriminate the holes from the disks light-microscopically. Over 96% of holes were accompanied by calcium-coated sperm-associated bodies, indicating a close relationship between the two. There was no preferential localization of the disks, holes or sperm-associated bodies in the vitelline membrane around the egg. The sperm-associated bodies bound with the spermatozoa at the posterior end of sperm flagella. Incubation of the inner vitelline membranes, isolated from the largest follicles, with spermatozoa resulted in production only of the disks, whereas the holes (about 9%) were produced when the sperm-associated bodies were added to the system. It was suggested that the sperm-associated bodies assist fertile spermatozoa in binding to the inner vitelline membrane, making holes in the membrane and passing through them in fertile eggs.

  12. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  13. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., depression after 24 hr). Increased liver weight and a doubling of paraoxonase activity may have been associated with greater tolerance to sublethal doses of parathion in chronically cold-exposed quail. These findings, together with limited field observations, indicate that the hazard associated with anticholinesterase exposure of wild birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  14. Effect of sex on histological and histochemical structures of different parts of the kidney in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Behzad; Abdollahi, MohammadHossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of gender on the histological and histochemical structures of different anatomical regions of the kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Tissue samples from cranial, middle and caudal divisions of each kidney were obtained from 20 male and 20 female adult, healthy Japanese quail. The sections stained with hematoxylin & eosin ( H & E: ), Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff's, Alcian blue (pH 2.5), Periodic acid-Schiff, and Gomori's method for reticulum. Unusual findings of the kidney in Japanese quail were the presence of three types of nephrons, all the connective tissue fibers in capsule and interlobular septa and AB-reactions of the proximal convoluted cells. No significant sex-based differences were found. The various histological structures of the kidney showed no significant differences among different divisions of the left and right kidneys. It is concluded that the general histological and histochemical properties of the kidney in Japanese quail were similar to those of chickens and some other species, but that there were also some differences. One of the major differences was brush border of interdigitating microvilli on luminal surface of collecting ducts in Japanese quail.

  15. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna, Natalie; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  16. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  17. Trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., an avian trypanosome transmitted by Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votýpka, Jan; Szabová, Jana; Rádrová, Jana; Zídková, Lenka; Svobodová, Milena

    2012-03-01

    A novel avian trypanosome, Trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., isolated from Culex mosquitoes, is described on the basis of naturally and experimentally infected vectors and bird hosts, localization in the vector, morphological characters and molecular data. This study provides the first comprehensive description of a trypanosome species transmitted by mosquitoes, in which parasites form plugs and rosettes on the stomodeal valve. Trypanosomes occurred as long epimastigotes and short trypomastigotes in vectors and culture and as long trypomastigotes in birds. Transmission of parasites to bird hosts was achieved exclusively by ingestion of experimentally infected Culex mosquito females by canaries (Serinus canaria), but not by Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica), nor by the bite of infected vectors, nor by ingestion of parasites from laboratory cultures. Transmission experiments and the identity of isolates from collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and Culex mosquitoes suggests that the natural hosts of T. culicavium are insectivorous songbirds (Passeriformes). Phylogenetic analyses of small-subunit rRNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene sequences demonstrated that T. culicavium sp. nov. is more related to Trypanosoma corvi than to other avian trypanosomes (e.g. Trypanosoma avium and Trypanosoma bennetti).

  18. The "silver" Japanese quail and the MITF gene: causal mutation, associated traits and homology with the "blue" chicken plumage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin'ichi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene has been investigated in mice and various vertebrates but its variations and associated effects have not yet been explored much in birds. The present study describes the causal mutation B at the MITF gene responsible for the "silver" plumage colour in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, and its associated effects on growth and body composition, and tests its allelism with the "blue" plumage colour mutation Bl in Gallus gallus. Results The semi dominant B mutation results from a premature stop codon caused by a 2 bp deletion in exon 11 of MITF. Homozygous "white" (B/B quail which have a white plumage also show a slightly lower growth, lower body temperature, smaller heart, and lighter pectoralis muscles but more abdominal adipose tissue than the recessive homozygous "wild-type" (+/+ and heterozygous "silver" (B/+ quail. Similar observations on cardiac and body growth were made on mice (Mus musculus homozygous for mutations at MITF. The production of chicken-quail hybrids with a white plumage obtained by crossing Bl/+ chicken heterozygous for the blue mutation with B/B white quail indicated that the mutations were allelic. Conclusion The "silver" Japanese quail is an interesting model for the comparative study of the effects of MITF in birds and mammals. Further investigation using a chicken family segregating for the "blue" plumage and molecular data will be needed to confirm if the "blue" plumage in chicken results from a mutation in MITF.

