WorldWideScience

Sample records for cottonwood leafcurl mite

  1. Biology and control of Eriophyid mites with a case study of Aceria sp. on New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa R. Grasswitz

    2012-01-01

    The biology, recognition, and impact of eriophyid mites (with emphasis on species associated with trees and shrubs) are briefly reviewed. A case study of a leaf-curling eriophyid mite (Aceria sp.) attacking New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens) is used to illustrate the complexities of developing control strategies for eriophyids in native plant...

  2. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed.

  3. Weed Control Trials in Cottonwood Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1964-01-01

    Weed control in the first year is essential for establishing a cottonwood plantation, for the young trees can neither survive nor grow well if they must compete with other plants. Once the light and moisture conditions are established in its favor, cottonwood becomes the fastest growing tree in the South.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: black cottonwood [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Populus_trichocarpa_L.png Populus_trichocarpa_...NL.png Populus_trichocarpa_S.png Populus_trichocarpa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i...=Populus+trichocarpa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=NS ...

  5. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  6. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  7. The sex pheromones of mealy plum (Hyalopterus pruni) and leaf-curl plum (Brachycaudus helichrysi) aphids: identification and field trapping of male and gynoparous aphids in prune orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmes, Emily J; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Campbell, Colin A M; Chamberlain, Keith; Pickett, John A; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-05-01

    Mealy plum, Hyalopterus pruni, and leaf-curl plum, Brachycaudus helichrysi, aphids are the primary arthropod pests in orchards that produce dried plums (i.e., prunes). The sexual stage of their respective lifecycles occurs on prune trees in the fall, during which time males respond to sex pheromones produced by oviparous females. Air-entrainment collections confirmed that oviparous H. pruni and B. helichrysi emitted combinations of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol. The responses of H. pruni and B. helichrysi to these compounds in ratios of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2.6:1, 3.4:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 0:0 (no-pheromone control) using water traps were determined in field experiments conducted in prune orchards during the fall. The greatest number of male H. pruni was caught in traps releasing a 1:1 ratio of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol, while male B. helichrysi were caught in similar numbers in traps releasing any of the two-component ratios tested. There was no evidence that any of the pheromone treatments influenced trap catches of gynoparae of either species. Results suggest that addition of sex pheromone lures increases trap catches of male H. pruni and B. helichrysi, and that this approach may improve monitoring and management of these pests in prune orchards. Knowledge gained from this study contributes to the understanding of the ecology of insect pests in prune orchards.

  8. Genetic Variation Among Open-Pollinated Progeny of Eastern Cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1970-01-01

    Improvement programs in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) are most frequently designed to produce genetically superior clones for direct commercial use. This paper describes a progeny test to assess genetic variability on which selection might be based.

  9. Cottonwood data collection protocol : Great Sand Dunes National Park : Elk/Bison grazing ecology study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol/SOP is from USGS to estimate percent consumption of cottonwood saplings, seedlings, and resprouts and recruitment rates of cottonwood subjected to...

  10. Mites and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Eastern cottonwood clonal mixing study: intergenotypic competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sam Foster; R.J. Rousseau; W.L Nance

    1998-01-01

    Intergenotypic competition of seven clones of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) was evaluated in a replacement series experiment. A partial diallel competition design was used to choose pairs (binary sets) of clones for plot type treatments. Two separate treatments were established for each pair of clones, namely (1) 75 percent clone A: 25 percent clone B and (2)...

  12. Cottonwood management at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2017-01-01

    This data release consists of the following components:Sex ratio data from cottonwood trees at random points on the floodplain in the North and South units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND. These data were used to investigate the effects of age, height above, and distance from the channel on mortality of male and female trees of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) as described in the Friedman and Griffin (2017) report.Tree core and tree ring data from the North and South Units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota. South Unit data was collected in April 2012, North Unit data was collected in the summer and fall of 2010. The trees are located on the floodplain of the Little Missouri River in Theodore Roosevelt National Park. These data were used to reconstruct flow and climate as described in the Friedman and Griffin (2017) report and in other documents cited by that report. The tree ring data is presented in Standard Tucson format.Floodplain and riparian cottonwood forest areas in the South Unit were digitized as separate shapefiles using 2010 NAIP imagery. They were mapped to assist management of cottonwood forests by increasing understanding of the relation between geomorphic setting, flow, precipitation, temperature, and other factors.Edges of water, channel centerline, valley bottom centerline, extent of valley bottom, and estimated bankfull channel data for the Little Missouri River in the North and South Units were mapped as separate shapefiles from 2010 NAIP imagery as well.

  13. The effects of harvesting short rotation cottonwood with tree shears in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Pelkki; Michael Blazier; Jonathan Hartley; Hal Liechty; Bryce Zimmermann

    2016-01-01

    Short-rotation cottonwood plantations were established on a marginal agricultural site in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in southeast Arkansas using two known clones (S7C20 and ST-66) and nurseryrun cottonwood stock (MIXED) from the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry nursery. The cottonwood was grown for five seasons and harvested in the winter of...

  14. Growing cottonwoods for biomass: results of a ten-year irrigation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Christoph Stuhlinger; Paul F. Doruska; Jeffery A. Earl; Matthew H. Pelkki

    2010-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) has potential as a short rotation alternate crop on marginal farmlands in the South to meet increasing biomass demands for pulp and bioenergy applications. Potlatch Corporation supported this study to investigate the effect of irrigation on the growth of cottonwood trees. The study was installed in the...

  15. Evaluating growth effects from an imidacloprid treatment in black willow and eastern cottonwood cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano de Sene Fernandes; Ray A. Souter; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.), two species native in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, have importance in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems for biomass production (Ruark 2006).

  16. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr.&Gray)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev,I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R.R.; Bhalerao, R.P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho,P.M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Dejardin, A.; dePamphillis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehiting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leple, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin,F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouze, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui,A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra,M.; Sandberg, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. Over 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event surviving in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially slower in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average between 1.4-1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with disease resistance, meristem development, metabolite transport and lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis.

  17. The Genome of Black Cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [ORNL; Jansson, Bo S [ORNL; Bohlmann, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Grigoriev, I. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, U. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Putman, N. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ralph, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Rombauts, S. [Ghent University, Belgium; Salamov, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schein, J. [Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Sterck, L. [Ghent University, Belgium; Aerts, A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bhalerao, R. R. [Umea Plant Science Centre, Dept. of Plant Physiology, Sweden; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P [ORNL; Blaudez, D. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France; Boerjan, W. [Ghent University, Belgium; Brun, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France; Brunner, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Busov, V. [Michigan Technological University; Campbell, M. [University of Toronto; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Gwo-Liang [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; LoCascio, Philip F [ORNL; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event survived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus than in Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance, and metabolite transport.

  18. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  19. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  20. Cavity turnover and equilibrium cavity densities in a cottonwood bottomland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental factor regulating the numbers of secondary cavity nesting (SCN) birds is the number of extant cavities available for nesting. The number of available cavities may be thought of as being in an approximate equilibrium maintained by a very rough balance between recruitment and loss of cavities. Based on estimates of cavity recruitment and loss, we ascertained equilibrium cavity densities in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado. Annual cavity recruitment, derived from density estimates of primary cavity nesting (PCN) birds and cavity excavation rates, was estimated to be 71-86 new cavities excavated/100 ha. Of 180 active cavities of 11 species of cavity-nesting birds found in 1985 and 1986, 83 were no longer usable by 1990, giving an average instantaneous rate of cavity loss of r = -0.230. From these values of cavity recruitment and cavity loss, equilibrium cavity density along the South Platte is 238-289 cavities/100 ha. This range of equilibrium cavity density is only slightly above the minimum of 205 cavities/100 ha required by SCN's and suggests that cavity availability may be limiting SCN densities along the South Platte River. We submit that snag management alone does not adequately address SCN habitat needs, and that cavity management, expressed in terms of cavity turnover and cavity densities, may be more useful.

  1. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir...

  2. Parasitic mites of Surinam XXXIII. Feather mites (Analgoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Černý, V.; Lukoschus, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The mites listed in the present paper have been collected from July to October 1971 by the junior author and Drs. N. J. J. KOK during their stay in Surinam with financial aid of the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). Mites have been collected occasionally mainly

  3. Management of plains cottonwood at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2017-01-01

    Establishment of cottonwood trees is driven by flood-induced channel migration, which provides the new surfaces necessary for successful germination and survival. Along the Little Missouri River the largest floods typically result from snowmelt in March or April. Seed release occurs in early summer, and seedlings usually germinate in moist, open locations on point bars at relatively low elevations above the channel. Subsequent channel migration allows seedlings to mature by protecting them from scour in floods and ice jams. Management actions that decrease channel movement will reduce cottonwood reproduction.

  4. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Performance on Eight Populus Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Richard B. Hall; Elwood R. Hart

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., is the most serious defoliator of young plantation-grown Populus in the eastern United States, yet there is a paucity of data on larval feeding performance across Populus clones used in tree breeding. Field experiments were conducted in 1998 and 1999...

  5. Biomass and Nutrient Accumulation in a Cottonwood Plantation - The First Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; James B. Baker

    1981-01-01

    For the first 4 years, height increment of an eastern cottonwood plantation on a clayey soil was greatest in the first growing season; diameter growth was greatest in the second growing season; and annual production of biomass was greatest in the third year. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and possibly magnesium are translocated from leaves into bark and other tissue before leaf...

  6. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  7. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir....../carriers for various micro-organisms e.g. Salmonella. In SAFEHOUSE, an EU-project running from 2006-2009, partners from 11 European countries aim at developing new methods for prevention and control of Salmonella in egg production systems with particular focus on the transition to enriched cages in the EU. Enriched...

  8. [House dust mites and their allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

    2011-02-01

    The taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle and ecology of Pyroglyphidae mites and storage mites (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, B. tropicalis) are described. Pyroglyphidae and storage mites have similar morphologies: they are octopods, with characteristic gnathosoma and sensory hairs. Salivary glands and the mid gut produce most of the allergens excreted, which are enzymatic proteins. Biological cycles and development are similar, although fecundity is superior in storage mites compared to the Pyroglyphides. Relative humidity is the main parameter, which regulates mite development, with a higher degree of temperature and humidity required for storage mites. Bedding is the ecological niche of Pyroglyphidae, which feed on human skin. Moulds and food products are the storage mite biotope from which they spread in the dwelling. Initially considered as rural mites, storage mites are also present in urban dwellings. B. tropicalis, in tropical regions is a true domestic mite. Because of this, it is justified to denominate Pyroglyphidae "house dust mites" and storage mites "domestic mites". In addition to the respiratory allergic symptoms, the storage mites can also cause occupational contact dermatoses.

  9. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus gossypii and the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

  10. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Anwar Rather

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management.

  11. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management.

  12. Evapotranspiration in a cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plantation estimated by sap flow and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.; Jetton, A.; Fleming, J.; Didan, K.; Glenn, E.; Erker, J.; Morino, K.; Milliken, J.; Gloss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Native tree plantations have been proposed for the restoration of wildlife habitat in human-altered riparian corridors of western U.S. rivers. Evapotranspiration (ET) by riparian vegetation is an important, but poorly quantified, term in river water budgets. Native tree restoration plots will potentially increase ET. We used sap flow sensors and satellite imagery to estimate ET in a 8 ha, cottonwood (Populus fremontii) restoration plot on the Lower Colorado River. Biometric methods were used to scale leaf area to whole trees and stands of trees. This technique was used to validate our estimates of ET obtained by scaling from branch level to stand (or plot) level measurements of ET. Cottonwood trees used 6-10 mm day-1 of water during the peak of the growing season as determined by sap flow sensors, and annual rates scaled by time-series MODIS satellite imagery were approximately 1.2 m year-1. Although irrigation was not quantified, the field had been flood irrigated at 2 week intervals during the 3 years prior to the study, receiving approximately 2 m year-1 of water. A frequency-domain electromagnetic induction survey of soil moisture content showed that the field was saturated (26-28% gravimetric water content) at the 90-150 cm soil depth under the field. Trees were apparently rooted into the saturated soil, and considerable saving of water could potentially be achieved by modifying the irrigation regime to take into account that cottonwoods are phreatophytes. The study showed that cottonwood ET can be monitored by remote sensing methods calibrated with ground measurements with an accuracy or uncertainty of 20-30% in western riparian corridors. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  14. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  15. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  16. House dust mites, our intimate associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadchatram, M

    2005-06-01

    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.

  17. An Artificial Diet for Cottonwood and Imported Williow leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Comparative Performance on Poplar Foliage1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Joann Meerschaert; Thomas O. Forrester

    1989-01-01

    An artificial diet was developed for labortory rearing of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., and the imported willow leaf beetle, Plagiodera versicolira (Laicharting). To reduce microbial contamination of the media, procedures were developed for the separating egg masses and sterilizing egg surfaces. Cottonwood leaf...

  18. Economic injury level for second-generation cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in two-year-old Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Pedigo, Larry P; Colletti, Joe P; Hart, Elwood R

    2002-04-01

    The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., is a major defoliating pest of Populus in North America. As the use of Populus in short-rotation woody crop plantations continues to increase, there are increasing economic and environmental needs to develop rational pest management programs to reduce the impact of this insect. Our objective was to determine the economic injury levels for the second generation of the cottonwood leaf beetle during plantation establishment. Integrating the cost of the management, market value, insect injury, and host response to the injury, the economic injury levels for second generation cottonwood leaf beetle on 2-yr-old Populus were determined to be from 0.2 to 0.9 egg masses per actively growing terminal.

  19. Plains cottonwood's last stand: can it survive invasion of Russian olive onto the Milk River, Montana floodplain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C M; Smith, D G

    2001-11-01

    Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) was introduced in 1950 onto one site on the Milk River floodplain, northern Montana, 10 km downstream from the Canada/United States border. To analyze dispersal of Russian olive from the point source between 1950 and 1999, we compared distribution, numbers, size structure, and mortality of Russian olive and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh:) on an unregulated reach of the Milk River floodplain in southeastern Alberta and north-central Montana. Within 50 years, Russian olive in this reach has moved upriver into Alberta and downriver to the Fresno Reservoir. It is now present on 69 of the 74 meander lobes sampled, comprising 34%, 62%, and 61% of all Russian olive and plains cottonwood seedlings, saplings, and trees, respectively. On some meander lobes, Russian olive has colonized similar elevations on the floodplain as plains cottonwood and is oriented in rows paralleling the river channel, suggesting that recruitment may be related to river processes. Breakup ice had killed 400 Russian olive saplings and trees and damaged >1000 others on 30 of the meander lobes in 1996. Nevertheless, Russian olive now outnumbers cottonwood on many sites on the Milk River floodplain because its seeds can be dispersed by wildlife (particularly birds) and probably by flood water and ice rafts; seeds are viable for up to 3 years and germination can take place on bare and well-vegetated soils; and saplings and trees are less palatable to livestock and beaver than plains cottonwood. Without control, Russian olive could be locally dominant on the Milk River floodplain in all age classes within 10 years and replace plains cottonwood within this century.

  20. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  1. In vitro efficacy of ByeMite and Mite-Stop on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The present in vitro study shows the efficacy of two antimite products (ByeMite = phoxim, Mite-Stop = neem seed extract) against all developing stages of the important red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (obtained at two farms in France and Germany). While permanent contact with the active compound led to an efficacy of 100% in the case of Mite-Stop on mites in both farms, there was only a 96.2% killing effect of ByeMite on the mites of the French farm. Even short contacts of only 4 s killed 100% of mites in the case of Mite-Stop at the French farm and only 84.5% in the German farm. ByeMite, on the other hand, killed only 27.8% (Germany) and 30% (France) when mites got the chance to escape from the treated grounds to untreated ones. When using only the half doses of both products, Mite-Stop(R) still reached, after permanent contact, 100% activity on the German farm and 98.2% in France, while ByeMite killed 93.8% (Germany) and 90.6% (France). Short contact to half doses of course reduced the activity of both products (Mite-Stop = 59.3% in France, 22.1% in Germany; ByeMite = 28.8% in France, 18.8% in Germany). With respect to the fumigant activity of the products, the strains of D. gallinae reacted differently. While Mite-Stop(R) showed a clear fumigant activity in the case of the German mites, this product did not affect the French mites by air distribution, neither did ByeMite in both cases. Therefore, mites have to come in contact with both products. Against Mite-Stop, there was apparently no resistance and low doses have high efficacy after even short contacts, which regularly occur in a treated stable, where mites have the chance to leave treated places to untreated hidden spots.

  2. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents.

  3. Recombinant house dust mite allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are a globally important source of allergen responsible for the sensitization of more than 50% of allergic patients. Specific immunotherapy with HDM extracts is effective but allergen extracts cannot be fully standardized and severe side-effects can occur during the protracted course of treatment. The introduction of molecular biological techniques into allergy research allowed the indentification of more than 20 groups of HDM allergens. Recombinant HDM allergens can be...

  4. Ecology of Postlarval Stages of Chigger Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-05

    reason is the large variance inherent in soil arthropod data (Hughes 1962, Nef 1962). Owing to the low numbers of astigmatid mites collected in this study...from positive and negative chigger sites showed that one species of astigmatid mite , "Acaridae sp. II", had significantly higher populations at...AD-A162 524 ECOLOGY OF POSTLRRVAL STAGES OF CHIGGER MITES (U) GEORGIA UNIV ATHENS DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY CROSSLEY ET AL 85 DEC 85 N88814486-C-0547 UCASFED

  5. [Control strategies against Varroa mites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodesani, M

    2004-06-01

    In many cases, the easiest way to control a pest or a pathogen is to resort to chemical treatments. In the short period this option is often the most convenient economically and usually does not require refined knowledge of the biology of the pest. Many efforts have been directed to develop chemical treatments against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. Nowadays, product based on organic acids, essential oils, pyrethroids, organophosphate, and formamidine are available. Resistance is serious problem in the chemotherapy of parasites and pathogens of the honeybee. High-level resistance to several active substances (the pyrethroids acrinathrin, flumethrin, fluvalinate; the organophosphate coumaphos; the formamidine amitraz) was detected with laboratory assays in different varroa populations and caused failure of the control in the field. At the end of the '80s, products based on pyrethroids, very effective against the mite, but without any appreciable side effect on bees, became available. Resistance to fluvalinate in Italy and later in other countries caused serious damage to beekeeping; early detection was crucial to reduce losses. The problem of developing suitable treatments was difficult in the case of the varroa mite because most substances active against V. destructor have unacceptable side effects on bees. The idea that the mite could be controlled indefinitely with these strategies began to gain ground.

  6. Infochemical use by predatory mites of the cassava green mite in a multitrophic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research on multitrophic interactions in a system consisting of (1) cassava plants ( Manihot esculenta ), (2) three herbivorous mites, i.e. the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, the red spider mite Oligonychus

  7. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites.......07), or in medication usage (standardised mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot be recommended. It is doubtful whether further studies, similar to the ones in our review, are worthwhile. If other...

  8. Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B.; Zanewich, K.; Stefura, C. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Mahoney, J.M. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Cottonwoods have shown an adaptation to the riparian zone by coordinating root elongation to maintain contact with the water table, whose depth varies with the elevation of the adjacent river. The rate of water decline on growth allocation and concentrations of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in black cottonwood saplings were studied at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Water declines were achieved by using rhizopods, and root elongation approximately doubled in response whereas leaf area was reduced. At some point, a greater water decline rate led to water stress resulting in reduced growth, increased leaf diffusive resistance, decreased water potential, and leaf senescence and abscission. After extraction of endogenous GAs, they were purified and analysed by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring with internal ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA standards. The results showed that GAs were higher in shoot tips and sequentially lower in basal stems, root tips, leaves and upper roots. Noticeable relationships did not appear between GA concentration and growth allocation across the water decline treatments. Only GA{sub 8} showed a consistent reduction in plants experiencing water table decline. This research did not permit the authors to conclude whether endogenous GAs play a primary role in the regulation of root elongation in response to water table decline. 7 figs., 25 refs.

  9. Flow regime effects on mature Populus fremontii (Fremont cottonwood) productivity on two contrasting dryland river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    2016-01-01

    I compared riparian cottonwood (Populus fremontii) productivity-discharge relationships in a relictual stand along the highly regulated Green River and in a naturally functioning stand along the unregulated Yampa River in semiarid northwest Colorado. I used multiple regression to model flow effects on annual basal area increment (BAI) from 1982 to 2011, after removing any autocorrelation present. Each BAI series was developed from 20 trees whose mean size (67 cm diameter at breast height [DBH]) was equivalent in the two stands. BAI was larger in the Yampa River stand except in 2 y when defoliating leaf beetles were present there. I found no evidence for a Yampa flood-magnitude threshold above which BAI declined. Flow variables explained ∼45% of residual BAI variability, with most explained by current-year maximum 90-d discharge (QM90) in the Yampa River stand and by a measure of the year-to-year change in QM90 in the Green River stand. The latter reflects a management-imposed ceiling on flood magnitude—Flaming Gorge Dam power plant capacity—infrequently exceeded during the study period. BAI in the relictual stand began to trend upward in 1992 when flows started to mimic a natural flow regime. Mature Fremont cottonwoods appear to be ecologically resilient. Their productivity along regulated rivers might be optimized using multiyear environmental flow designs.

  10. Geographic origin of cottonwood from the southeast affects Melampsora infection in 3-year-old clonal trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel B. Land; Jonathan Paul Jeffreys

    2006-01-01

    Open-pollinated seeds were collected separately by mother tree from several trees in each of 64 natural stands of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides J. Bartram ex Marsh. var. deltoides) in the Southeastern United States. Rooted cuttings from the seedlings were grown at four sites (North Carolina, Florida, Alabama, and Missouri...

  11. Seems like I hardly see them around anymore: Historical geographies of Cottonwood decline along the Wind River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonwoods—as well as the water birch, bull berry, and currants that flourish in their galleries—hold special significance for Tribes of the Intermountain American West. These species have served ceremonial and practical purposes for generations. Yet cottonwoods have experienced well-documented dec...

  12. Domatia reduce larval cannibalism in predatory mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Eshuis, B.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    1. Acarodomatia are small structures on the underside of leaves of many plant species, which are mainly inhabited by carnivorous and fungivorous mites. 2. Domatia are thought to protect these mites against adverse environmental conditions and against predation. They are considered as an indirect pla

  13. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on...

  14. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  15. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  16. Comparison of thread-cutting behaviour in three specialist predatory mites to cope with complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimoda, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Takabayashi, J.; Amano, H.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-predator defenses provided by complex webs of Tetranychus mites can severely impede the performance of generalist predatory mites, whereas this may not be true for specialist predatory mites. Although some specialist predatory mites have developed morphological protection to reduce the adverse

  17. 2004 progress report : Effects of ungulate browsing on post-fire recovery of riparian cottonwoods : Implications for management of riparian forests, Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Browsing pressure by ungulates may limit natural establishment of native cottonwood and willow stands, and fires, which have become more frequent on riparian lands...

  18. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  19. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  20. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [ORNL; Yao, Jianzhuang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaiprasongsuk, Minta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Guanglin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Guo, Hong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2013-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175 lM and 341 lM, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.

  1. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations on MiteStop-treated poultry red mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites.

  2. Germination and establishment of the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. monilifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Scott, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is a small Eurasian tree that has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized, primarily along watercourses throughout the western United States. We examined germination and establishment of Russian-olive and plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides), the principal native riparian tree of the Great Plains, under a range of experimental moisture and light conditions. The fewest seedings established under the driest conditions; seedling biomass was predictably lower in the shade; root-to-shoot ratios were higher for cottonwood, higher in the sun, and higher under drier conditions. Several interactions were also significant. The timing of germination and mortality varied between plains cottonwood and Russian-olive: cottonwood germinated in mid-June in all treatments in a single pulse with subsequent mortality; the timing and amount of Russian-olive germination differed substantially across treatments with little net mortality. Differences in life-history traits of these species, including seed size, viability, and dispersal, help explain treatment differences. Russian-olive will likely remain an important component of riparian communities along both unregulated and regulated western rivers because it succeeds under conditions optimal for cottonwood establishment and under many conditions unfavorable for cottonwood. Furthermore, many western states still encourage planting of Russian-olive, and control techniques tend to be labor-intensive and expensive.

  3. Astigmatid mites (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnor, Barry M

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence of mites of the infraorder Astigmata in situations involving the legal system, particularly in the area of medicocriminal entomology. Species in the families Acaridae, Lardoglyphidae and Histiostomatidae are encountered in stored food products and in vertebrate carrion, including human remains. Some of these species are incidentals, whereas others are obligate necrophages. Phoretic associations between these mites and insects allows for rapid dispersal and colonization of such patchy resources.

  4. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  5. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  6. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  8. Genetic improvement and evaluation of black cottonwood for short- rotation biomass production. Final report, 1987--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, R.F.; Hinckley, T.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources; Heilman, P.E. [Washington State Univ., Puyallup, WA (United States). Research and Extension Center; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1993-04-30

    This project was initiated in 1978 to serve three objectives: (1) develop genetically improved poplar cultivars offering increased productivity under short-rotation culture; (2) identify the major components of productivity in poplar and determine ways in which they can be manipulated, genetically and culturally; and (3) engage in technology transfer to regional industry and agencies so as to make poplar culture in the Pacific Northwest economically feasible. The project is aimed at capturing natural variation in the native black cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa T & G, and enhancing it through selective breeding. Major emphasis has been placed on hybridization of black cottonwood with P deltoides and P maximowiczii, more recently with p nigra. First-generation (F{sub 1}) hybrids have consistently outperformed black cottonwood by a factor of 1.5.-2. The high yields of woody biomass obtained from these clonally propagated hybrids, in rotations of 4-7 years, have fostered the establishment of large-scale plantations by the pulp and paper industry in the region. Physiological studies have helped to elucidate hybrid superiority and several of the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  10. Scent of a mite: origin and chemical characterization of the lemon-like flavor of mite-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cheese infested with cheese mites is usually treated as unpalatable. Nevertheless, some traditional cheese manufactories in Germany and France intentionally use mites for fermentation of special varieties (i.e. Milbenkäse and Mimolette). While their production includes different mite species, both are characterized by a "lemon-like" flavor. However, the chemical nature and origin of this flavor-component is unknown. The cheese mites possess a pair of opisthosomal glands producing blends of hydrocarbons, terpenes and aromatics. Here, we describe the chemical profiles of the astigmatid mite species Tyrolichus casei (Milbenkäse) and Acarus siro (Mimolette). Although the chemical profiles differ in several aspects, both mite species produce neral (a volatile flavor component of lemon oil), which was absent from the headspace of both cheeses without mites. We conclude that the lemon-like flavor of mite cheese is not a consequence of fermentation of the cheese itself but a component from secretions of the cheese mites.

  11. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-06

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed.

  12. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  13. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  14. Tree mortality in mature riparian forest: Implications for Fremont cottonwood conservation in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Mature tree mortality rates are poorly documented in desert riparian woodlands. I monitored deaths and calculated annual survivorship probability (Ps) in 2 groups of large (27–114 cm DBH), old (≥40 years old) Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii Wats.) in a stand along the free-flowing Yampa River in semiarid northwestern Colorado. Ps = 0.993 year-1 in a group (n = 126) monitored over 2003–2013, whereas Ps = 0.985 year-1 in a group (n = 179) monitored over the same period plus 3 earlier years (2000–2003) that included drought and a defoliating insect outbreak. Assuming Ps was the same for both groups during the 10-year postdrought period, the data indicate that Ps = 0.958 year-1 during the drought. I found no difference in canopy dieback level between male and female survivors. Mortality was equal among size classes, suggesting Ps is independent of age, but published longevity data imply that either Ps eventually declines with age or, as suggested in this study, periods with high Ps are interrupted by episodes of increased mortality. Stochastic population models featuring episodes of low Ps suggest a potential for an abrupt decline in mature tree numbers where recruitment is low. The modeling results have implications for woodland conservation, especially for relictual stands along regulated desert rivers.

  15. Enzymatic activity in extracts of allergy-causing astigmatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2006-11-01

    Many of the previously characterized allergens of house dust mites are known to be proteases, and this enzymatic activity is thought to contribute to their allergenicity. Other astigmatid mites, including stored-product mites and the ectoparasitic itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, are also known to be allergenic, but little or nothing is known about their enzymatic activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the enzymatic activities present in extracts of the parasitic itch mite and from eight other species of free-living astigmatid mites. Extracts were prepared from one parasitic mite (S. scabiei), five stored-product mites (Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Blomia tropicalis Bronswijk, Cock, Oshima, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), and Acarus siro L.), and three house dust mites [Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Troussart), and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman) ]. ApiZym strips were used to screen for the presence of 19 individual enzyme activities. Digestion of nine other substrates was evaluated by spectrophotometric or electrophoretic methods. All mite extracts exhibited some form of phosphatase, esterase, aminopeptidase, and glycosidase activity, although their substrate specificities varied considerably. Itch mite extract did not possess detectable serine peptidase activity nor was it able to hydrolyze gelatin or casein, whereas all other mite extracts exhibited these activities. Storage mite extracts possessed enzymes capable of degrading the widest range of substrates, whereas itch mite extract had the most limited proteolytic capacity. Extracts of nine species of allergy-causing astigmatid mites contain wide and diverse repertoires of enzymatic activities. These catalytic activities may be important contributors to the induction and manifestation of inflammatory and immune responses to mites in patients.

  16. Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light).

  17. House dust mites in Brazil - an annotated bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binotti Raquel S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been reported to be the most important allergen in human dwellings. Several articles had already shown the presence of different mite species at homes in Brazil, being Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Cheyletidae the most important families found. This paper is an annotated bibliography that will lead to a better knowledge of house dust mite fauna in Brazil.

  18. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  19. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  20. Limiting factors for growth and development of domestic mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynden, A.M.T. van; Kort, H.S.M.; Koren, L.G.H.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    1996-01-01

    A quarter to half of European households are at risk of health damage due to mites in their home. House dust mites (family Pyroglyphidae) and storage mites (families Acaridae and Gly-cyphagidae) are present; both groups being specific for different ecosystems: house-dust ecosystem of textiles (house

  1. [Mites allergy in children from Tula region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobina, Zh M; Pron'kina, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Berzhets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of allergy to mites in children living in Tula region have been revealed. It was shown that mites from Pyroglyphidae (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), Cheyletidae and Glycyphagidae (G. destructor, G. domesticus) families play important role in development of atopic allergy in children from this region. Efficacy of plant-origin acaricide "Milbiol" as part of prophylactic measures was evaluated. Its use in children with mild and intermediate asthma led to decrease of number of wheezing episodes, improvement of respiratory function, lessening of clinical signs of allergic rhinitis, decrease or discontinuation of usage of vasoconstrictive preparations.

  2. Dust mites in a routine clinical stool sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bushra Zia; Hassaan Bin Aftab; Mohammad Faizan Zahid; Joveria Farooqi; Feroze Uddin; Mohammad Asim Beg

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of dust mite carriage in a 56-year-old gentleman. Dust mites eggs and larvae were found in a stool sample which was taken for a routine clinical examination. He was completely asymptomatic with no history of rash, airway disease or other allergic manifestations associated with dust mites. We noticed that the oval structure of mite eggs resembled helminth eggs and therefore may be misidentified during routine clinical analysis. As the patient was otherwise healthy, it was concluded that no rigorous antiparasitic therapy was necessary to eliminate dust mites from his system.

  3. Targeted enrichment of the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa gene space using sequence capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lecong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput re-sequencing is rapidly becoming the method of choice for studies of neutral and adaptive processes in natural populations across taxa. As re-sequencing the genome of large numbers of samples is still cost-prohibitive in many cases, methods for genome complexity reduction have been developed in attempts to capture most ecologically-relevant genetic variation. One of these approaches is sequence capture, in which oligonucleotide baits specific to genomic regions of interest are synthesized and used to retrieve and sequence those regions. Results We used sequence capture to re-sequence most predicted exons, their upstream regulatory regions, as well as numerous random genomic intervals in a panel of 48 genotypes of the angiosperm tree Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood, or ‘poplar’. A total of 20.76Mb (5% of the poplar genome was targeted, corresponding to 173,040 baits. With 12 indexed samples run in each of four lanes on an Illumina HiSeq instrument (2x100 paired-end, 86.8% of the bait regions were on average sequenced at a depth ≥10X. Few off-target regions (>250bp away from any bait were present in the data, but on average ~80bp on either side of the baits were captured and sequenced to an acceptable depth (≥10X to call heterozygous SNPs. Nucleotide diversity estimates within and adjacent to protein-coding genes were similar to those previously reported in Populus spp., while intergenic regions had higher values consistent with a relaxation of selection. Conclusions Our results illustrate the efficiency and utility of sequence capture for re-sequencing highly heterozygous tree genomes, and suggest design considerations to optimize the use of baits in future studies.

  4. Measuring and Scaling Evapotranspiration of a Cottonwood Restoration Plot on the Lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Jetton, A.; Fleming, J. B.; Glenn, E. P.; Erker, J.; Morino, K.; Milliken, J. A.; Gloss, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Evapotranpsiration (ET) by riparian vegetation is the second largest water user on western U.S. rivers. Efforts are underway to create restoration plots containing native trees such as cottonwood (Populus fremontii) (CW) because they provide valuable wildlife habitat. Up to now, estimates of riparian ET have been based on indirect methods and validation of estimates has been difficult. At Cibola NWR on the Colorado River, we estimated ET for a 20 acre plot of 3 year old CW trees for 50 consecutive days, July 25 - Sept 15, 2005. We measured transpiration rate using sap flow, heat-balance methods to get sap flow on pairs of branches on 20 CW trees. We scaled these ground measurements to high resolution (0.3 m) aerial readings and then to the satellite-level using Landsat ETM+ (30m) and EOS-1 Terra MODIS (250m) pixels. Using regression equations developed in Nagler et al. (2005a,b), we predicted ET at this CW site based on local, maximum air temperatures and ETM+ and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data. Sap flow rates ranged from 6 mm d-1 to 10 mm d-1. Results projected by MODIS imagery were similar to rates measured by sap flow sensors. Scaled over the whole plantation, annual ET rates were projected to be 1.33 m yr-1 (4.3 ft yr-1), approximately 50% higher than saltcedar on this river system. We conclude that replacing saltcedar with CW may result in increased water demand and the efficacy in supporting wildlife should be validated before they are widely implemented as a restoration strategy.

  5. MITE INCIDENCE AND CROP YIELD IN ZIMBABWE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control, as well as damage and yield of tomatoes were investigated in two important tomato production areas of ... Mutoko, while the pruned and trellised plots had 4.6 and 17.3 mites per leaf. ..... therefore, insecticide deposit on the leaves was.

  6. En el límite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes González, José Miguel

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Glass: technological limits, physical limits, existential limits as well? Inside or outside? Extreme or combined solutions? Glass architectures separating us from the exterior or uniting us with it? Ideal architectures or those adapted to the surroundings? Different energy costs for different solutions. A continually developing terrestrial atmosphere. Different geographies, artificial metropolis. Will we have to face the obligation to choose within the limits? Different architectures answering these questions are presented in this article.

    El vidrio: límite tecnológico, límite físico. ¿También límite existencial? ¿Dentro o fuera? ¿Soluciones extremas o soluciones mixtas? Arquitecturas de vidrio que nos separan o nos unen al exterior. Arquitecturas ideales, o adaptadas al medio circundante. Diferentes gastos de energía para diferentes planteamientos. Una atmósfera terrestre en continua evolución. Diferentes geografías y metrópolis artificiales. ¿Nos veremos obligados a elegir en el límite? Se exponen aquí diferentes arquitecturas que responden a estos distintos planteamientos.

  7. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic ...

  8. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  9. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  10. Cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) defoliation impact on Populus growth and above-ground volume in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Joel D. McMillin; Richard B. Hall; Elwood R. Hart

    2002-01-01

    AbstractThe impact of cottonwood leaf beetle Chrysomela scripta F. defoliation on four plantation-grown Populus clones was examined over three growing seasons. We used a split-plot design with two treatments: protected (by insecticides) and an unprotected control. Tree height and...

  11. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  12. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses.

  13. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements.

  14. Músicas al límite

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Los límite de la música dependen de su propia definición y de su carácter humano. El empleo de sonido animal ha sido una constante a lo largo del tiempo y es una variante del empleo o miméis de sonidos naturales. La ampliación de los sonidos musicales hacia el ruido es otro de los límites desbordados ya sea ruidoo natural ,que nos lleva a la concepción moderna del paisaje sonoro o artificial que va desde los distintos bruitismos al sonido electrónico. También la naturaleza matemát...

  15. Oribatid mites in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The main scope of this thesis is to illustrate the validity of oribatid mites as tools for palaeoecological reconstructions. Palaeoecology studies the responses of past organisms to past environmental changes. This can be accomplished through the use of biological proxies, which are indicators of past conditions. The search for additional means of distinguishing climate change has only recently led to the use of other commonly found biological proxies such ...

  16. Predatory mite fauna in Aegean vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    GÖVEN, Mehmet Ali; ÇOBANOĞLU, Sultan; GÜVEN, Bilgin

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out between 1997-2004 in vineyard areas in Manisa, İzmir, Denizli, Muğla and Çanakkale (Bozcaada) provinces of the Aegean region to determine biological control possibilities against phytophagous mites. Sampling was conducted from May to October. Most of the vineyards were sampled three times during the growing season and 50 leaves were collected randomly in each vineyard. Colomerus vitis (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa)were determined ...

  17. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  18. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  19. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences.

  20. Relationship between the ability to penetrate complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites and the ability of thread-cutting behavior in phytoseiid predatory mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimoda, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Takabayashi, J.; Amano, H.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Predatory mites, that are important natural enemies of Tetranychus spider mites, are less hindered by complex webs of the spider mites than are other predatory mites that are natural enemies of other pest herbivores. This can be partly explained by their chaetotaxy, a morphological protection agains

  1. House dust mite control measures for asthma: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. We performed a systematic review of the randomized trials that had assessed the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma, and had compared active interventions with placebo...... improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80-1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardized mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.07) or in medication usage (standardized mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot...

  2. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGY IN VIEW OF MOLECULAR ALLERGOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Korovkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Incidence of allergic diseases is increased over last years. House dust is considered a major risk factor of allergic sensitization which plays an important role in development of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis. Dust mites in the home comprise a large part of domestic allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Blomia tropicalis are most important in this respect. Der p 1 and Der p 2 are regarded as major house dust mite allergens. Recent studies concerned induction of IgE responses against mite tropomyosin (Der p 10, an allergen occurring in mites which exhibits high cross-reactivity with tropomyosins from a variety of sea foods (e.g. shrimps, as well as human tropomyosins. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT represents the only causative approach to allergy treatment in such cases. From this viewpoint, a quantitation of specific IgЕ against major house dust mite allergens would be necessary to predict ASIT efficiency. Treatment by house dust mites allergen extracts is effective in management of allergic rhinitis and mild asthma. A component-resolved diagnostic (CRD with purified house-dust mites allergens allows to discriminate patients who were mostly sensitized to the major house dust mites allergens (e.g. Der p 10, tropomyosin. The component-resolved diagnostics could be performed before starting the allergen-specific immunotherapy by mite allergens, in order to avoid unresponsiveness to this mode of therapy.

  3. Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people.

  4. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  5. Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites grown in dog food cultures and the effect mould growth has on mite survival and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Michael S; Wrenn, William J

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, could survive and thrive on dog food and if mould growth was important to their survival. All of the chambers (n = 42) were started with 10 female mites and evaluated every other day for mite survival and for the spontaneous development of mould. Ten chambers tested the effect of low moisture on mite survival. Eight chambers were used as positive and negative controls (n = 4 each); positive control mites were fed Fleischmann's((R)) yeast and negative controls had no food source. Three dog foods were evaluated in the same manner. Four chambers had food but mould development was limited by replacing the food kernel every 48 h and four chambers were allowed to grow mould. Mites grown in chambers without moisture died from desiccation within 5 days. The termination point was day 34 when all mites in the negative control group (moisture but no food) died. Although T. putrescentiae survived and grew on all three commercial dog foods, there was no statistically significant difference in mites counts among the dog foods (P dog food. The study demonstrated that the presence of mould positively influences mite viability, while low relative humidity can result in detrimental consequences for T. putrescentiae.