  19. Interspecific hybrids of dwarf hamsters and Phasianidae birds as animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishishita, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2016-10-13

    Hybrid incompatibility is important in speciation as it prevents gene flow between closely related populations. Reduced fitness from hybrid incompatibility may also reinforce prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. However, the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in higher vertebrates remains poorly understood. Mammals and birds, both amniotes, have similar developmental processes, but marked differences in development such as the XY/ZW sex determination systems and the presence or absence of genomic imprinting. Here, we review the sterile phenotype of hybrids between the Phodopus dwarf hamsters P. campbelli and P. sungorus, and the inviable phenotype of hybrids between two birds of the family Phasianidae, chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We propose hypotheses for developmental defects that are associated with these hybrid incompatibilities. In addition, we discuss the genetic and developmental basis for these defects in conjunction with recent findings from mouse and avian models of genetics, reproductive biology and genomics. We suggest that these hybrids are ideal animal models for studying the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in amniotes.

  20. Cocaine-induced sensitization correlates with testosterone in male Japanese quail but not with estradiol in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Madison, Farrah N; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that gonadal hormones may mediate behavioral and biological responses to cocaine. Estrogen, in particular, has been shown to increase behavioral responding to cocaine in female rats relative to male rats. The current study investigated the effect of cocaine on locomotor activity and hormonal correlates in male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In Japanese quail, circulating hormone levels can be manipulated without surgical alterations via modifying the photoperiod. Male and female quail were housed on either 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21days. Blood samples were taken prior to the beginning of the experiment and assays were performed to determine the levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2). Quail were given injections of saline or cocaine (10 or 20mg/kg) once a day for 10days. Immediately after each injection, birds were placed in open field arenas and distance traveled was measured for 30min. Results showed that male quail housed under long-light conditions exhibited cocaine-induced sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine which was correlated with the high levels of plasma T. Female quail housed under short-light conditions demonstrated sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine, but this was not correlated with the levels of plasma E2. The current findings suggest that cocaine-induced locomotor activity was associated with T in males but not with E2 in females.

  1. Egg-laying substrate selection for optimal camouflage by quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, P George; Ruxton, Graeme D; Langridge, Keri V; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-02-04

    Camouflage is conferred by background matching and disruption, which are both affected by microhabitat. However, microhabitat selection that enhances camouflage has only been demonstrated in species with discrete phenotypic morphs. For most animals, phenotypic variation is continuous; here we explore whether such individuals can select microhabitats to best exploit camouflage. We use substrate selection in a ground-nesting bird (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica). For such species, threat from visual predators is high and egg appearance shows strong between-female variation. In quail, variation in appearance is particularly obvious in the amount of dark maculation on the light-colored shell. When given a choice, birds consistently selected laying substrates that made visual detection of their egg outline most challenging. However, the strategy for maximizing camouflage varied with the degree of egg maculation. Females laying heavily maculated eggs selected the substrate that more closely matched egg maculation color properties, leading to camouflage through disruptive coloration. For lightly maculated eggs, females chose a substrate that best matched their egg background coloration, suggesting background matching. Our results show that quail "know" their individual egg patterning and seek out a nest position that provides most effective camouflage for their individual phenotype.

  2. Enantioselective behavior of alpha-HCH in mouse and quail tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daibin; Li, Xiqing; Tao, Shu; Wang, Yaqin; Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Diyu; Yu, Longchuan

    2010-03-01

    alpha-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) is chiral and can still be detected in almost all environmental media. In this study, the enantioselective behavior of alpha-HCH in mice (CD1) and quail (Coturnix japonica) was investigated and compared after a single dose of exposure. The primary nerve cell culture was conducted to evaluate the enantioselective metabolic capacity of nerve cells of mouse and quail for alpha-HCH. In various tissues of the mice and quail, the alpha-HCH concentrations showed a typical pattern of first-order dynamics after exposure. The enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in nonbrain tissues of mice decreased substantially, indicating continuous depletion of (+)-alpha-HCH in mice. Tissue-specific EF trends in quail and enantioselective degradation of (-)-alpha-HCH in quail liver were observed. These observations indicated that the dynamic changes of EFs in mice and quail were independent of concentration changes in the same tissues. In brain tissues, the enantioenrichment of (+)-enantiomer was totally independent of their concentrations in blood. The in vitro metabolism of alpha-HCH in the primary nerve cells were negligible, and the slight EF changes in primary nerve cells demonstrated that metabolism, uptake, and excretion in the brain cells would not lead to the observed dramatic enantioenrichment of (+)-alpha-HCH in the brain tissues of the two animals. The enantioselective transport across the blood-brain barrier was the primary cause for the enantioenrichment of (+)-alpha-HCH in the brain tissues.

  3. Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł; Pogoń, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits.