  6. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.

  7. Infection of Psoroptes mites with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Wall, R

    2001-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligatory ectoparasite that causes psoroptic mange in a range of domesticated animals, particularly sheep, where the clinical disease is known as sheep scab. A series of laboratory assays were used to assess the use of the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a biocontrol agent for P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. P. cuniculi). The immersion of mites in a suspension of conidia of M. anisopliae resulted in the acquisition of fatal infections. The number of mites which developed infections increased significantly with the increasing concentration of the conidial suspension to which they were exposed; 77% of mites developed infections when exposed to the highest concentration used (1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). Controls developed no fungal infections. Mites allowed simply to walk across a surface which had been treated with a suspension of conidia also acquired fungal infections; the number infected was again related to the concentration of conidia present. After contact for 24 h with a surface treated with 1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1), 73% of the mites became infected. To determine whether dead infected mites could act as sources of infection, infected cadavers were placed in chambers with live uninfected mites. The uninfected mites acquired fatal infections from the cadavers; a higher ratio of infected cadavers to uninfected mites resulted in greater transmission of infection. The time after death of the infected cadaver was also an important factor influencing the number infected, 5-day-old cadavers were the most infective and 18-day-old cadavers the least infective. The results indicate that M. anisopliae is a good candidate control agent for Psoroptes mites.

  8. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp-Strawberry Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp-Strawberry Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood...

  9. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  10. Size of predatory mites and refuge entrance determine success of biological control of the coconut mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F.R.; de Moraes, G.J.; Lesna, I.; Sato, Y.; Vasquez, C.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Predators face the challenge of accessing prey that live in sheltered habitats. The coconut mite Aceriaguerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) lives hidden beneath the perianth, which is appressed to the coconut fruit surface, where they feed on the meristematic tissue. Its natural enemy, the predat

  11. Allergy to mites : relation to lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF; de Monchy, JGR

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to house-dust-mite allergens is an important cause of allergic reactions in sensitized patients. In community-based studies, sensitization to house-duct mites, as ascertained by a positive skin test or by an increased allergen-specific IgE level in serum, is associated with both diminished

  12. Checklist of the Oribatid Mites of the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siepel, H.; Zaitsev, A.; Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    More than fifty years ago Van der Hammen published the last checklist of oribatid mites (or moss mites) for the Netherlands. Since then the species number has almost doubled to 318 species, of which 100 are presented here for the first time. Brief data on occurence and nomenclature are provided for

  13. Ecology, life history and management of tropilaelaps mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are the major threat of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera. For much of the world, Varroa destructor single-handedly inflicts unsurmountable problems to A. mellifera beekeeping. However, A. mellifera in Asia is also faced with another genus of destructive parasitic mite, Tropilae...

  14. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa m

  15. Induction of atopic dermatitis by inhalation of house dust mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; DeMonchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ; vanderMeer, JB

    Background: The pathogenetic role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intensive epicutaneous contact of house dust mite allergen with premanipulated skin may induce dematitis. It is, however, uncertain whether such conditions are met during

  16. IPM potentials of microbial pathogens and diseases of mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents. Se

  17. Induction of atopic dermatitis by inhalation of house dust mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; DeMonchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ; vanderMeer, JB

    1996-01-01

    Background: The pathogenetic role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intensive epicutaneous contact of house dust mite allergen with premanipulated skin may induce dematitis. It is, however, uncertain whether such conditions are met during n

  18. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  19. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...

  20. IPM potentials of microbial pathogens and diseases of mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, L.P.S.; Ciancio, A.; Mukerji, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of diseases in mites, caused by infectious microorganisms. Many pathogens play an important role in the regulation of natural populations of mite populations and are for this reason subject of research on the feasibility to develop such pathogens to biological control agents.

  1. Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P=0.79) of the host animals not affected the prevalence of mange mite (There was higher infestation of ... Though, mange mites in small ruminants are prevalent in Southern nation nationalities .... Summery of the coordinated project on development of feed ... In: Gray, G., Vilenberg, G., parasitological research in Africa, Nai-.

  2. Plant MITEs: Useful Tools for Plant Genetics and Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Feng

    2003-01-01

    MITEs (Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) are reminiscence of non-autonomous DNA (class Ⅱ) elements, which are distinguished from other transpos-able elements by their small size, short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), high copynumbers, genic preference, and DNA sequence identity among family members. Al-though MITEs were first discovered in plants and still actively reshaping genomes,they have been isolated from a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. MITEs canbe divided into Tourist-like, Stowaway-like, and pogo-like groups, according tosimilarities of their TIRs and TSDs (target site duplications). In despite of sev-eral models to explain the origin and amplification of MITEs, their mechanisms oftransposition and accumulation in eukaryotic genomes remain poorly understoodowing to insufficient experimental data. The unique properties of MITEs have beenexploited as useful genetic tools for plant genome analysis. Utilization of MITEsas effective and informative genomic markers and potential application of MITEsin plants systematic, phylogenetic, and genetic studies are discussed.

  3. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Mendes

    Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  4. Democracia: límites y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Espinoza, Gardy Augusto; Castro Herrera, Guillermo; Cuéllar Saavedra, Óscar; Dewey, John; Editorial, Equipo; Fernández Buey, Francisco; Fernández Nadal, Estela; Guevara Avila, Jean Paul; Gumucio, Rafael; Habermas, Jürgen; Hardin, Garrett; Hinkelammert, Franz; Oquendo, Ángel; Pizarro, Roberto; Portales, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Para quienes hemos vivido largos períodos dictatoriales habiendo tenido previamente la experiencia de conocer los horizontes que abre y a la vez sus límites, la democracia es como el aire que respiramos: mientras lo tenemos no nos damos cuenta de su valor y de su necesidad, si nos falta hay que ver cómo nos duele. Sin embargo la democracia no es ni fácil ni placentera a veces; como lo señalara Estanislao Zuleta, “la democracia implica la aceptación de un cierto grado de angustia”. No es una p...

  5. House dust mites and their allergens at selected locations in the homes of house dust mite-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, K E; Hallas, T E; Brygge, T

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the occurrence of house dust mites (HDM) and their allergens in domestic locations is important when planning intervention.......Knowledge of the occurrence of house dust mites (HDM) and their allergens in domestic locations is important when planning intervention....

  6. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  7. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W.; van Niekerk, Thea G. C. M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in

  8. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  9. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W.; van Niekerk, Thea G. C. M.; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in

  10. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small ‘laying hen’ cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.; van Niekerk, T.G.C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    o assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in

  11. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small ‘laying hen’ cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.; Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in

  12. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is

  13. Decay of house-dust mite allergen Der f 1 at indoor climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Stenderup, Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients.......The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients....

  14. Failure of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae and the predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus to control a population of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Simon L; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Mumford, John D

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of a population of the phytophagous cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and its natural enemies was undertaken in central Bahia, Brazil, in mid-1996. In spite of the presence of extremely high densities of the predatory phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma, the phytophagous mite population reached such high densities itself that there was total overexploitation of the cassava plants, leading to total leaf loss. Meanwhile, the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera, Humber & Hajek did not affect the M. tanajoa population in its growth phase as there was no inoculum present, even though we predict from a simple regression model that there was the potential for epizootics at that time. Soon after the M. tanajoa population crashed due to defoliation, there could have been an epizootic but there were simply no mite hosts to infect. These data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of one natural enemy (the predator) in terms of prey population regulation and demonstrate the importance of timing in the possible effectiveness of the other (the pathogen). For the pathogen, this probably explains its sporadic effect on host populations as previously reported. We conclude that the fungus is likely to be most useful as an adjunct to biological control with predatory mites other than N. idaeus.

  15. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  17. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  18. Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed.

  19. Plant MITEs: useful tools for plant genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying

    2003-05-01

    MITEs (Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) are reminiscence of non-autonomous DNA (class II) elements, which are distinguished from other transposable elements by their small size, short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), high copy numbers, genic preference, and DNA sequence identity among family members. Although MITEs were first discovered in plants and still actively reshaping genomes, they have been isolated from a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. MITEs can be divided into Tourist-like, Stowaway-like, and pogo-like groups, according to similarities of their TIRs and TSDs (target site duplications). In despite of several models to explain the origin and amplification of MITEs, their mechanisms of transposition and accumulation in eukaryotic genomes remain poorly understood owing to insufficient experimental data. The unique properties of MITEs have been exploited as useful genetic tools for plant genome analysis. Utilization of MITEs as effective and informative genomic markers and potential application of MITEs in plants systematic, phylogenetic, and genetic studies are discussed.

  20. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  1. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed.

  2. The use of soil mites in ecotoxicology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Owojori, Olugbenga John; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal; Römbke, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Mites, and especially soil-inhabiting ones, have been less studied than the other invertebrates used in bio-assays for the assessment of soil quality and the hazards of chemicals, although these organisms are included in the regulatory assessment scheme of pesticides. The recent advances in the development of test methods for soil mites groups have provided more information on their sensitivities towards chemicals, which needs to be presented for a more robust assessment of the current trends in soil mite ecotoxicology. Moreover, interestingly mite is the only taxa for which test methods were developed and standardized on predatory organisms. This review summarizes the different protocols for the assessment of chemicals using soil-inhabiting mites, including laboratory, semi-field and field studies. Among the data found in the literature, most of the chemicals assessed with mites were pesticides, while a few environmental samples were assessed with these organisms. Their sensitivities towards chemicals were then compared and discussed regarding other soil invertebrates. Finally, we conclude on the usefulness of soil mites in ecotoxicology, and provide future research trail in this area.

  3. Do Demodex mites play a role in pterygium development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Witold; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Młocicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis. These results were collected from a group of 69 subjects, including 39 with pterygium. Subjects were studied for the presence of Demodex folliculorum and/or D. brevis within eyelash follicles. The sample was defined as positive if at least one parasite, larva or egg were present. Preliminary statistical analyses were performed, and indicated a significant relationship between Demodex mite infestation and the presence of pterygium (pDemodex infestation formed a dominant group. The proportion of subjects with both pterygia and Demodex presence is high at 93.33%, while the proportion of subjects without pterygia who have mites is low at 20.51%. Aforementioned results support our working hypothesis that infestation with Demodex mites may result in pterygium development and therefore patients diagnosed with pterygium should be assessed for the presence of Demodex to verify our preliminary results. In the present paper, we discuss potential influence of Demodex on conjunctiva and propose a hypothetical pathological mechanism linking the development of pterygia with demodicosis.

  4. Breeding the Mite-Resistant Honeybee by Nutritional Crossbreed Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xian-bing; PENG Wen-jun; ZENG Zhi-jiang

    2008-01-01

    Mite (Varroa destructor) is one of the most serious parasite threats to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) reared in China. The beekeepers mainly use the drug to control and kill the mite in the past years, but the honey products may be contaminated and the mite is becoming drug-resistant. The main idea of this paper is to research the possibility of mite-resistant honeybee rearing by nutritional crossbreed. The larvae (Apis mellifera ligustica) are bred with the royal jelly of Apis carana carana, and then the morphological index of the worker generation, genotypic frequency and gene frequency of the MDH Ⅱ, genetic resemblance, and mite resistance are measured. The results show that: compared to the parent workers, the proboscis length, anterior wing area, the total length of the third and fourth dorsal plate of the abdomen, the length of the fourth dorsal plate of the tuberculum, the area of the sixth abdominal segment, and the area of wax mirrors are significantly different, but the differences in the brachium index, dactylus index, and wing claw are not significant. Moreover, there are some mutations in the genotypic frequency and gene frequency of the MDH Ⅱ. The mite resistance of the nutritional crossbreed worker is significantly higher. The morphological, physical, and biochemical characters, genetic resemblance, and the mite-resistant ability of the worker generation can be changed by nutritional crossbreeding. Nutritional crossbreeding can be a new way to breed the honeybee.

  5. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescen...

  6. New mite species associated with certain plant species from Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several new mite species have been reported from certain plants from Guam. Most remarkably, the spider mite, Tetranychus marianae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae and the predatory mite Phytoseius horridus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae (Solanum melongena have been found on eggplant. The noneconomically important species of Brevipalpus californicus(Banks Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae,Eupodes sp. (Acarina: Eupodidae and predator Cunaxa sp. (Prostigmata: Cunaxidae have been reported on guava (Psidium guajava L.. Also, the non-economically important species Brevipalpus californicus Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Astigmata: Glycyphagidae and a predator Amblyseius obtusus, species group Amblyseius near lentiginosus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae, have been recorded on cycad (Cycas micronesica.

  7. El programa del límite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el terreno estético, se afirma desde un comienzo, no hay revés del extremo. La experiencia del límite, su radicalidad, sólo se alcanza en contados lugares. Si bien se accede a dicha experiencia a través de los medios de la representación, no se trata aquí de una representación del extremo. El silencio, cercano, convoca a desplazar sus bordes, y exhibe así un movimiento que es concebido como estandarte de la producción estética. Las narraciones de lo extremo se inscriben en la estela del ar...

  8. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments.

  9. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control.

  10. Microbiota of Demodex mites from rosacea patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Nathalia; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation of Demodex mites is associated with rosacea. Furthermore, Demodex-associated bacteria were suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. We decided to analyze Demodex microbiota. Mites were collected by standardized skin surface biopsies from patients with erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular rosacea or from control subjects. The microbiota from each mite was characterized by 16S rRNA clone library approach. The 16S rRNA clone library consisted of 367 clones obtained from 73 extracts originating from 5 samples per study group (ETR, PPR or healthy subjects). A total of 86 species were identified with 36 as Demodex-specific microbiota. In the papulopustular group, proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased whereas proportion of Actinobacteria decreased. Here, we report preliminary results on the microbiota of Demodex mites based on a molecular approach showing an unexpected diversity. Differences according to the host status need to be confirmed but open new perspectives for diagnostic of rosacea.

  11. Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

    2011-06-01

    Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

  12. FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163882.html FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies Odactra ... life," said Dr. Peter Marks, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. "The approval ...

  13. The impact of pesticides on apple mite communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory, field and semi-field experiments have been carried out on the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Amblyseius andersoni, Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseius finitimus in order to optimize biological control strategies against phytophagous mites in apple orchards. The first experiment concerned the augmentative releases of K. aberrans in organic and conventional apple orchards. The most frequent insecticides used in organic orchards were pyrethrins and spinosad, whereas neonicotino...

  14. PCR analysis for Wolbachia in human and canine Demodex mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Sibylle N; Sattler, Elke C; Hogardt, Michael; Adler, Kristin; Plewig, Gerd

    2009-10-01

    In many skin diseases such as Demodex folliculitis, rosacea- or steroid-induced rosacea Demodex mites are present in abundance and are at least partially held responsible for causing these disorders. Although it is known that these diseases respond well to tetracyclines, it is unclear if this is due to the antiinflammatory effects of the antibiotics or to an antibacterial effect on so far unknown bacteria within the Demodex mites. As in filariasis, where the response to doxycycline can be explained by the presence of Wolbachia within the filarial nematodes, this study was performed to see whether Wolbachia also use Demodex mites as their hosts. Human and canine Demodex mite samples were taken by skin scrapings and tested by PCR for the presence of Wolbachia DNA. Wolbachia pipientis DNA was used as positive control. In none of the DNA extracts, Wolbachia were detected showing no evidence for the presence of these bacteria in Demodex mites. The response of Demodex aggravated or Demodex caused diseases to tetracyclines seems not to be due to the presence of Wolbachia in Demodex mites in contrast to the results seen in filariasis.

  15. Evolution of host range in the follicle mite Demodex kutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Tra, VAN; Matoin, Kassey; Mac, Phuong D

    2016-11-29

    The sequences of four mitochondrial genes were determined for Demodex mites isolated from two distantly related species within the family Cervidae, and identified morphologically as belonging to the species Demodex kutzeri. The sequences were used to test the hypothesis that Demodex are strictly host-specific, and hence cospeciate with their hosts: (1) The estimated divergence time between mites found on elk vs humans agreed closely with a previous estimate of the time that these host species last shared a common ancestor, suggesting cospeciation of mites and hosts, at least over long evolutionary timescales. (2) The extremely low levels of sequence divergence between the mites found on elk vs mule deer hosts indicated that these mites belong to the same species, which suggests that Demodex are able to move across host species boundaries over shorter timescales. Together, the results are consistent with the model that Demodex mites are not strict host-specialists, but instead lose the ability to move between host lineages gradually.

  16. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.

  17. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  18. Multiple factors affect pest and pathogen damage on 31 Populus clones in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Coleman, Mark D. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, P.O. Box 700, New Ellenton, SC 29809 (United States); Durant, Jaclin A.; Newman, Lee A. [Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of South Carolina, 800 Sumter St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Populus species and hybrids have many practical applications, but there is a paucity of data regarding selections that perform well in the southeastern US. We compared pest susceptibility of 31 Populus clones over 3 years in South Carolina, USA. Cuttings were planted in spring 2001 on two study sites. Clones planted in the bottomland site received granular fertilizer yearly and irrigation the first two years only, while those on the sandy, upland site received irrigation and fertilization throughout each growing season. Foliar damage by the cottonwood leaf beetle (Chrysomela scripta), cottonwood leafcurl mite (Tetra lobulifera), and poplar leaf rust (Melampsora medusae) was visually monitored several times each growing season. Damage ratings differed significantly among clones, and clonal rankings changed from year to year. Irrigation increased C. scripta and M. medusae damage, but had no effect on T. lobulifera damage. Certain clones received greater pest damage at a particular study site. Temporal damage patterns were evident among individual clones and on each site. At the upland site, OP367 and 7300502 were highly resistant to all three pests; I45/51 was highly resistant to C. scripta and M. medusae; NM6 and 15-29 were highly resistant to M. medusae; and 7302801 was highly resistant to T. lobulifera and M. medusae. At the bottomland site, NM6, Eridano, I45/51, and 7302801 were highly resistant to all three pests; clone 7300502 was highly resistant to M. medusae only. Based on this preliminary 3-year study of pest damage levels, we would recommend clones NM6, Eridano, I45/51, OP367, 15-29, 7302801, 7300502, and Kentucky 8 for use in this region. (author)

  19. Mite species inhabiting commercial bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests in Polish greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej, Elżbieta; Witaliński, Wojciech; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Wantuch, Marta; Moroń, Dawid; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2012-03-01

    Nests of social insects are usually inhabited by various mite species that feed on pollen, other micro-arthropods or are parasitic. Well-known negative effects of worldwide economic importance are caused by mites parasitizing honeybee colonies. Lately, attention has focused on the endoparasitic mite Locustacarus buchneri that has been found in commercial bumblebees. However, little is known of other mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests. Transportation of commercial bumblebee colonies with unwanted residents may introduce foreign mite species to new localities. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and species composition of mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests and determined if the mites are foreign species for Poland and for Europe. The study was conducted on 37 commercial bumblebee nests from two companies (Dutch and Israeli), originating from two greenhouses in southern Poland, and on 20 commercial bumblebee colonies obtained directly from suppliers. The species composition and abundance of mites inhabiting commercial bumblebee nests were determined. Seven mite species from three families were found in nests after greenhouse exploitation. The predominant mite species was Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) that was a 100-fold more numerous than representatives of the family Laelapidae (Hypoaspis marginepilosa, H. hyatti, H. bombicolens). Representatives of Parasitidae (Parasitellus fucorum, P. crinitus, P. ignotus) were least numerous. All identified mite species are common throughout Europe, foreign species were not found. Mites were not detected in nests obtained directly from suppliers. We conclude that probably bumblebee nests are invaded by local mite species during greenhouse exploitation.

  20. Chemo-mechanical modification of cottonwood for Pb(2+) removal from aqueous solutions: Sorption mechanisms and potential application as biofilter in drip-irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Ghamry, Ayman; Trüby, Peter; Omar, Mahmoud; Gao, Bin; Elnaggar, Abdelhamid; Li, Yuncong

    2016-10-01

    Using biomass (e.g. crop residues) and its derivatives as biosorbents have been recognized as an eco-friendly technique for wastewater decontamination. In this study, mechanically modified cottonwood was further activated with KOH to improve its sorption of Pb(2+). In addition, its potential as a biofilter to safeguard radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) against Pb-stress was evaluated in a gravity-fed drip irrigation system. Physiochemical properties of the chemo-mechanically activated cottonwood (CMACW) and the mechanically activated cottonwood (MACW) before and after sorption process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), digital selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). After activation, several sorption mechanisms (i.e. precipitation, electrostatic outer- and inner-sphere complexation) were responsible for the higher sorption capacity of CMACW as compared with MACW (8.55 vs. 7.28 mg g(-1)). Sorption kinetics and isotherms fitted better with the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models as compared with the pseudo-first-order and Freundlich models, respectively. In the gravity-fed drip irrigation system, the CMACW biofilter reduced the accumulation of Pb in radish roots and shoots and avoided reaching the toxic limits in some cases. Soil types had a significant effect on Pb(2+) bioavailability because of the difference in sorption ability. Findings from this study showed that CMACW biofilter can be used as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy.

  2. Soils and late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Cottonwood River basin, east-central Kansas: Implications for archaeological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, J.M.; Mandel, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of landscape evolution strongly influence the temporal and spatial patterns of the archaeological record in drainage systems. In this geoarchaeological investigation we took a basin-wide approach in assessing the soil stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and geochronology of alluvial deposits and associated buried soils in the Cottonwood River basin of east-central Kansas. Patterns of landscape evolution emerge when stratigraphic sequences and radiocarbon chronologies are compared by stream size and landform type. In the valleys of high-order streams (???4th order) the Younger Dryas Chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by pedogenesis, resulting in the development of organic-rich cumulic soils. Between ca. 10,000 and 4900 14C yr B.P., aggradation punctuated by soil formation was the dominant process in those valleys. Alluvial fans formed on the margins of high-order stream valleys during the early and middle Holocene (ca. 9000-5000 14C yr B.P.) and continued to develop slowly until ca. 3000-2000 14C yr B.P. The late-Holocene record of high-order streams is characterized by episodes of entrenchment, rapid aggradation, and slow aggradation punctuated by soil development. By contrast, the early and middle Holocene (ca. 10,000-5000 14C yr B.P.) was a period of net erosion in the valleys of low-order streams. However, during the late Holocene small valleys became zones of net sediment storage. Consideration of the effects of these patterns of landscape evolution on the archaeological record is crucial for accurately interpreting that record and searching for buried archaeological deposits dating to specific cultural periods. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  3. The predatory mite Typhlodromalus aripo prefers green-mite induced plant odours from pubescent cassava varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzo, Alexis; Hanna, Rachid; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that plant-inhabiting predators use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate herbivores being their prey. Much less known, however, is the phenomenon that genotypes of the same host plant species vary in the attractiveness of these induced chemical signals, whereas they also differ in characteristics that affect the predator's foraging success, such as leaf pubescence. In a series of two-choice experiments (using a Y-tube olfactometer) we determined the preference of Typhlodromalus aripo for pubescent versus glabrous cassava cultivars infested with the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and also the preference for cultivars within each of the two groups. We found that when offered a choice between pubescent and glabrous cassava cultivars (either apex or leaves), T. aripo was significantly more attracted to pubescent cultivars. For each cultivar, M. tanajoa infested leaves and apices were equally attractive to T. aripo. There was however some variation in the response of T. aripo to M. tanajoa-infested plant parts within the group of pubescent cultivars, as well as within the group of glabrous cultivars. Our study confirms not only that T. aripo uses herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey in cassava fields, but it also shows that it can discriminate between glabrous and pubescent cultivars and prefers the latter. This knowledge can be useful in selecting cultivars that are attractive and suitable to T. aripo, which, in turn, may promote biological control of the cassava green mite.

  4. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter, E-mail: varthur@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Mineiro, Jeferson L.C. [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo/APTA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economico

    2009-07-01

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  5. Mite (Arthropoda, Acari associates of palms (Arecaceae in Brazil I: present status and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva L. Q. Santana

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 72 new records and 10 records from literature on the distribuition of nine species of phytophagous mites and nine species of predatory mites from 13 species of palms in 13 Brazilian States.

  6. Deformed wing virus: replication and viral load in mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Aumeier, Pia; Genersch, Elke

    2009-02-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) normally causes covert infections but can have devastating effects on bees by inducing morphological deformity or even death when transmitted by the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. In order to determine the role of V. destructor in the development of crippled wings, we analysed individual mites for the presence and replication of DWV. The results supported the correlation between viral replication in mites and morphologically deformed bees. Quantification of viral genome equivalents revealed that mites capable of inducing an overt DWV infection contained 10(10)-10(12) genome equivalents per mite. In contrast, mites which could not induce crippled wings contained a maximum of only 10(8) viral genome equivalents per mite. We conclude that the development of crippled wings not only depends on DWV transmission by V. destructor but also on viral replication in V. destructor and on the DWV titre in the parasitizing mites.

  7. Ocular symptoms reported by patients infested with Demodex mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sędzikowska, Aleksandra; Osęka, Maciej; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (pDemodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.

  8. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators.

  9. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the "itch mite" Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues--acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. CONCLUSIONS: The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.

  10. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  11. A rice Stowaway MITE for gene transfer in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Fattash

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs lack protein coding capacity and often share very limited sequence similarity with potential autonomous elements. Their capability of efficient transposition and dramatic amplification led to the proposition that MITEs are an untapped rich source of materials for transposable element (TE based genetic tools. To test the concept of using MITE sequence in gene transfer, a rice Stowaway MITE previously shown to excise efficiently in yeast was engineered to carry cargo genes (neo and gfp for delivery into the budding yeast genome. Efficient excision of the cargo gene cassettes was observed even though the excision frequency generally decreases with the increase of the cargo sizes. Excised elements insert into new genomic loci efficiently, with about 65% of the obtained insertion sites located in genes. Elements at the primary insertion sites can be remobilized, frequently resulting in copy number increase of the element. Surprisingly, the orientation of a cargo gene (neo on a construct bearing dual reporter genes (gfp and neo was found to have a dramatic effect on transposition frequency. These results demonstrated the concept that MITE sequences can be useful in engineering genetic tools to deliver cargo genes into eukaryotic genomes.

  12. Dry Dog Food Integrity and Mite Strain Influence the Density-Dependent Growth of the Stored-Product Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Erban, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The infestation of foodstuffs by mites is connected to health risks and economic losses. The cosmopolitan stored-product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging and predominant pest of dry dog food. In this study, the influences on mite population growth of 1) the different dry dog food kernels present in the package; 2) the integrity of the dry dog food kernel, whether intact or crushed; 3) the initial population density of 10 or 100 specimens; and 4) the four mite strains used were investigated under laboratory conditions. The population growth tests were performed for 28 d at 85% relative humidity and 25°C. The intrinsic growth rates of the mites were compared. The population growth was higher on the brown and green kernels than on the red and white kernels. The kernel integrity affected the population growth, and the integrity effect was highly influenced by the initial mite population density. The mites showed density-dependent growth in three of the four mite strains tested. The initial population density changed the population growth ranking among the mite strains, thereby indicating strain-specific density-dependent growth. The results of this study have important implications for predictive models of stored-product mite populations in dry dog food. One practical recommendation is that the growth of mites should be considered with regard to the mite strains and according to the strain-specific density dependent growth. Next, the integrity of the kernels should be maintained because disrupted or crushed kernels promote increases in mite populations.

  13. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2009-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify poten

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of inert dust formulations on the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    In the EU-project SAFEHOUSE one objective is to develop alternative control methods against poultry red mites based on a combination of inert dusts and mite-pathogenic fungal isolates. Both components have some pathogenicity to the mites. However, the question is whether a combination of the two ...

  15. Heritability of defence and life-history traits in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, N.S.H.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two-spotted spider mites hide against predatory mites in a web of self-produced sticky silk. The proteins invested in this shelter may reduce investment in reproduction. Questions: Do spider mite populations harbor genetic variation for web production, thereby enabling a response to

  16. Are Demodex mites principal, conspirator, accomplice, witness or bystander in the cause of rosacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    As the only permanent human ectoparasite, the role of human Demodex mites in health and diseases remains largely unclarified. In view of the ecological interaction between organisms of two different species, a type of commensalism between Demodex mites and humans (the former benefit, the latter unaffected) is most likely, while parasitism occurs temporarily and spatially in the diseased state (the former benefit, the latter harmed). As part of normal skin microbiota, the causal role of Demodex mites in the initiation of rosacea can neither fulfill the classical Henle-Koch's principal nor the advanced criteria proposed by Fredericks and Relman for molecular detection of non-cultivatable microorganisms. Epidemiological analysis using Hill's criteria fails to support the causative role of Demodex mites in rosacea regarding the strength of association, specificity and temporality of association, biological gradient and plausibility as well as clinical coherence, therapeutic experimentation and medical analogy. In application of Rothman's sufficient cause model to evaluate the contribution of Demodex mites to rosacea on a population basis, Demodex mites can be regarded as a non-necessary, non-sufficient causal factor for certain forms of rosacea. Further strategies to dissect the association between Demodex mites and rosacea may include studying the possible existence of more virulent forms of mites with a higher pathogenicity, the endosymbiotic bacteria in certain life periods of mites, the interactions between mites and human hosts or between mites and environment, and to set up ex vivo culture models for Demodex mites.

  17. [Ecological data on house dust mites in the city of Semipalatinsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagofarov, F F; Galikeev, Kh L

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in flats of allergic patients depending on the type of the building structure, relative air humidity and season of the year was studied. The mites are most frequently encountered in houses of wood or adobe with high air humidity. Autumn is an optimum season for reproduction of mites.

  18. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  19. Heritability of defence and life-history traits in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, N.S.H.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two-spotted spider mites hide against predatory mites in a web of self-produced sticky silk. The proteins invested in this shelter may reduce investment in reproduction. Questions: Do spider mite populations harbor genetic variation for web production, thereby enabling a response to sele

  20. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic targ...

  1. A review of the water mite fauna from the Australasian and Pacific region (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2005-01-01

    A review is given of the water mite fauna of the Australasian and Pacific region. Within the Australasian region, New Zealand has the highest percentage of endemism. It is concluded that the water mite fauna of the islands in the South Pacific is of Australasian origin, while the water mite fauna of

  2. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk; W.J. Wadman; M.W. Sabelis

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a

  3. Dermatitis due to Mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes Mites in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sudhakara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs, dermatitis due to mixed mite infestation is rare. During the five-year period of study, two dogs were identified suffering from dermatitis due to mixed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Upon clinical examination dogs had primary and secondary skin lesions on face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex and Sarcoptes mites. Both dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin at 100 to 400 μg/kg body weight as incremental doses, external application of amitraz and supportive treatments with topical antimicrobial shampoo. After completion of forty-two days of therapy, dogs were recovered from the dermatitis.

  4. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  5. mites y control constitucional en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arminda Balbuena Cisneros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los límites a la reforma constitucional es un tema siempre vigente en el derecho constitucional, ello es así por las posibles arbitrariedades que pueden cometer los órganos detentadores del poder mediante las modificaciones a la constitución. En México, hoy en día este tema cobra particular relevancia por el profundo proceso de reforma que se vive, y por la controvertida posición que la corte mexicana ha adoptado en relación con los límites a la reforma. El presente artículo trata de dar una visión general de los límites al poder de reforma y, en particular, de la posición que la suprema corte de justicia de la nación ha adoptado respecto a los mismos.

  6. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries...... American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years......, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model...

  7. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  8. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Suzuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management (IPM, which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1 the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2 the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3 the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  9. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified.

  10. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  11. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  12. Ciclos límites en minirobots neurocontrolados

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Alberto Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo presenta el análisis de estabilidad de un pequeño robot controlado con una red neuronal multicapa; por simplicidad, el robot contiene un sensor de posición y un motor. La función descriptiva de la red neuronal se utiliza para determinar los límites para los pesos de la red, con el fin de predecir ciclos límite y evitar oscilaciones del minirobot cuando se aproxima a obstáculos.

  13. OZONE: ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MITE CONTROL ON SPECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cantoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the development of a method for integrated mite control in the industrial production of speck. The investigation were carried out on the premises of five factories in the north-east of Italy. Tyrophagus putrescentiae and T. longior were predominant. The gaseous ozone treatment at low level (0.4 ppm was able to kill mites in a period within 15 days and 1 month. The characteristic layer of mould on the product surface reappears within 1 month from the end of treatment with ozone.

  14. Asynchronous development of honey bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Maria J; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2011-08-01

    A high proportion of nonreproductive (NR) Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). This study was conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host reinvasion of varroa mites on mite reproduction. We collected foundress mites from stages of brood (newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, and pink-eyed pupae) and phoretic mites from adult bees. We then inoculated these mites into cells containing newly sealed larvae. Successful reproduction (foundress laid both a mature male and female) was low (13%) but most common in mites coming from sealed larvae. Unsuccessful reproductive attempts (foundress failed to produce both a mature male and female) were most common in mites from sealed larvae (22%) and prepupae (61%). Lack of any progeny was most common for mites from white-eyed (83%) and pink-eyed pupae (92%). We also collected foundress mites from sealed larvae and transferred them to cells containing newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, or pink-eyed pupae. Successful reproduction only occurred in the transfers to sealed larvae (26%). Unsuccessful reproductive attempts were most common in transfers to newly sealed larvae (40%) and to prepupae (25%). Unsuccessful attempts involved the production of immature progeny (60%), the production of only mature daughters (26%) or the production of only a mature male (14%). Generally, lack of progeny was not associated with mites having a lack of stored sperm. Our results suggest that mites exposed to the removal of prepupae or older brood due to hygiene are unlikely to produce viable mites if they invade new hosts soon after brood removal. Asynchrony between the reproductive status of reinvading mites and the developmental stage of their reinvasion hosts may be a primary cause of NR mites in hygienic colonies. Even if reinvading mites use hosts having the proper age

  15. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  16. Improvement of shrimp allergy after sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, G; Spadolini, I; Santucci, A; Cova, V; Conti, C; Corvetta, A; Passalacqua, G

    2011-10-01

    The appropriateness of house dust mite specific immunotherapy in patients allergic to shrimps still remains unclear We present a clinical case as an immunological model for the strong sensitization to tropomyosin with symptoms of anaphylaxis due to shrimps and coexisting asthma due to house dust mite. The improvement in respiratory symptoms for house dust mite and in the food challenge for shrimps during mite immunotherapy with a known and high dosage of tropomyosin suggests the hypothesis that efficacy of mite immunotherapy in food allergy to tropomyosin may be dose dependent.

  17. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  18. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  19. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Miao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients’ homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  20. International consensus (ICON) on: clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Thomas, Wayne R; Chapman, Martin D; Lee, Bee Wah; Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie; Chew, Fook Tim; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Behrooz, Leili; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Pascal, Demoly; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Geller, Mario; Quirce, Santiago; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Ollert, Markus; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Calderón, Moises A; Barnes, Charles S; Custovic, Adnan; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Since mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has proposed to issue an International Consensus (ICON) on the clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity. The objectives of this document are to highlight aspects of mite biology that are clinically relevant, to update the current knowledge on mite allergens, routes of sensitization, the genetics of IgE responses to mites, the epidemiologic aspects of mite hypersensitivity, the clinical pictures induced by mites, the diagnosis, specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prevention.

  1. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

  2. A method for both mass and individual rearing of fungivorous astigmatid mites (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K; Oconnor, B M

    2001-01-01

    Several species of common fungi were assessed as food for fungivorous astigmatid mites. Hypocrea nigricans, Botrytis cinerea and Flammulina velutipes were generally good food sources for most mites examined. Fungal mycelia growing on PDA (potato dextrose agar) medium were not only nutritionally adequate but the system also maintained high humidity through the water-based agar medium. Among acarid mites, most species of Rhizoglyphinae could be reared easily with the method. Although filter-feeding histiostomatid mites do not feed directly on hyphae, some species were successfully maintained with the same method through multiple generations. Presumably, these mites obtained sufficient nutrition from the agar medium and fungal metabolites leaching into it. Most species ultimately produced dispersing heteromorphic deutonymphs on these media. Individual mites were also maintained in isolation within glass rings on fungal colonies. Using this technique, we were able to compare developmental periods, fecundity and survival periods of mites reared under different conditions.

  3. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  4. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Poza Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47 with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT, while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis.

  5. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  6. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  7. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S Thoemmes

    Full Text Available Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.

  8. Identification of astigmatid mites using ITS2 and COI regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Cai, Junlong; Cheng, Xunjia

    2011-02-01

    Identification of astigmatid mites based on their morphological characteristics is difficult because of the similarity of their organs, especially in immature mites. The ribosomal second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions are highly conserved in the eukaryotes and are usually used as barcodes. The ITS2 and COI regions of six species of astigmatid mites (Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Tyrophagus putrescentiae) were obtained by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The lengths of the ITS2 sequences varied from 316 to 488 bp, while the COI regions were 377 or 378 bp long. Considering the ITS2 genes, the intraspecific genetic distance was in the range of 0.00-0.077844, whereas the interspecific genetic distance was 0.202426-0.912959. The values were 0.000-0.029748 and 0.138403-0.279304 for intra- and interspecific genetic distances when COI genes were used. The phylogenetic trees inferred from the ITS2 and the COI regions, by using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, were identical to those based on their morphological classification. Thus, the ITS2 and COI regions can be applied as barcodes to identify different species of astigmatid mites.

  9. Molecular sabotage of host plant defenses by spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarroel Figueroa, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants constitute an ample source of nutrients for a diversity of organisms that include viruses, microbes, nematodes, insects, and mites. To protect their resources, plants possess a robust immune system that establishes structural and biochemical defenses to fight invaders. Some of these defenses

  10. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Megan S; Fergus, Daniel J; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled.

  11. Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M

    2002-01-01

    Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks.

  12. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  13. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

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    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  14. [Varroa mites in the apiaries of Campania region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, P; Caprio, E; Cringoli, G

    2004-06-01

    Mites in the genus Varroa are obligate ectoparasites of honey bee populations worldwide. Recent evidence from morphological, geographical, and especially genetic variation has spurred an important revision of Varroa taxonomy. Specifically, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evidence suggests that the main mite pest on western honey bees (Apis mellifera) is not Varroa jacobsoni, as first described, but a distinct species now named Varroa destructor. Genetic markers also have been used to support a taxonomic basis for regional differences in how Varroa mites impact honey bees. Recent morphometric and molecular studies confirmed the presence of the species V. destructor also in the apiaries of the Campania region of southern Italy. In the three-year period 2001-2003 a survey was conducted in 118 municipalities of the five provinces of the Campania region in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding Varroa destructor in this zone. The level of infestation by the mite was assessed on a total of 521 apiaries (241 apiaries were inspected on 2001, 154 on 2002, and 126 on 2003). In each apiary, 100 comb cells were examined and in each province the level of infestation was calculated using the following formula: (number of Varroa specimens/number of open comb cells) x 100. In order to display the level of infestation, Geographical Information Systems were used in order to draw parasitological maps.

  15. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31.

  16. Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator¿prey inter

  17. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  18. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of a mite allergen-impermeable bed-covering system in asthmatic mite-sensitive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Knapen, L. van; Vries, M.P. de; Jansen, M.; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens plays a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in the chronic inflammatory response seen in asthmatic patients. House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of allergen. Reduction of these allergens might lead to better lung function and red

  20. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement.