  4. Resistance Evaluation of Some Hybrid Rice, Conventional Early Indica and Late Japonica Rice to Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ying; Adreit Henry; ZHU Xu-dong; Milazzo Joelle; CHEN Hong-qi; Tharreau Didier

    2003-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from 18 provinces/cities representing 21 pathotypes and 9 different lineages were inoculated to rice varieties with known resistance genes and some hybrid rices,conventional early indica and late japonica varieties cultivated recently in China.Virulence spectrum of the 30 isolates was very different,showing that they recognize numerous different resistance genes.Varieties also revealed very different resistance patterns showing that they carry different resistance genes or combinations of resistance genes.On the basis of comparisons with international differential varieties with known resistance genes,resistance genes in certain Chinese varieties could be speculated.The results indicated that some of them were resistant to most of the isolates tested and that they could be of interest as resistance sources for hybrid parents or to be planted in the field directly.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Fucoidan-Degrading Bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; PIAO Meizi

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54%± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed dif-ferent physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a fucoidan-degrading bacterium from Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Piao, Meizi

    2013-11-01

    Fucoidan, a polysaccharide containing abundant fucose and sulfate ester group, was prepared from Laminaria japonica. In order to obtain fucoidan-degrading enzyme, bacteria capable of degrading fucoidan were screened from kelp. A bacterial strain named RC2-3 was obtained, which degraded fucoidan by the maximum extent of 54% ± 1.3%, the highest among all bacterial isolates. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the molecular weight of fucoidan was gradually reduced by RC2-3 with culturing time, suggesting the production of fucoidan-degrading enzyme by RC2-3. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence showed that RC2-3 belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae. However, it showed different physiological and biochemical characteristics from the known Flavobacteriaceae members producing fucoidan-degrading enzyme, thus RC2-3 was proposed to be a new member of this family.

  7. Streptococcus mutans sortase A inhibitory metabolites from the flowers of Sophora japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo-Young; Won, Tae Hyung; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Lee, So-Hyoung; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-Bong

    2015-04-01

    A new maltol derivative (2) along with three known maltol derivative (1) and flavonol glycosides (3 and 4) were isolated from the dried flowers of Sophora japonica. Based upon the results of combined spectroscopic methods, the structure of new compound (2) was determined to be maltol-3-O-(4'-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-β-glucopyranoside, an isomer of 1. These compounds strongly inhibited the action of sortase A (SrtA) from Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of the saliva-induced aggregation in S. mutans treated with compound 2 (4×IC50) were comparable to the behavior of untreated srtA-deletion mutant.

  8. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  9. Composition and cytotoxicity of a novel polysaccharide from brown alga (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenfei; Liu, Min; Fang, Zhexiang; Wu, Jiulin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-08-01

    A novel polysaccharide WPS-2-1, with an average molecular weight of 80 kDa, was purified from aqueous extracts of Laminaria japonica. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that WPS-2-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose and fucose with a molar ratio of 1.0:2.3:1.2. Analysis by periodate oxidation-Smith degradation indicated that WPS-2-1 had a backbone of array by (1→4)-glycosidic linkages. Cytotoxicity assay showed that WPS-2-1 presented significantly higher antitumor activities against A375 and BGC823 cells with a dose-dependent manner, and exhibited lower cytotoxicity to vascular smooth muscle cells. The results suggested that WPS-2-1 should be explored as a potential antitumor agent with low toxicity.

  10. Extraction and separation of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica by size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    A large number of studies have suggested that polysaccharides, such as fucoidan and laminarin, in various seaweeds have significant biological properties. A different distribution of molecular weights is a prominent sign of many polysaccharides. Therefore, a simple, fast and reliable high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was proposed to separate fucoidan and laminarin from Laminaria japonica. After evaluating the different separation conditions for HPSEC, such as the type of mobile phase and flow rate, an acid extraction method was established and optimized by a systematic investigation of the influencing factors. Under the optimal conditions, 169.2 and 383.8 mg g(-1) of fucoidan and laminarin, respectively, were extracted. This method is suitable for the extraction and separation of polysaccharides with good reproducibility of the retention time, acceptable linearity, small relative standard deviation and low detection limits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of Lonicera japonica extract on Mycoplasma gallisepticum in naturally infected broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, H K; Torun, E; Özen, D; Yücel, G; Akan, M; Diker, K S

    2015-01-01

    1. In this study, the effect of chlorogenic acid extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections and the performance of broiler flocks was investigated. 2. A total of 360 Ross-308 broiler chicks taken from M. gallisepticum seropositive flocks were divided equally into three groups designated as control (nothing administered), antibiotic (Tylosin tartrate given for the first 3 d and d 20-22) and test group (chlorogenic acid extract given twice a day on d 16 and 22). 3. Broiler performance analysis, serological tests (slide agglutination), molecular identification (polymerase chain reaction) and histopathological examination were performed to detect M. gallisepticum. 4. The results show that chlorogenic acid not only increases live body weight but is also an alternative treatment option in M. gallisepticum-infected broiler flocks.