  1. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  2. Predation of Neozygites tanajoae-infected cassava green mites by the predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge L. Ariori

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromalus aripo is the most successful of the Neotropical predatory mites released for the classical biological control of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, in Africa. A few isolates of the entomopthoralean fungus, Neozygites tanajoae, which causes epizootics in M. tanajoa populations in Brazil, were imported to be released in Africa for the control of M. tanajoa. The present study evaluated the feeding preference of T. aripo for M. tanajoa infected by N. tanajoae in a preliminary attempt to determine the interaction between the two biological control agents. The feeding preferences of normal and starved, for 24 and 48 h, T. aripo for the healthy M. tanajoa and for those exposed to N. tanajoe were compared in choice and no choice tests. In general, T. aripo consumed significant quantities of infected M. tanajoa along with the healthy ones. Although, they appeared to have a slight preference for healthy M. tanajoa, significant difference (P < 0.05 was seen only in a no choice test when the predators that were starved for 24 h were used. The consumption of pathogen-infected pest mites by the predatory mites can reduce the effectiveness of the microbial control agent.

  3. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line

  4. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  5. Host-parasite interaction and impact of mite infection on mosquito population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atwa A. Atwa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During the present study, the host-parasite relationship between mosquitoes and parasitic mites was investigated. The 8954 individuals of male and female mosquitoes belonging to 26 genera: seven each of Aedes and Culex, six of Anopheles and one each of Toxorhynchites, Coquillettidia and Uranotaenia were collected from 200 sites. The male and female mosquitoes were collected from the State of Uttar Pradesh, located at 26.8500° N, 80.9100° E in North India by deploying Carbon dioxide-baited and gravid traps. The intensity of mite's infection, type and number of mites attached to mosquitoes, mite's preference for body parts and host sexes were the parameters used to determine host-parasite relationship. Eight species of mites: Arrenurus acuminatus, Ar. gibberifrons, Ar. danbyensis, Ar. madaraszi, Ar. kenki, Parathyas barbigera, Leptus sp., and Anystis sp., parasitized mosquitoes. Parasitic mites preferred host's thorax for attachment as compared to the head, pre-abdomen or appendages. The present study suggests phoretic relationship between parasitic mites and mosquitoes. Wide occurrence, intensity of infection, parasitic load, and attachment preferences of the mites suggested their positive role in biological control of adult mosquitoes. The present study will set the path of future studies on host-parasite relationships of mites and mosquitoes and define the role of parasitic mites in the biological control of mosquitoes.

  6. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  7. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes from Wetlands P7 and P8 of the Cottonwood Lake Study area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relationships among carbon mineralization, sulfate reduction and greenhouse gas emissions in prairie pothole wetlands. These data are for dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes. Dissolved gas concentrations in the water column and fluxes to the atmosphere were estimated from April through November, 2015 for wetlands P7 and P8 of the Cottonwood Lake Study area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Dissolved gases in the water column were collected every two weeks using a pumping-induced ebullition device. Gas flux samples were collected concurrently at the water-atmosphere interface using the vented static-chamber method. Gas concentrations of the gas samples were determined using gas chromatography. Air and water temperature and water depth also were collected concurrently. These data directly support the associated publication “Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands” which is referenced within the Metadata.

  8. Morphological, molecular and cross-breeding analysis of geographic populations of coconut-mite associated predatory mites identified as Neoseiulus baraki: evidence for cryptic species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Sourassou; R. Hanna; I. Zannou; J.A.J. Breeuwer; G. de Moraes; M.W. Sabelis

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were conducted in Brazil, Benin and Tanzania to collect predatory mites as candidates for control of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer, a serious pest of coconut fruits. At all locations surveyed, one of the most dominant predators on infested coconut fruits was identified as Neosei

  9. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.

  10. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, G.J.Z.; Roosjen, M.; Dijkman, H.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites

  11. Effect of Activated Charcoal Fibers on the Survival of the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight culture dishes preequilibrated at room temperature (n = 4) and 70% humidity (n = 4) containing house dust mite food and active charcoal fibers. At 10 minute intervals, live and dead house dust mites were counted. All house dust mites instantly attached to the activated charcoal fibers and started to shrink almost immediately. There were no live house dust mites present as early as 40 minutes in some dishes while after 190 minutes all house dust mites were dead. In conclusion, activated charcoal fibers, if incorporated into bedding items, have the potential to control house dust mites in the indoor environment.

  12. The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri's medium and identified using reliable keys.A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  13. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  14. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  15. Activated charcoal suppresses breeding of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Siebers, Robert; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian

    2007-04-01

    House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.

  16. Catalogue of snout mites (Acariformes: Bdellidae) of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio A; Skvarla, Michael J; Fisher, J Ray; Dowling, Ashley P G; Ochoa, Ronald; Ueckermann, Edward A; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-08-17

    Bdellidae (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are moderate to large sized predatory mites that inhabit soil, leaves, leaf litter, and intertidal rocks. They are readily recognized by an elongated, snout-like gnathosoma and by elbowed pedipalps bearing two (one in Monotrichobdella Baker & Balock) long terminal setae. Despite being among the first mites ever described, with species described by Carl Linnaeus, the knowledge about bdellids has never been compiled into a taxonomic catalogue. Here we present a catalogue listing 278 valid species; for each species we include distribution information, taxonomic literature, and type depository institutions. The genus Rigibdella Tseng, 1978 is considered a junior synonym of Cyta von Heyden, 1826, and Bdellodes Oudemans, 1937 is considered a junior synonym of Odontoscirus Tohr, 1913. Illustrated keys to subfamilies and genera are presented, as well as keys to species of each genus.

  17. Silicas for control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika

    2006-01-01

    Control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a challenge for organic as well as conventional egg producers. In organic agriculture, control should be attempted by mechanically acting substances (e.g. oils or diatomaceous earth), before acaricides are applied. Diatomaceous earth (DE) without acaricides was at least as effective as DE supplemented with pyrethrum or essential oils and a liquid formulation of silica in vitro. In on farm experiments, DE was effective during a limited pe...

  18. Cita sin límites con Emilio Prados

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Con motivo del 50 aniversario de la muerte en el exilio del poeta Emilio Prados, nacido en Málaga y miembro de la Generación del 27, hacemos una valoración y un recorrido por su obra poética desde la atalaya de su último libro inconcluso, Cita sin límites. Este libro se constituye en un diario de sus últimos días y es recapitulativo de toda su obra

  19. Hormonal-Pheromonal Interrelationships in Ticks and Parasitic Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    on development and reproduc- tion were also studied. In addition, pheromones in the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and background studies dealing...and nymphal responses. IBID 20: Silverstein, R.M., J.R. West, G.M. Khalil, and D.E. Sonenshine. Occurrence of 2,6-dichlorophenol in the hard ticks...cells growing in suspension were pelleted by gentle centrifugation, fixed, osmi- cated, and dehydrated as described aDove. The cells’were infiltrated

  20. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundity, production of only immature offspring, production of only female or only male offspring and no reproduction at all are discussed. Furthermore, results on mite population dynamics and its influe...

  1. First report of the citrus Hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Denise; Marsaro, Alberto L

    2010-01-01

    The citrus Hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), is reported for the first time in Brazil and for the second time in South America. Mite specimens were collected from citrus in the municipality of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. Symptoms associated with S.hindustanicus infestations on citrus are described. The importance of avoiding dissemination of this mite to the main citrus production areas in Brazil is discussed.

  2. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European popul...

  3. Regular dorsal dimples and damaged mites of Varroa destructor in some Iranian honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; Ebadi, Rahim; Tahmasbi, Gholamhossein

    2011-07-01

    The frequency of damaged Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) found on the bottom board of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has been used as an indicator of the degree of tolerance or resistance of honey bee colonies against mites. However, it is not clear that this measure is adequate. These injuries should be separated from regular dorsal dimples that have a developmental origin. To investigate damage to Varroa mites and regular dorsal dimples, 32 honey bee (A. mellifera) colonies were selected from four Iranian provinces: Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, and Tehran. These colonies were part of the National Honey bee Breeding Program that resulted in province-specific races. In April, Varroa mites were collected from heavily infested colonies and used to infest the 32 experimental colonies. In August, 20 of these colonies were selected (five colonies from each province). Adult bees from these colonies were placed in cages and after introducing mites, damaged mites were collected from each cage every day. The average percentage of injured mites ranged from 0.6 to 3.0% in four provinces. The results did not show any statistical differences between the colonies within provinces for injuries to mites, but there were some differences among province-specific lines. Two kinds of injuries to the mites were observed: injuries to legs and pedipalps, and injuries to other parts of the body. There were also some regular dorsal dimples on dorsal idiosoma of the mites that were placed in categories separate from mites damaged by bees. This type of classification helps identifying damage to mites and comparing them with developmental origin symptoms, and may provide criteria for selecting bees tolerant or resistant to this mite.

  4. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Stefan

    Full Text Available According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory's shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands. We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil, we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a

  5. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in

  6. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  7. [Sensitization to house dust and storage mites in allergic adults from the South of Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Heredia, Jennifer; Oífarrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo; Miyagui-Nakamura, Roberto Ken; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Mites are the most common cause of respiratory allergy. Sensitization to house dust mites is estimated at 30%. Families Euroglyphus and Dermatophagoides, are the most important. Recently, storage mites, from the families Acaridae and Glyciphagidae, have become more important as a cause of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to identify sensitization to house dust and storage mites by skin tests in adult patients with allergic respiratory diseases. This is a descriptive study in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, with the approval of the local research committee 2009-3601-46. Patients underwent skin prick tests, with seven standardized extracts of mites (IPI ASACR). The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. A total of 150 patients, 109 women and 41 men, with an average age 31 years (±11) were studied. The more common allergic diseases in this group of patients were: asthma and rhinitis 72 and 26%, respectively, and asthma plus rhinitis 3.2%. Positive skin tests for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were 82.1% 71.5%, respectively, and for storage mites: A. siro 51.7%, Tyrophagus 47.4%, Glycyphagus 47.7%, B. tropicalis 39.7% and Lepidoglyphus 39.1%. Storage mites produced greater sensitization than house dust mites, 32% vs 10%. The results show that adult patients with respiratory allergy, in southern Mexico City, have a higher rate of sensitization to storage mites than the one reported in the literature.

  8. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and t...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented...

  9. [The relationship between the skin allergy test and house dust mites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem M; Yoloğlu, Saim; Karaman, Ulkü; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Since 1960 it has been known that house dust mites are related to allergy and that they cause pulmonary tract diseases. There are various house dust mites and among these Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) are best known with regard to their medical importance and morphological characteristics. Skin tests are used to determine the role of mites in allergic diseases. The tests are performed by using D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae antigens. In order to study, the concordance between the skin test results and the presence of house dust mites, dust samples from the houses of 49 patients diagnosed with allergic diseases who underwent skin tests were taken to investigate the presence of mites in dust. House dust mites were determined in 23 (46.3%) of the houses. Mites were found in the houses of 15 (50.0%) of 30 patients with positive skin test results and 8 (42.0%) of 19 patients with negative skin test results. There was no significant difference between the skin test positivity and negativity in the presence of house dust mites (P>0,005). In conclusion, we thought that it was necessary to evaluate the presence of mites in the houses of people who have allergic symptoms even if they had negative skin test results.

  10. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention.

  11. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems.

  12. Control of the northern fowl mite on inanimate objects by fumigation: laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerwinkle, K R; Devaney, J A

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the efficacies of phosphine, methyl bromide, and sulfur dioxide as fumigants for the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on inanimate objects. We were able to demonstrate that either methyl bromide or sulfur dioxide could kill all physiological forms of mites within 24 hr, which would be desirable for field use. Prosphine gas, released from Phostoxin pellets, had an LD95 of 18 hr for motile forms of the mites; however, it took 30 hr to kill the mite eggs. Therefore, it would be an unsuitable fumigant for practical field usage.

  13. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  14. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before.

  15. [Mites associated to the Coleopteran Passalus cognatus (Coleoptera:Passalidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2008-09-01

    There are few records of mites associated with the tropical coleopterans of Mexico. We examined 35 passalid beetles (bessbugs) Passalus cognatus from Los Tuxtlas region in Veracruz State, Mexico. Twenty of them had a total of 245 mites (representing eight species, eight genera, eight families and three suborders). The most abundant species were Uroobovella californiana Wisniewski & Hirschmann (35%), Euzercon hyatti Hunter & Rosario (20%), and Uropoda sp. (17.5%). The preferred attachment areas were the coxae; followed by the mesosternum and the humeri. Each beetle had 1 to 40 mites (average: 12); and we found 1-4 mite species per beetle.

  16. Diversity and significance of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea associated with coniferous trees in Poland: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the approximately 200 eriophyoid mite species associated with coniferous trees worldwide, 33 species (of the families Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae infest conifers in Poland, and 24 of them can cause visible feeding symptoms. In this paper we discuss the importance of eriophyoid mites to coniferous plants in Poland and their potential impact on the decorative value of ornamental plants. We emphasize the general lack of knowledge about the diversity of eriophyoid mites associated with coniferous trees and its role in the management and control of this economically important mite group.

  17. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  18. [Evolution of parasitism in mammal-associated mites of the group Psoroptidia (Acari:Astigmata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Host-parasite relationships of mammals and astigmatan mites (Acariformes: Astigmata) belonging to the parvorder Psoroptidia are analyzed. The absolute majority of mammal-associated psoroptidians belongs to the paraphyletic superfamily Sarcoptoidea. Mites of the family complex Psoroptidae (Lobalgidae, Psoroptidae, and Paracoroptinae) shifted from birds to placental mammals independently from each other. Mites of the family complex Sarcoptidae, including all other sarcoptoid families, derived from the common stalk of Psoroptidia independently from the Psoroptid complex. Mites of the sarcoptid complex shifted from nidicoly in mammalian nests to the permanent parasitism on these hosts. They are widely represented on both marsupial and placental mammals and are absent on Monotremata.

  19. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  20. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Zazueta, Victor; Chambers, Mona; Hidalgo, Geoffrey; deJong, Emily Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of varroa populations including mite migration into colonies on foragers from other hives. We measured the proportion of foragers carrying mites on their bodies while entering and leaving hives, and determined its relationship to the growth of varroa populations in those hives at two apiary sites. We also compared the estimates of mite population growth with predictions from a varroa population dynamics model that generates estimates of mite population growth based on mite reproduction. Samples of capped brood and adult bees indicated that the proportion of brood cells infested with mites and adult bees with phoretic mites was low through the summer but increased sharply in the fall especially at site 1. The frequency of capturing foragers with mites on their bodies while entering or leaving hives also increased in the fall. The growth of varroa populations at both sites was not significantly related to our colony estimates of successful mite reproduction, but instead to the total number of foragers with mites (entering and leaving the colony). There were more foragers with mites at site 1 than site 2, and mite populations at site 1 were larger especially in the fall. The model accurately estimated phoretic mite populations and infested brood cells until November when predictions were much lower than those measured in colonies. The rapid growth of mite populations particularly in the fall being a product of mite migration rather than mite reproduction only is discussed.

  1. House-dust mite and mite-and pet-allergens in indoor environment; Dani oyobi dani-allergen, pet-allergen no jittai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, the actual state of mite and mite-allergen, and the actual state of pet-allergen that the researches thereof proceed gradually in recent years are described. The following findings are obtained as the results of the actual state investigations. In respect to the mite-allergen, airborne mite, particularly I with high allergen activity shows high concentration from fall to winter. The reasons thereof are considered from two aspects, I.e., the fragmentation and suspension of mite-allergen, and the decrease of ventilation frequency, while it can also be explained from a fact that the fit of infantile asthma is most frequent during a period from October to November. Mite-allergen contained in futon dust is about 10 times more than that contained in floor dust. In respect to pet-allergen, although the indoor accumulative amount and airborne concentration of main pet-allergen such as cat-, and dog-allergen varies greatly depending on whether pet is kept indoor or outdoor, the quantities of dog- and cat-allergen are almost of the same order, but 2 to 3-order higher than the quantity of mite-allergen. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Field efficacy of phoxim 50% (ByeMite) against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in battery cages stocked with laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Kühling, Borris; Pfister, Kurt; Müller-Lindloff, Jürgen; Heine, Josef

    2007-07-20

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and can affect egg layers worldwide. There is presently a lack of an ectoparasiticide in Europe for poultry which can assure a 0-day withholding period for eggs. In this study, ByeMite (phoxim 50%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health Division) was administered to treat a D. gallinae infestation in a poultry house stocked with egg-laying hens kept in a cage system. A layer house was sprayed twice within a 7-day interval using a solution containing 2000 ppm phoxim and a similar layer house was used as an untreated control unit. Specially developed D. gallinae traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density in both layer houses during a 49-day period after the treatment. In order to collect mites, the traps were placed on days--1, 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 34 and 48 and always removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and differentiated according to their developmental stage (mite eggs, larvae, nymphs, adults). Three days after the first spray treatment, the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) was 96.1%, and from day 7 post-treatment until the end of the trial (day 49) the efficacy exceeded 99%. In contrast, in the untreated layer house (negative control group) the mite population showed a 400% increase. No treatment-related side effects in chickens were detectable. It is concluded that two administrations of ByeMite within a 7-day interval are highly effective against D. gallinae infestations in a stocked poultry house.

  3. Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite -Stop) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Sobhy, Hassan M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Semmler, Margit

    2008-08-01

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days.

  4. Highly virulent Beauveria bassiana strains against the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, show no pathogenicity against five phytoseiid mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Xie, Haicui; Li, Maoye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi and predatory mites can independently contribute to suppressing the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. It is important to assess the risk of possible fungal infections in predators when a combination of them are being considered as a tandem control strategy for suppressing T. urticae. The first part of this study tested 12 Beauveria bassiana isolates for virulence in T. urticae. Strains SCWJ-2, SDDZ-9, LNSZ-26, GZGY-1-3 and WLMQ-32 were found to be the most potent, causing 37.6-49.5% adult corrected mortality at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) m/L conidia 4 days post-treatment. The second part evaluated the pathogenicity of these five strains in five species of predatory phytoseiid mites. The bioassay results indicated that all adult predatory mite mortalities ranged from 7.5 to 9.1% 4 days post-treatment. No viable fungal hyphae were found on predator cadavers. Observations with scanning electron microscopy revealed that conidia were attached to the cuticle of predatory mites within 2-12 h after spraying with strain LNSZ-26, and had germinated within 24-36 h. After 48 h, conidia had gradually been shed from the mites, after none of the conidia had penetrated the cuticular surfaces. In contrast, the germinated conidia successfully penetrated the cuticle of T. urticae, and within 60 h the fungus colonized the mite's body. Our study demonstrated that although several B. bassiana strains displayed a high virulence in T. urticae there was no evident pathogenicity to phytoseiid mites. These findings support the potential use of entomopathogenic fungus in combination with predatory mites in T. urticae control programs.

  5. 226 Analysis of an After-Care Questionnaire in Allergic People to Dust Mites Using Anti-Dust Mites Bed Covers

    OpenAIRE

    Boukhettala, Nabile; Bourgeon, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of the study was to assess in a declarative way, the symptoms felt by the patients and the impact of micro-woven cotton (MWC) and a non woven polyester polyamide (NWP) anti-dust mites bed covers on allergic volunteers to dust mites. Methods This study is a descriptive survey based on an after-care questionnaire handed out to a group of 419 volunteers allergic to dust mites. 109 questionnaires have been used. Regarding the allergy, we asked questions in order to assess the ...

  6. Influence of leaf pubescence on the behavior of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Movement behavior of two mite species: two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on leaves of some apple cultivars (´Greensleeves´, ´Spartan' and SA 455-2 selection with different density of pubescence was analysed. Assessment of the leaf pubescence density was performed using an originally developed quick method based on digital pubescence mage analysis. For P.ulmi, both stop time and average speed did not depend on kind of leaf. In contrary. T.urticae revealed higher movement activity on slight pubescent leaves compared to leaves with high leaf hair density.

  7. The effect of antibiotics on associated bacterial community of stored product mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kopecky

    Full Text Available Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata. The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria.Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mg g(-1 of diet for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor.The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mg g(-1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet.

  8. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF MITES IN A MANDARIN CITRUS ORCHARD IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi Affandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most destructive pests in citrus orchards are spider mites. Monitoring prior applied pest control is a standard procedure for integrated pest management (IPM. The study aimed to survey and determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of phytophagous, predatory, and detritivorous mites at different stages of development of arboreal plant parts, weeds and litter in the citrus orchard. A periodical sampling survey method was conducted on six growth stages of mandarin citrus, weeds and litter of the Indonesian Fruits Research Institute experimental field in Solok, West Sumatra in December 2003 to June 2004. All mites attached on each growth stage of citrus, weeds and litter were trapped and mounted on slide for identification purposes. Identification of the mites was conducted in the Acarology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos in July-October 2004. The results showed that a very rich mite fauna of 130 species was found in the arboreal parts of citrus crops, weeds and litter below the canopy of the citrus orchard. Among the trophic groups, detritivorous mites were the most abundant, followed by the predators, phytophages, and those unknown feeding habit. Among the habitats, weeds harbored the most mite species followed by litter and arboreal parts of the citrus trees. The flush growth stage had the least diverse mite fauna with index diversity (H’ of 1.27, while the most diverse (H’ = 2.01 was found at fruit development phase II. Result of this research was useful in determining proper time for controlling phytophagous mites. Besides, the result also provides important information on potential predatory mites that can be used as biological control agents. Furthermore, the study implies the importance of maintaining cover crops of weeds and litter beneath the citrus trees as refuge and source of alternate prey for predators which suppressed populations of phytophagous mites.

  9. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  11. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  12. Development of a channel classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration, lower segments of the Middle Missouri River, South Dakota and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Huhmann, Brittany L.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents development of a spatially explicit river and flood-plain classification to evaluate potential for cottonwood restoration along the Sharpe and Fort Randall segments of the Middle Missouri River. This project involved evaluating existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data to determine if they were sufficient to create a classification similar to the Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) developed by Jacobson and others (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5256) and developing a geomorphically based classification to apply to evaluating restoration potential.Existing topographic, water-surface elevation, and soils data for the Middle Missouri River were not sufficient to replicate the LCPI. The 1/3-arc-second National Elevation Dataset delineated most of the topographic complexity and produced cumulative frequency distributions similar to a high-resolution 5-meter topographic dataset developed for the Lower Missouri River. However, lack of bathymetry in the National Elevation Dataset produces a potentially critical bias in evaluation of frequently flooded surfaces close to the river. High-resolution soils data alone were insufficient to replace the information content of the LCPI. In test reaches in the Lower Missouri River, soil drainage classes from the Soil Survey Geographic Database database correctly classified 0.8–98.9 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage depending on state of channel incision; on average for river miles 423–811, soil drainage class correctly classified only 30.2 percent of the flood-plain area at or below the 5-year return interval flood stage. Lack of congruence between soil characteristics and present-day hydrology results from relatively rapid incision and aggradation of segments of the Missouri River resulting from impoundments and engineering. The most sparsely available data in the Middle Missouri River were water

  13. Influence of Varroa Mite (Varroa destructor) Management Practices on Insecticide Sensitivity in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Danka, Robert G.; Kristen B. Healy

    2017-01-01

    Since Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and efficacious Varroa mite management method, miticide-induced insecticide synergism in honey bees, and the evolution of resistance in Varroa mites are reasonable concerns. We treated colonies with the mit...

  14. Pest status and incidence of the honey bee tracheal mite in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KORPELA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were surveyed for the presence of the honey bee tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi Rennie in Finland between 1991 and 1997. Colony background information and winter loss data were obtained from beekeepers who had taken tracheal mite infested samples. A total of 2116 samples from honey bee colonies of 402 beekeepers were investigated. Infestations were found in 8% of the beekeeping operations and in 10% of the samples inspected. In the last years of the survey more than 20% of apiaries were infested. This increase may be partly explained by tracheal mite infestations found in commercial queen-rearing apiaries. A field experiment with colonies infested at different levels showed that colonies in which 20% or more of bees are infested with tracheal mites have an increased risk of dying during the winter under Finnish conditions. This infestation level was found among colonies in 92% of the infested apiaries. Comparison of the tracheal mite prevalence in apiaries with their winter losses indicated that infestations were associated with colony mortality. The results of this survey point to the high pest potential of the tracheal mite in Finland, in contrast to findings on tracheal mites from elsewhere in Europe. Therefore, strategies to prevent further spread of the mite are highly recommended and methods for effective control should be sought.;

  15. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  16. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  17. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundi

  18. Parasitic mites of medical and veterinary importance--is there a common research agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley

    2014-10-15

    There are an estimated 0.5-1 million mite species on earth. Among the many mites that are known to affect humans and animals, only a subset are parasitic but these can cause significant disease. We aim here to provide an overview of the most recent work in this field in order to identify common biological features of these parasites and to inform common strategies for future research. There is a critical need for diagnostic tools to allow for better surveillance and for drugs tailored specifically to the respective parasites. Multi-'omics' approaches represent a logical and timely strategy to identify the appropriate mite molecules. Recent advances in sequencing technology enable us to generate de novo genome sequence data, even from limited DNA resources. Consequently, the field of mite genomics has recently emerged and will now rapidly expand, which is a particular advantage for parasitic mites that cannot be cultured in vitro. Investigations of the microbiota associated with mites will elucidate the link between parasites and pathogens, and define the role of the mite in transmission and pathogenesis. The databases generated will provide the crucial knowledge essential to design novel diagnostic tools, control measures, prophylaxes, drugs and immunotherapies against the mites and associated secondary infections. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  20. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  1. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other pl

  2. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  3. Four new records of mites (Acari: Astigmata phoretic on insects in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed W. Negm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate astigmatid mites associated with four unrelated insect species, belonging to four families. The four insect species, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1785 (Diptera: Muscidae, Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773 (Dermaptera: Labiduridae, Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer, 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, and Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria: Blattidae, collected from different localities in Riyadh, were observed. Four astigmatid mites (Caloglyphus csibbii Eraky, Histiostoma camphori Eraky, Histiostoma pickaxei Eraky and Shoker, and Myianoetus lili Eraky belonging to two families, Acaridae and Histiostomatidae, were recorded on G. bimaculatus, L. riparia, P. americana, and M. domestica, respectively. All recorded mites are considered new to Saudi Arabian mite fauna. One individual of Copronomoia sphaerocerae (Vitzthum (Histiostomatidae mite, previously recorded in Saudi Arabia, was found on M. domestica. For each mite species found, notes on density and attachment sites are given. An identification key, based on deutonymphal stages, for the five mite species reported in this study and other phoretic astigmatid mites previously recorded on insects in Saudi Arabia is provided.

  4. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

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    Currie Bart J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite.

  5. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  6. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundi

  7. Population dynamics of thrips prey and their mite predators in a refuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, S.; Van Rijn, P.C.J.; Montserrat, M.; Pallini, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Prey refuges are expected to affect population dynamics, but direct experimental tests of this hypothesis are scarce. Larvae of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis use the web produced by spider mites as a refuge from predation by the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Thrips incur a

  8. Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderon Fallas, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like

  9. Mite communities (Acari: Mesostigmata) in young and mature coniferous forests after surface wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamczyc, Jacek; Urbanowski, Cezary; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia

    2017-06-01

    Density, diversity and assemblage structure of Mesostigmata (cohorts Gamasina and Uropodina) were investigated in Scots pine forests differing in forest age (young: 9-40 years and mature: 83-101 years) in which wildfire occurred. This animal group belongs to the dominant acarine predators playing a crucial role in soil food webs and being important as biological control agents. In total, six forests (three within young and three within mature stands) were inspected in Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest Complex in May 2015. At each forest area, sampling was done from burned and adjacent control sites with steel cylinders for heat extraction of soil fauna. Data were analyzed statistically with nested ANOVA. We found a significant effect on mite density of both fire and forest age, with more mites in mature forests and control plots. In total, 36 mite taxa were identified. Mite diversity differed significantly between forest ages but not between burned versus control. Our study indicated that all studied forests are characterized by unique mite species and that the mite communities are dominated by different mite species depending on age forest and surface wildfire occurrence. Finally, canonical correspondence analysis ranked the mite assemblages from control mature, through burned young and burned mature, away from the control young.

  10. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf surfac

  11. Differential levels of mite infestation of wheat and barley in Czech grain stores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Hubert; Zuzana Kucerova; Radek Aulicky; Marta Nesvoma; Vaclav Stejskal

    2009-01-01

    While mites are able to utilize numerous food sources, the suitability of the food strongly influences population growth. The different suitabilities of various stored agricultural products will thus affect the level of infestation. In this study, we compared field mite infestation rates in two stored cereals: wheat and barley. We analyzed mite abundance, frequency and species composition in samples of grain obtained from 79 selected Czech grain stores. Stored barley seemed to be more vulnerable to mite attack than wheat, as we consistently found more infested samples, more species and higher mean and median mite abundance per sample in barley as compared to wheat. The mean mite abundance per sample were 55 and 506 individuals for wheat and barley, respectively. In barley, 10% of samples exceeded allergen risk threshold (i.e., 1 000 individuals per kg of grain). Altogether, 25 species were identified from approximately 35 000 individuals. The most frequently identified species were the same in wheat and barley, that is, Tydeus interruptus Sig Thor, Acarus siro L., Tarsonemus granarius Lindquist, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and 1),rophagusputrescentiae (Schrank). Based on principal components analysis, we found a closer association of T. interruptus, T. putrescentiae, L. destructor and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) with barley samples, corresponding to the high frequency and abundance values of these mites. The probable reasons for the higher infestation, especially mite abundance in barley, are discussed in relation to the higher proportion of crushed parts, which may release favorable nutrient sources and amplify the abundance values.

  12. Differences among plant species in acceptance by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch has a broad range of host plants. However, the spider mite does not accept all plants to the same degree because of differences in nutritive and toxic constituents. Other factors, such as the induction of secondary metabolites, the morphology of a leaf

  13. Comparisons of the allergenic mite prevalence in dwellings and certain outdoor environments of the Upper Silesia (southwest Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Senczuk, Liliana; Maniurka, Hanna; Cichecka, Ewelina; Peszke, Magdalena

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of allergenic mites (pyroglyphid house-dust mites, acarid and glycyphagid storage mites and others) in dwellings and in synanthropic outdoor sites in a densely populated urban area was investigated. A total of 335 house dust samples were collected from dwellings at 7 different locations in Upper Silesia (Poland), including 84 samples from dwellings of Katowice. Mites were found in 188 of the samples examined (56.1%). A total of 4410 mite specimens were isolated and identified, including 4212 members of the family Pyroglyphidae (95.51%). Among them, Dermatophagoides farinae was predominant (75.3%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (18.6%) and Euroglyphus maynei (1.5%). Moreover, litter soiled with communal wastes was sampled. All 86 samples contained mites. A total of 7547 mite specimens were isolated including 6050 mites known as allergenic (80.5%). Among the astigmatid mites two acarids were dominant: Tyrophagus silvester and T. longior (28.7% and 25.1% of all mites). It should be stressed that 6 of the acarid mite species or genera found in outdoor environments are typical domestic mites (T. putrescentiae), or they have been collected from house dust samples (T. longior, Tyrolichus casei, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Mycetoglyphus fungivorus and Rhizoglyphus robini). The litter of synanthropic sites can therefore form a substantial source of infestation.

  14. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite), c

  15. The endosymbionts Wolbachia and Cardinium and their effects in three populations of the predatory mite Neoseiulus paspalivorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sourassou, N.F.; Hanna, R.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; Negloh, K.; de Moreas, G.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas endosymbiont-induced incompatibility is known to occur in various arthropod taxa, such as spider mites, insects and isopods, it has been rarely reported in plant-inhabiting predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Recent cross-breeding studies with the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus paspalivorus D

  16. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakolis, I.; Heinrich, J.; Zock, J.P.; Norbäck, D.; Svanes, C.; Chen, C.M.; Accordini, S.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890

  17. Barnacle allergy: allergen characterization and cross-reactivity with mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Gaspar, A; Santa-Marta, C; Pires, G; Postigo, I; Guisantes, J; Martínez, J; Rosado-Pinto, J

    2006-01-01

    Barnacles are a type of seafood with worldwide distribution and abundant along the shores of temperate seas. They are particularly appreciated and regularly consumed in Portugal as well as in Spain, France and South America, but barnacle allergy is a rare condition of which there is only one reference in the indexed literature. The molecular allergens and possible cross-reactivity phenomena implicated (namely with mites) have not been established. To demonstrate the IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle and to identify the proteins implicated as well as possible cross-reactivity phenomena with mites. We report the clinical and laboratory data of five patients with documented IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle. The diagnosis was based on a suggestive clinical history combined with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to barnacle--prick to prick method. Two barnacle extracts were prepared (raw and cooked barnacle) and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. An immunoblotting inhibition assay with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done in order to evaluate cross-reactivity. All patients had mite-related asthma and the allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; they all experienced mucocutaneous symptoms. All of them had positive SPT to barnacle, and the immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (19 - 94 kDa). The D. pteronyssinus extract inhibited several IgE-binding protein fractions in the barnacle extract. We describe five patients with IgE-mediated barnacle allergy. We also describe a group of IgE-binding+proteins between 30 and 75 kDa as the allergenic fractions of this type of Crustacea. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated in two cases.

  18. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  19. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  20. A human case of otoacariasis involving a histiostomatid mite (Acari: Histiostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arfaj, Ahmed M; Mullen, Gary R; Rashad, Rafiaa; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed; OConnor, Barry M; Alkhalife, Ibrahim S; Dute, Roland R

    2007-05-01

    A 31-year-old Saudi man was seen at an ear, nose, and throat clinic at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with bilateral itching in the external auditory canal. On otoscopic examination, the skin lining the ear canal was thickened with whitish sheets of sloughed cells and thick discharge. Large numbers of mites of an undescribed species closely related to members of the genus Loxanoetus (Histiostomatidae) were present. The patient underwent successive washings of the ear canal with saline and 70% ethanol at intervals of 2-3 months and was treated with antibiotics. Treatment with Eurax (crotamiton) ear drops for one week cleared the mite infestation. This represents the first reported case of human otoacariasis involving a histiostomatid mite. Based on the known biology of histiostomatid mites and the associated hosts of Loxanoetus and related genera, there is reason to speculate that the patient acquired the infestation while swimming in a lake or pond where this mite was present.

  1. Varroa destructor Mites Can Nimbly Climb from Flowers onto Foraging Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, David T; Smith, Michael L; Seeley, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor, the introduced parasite of European honey bees associated with massive colony deaths, spreads readily through populations of honey bee colonies, both managed colonies living crowded together in apiaries and wild colonies living widely dispersed in natural settings. Mites are hypothesized to spread between most managed colonies via phoretically riding forager bees when they engage in robbing colonies or they drift between hives. However, widely spaced wild colonies show Varroa infestation despite limited opportunities for robbing and little or no drifting of bees between colonies. Both wild and managed colonies may also exchange mites via another mechanism that has received remarkably little attention or study: floral transmission. The present study tested the ability of mites to infest foragers at feeders or flowers. We show that Varroa destructor mites are highly capable of phoretically infesting foraging honey bees, detail the mechanisms and maneuvers by which they do so, and describe mite behaviors post-infestation.

  2. Allergens with Protease Activity from House Dust Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reithofer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, house dust mites (HDM are one of the main sources of allergens causing Type I allergy, which has a high risk of progressing into a severe disabling disease manifestation such as allergic asthma. The strong protease activities of a number of these allergens are thought to be involved in several steps of the pathophysiology of this allergic disease. It has been a common notion that protease activity may be one of the properties that confers allergenicity to proteins. In this review we summarize and discuss the roles of the different HDM proteases in the development of Type I allergy.

  3. mites y posibilidades del discurso populista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pereyra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo discute las posibilidades y los límites de la teoría del populismo de Ernesto Laclau. En primer lugar, reconstruyo la lógica específica del populismo, la cual se expresa en la articulación de dos dimensiones contradictorias, a saber: la complejidad y la simplificación de lo social. En segundo lugar, analizo el carácter anti institucional del populismo. Por último, discuto el carácter "radical" del populismo y su relación con las categorías de populismo de izquierda y de emancipación.

  4. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior of...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  5. Human Dermatitis Caused by Ophionyssus natricis, a Snake Mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Amanatfard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ophionyssus natricis is a purely blood sucking parasite of snakes and of worldwide distribution. Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, pruritus, crusting dermatitis, and behavioral changes. Ophionyssus natricis can also attack humans, causing popular vesiculo-bullous eruption of the skin. A 29 years old man working in zoo, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran, presented itchy papullar eruption of the skin. He had noticed small insects fixed on his skin and large numbers of these same insects on a python and its cage in the zoo. Regarding totheir morphological characteristics they were diagnosed as O. natricis (Geravis, 1844, a snake mite. It is the first report of O. natricis from Iran.

  6. The influence of alternative plant propagation and stand establishment techniques on survival and growth of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) clones.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Donald J.; et. al.,

    2014-02-09

    Four eastern cottonwood clones, including standard operational clone ST66 and three advanced clonal selections were produced and included in a test utilizing five different plant propagation methods. Despite relatively large first-year growth differences among clones, all clones demonstrated similar responses to the treatments and clone 9 cutting treatment interactions were generally non-significant. The effects of changing cutting lengths are consistent with previous studies which indicated the potential for increased plant survival and growth with increased cutting lengths. Differences in stored carbohydrate reserves alone do not appear to completely control first-year growth and development of cuttings. First-year growth of 51 cm long cuttings planted 30.5 cm deep was greater than the same cuttings planted 48 cm deep. Stem form of plants derived from whip-tip propagation did not differ from plants derived from standard, unrooted cuttings. This propagation method offers the potential of far greater production capacity from a cutting orchard and rapid bulk-up of new or limited clones. Stand uniformity assessments suggest that surviving trees of each individual cutting treatment exhibit similar levels of growth variation. Optimization of plantation establishment techniques has the potential to increase growth of young Populus plantations.

  7. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiente Moro C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses. Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus, it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses.

  8. A synthetic review of notoedres species mites and mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E; Serieys, L.E.; Stephenson, N.; Riley, S.; Foley, C.; Jennings, M.; Wengert, G.; Vickers, W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Moriarty, J.; Clifford, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.

  9. Volatile exudates from the oribatid mite, Platynothrus peltifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspotnig, Guenther; Krisper, Guenther; Schuster, Reinhart; Fauler, Guenter; Leis, Hans-Joerg

    2005-02-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of whole body extracts of Platynothrus peltifer, a desmonomatan oribatid mite that belongs to the family Camisiidae, exhibited a basic profile of seven compounds, comprising the monoterpenes neral, geranial, and nerylformate; the aromatics 3-hydroxybenzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde (= gamma-acaridial) and 2-formyl-3-hydroxybenzyl formate (= rhizoglyphinyl formate), and two unsaturated Cl7-hydrocarbons, 6,9-heptadecadiene and 8-heptadecene. Neryl formate, gamma-acaridial, and rhizoglyphinyl formate were the main components and amounted to 80% of the extracts. With the exception of y-acaridial (relative abundance varied considerably among samples), this chemical profile was consistently present in extracts of P. peltifer from nine different localities in SE-Austria. In addition, two further components, 2,3-dihydroxy benzaldehyde and 7-hydroxyphthalide, both probably of non-oil gland origin, infrequently were detected in the extracts. The aromatic compound rhizoglyphinyl formate, also known from Astigmata, was found for the first time in extracts of Oribatida, whereas all other compounds have already been reported from other oribatid species. The hydrocarbons are generally considered to represent plesiomorphic characters of mite oil gland secretions, whereas the monoterpenes and y-acaridial form a part of the so-called "astigmatid compounds" that are thought to be characteristic for middlederivative Mixonomata and all more highly derived oribatid groups (including Astigmata).

  10. Black currant reversion virus, a mite-transmitted nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Petri

    2004-05-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Black currant reversion virus (BRV) is the first identified mite-transmitted member of the genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae). A few systematic studies have been performed to compare virus isolates from different geographical locations. Physical properties: Purified preparations contain two closely sedimenting centrifugal components (B and M for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively) at varying ratios, and occasionally a T component (for satellite RNA). The BRV capsids have a diameter of 27 nm and they are putatively composed of 60 copies of a single species of capsid (coat) protein assembled in an icosahedral lattice. Diluted plant sap loses its infectivity within 1 day at 20 degrees C and in 4-8 days at 4 degrees C. Hosts: The natural host range of BRV is limited; it infects black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and some related Ribes species. The transmission of the virus is by the eriophyid gall mite of black currant (Cecidophyopsis ribis). A number of herbaceous plants can be infected experimentally. BRV is the agent of black currant reversion disease (BRD), which is economically the most significant virus disease in Ribes species. BRV and BRD occur widely in locations where black currant is cultivated commercially.