  12. Purification and characterization of vitellin in mature ovary of marine crab Charybdis japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Song; GUO Chengxiu; LIU Fengsong; LIANG Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    Vitellin of mature female marine crab Charybdis japonica was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC,DEAE-cellulose-16 anion exchange column).The apparent molecular mass of the vitellin is 546 ku based on the data of native-PAGE.Under denatured condition (SDS-PAGE),it was found that vitellin was composed of four polypeptides each at 120,100,65,and 55 ku.One disulfide bond was detected in the binding of polypeptide subunits.The purified vitellin,contained 4.47% phosphor and 10.6% polysaccharides,and was identified as glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein,according to the PAGE staining data.The purified vitellin can be used as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera in further application.

  13. Glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid isomers (1–3, along with six known compounds, have been isolated from an aqueous extract of the flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (−-4-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoylquinic acid (1, (−-3-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoylquinic acid (2, and (−-5-O-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcaffeoylquinic acid (3, respectively. In the preliminary in vitro assays, two known compounds methyl caffeate and 2ʹ-O-methyladenosine showed inhibitory activity against Coxsackie virus B3 with IC50 values of 3.70 μmol/L and 6.41 μmol/L and SI values of 7.8 and 12.1, respectively.

  14. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  15. Bioconcentration and biotransformation of [¹⁴C]methoxychlor in the brackish water bivalve Corbicula japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Minoru; Ohyama, Kazutoshi; Hayashi, Osamu; Satsuma, Koji; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    To obtain basic information on the metabolic fate of xenobiotics in the brackish water, bivalve Corbicula japonica, bioconcentration and biotransformation experiments were performed using methoxychlor (MXC) as a model compound. Bivalves were exposed to [ring-U-¹⁴C]MXC (10 µg L⁻¹) for 28 days under semi-static conditions followed by a 14-day depuration phase. The ¹⁴C concentration in the bivalves rapidly increased and reached a steady state after exposure for 7 days (BCFss = 2010); however, it rapidly decreased with a half-life of 2.2 days in the depuration phase. Mono- and bis-demethylated MXC, and their corresponding sulphate conjugates, were identified as minor metabolites. No glycoside conjugates (including glucuronide and glucoside) were detected. Despite this biotransformation system, bivalves were found to excrete retained MXC mostly unchanged although its relatively hydrophobic nature.

  16. Transformation of japonica rice with RHL gene and salt tolerance of the transgenic rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Overexpression of the yeast HAL2 gene increases salt tolerance of yeast and plant. Rice HAL2-like (RHL) gene was introduced into a japonica rice cultivar HJ19 with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants in R0 generation were selected on the principle of GUS-positive, RHL gene PCR-positive and normal growth. Hygromycin-resistant plants of some transgenic lines in R1 generation increased salt tolerance during the seedling and booting stage, being less damaged in the cytomembrane and stronger in leaf tissue viability under salt stress during booting period. Southern analysis of transgenic lines tolerant to salt in R1 generation showed that the RHL gene expression cassette had been successfully integrated into rice genome. Moreover, gene engineering breeding methodology and really salt-tolerant rice cultivar were discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Marine Algae Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica as Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Vallorani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteins and their amino acid composition, -carotene, vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and minerals were determined in two edible brown marine algae (Phaeophyceae, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida and Kombu (Laminaria digitata japonica. The amino acid scores for five key essential amino acids, frequently deficient in mixed human diet, and essential amino acid index were calculated. The results have shown the presence of all essential amino acids. The values of essential amino acid ratios of analysed algae exceed the ratios of reference proteins suggested by FAO/WHO/UNU, except for tryptophan, the first limiting amino acid in both analysed algae. Iodine, the most important component of sea vegetables is present in high amounts as well as the vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and β-carotene. The content of minerals was found high, while the presence of heavy metals was negligible.

  18. Diterpene alkaloids and diterpenes from Spiraea japonica and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Mao, Xin-Ying; Huang, Lie-Jun; Fan, Yi-Min; Gu, Wei; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Five new naturally occurring natural products, including two atisine-type diterpene alkaloids (1 and 2), two atisane-type diterpenes (3 and 4), and a new natural product spiramine C2 (5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Spiraea japonica var. acuminata Franch. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities of all the compounds were evaluated by the conventional half-leaf method. Six compounds (2, 3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited moderate activities at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates in the range of 69.4-92.9%, which were higher than that of the positive control, ningnanmycin. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed.

  19. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

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    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.c [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, M.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  20. Evaluating the Effect of a Novel Molluscicide in the Endemic Schistosomiasis Japonica Area of China

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    Jing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2′, 5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2 were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.