  11. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  12. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to

  13. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  14. The role of volatiles in aggregation and host-seeking of the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraadt, C J M; Dicke, M

    2010-03-01

    Infestations with ectoparasitic poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) pose an increasing threat to poultry health and welfare. Because of resistance to acaricides and higher scrutiny of poultry products, alternative and environmentally safe management strategies are warranted. Therefore, we investigated how volatile cues shape the behavior of D. gallinae and how this knowledge may be exploited in the development of an attract-and-kill method to control mite populations. A Y-tube olfactometer bio-assay was used to evaluate choices of mites in response to cues related to conspecific mites as well as related to their chicken host. Both recently fed and starved mites showed a strong preference (84 and 85%, respectively) for volatiles from conspecific, fed mites as compared to a control stream of clean air. Mites were also significantly attracted to 'aged feathers' (that had remained in the litter for 3-4 days), but not to 'fresh feathers'. Interestingly, an air stream containing 2.5% CO(2), which mimics the natural concentration in air exhaled by chickens, did attract fed mites, but inhibited the attraction of unfed mites towards volatiles from aged feathers. We conclude that both mite-related cues (aggregation pheromones) and host-related cues (kairomones) mediate the behavior of the poultry mite. We discuss the options to exploit this knowledge as the 'attract' component of attract-and-kill strategies for the control of D. gallinae.

  15. House dust mites: a risk factor to be considered for occupational safety or source of work-related allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Megahed Ahmed; Ali, Hisham Abd El-Raouf; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohamed; Mohammad, Naema Mahmoud; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-12-01

    House dust mites (HDM) can be found worldwide where human beings live independent from the climate and are a major source of multiple allergens. Mite allergens sensitize and induce perennial rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis in a large portion of patients with allergic disease particularly children. There is convincing evidence that avoidance of mite allergen can effectively reduce allergic symptoms. This study examined dust from a military hospital and the private home of some nursing staff. A total of seven species of mites belonging to six genera were recovered. The commonest species was Dermatophagoides farinae followed by D. pteronyssinus and the lowest Laelaps nuttalli. Besides, the 7th mite or Parasitus consanguineous live free on dust as a bio-control agent of mites. The presence of mites in and out doors in a hospital and dwellings of medical personnel pave the way to consider HDM as occupational or nosocomial Allergens.

  16. Allergy to carmine red (E120) is not dependent on concurrent mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liippo, Jussi; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2009-01-01

    Positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to carmine red (E120) have been reported to occur concurrently with reactions to mites. The relationships between positive SPT reactions to carmine, carmine allergy and concurrent mite reactions are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of carmine sensitization and its clinical importance among patients with suspected allergy to food additives. The occurrence of positive SPT reactions to mites was studied in 6,464 patients: 3,164 were tested with carmine and 2,837 with shrimp. Carmine ingestion-associated symptoms were registered at the time of testing. Patients with positive SPT to carmine received a follow-up questionnaire on their symptoms 1-5 years later. Positive SPT reactions to carmine were seen in 94 patients (3.0%) of whom 74% also had positive SPT reactions to mites and 22% to shrimp. Carmine ingestion-associated symptoms were not dependent on concurrent mite reactivity in 39/94 (42%) patients. Carmine sensitization without sensitization to mites is seen in one fourth of the patients. Allergic reactions to carmine are not dependent on concurrent reactivity to mites. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Infestation of research zebra finch colony with 2 novel mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M

    2015-02-01

    A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a 'true' feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted.

  18. New shrimp IgE-binding proteins involved in mite-seafood cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, M Paz; Boquete, Manuel; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, M Dolores; Sánchez-García, Silvia; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Shrimp is a seafood consumed worldwide and the main cause of severe allergenic reactions to crustaceans. Seafood allergy has been related to mite sensitization, mainly mediated by tropomyosin, but other proteins could be involved. The aim of the study was to identify new shrimp allergens implicated in mite-seafood cross-reactivity (CR) in two different climate populations: dry and humid climates. Shrimp and mite IgE-binding profiles of patients from continental dry and humid climates were analyzed by immunoblotting, and the most frequently recognized Solenocera melantho shrimp proteins were identified by MS as α-actinin, β-actin, fructose biphosphate aldolase, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and ubiquitin. Using inhibition immunoblot assays, we demonstrate that tropomyosin and ubiquitin were responsible for mite-seafood CR from both climates; but also α-actinin and arginine kinase are implicated in dry- and humid-climate populations, respectively. Reciprocal inhibition assays demonstrated that mites are the primary sensitizer in humid-climate, as shrimp is in continental dry-climate population. Several new shrimp allergens have been identified and should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of shrimp allergy and mite-seafood CR. Differences in mite-seafood CR were founded to be based on the climate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source.

  20. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify potential predators by surveying the mite fauna of European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nests, by assessing their ability to feed on poultry red mites and by testing for their inability to extract blood from bird hosts, i.e., newly hatched, young starlings and chickens. Two genuine predators of poultry red mites are identified: Hypoaspis aculeifer and Androlaelaps casalis. A review of the literature shows that some authors suspected the latter species to parasitize on the blood of birds and mammals, but they did not provide experimental evidence for these feeding habits and/or overlooked published evidence showing the reverse. We advocate careful analysis of the trophic structure of arthropods inhabiting bird nests as a basis for identifying candidate predators for control of poultry red mites.

  1. Oxalic acid: a prospective tool for reducing Varroa mite populations in package bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliano, Nicholas P; Ellis, Marion D

    2009-08-01

    Numerous studies have investigated using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. In contrast, techniques for treating package bees with OA have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol for using OA to reduce mite infestation in package bees. We made 97 mini packages of Varroa-infested adult bees. Each package contained 1,613 +/- 18 bees and 92 +/- 3 mites, and represented an experimental unit. We prepared a 2.8% solution of OA by mixing 35 g OA with 1 l of sugar water (sugar:water = 1:1; w:w). Eight treatments were assigned to the packages based on previous laboratory bioassays that characterized the acute contact toxicity of OA to mites and bees. We administered the treatments by spraying the OA solution directly on the bees through the mesh screen cage using a pressurized air brush and quantified mite and bee mortality over a 10-day period. Our results support applying an optimum volume of 3.0 ml of a 2.8% OA solution per 1,000 bees to packages for effective mite control with minimal adult bee mortality. The outcome of our research provides beekeepers and package bee shippers guidance for using OA to reduce mite populations in package bees.

  2. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

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    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  3. Host plant resistance among tomato accessions to the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyambus, G K; Maranga, R O; Gitonga, L M; Knapp, M

    2011-08-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus evansi has a broad range of host plants. Control of T. evansi has been a big challenge to tomato farmers due to its fast rate of reproduction, development of resistance to chemical pesticides and its ability to use weeds as alternative hosts when the tomato plants are not available. The aim of the current study was to determine the host plant acceptance and the relative contributions of trichomes in the control of the red spider mite by comparing the survival, development and oviposition rates of the red spider mite on eight tomato accessions. Leaflets from eight tomato varieties were assayed with the spider mites to determine the egg laying capacity and developmental time of the spider mites on the tomato accessions as well as the trichome densities. Densities of trichome types I, IV, V and VI varied among the tomato accessions. Variation in types I, IV and VI accounted for most of the variation in mite responses. The varieties with high densities of types IV and VI had the highest fecundity and mite development did not go beyond the larval stage. The developmental time varied significantly among the tomato accessions. The results indicated that the higher the density of trichome type I the lower the adult survival. The findings indicated possible resistance of some of the tested tomato accessions against T. evansi which is partially associated with trichomes types and density.

  4. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  5. Spider mites adaptively learn recognizing mycorrhiza-induced changes in host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic root micro-organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi commonly change morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of their host plants and may thus influence the interaction of aboveground plant parts with herbivores and their natural enemies. While quite a few studies tested the effects of mycorrhiza on life history traits, such as growth, development and reproduction, of aboveground herbivores, information on possible effects of mycorrhiza on host plant choice of herbivores via constitutive and/or induced plant volatiles is lacking. Here we assessed whether symbiosis of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae with common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris influences the response of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to volatiles of plants that were clean or infested with spider mites. Mycorrhiza-naïve and -experienced spider mites, reared on mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal bean plants for several days before the experiments, were subjected to Y-tube olfactometer choice tests. Experienced but not naïve spider mites distinguished between constitutive volatiles of clean non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants, preferring the latter. Neither naïve nor experienced spider mites distinguished between spider mite-induced volatiles of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Learning the odor of clean mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a subsequent preference for these odors, is adaptive because mycorrhizal plants are more favorable host plants for fitness of the spider mites than are non-mycorrhizal plants.

  6. Three Halloween genes from the Varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman) and their expression during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Evans, J D; Hung, K; Sims, J; Alborn, H; Teal, P E A

    2015-06-01

    The ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway involves sequential enzymatic hydroxylations by a group of enzymes collectively known as Halloween gene proteins. Complete sequences for three Halloween genes, spook (Vdspo), disembodied (Vddib) and shade (Vdshd), were identified in varroa mites and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of predicted amino acid sequences for Halloween orthologues showed that the acarine orthologues were distantly associated with insect and crustacean clades indicating that acarine genes had more ancestral characters. The lack of orthologues or pseudogenes for remaining genes suggests these pathway elements had not evolved in ancestral arthropods. Vdspo transcript levels were highest in gut tissues, while Vddib transcript levels were highest in ovary-lyrate organs. In contrast, Vdshd transcript levels were lower overall but present in both gut and ovary-lyrate organs. All three transcripts were present in eggs removed from gravid female mites. A brood cell invasion assay was developed for acquiring synchronously staged mites. Mites within 4 h of entering a brood cell had transcript levels of all three that were not significantly different from mites on adult bees. These analyses suggest that varroa mites may be capable of modifying 7-dehydro-cholesterol precursor and hydroxylations of other steroid precursors, but whether the mites directly produce ecdysteroid precursors and products remains undetermined.

  7. Emerging risk of infestation and contamination of dried fruits by mites in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Stejskal, Vaclav

    2011-09-01

    The introduction of live insects into human food is rare in developed countries. However, we report, for the first time, an emerging risk that exists from dried fruit in Central Europe. Recently, massive and frequent infestation of dried fruit imported from the Mediterranean region by the mite, Carpoglpyhus lactis L. (Acarina: Carpoglyphidae), has been found. In 180 samples taken from supermarkets, 13% were contaminated; the contamination levels ranged from 0 to 660 mites per g of dried fruit. The contamination was found in dried apricots, figs, plums and raisins. To estimate the risks and food preferences of C. lactis, its growth rate was examined under laboratory conditions. Starting with a hypothetical population of 10 mites per g of dried fruit, the risk level of 1000 mites per g of dried fruit is reached at 42 days for dried figs, 49 days for dried pineapple and 63 days for dried apricots, dates and plums at 25 °C and 85% relative humidity. We found that mites are able to enter every dried fruit packing material tested, including polypropylene and aluminum foils. This indicates that mites can move from package to package in supermarkets. Mites are known as allergen producers and vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. These findings indicate that an increased risk of C. lactis contamination exists in dried fruit. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  8. Inter-population variation for Wolbachia induced reproductive incompatibility in the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Eunho; Sim, Cheolho; Park, Jung-Joon; Cho, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed diverse patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia in the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The mechanism of CI consists of two steps: modification (mod) of sperm of infected males and the rescue (resc) of these chromosomes by Wolbachia in the egg, which results in female embryonic mortality (FM), male development (MD) or no CI. Our study reports that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all T. urticae populations from various crops in 14 commercial greenhouses in Korea, with two Wolbachia strains expressing distinctive phenotypic effects on hosts. Analyses for wsp gene sequences obtained from collected mite populations revealed all sequences were categorized into two groups (group W1 and W2) discriminated by three diagnostic nucleotides while all Wolbachia strains belonged to the subgroup Ori in Wolbachia supergroup B. Host plants of each mite population were also generally correlated this grouping. Various mating experiments with two mite populations from each group showed that CI patterns and host plants of the mite populations were completely matched with the grouping; no CI (mod(-)resc(+)) for group W1 and mixed pattern of FM and MD (mod(+)resc(+)) for group W2. No distinct changes in fecundity or sex ratio due to Wolbachia infections were observed in four mite populations regardless of Wolbachia grouping. Our study suggests a potential correlation between phenotypic effect of Wolbachia infection and its genetic diversity associated with host plants in Korean mite populations.

  9. Control of the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis in vivo and in vitro using fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, S; Thind, B; Jackson, V; Luke, B; Moore, D; Wall, R; Taylor, M A

    2007-09-30

    As part of a research programme designed to identify biological agents for the control of sheep scab, the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to Psoroptes mites in the presence of sheepskin and wool was examined in the laboratory. No inhibitory effects of skin and wool were observed and high levels of infection were recorded. Subsequently the pathogenicity of formulations of both M. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to Psoroptes ovis was studied in vivo. For this, 36 batches of 20 adult female Psoroptes mites were confined in 25 mm diameter chambers which were attached to the backs of 6 scab-naive sheep. In some treatments, mites were exposed to the fungal pathogens for 48 h in vitro prior to being placed on the host, while other treatments involved mites with no prior exposure placed directly onto the skin of a host treated with a fungal pathogen. After 48 h on the host, mites were removed, incubated individually and all fungal infections were recorded. Fungal infection was observed in all treatments, except untreated controls. However, B. bassiana infected a significantly greater number of mites than M. anisopliae with all the formulations examined. Infection rates were highest when mites were exposed to dry conidia (>90%) and lowest with M. anisopliae in diatomaceous earth. Overall, the infection rate was not affected by whether or not the mites were given prior exposure to the conidia, before being placed on the sheep. The results demonstrate that Psoroptes mites can become infected by entomopathogenic fungi on the skin of sheep and provides a first demonstration of the potential of this technology for the control of sheep scab.

  10. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  11. Tactic responses of the parasitic mite, Psoroptes ovis, to light and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, K R; Wall, R

    2004-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligate, non-burrowing ectoparasite of vertebrates, of particular economic importance in domestic sheep flocks where it causes clinical psoroptic mange. To help understand the behaviour which facilitates transmission via the environment, the responses of P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. Psoroptes cuniculi) to temperature and light were examined in the laboratory. On a vertical surface of uniform temperature, the presence and direction of illumination had a significant effect on the distance and direction moved by the mites. In darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved relatively little, but this movement was upwards. In contrast, with illumination from above only, mites moved downwards. When the direction of the illumination was reversed so that it came from below only, the mites moved upwards. On a vertical surface with a temperature gradient, in darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved up or down towards the area of highest temperature, depending on whether this was above or below, respectively. However, the movement of the mites in response to the temperature gradient was strongly displaced up or down by the presence of unidirectional illumination from above or below, respectively. The results indicate that the movement of these mites is strongly directed towards areas of high temperature but away from higher light intensity. These behaviours might be expected to maintain the position of the mites on a host animal and help them locate the skin surface of a new host when displaced into the environment.

  12. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  13. Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects.

  14. [Mites associated with two species of the genus Odontotaenius (Coleoptera: Passalidae) in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Torres, Pilar Liliana; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A

    2015-09-01

    Mites can establish association with different arthropods as coleopterans tamites scaraoaeicae ana Passalidae. Passalids are distributed in tropical and templates zones, and until now, more than 200 species of mites have been associated to them. One of the relationships between passalids and mites is the phoresy where one small animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to another animal (the host) for transportation. Herein, we studied the mites associated to O. zodiacus and O. striatopunctatus; for this, 80 Odontotaenius with mites were reviewed; passalids were collected in and under decaying logs from six states of Mexico, and were individually kept in vials with 80% ethanol. The specimens were carried to the laboratory and mites removed with fine-pointed forceps under stereo microscope. The mites were stored with 80 % alcohol until some were cleared with lacto-phenol and mounted in Hoyer's solution. We found 1,945 mites belonging to 13 families (Acaridae, Ascidae, Diarthrophallidae, Digamasellidae, Diplogyniidae, Euzerconidae, Heterocheylidae, Histiostomatidae, Klinckowstroemiidae, Laelapidae, Megisthanidae, Trematuridae, and Uropodidae) and 42 species, being the most abundant species Anoelus sp. For O. striatopunctatus (16 specimens) we found 562 mites (95 female female, 34 male male, 197 hypopus, 234 deutonymph, 2 tritonymph) of 11 families and 22 species; the most abundant were Uropodidae (42 %) and Histiostomatidae (26 %). While for 0. zodiacus (64 specimens) were found 1,383 mites (300 female female, 204 male male, 608 hypopus, 139 deutonymphs, 133 tritonymphs) of 10 families and 30 species; the most abundant were: Diartrophallidae, Acaridae, and Histiostomatidae (23 % for the two first and 21 % for third). The high abundance and richness was in O. zodiacus, likewise Margalef (S') and Shanon-Winner (H') indexes were higher in this species (O. zodiacus S' = 4.05, H' = 2.2; O. striatopunctatus S' = 3.34, H' = 1.94), while Equity (EH) was similar to both

  15. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S

    2004-06-01

    Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times.

  16. JÓVENES Y LÍMITES SOCIALES: EL MITO DE LA REBELDÍA

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Oudhof van Barneveld; Érika Robles Estrada

    2011-01-01

    Se investigó la actitud hacia los límites sociales en 424 jóvenes, hombres y mujeres de 12 a 21 años, estudiantes de secundaria y preparatoria de diversas escuelas en varias localidades del Valle de Toluca. Se aplicó la versión mexicana de la Escala para Medir la Actitud hacia los Límites Sociales. Los resultados indican que las reacciones de ajustarse y transgredir son las más conocidas, pero en lagran mayoría de las situaciones donde se presenta un límite social los jóvenes de ambos sexos ...

  17. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vidović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea, has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European population (Bulgarian [or Austrian?] while it differs from E. mali originating from the USA and New Zealand. The percentage of infestation varied from 1.6% to 87.6%, with an average of 22.4%.

  18. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  19. Mites (Acari: Laelapidae associated with sigmodontinae rodents in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Agustín M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The richness, diversity, abundance and prevalence of mite species associated with sigmodontine rodents of different species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina are studied. Five of the six species of mites were reported for the first time in the study area. The richness and diversity of mites was higher on Oligoryzomys flavescens and O. delticola than on Akodon azarae. Androlaelaps rotundus was dominant and exhibited higher values of mean abundance and prevalence on A. azarae, Mysolaelaps microspinosus on O. flavescens and Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis on O. delticola.

  20. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  1. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-04-04

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus-predator interactions.

  2. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  3. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  4. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  5. Hotspots of mite new species discovery: Trombidiformes (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-12-14

    This paper reveals the hotspots of new mite discovery through of a survey of type localities of new Trombidiformes species described in two journals (Systematic & Applied Acarology and Zootaxa) during the last three years (2013-2015). Taxonomically, the 491 new species of the Trombidiformes are highly unevenly distributed among 55 families with top 10 families accounting for over 66% of the total. The Eriophyidae is the top-ranked family. Geographically, these 491 new species are from 55 countries around the world and their distribution among the countries is highly uneven. The majority of these new species (69%) are from the top 10 countries and six of the top ten countries are also megadiversity countries. The top three countries are all from Asia (Iran, China and Malaysia) and they together accounted for over one third of all new species of the Trombidiformes described in the two journals during 2013-2015.

  6. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  7. Potential geographic distribution of two invasive cassava green mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Chen, Qing; Lu, Fuping; Herrera Campo, Beatriz Vanessa; Yaninek, John Stephen; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés

    2015-02-01

    The cassava green mites Mononychellus tanajoa and M. mcgregori are highly invasive species that rank among the most serious pests of cassava globally. To guide the development of appropriate risk mitigation measures preventing their introduction and spread, this article estimates their potential geographic distribution using the maximum entropy approach to distribution modeling. We compiled 1,232 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 99 for M. mcgregori, and relied on the WorldClim climate database as a source of environmental predictors. To mitigate the potential impact of uneven sampling efforts, we applied a distance correction filter resulting in 429 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 55 for M. mcgregori. To test for environmental biases in our occurrence data, we developed models trained and tested with records from different continents, before developing the definitive models using the full record sets. The geographically-structured models revealed good cross-validation for M. tanajoa but not for M. mcgregori, likely reflecting a subtropical bias in M. mcgregori's invasive range in Asia. The definitive models exhibited very good performance and predicted different potential distribution patterns for the two species. Relative to M. tanajoa, M. mcgregori seems better adapted to survive in locations lacking a pronounced dry season, for example across equatorial climates. Our results should help decision-makers assess the site-specific risk of cassava green mite establishment, and develop proportional risk mitigation measures to prevent their introduction and spread. These results should be particularly timely to help address the recent detection of M. mcgregori in Southeast Asia.

  8. Explained and Unexplained Momentum Impulse Transfer Events (MITEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantel, M.; Cunio, P.; Hendrix, D.; Therien, W.

    2016-09-01

    Precision orbit determination (OD) and characterization of resident space objects (RSOs) are fundamental components of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Over 600 days beginning January 1, 2015, ExoAnalytic Solutions collected more than 60 million correlated astrometric measurements of active and inactive resident RSOs in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and in the near-GEO region using a global network of ground-based telescopes. Orbit Determination (OD) on several inactive RSOs in sub-synchronous (e.g., spent upper stages) and super-synchronous (e.g., retired satellites) orbits revealed occasional momentum impulse transfer events (MITEs) with detectable In-track velocity changes of 0.2 to 10 mm/s. These MITEs could not be explained using the accepted gravitational model and an isotropic spherical solar radiation acceleration. Two additional radiation pressure models were considered: a Yarkovsky effect and an asymmetric radiation pressure (diffuse ellipsoid), adding one and two additional free parameters to the model, respectively. Both models include a radiation pressure component perpendicular to the solar direction and in the RSO's orbital plane. The Yarkovsky and Ellipsoid radiation pressure, in combination with the RSO traversing the Earth's Umbra, can produce a measureable change in the RSO's mean motion; a delta-v of 0.5 mm/s per season is not uncommon. OD was performed using the three radiation pressure models (Sphere, Yarkovsky, and Ellipsoid) on six inactive RSOs having 9,000 to 35,000 observations over 600 days. The Ellipsoid model was in good agreement with 95% of the observations falling within a window of ± 20 microradians, or approximately ±0.8 km, over the entire 600 day duration, which included three equinox seasons. Data collection and analysis of inactive RSOs aids the SSA mission of precision tracking and characterization of debris in the space environment.

  9. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  10. Stimulation of the in vitro migration of ovine eosinophils by factors derived from the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildblood, L A; Jones, D G

    2007-02-01

    The ectoparasitic astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis causes sheep scab, a highly contagious, severe allergic dermatitis associated with damage to the fleece and hide, loss of condition and occasional mortality. The scab lesion is characterized by a massive infiltration of eosinophils that begins very rapidly after infection. This paper reports the finding that mite-derived factors directly enhance the migration of ovine eosinophils in vitro. Significant (p mite extracts, by comparison with medium controls in an assay based on modified Boyden chambers and ovine bone marrow target cells. Similar pro-migratory activity (p mite excretory/secretory material. By direct comparison with migration ratios (n = 3) for defined chemotactic (rmeotaxin = 3.430 +/- 0.360 (SD)) and chemokinetic (rminterleukin-5 = 0.982 +/- 0.112 (SD)) stimuli it was determined that the activity in both mite extracts (0.992 +/- 0.038 (SD)) and mite washes (0.969 +/- 0.071 (SD)) was chemokinetic. Subsequent experiments (n = 3) in which live mites were incorporated directly into the in vitro assay system indicated that they produced factors that significantly (p mite numbers (r = 0.993 +/- 0.005 (SD)). The identity of the factor(s) responsible is uncertain, but their presence suggests that mites may be capable of directly activating eosinophils in vivo, and raises the possibility that mites could directly influence, perhaps even initiate, the rapid early tissue eosinophilic response observed in experimental sheep scab infections.

  11. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae: Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Moriarty

    Full Text Available Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation.

  12. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs.

  13. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pešić, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Halacaroidea) from Patagonia (Southern Chile) are reported. Four species, Anisitsiellides australis Smit, 2002, Peregrinacarus falklandensis Bartsch, 2001, Lobohalacarus weberi (Romijn & Viets, 1924) and Soldanellonyx monardi Walter, 1919 are

  14. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azima Laili Hanifah

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  15. Migration effects on population dynamics of the honeybee-mite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybees are amazing and highly beneficial insect species that play important roles in undisturbed and agricultural ecosystems. Unfortunately, honeybees are increasingly threatened by numerous factors, most notably the parasitic Varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman). A recent field s...

  16. Resistance phenomena to amitraz from populations of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías D; Ruffinengo, Sergio R; Negri, Pedro; Eguaras, Martín J

    2010-10-01

    In Argentina, Varroa destructor resistance to coumaphos has been previously reported. However, the status of mite susceptibility to other hard acaricides is still unknown. At present, high infestation levels of V. destructor are being detected in colonies of Apis mellifera after treatment with amitraz. The aim of the present study was to determine the LC(50) of amitraz in V. destructor from three apiaries with high mite density after treatment with the acaricide. The LC(50) values were 3.9, 3.5, and 3.7 μg/Petri dish for mites from three different apiaries. Significant LC(50) differences were detected between resistant and susceptible mites. LC(50) increased 35-39-fold when compared to the corresponding baseline, suggesting the development of resistance. These results are the first report of resistance to amitraz in V. destructor in Argentina and extend the knowledge according to the status of acaricides resistance in the country.

  17. Neozygites tanajoae sp. nov., a Pathogen of the Cassava Green Mite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Italo Delalibera; Ann E. Hajek; Richard A. Humber

    2004-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera Jr., Humber & Hajek sp. nov. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) is being used in Africa as a biological control agent against the introduced cassava green mite...

  18. Immunolocalization of deformed wing virus particles within the mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Ball, Brenda V; Alderson, Peter G

    2008-07-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) induces wing deformation when bees are infected during their pupal development. Field observations and laboratory experiments suggest that the mite Varroa destructor is a vector of the virus. Moreover, it has been stated that DWV replicates within this mite. In order to understand the role of V. destructor in the transmission of DWV, the objective of this work was to locate the sites of retention and/or replication of DWV within the mite by immunohistochemistry. There was no evidence that DWV was replicating in the mite as no tissues showed specific antibody binding to DWV. Also, there were no specific structures that could be suggested as retention sites. DWV was found only in the midgut lumen of V. destructor in structures resembling large, dense spheres, which were presumably faecal pellets.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-08-21

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites.

  20. New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia, with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from Malaysia are presented. Three species new to science, Torrenticola haliki, Monatractides cameronensis and Atractides cameronensis are described; first records are given for Monatractides parviventris (K. Viets, 1935) and M. roseus (Lundblad, 1941

  1. on control of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) in peanut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samson Edoja

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... spp. are mites that cause damage to several crops and are primarily controlled by synthetic pesticides. Literature showed that ... increase pesticide resistance of insect-pests (Gill and ... way less aggressive to the environment.

  2. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Ziyaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test. Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35% in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30% bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15% living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. Only mites were found (5% in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%.Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  3. Mite hypersensitivity in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis living in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Fernández-Caldas, E; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2014-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are major concerns in public health. Mites are important aetiological agents in the tropics. The present study investigated the in vivo response to mite allergens in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. All patients with presumptive nasal allergy were included. Skin tests were done with inhalants and mite extracts. Patients were classified as allergic or non-allergic according to skin tests and history. Out of 229 patients, 175 (76.4%) showed positive skin tests. Allergic patients showed positivity to mites in 97.1% of cases, 51.4% to dog dander; 40.5% to cat dander; 36.5% to German cockroach; 22.8% to moulds; and 21.1% to grass pollens. Dermatophagoides farinae induced responses in 90.8% of patients, D. pteronyssinus in 90.1%, Blomia tropicalis in 74.8%, Glycyphagus domesticus in 62.2%, Chortoglyphus arcuatus in 58.2%, Acarus siro in 46.2%, Lepidoglyphus destructor in 35.4%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 35.0%. Higher correlations were found between skin test diameters induced by mites from the same family. Sensitisation to inhalant allergens is present in 76% of allergy clinics' patients with rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. Our results confirm previous observations showing that mites constitute the most important cause of respiratory allergy in tropical settings and suggest that mite allergen cross-reactivity is responsible for the positivity of skin tests to mites not present in the patient's environment since the species Glycyphagus, Chortoglyphus, Acarus, Lepidoglyphus and Tyrophagus have not been found in Caracas house dust. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Pest status and incidence of the honey bee tracheal mite in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, S.

    2008-01-01

    Colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were surveyed for the presence of the honey bee tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi Rennie) in Finland between 1991 and 1997. Colony background information and winter loss data were obtained from beekeepers who had taken tracheal mite infested samples. A total of 2116 samples from honey bee colonies of 402 beekeepers were investigated. Infestations were found in 8% of the beekeeping operations and in 10% of the samples inspected. In the last years of the s...

  5. Distribution of gamasid mites on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI-PU LUO; XIAN-GUO GUO; TI-JUN QIAN; DIAN WU; XING-YUAN MEN; WEN-GE DONG

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gamasid mites on the body surface of small mammals wascarried outin Yunnan Province of China from 1990 to 2004. The small mammal hosts werecaptured from 25 counties which represent five geographical subregions, namely MiddleSubregion of Hengduan Mountains, Southern Subregion of Hengduan Mountains, EasternPlateau Subregion of Yunnan, Western Plateau Subregion of Yunnan and Southern Moun-tainous Subregion of Yunnan. The captured 10803 small mammal hosts belong to ninefamilies, 29 genera and 52 species in four orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia andLagomorpha). A total of 68 571 gamasid mites were collected from the body surface of thecaptured small mammal hosts and all the gamasid mites were identified to 10 families, 33genera and 112 species. This paper lists all the mite species, together with their taxonomicposition (genera and families) and their corresponding hosts. Much more mite species werefound in the Middle Subregion of Hengduan Mountains than in other geographical subregions.The total individuals of mites and small mammals in the Middle Subregion of HengduanMountains are also the most plentiful in the five geographical subregions. Three dominantmite species and three dominant small mammal hosts were determined as the dominant. species in the investigated areas of Yunnan Province. The dominant hosts are Rattusflavipectus (which accounts for 34.85 % of the total individuals), Apodemus chevrieri (13.43 %)and Rattus norvegicus (10.40%) while the dominant gamasid mite species are Laelapsnuttalli (Hirst, 1915) (27.84%), Laelaps echidninus (Berlese, 1887) (18.38%) and Laelapsguizhouensis (Gu et Wang, 1981) (14.79%). The results showed the high species diversityof gamasid mites in Yunnan Province and the uneven distribution feature in differentsubregions.

  6. Autocastico en el trastorno límite de la personalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Bombareli, Marta

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es un acercamiento a la enfermedad o al trastorno límite de la personalidad, con una mirada “gran angular” u “ojo de pez”, es decir un intento de mirada global que recoja la complejidad de lo que significa el término límite. Se abordará el tema desde una doble perspectiva: la enfermedad en si, y el paciente que la sufre

  7. Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of eriophyoid mites from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are described and illustrated. They are Paracolomerus gonglius sp. n. and Phyllocoptruta beggerianae sp. n. collected on Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Rosaceae, and Rhyncaphytoptus fuyuniensis sp. n. collected on Cotoneaster ignavus E. L. Wolf (Rosaceae. All eriophyoid mites described here are vagrants on the undersurface of leaves and any apparent damage was not observed.

  8. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages

    OpenAIRE

    Mul, Monique; van Riel, Johan; Meerburg, Bastiaan; Dicke, Marcel; George, David; Groot Koerkamp, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an “automated mite counter”) was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This va...

  9. The use of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of parasitic mites, Psoroptes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K E; Wall, R; French, N P

    2000-09-20

    In vitro trials were carried out to evaluate the potential of fungal pathogens as biological control agents of parasitic mites, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae) from rabbit hosts (synonym: Psoroptes cuniculi). The fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher showed no pathogenicity. Metarhizium anisopoliae (Metschinkoff), however, showed a high level of pathogenicity; 3 days after exposure to fungal conidia all mites were dead and 6 days after exposure 60% of the dead adult females, 10% of the dead adult males and 30% of the dead female nymphs had fungal hyphae protruding from their cuticular surface. There was a significant effect of conidial concentration on the number of mite cadavers that displayed fungal infection. Exposure to between 1x10(4) and 1x10(6) conidiaml(-1) resulted in 2-25% of the mites being infected. Mean infection levels were highest, 71%, when the mites were exposed to 1x10(7) conidiaml(-1). Similarly, there was a significant effect of conidial concentration on the time taken for the mites to reach 50% levels of mortality (LT(50)) The mean LT(50) value was approximately 2.7 days, when the mites were exposed to a solution of 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) conidiaml(-1) which was significantly shorter than controls exposed to 0.03% Tween-80 solution only. There was no significant effect of passaging the fungus, either once or twice, through the host on the subsequent infectivity of M. anisopliae. The potential for use of entornopathogenic fungi for the control of parasitic mites, particularly in relation to sheep, is discussed.

  10. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  11. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent.

  12. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Clotuche

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group.

  13. Facial pigmentation with demodex Mite; a mere coincidence or an association?

    OpenAIRE

    Sereflican, Betul; Tuman, Bengu; Boran, Cetin; Goksugu, Nadir; Parlak, Ali Haydar; Polat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    Demodex mites may induce inflammatory cutaneous reactions such as papulopustular rosacea and demodex folliculitis; both may lead to post inflammatory pigmentation. A 59-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic, hyperpigmented plaque on his face. Histological and clinical findings displayed Riehl-like facial pigmentation. Multiple demodex mites at the follicular infundibulum in the biopsy material were remarkable. There are limited publications about demodex-associated pigmentation. We repo...

  14. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  15. The antioxidant defense system of Varroa destructor mites facilitates the infestation of Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmochowska-Ślęzak Kamila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite of the Western honey bee. The activity of five antioxidant enzymes of V. destructor were analysed. Glutathione content and total antioxidant status was also evaluated. Our results suggest that antioxidant enzymes constitute the main line of defense against ROS in V. destructor, whereas low-molecular-weight antioxidants play a limited role in the antioxidant system of mites.

  16. Acariform mites (Acariformes - permanent symbionts of Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia, Muridae in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bochkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of parasitic acariform mites (Acariformes are described from the Delacour’s marmoset rat Hapalomys delacouri Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae in Vietnam: Afrolistrophorus (Afrolistrophorus hapalomys sp. n. (Listrophoridae and Radfordia (Radfordia mirabilis sp. n. (Myobiidae. Based on morphological evidences, we show that species of both mite genera associated with Hapalomys Blyth do not demonstrate clear phylogenetic links with respective congeners from rodents of the closest genus Chiropodomys Peters (Rodentia: Muridae.

  17. Risk assessment of non-target effects caused by releasing two exotic phytoseiid mites in Japan: can an indigenous phytoseiid mite become IG prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    Two exotic phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, are commercially available in Japan for the control of thrips and other pest insects. As part of a risk assessment of the non-target effects of releasing these two species, we investigated intraguild predation (IGP) between these exotic phytoseiid mites and an indigenous phytoseiid mite Gynaeseius liturivorus, which is promising as an indigenous natural enemy for the control of thrips in Japan. To understand IGP relations between the exotic and indigenous phytoseiid mites after use of the exotic mites for biological control, we investigated IGP between them in the absence of their shared prey. When an IG prey was offered to an IG predator, both exotic and indigenous females consumed the IG prey at all immature stages (egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph), especially at its larval stages. The propensity for IGP in a no-choice test was measured by the survival time of IG prey corrected using the survival time of thrips offered to the IG predator. There was no significant difference in the propensity for IGP between N. cucumeris and G. liturivorus, but the propensity was significantly higher in A. swirskii than G. liturivorus. The propensity for IGP in a choice test was measured by the prey choice of the IG predator when a conspecific and a heterospecific larva were offered simultaneously as IG prey. Both exotic females consumed the heterospecific larva only. The indigenous female preferentially consumed the heterospecific larva when the heterospecific larva was N. cucumeris, but consumed the conspecific larva when the heterospecific larva was A. swirskii. We concluded that further investigation would be necessary for the exotic mites' risk assessment, since the propensity for IGP of the two exotic females was similar to or higher than that of the indigenous female in both the no-choice and choice tests.

  18. Ear Mite Infestation in Four Imported Dogs from Thailand; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nOtodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis externa in cats (approximately 50% and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitiv­ity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the small animal hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008. "nClinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination. The specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Ami­traz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders. "n  "nKeywords: Ear mite, Otodectes cynotis, otitis externa, dogs, Iran 

  19. The Molecular Evolution of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Resistance in Chelicerate Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Dermauw, Wannes

    2016-01-01

    Chelicerate mites diverged from other arthropod lineages more than 400 million years ago and subsequently developed specific and remarkable xenobiotic adaptations. The study of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, for which a high-quality Sanger-sequenced genome was first available, revealed expansions and radiations in all major detoxification gene families, including P450 monooxygenases, carboxyl/cholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases, and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Novel gene families that are not well studied in other arthropods, such as major facilitator family transporters and lipocalins, also reflect the evolution of xenobiotic adaptation. The acquisition of genes by horizontal gene transfer provided new routes to handle toxins, for example, the β-cyanoalanine synthase enzyme that metabolizes cyanide. The availability of genomic resources for other mite species has allowed researchers to study the lineage specificity of these gene family expansions and the distinct evolution of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in mites. Genome-based tools have been crucial in supporting the idiosyncrasies of mite detoxification and will further support the expanding field of mite-plant interactions.

  20. Treatment of mites folliculitis with an ornidazole-based sequential therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Sun, Yu-Jiao; Zhang, Li; Luan, Xiu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Treatment of Demodex infestations is often inadequate and associated with low effective rate. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of an ornidazole-based sequential therapy for mites folliculitis treatment. Methods: Two-hundred patients with mites folliculitis were sequentially treated with either an ornidazole- or metronidazole-based regimen. Sebum cutaneum was extruded from the sebaceous glands of each patient's nose and the presence of Demodex mites were examined by light microscopy. The clinical manifestations of relapse of mites folliculitis were recorded and the subjects were followed up at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Results: Patients treated with the ornidazole-based regimen showed an overall effective rate of 94.0%. Additionally, at the 2, 4, 8, and 12-week follow-up, these patients had significantly lower rates of Demodex mite relapse and new lesion occurrence compared with patients treated with the metronidazole-based regimen (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Sequential therapy using ornidazole, betamethasone, and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) gel is highly effective for treating mites folliculitis. PMID:27399141

  1. Potential role of Demodex mites and bacteria in the induction of rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmuda, Stanislaw; O'Reilly, Niamh; Zaba, Ryszard; Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Rosacea is a common dermatological condition that predominantly affects the central regions of the face. Rosacea affects up to 3 % of the world's population and a number of subtypes are recognized. Rosacea can be treated with a variety of antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline or metronidazole) yet no role for bacteria or microbes in its aetiology has been conclusively established. The density of Demodex mites in the skin of rosacea patients is higher than in controls, suggesting a possible role for these mites in the induction of this condition. In addition, Bacillus oleronius, known to be sensitive to the antibiotics used to treat rosacea, has been isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea and a potential role for this bacterium in the induction of rosacea has been proposed. Staphylococcus epidermidis has been isolated predominantly from the pustules of rosacea patients but not from unaffected skin and may be transported around the face by Demodex mites. These findings raise the possibility that rosacea is fundamentally a bacterial disease resulting from the over-proliferation of Demodex mites living in skin damaged as a result of adverse weathering, age or the production of sebum with an altered fatty acid content. This review surveys the literature relating to the role of Demodex mites and their associated bacteria in the induction and persistence of rosacea and highlights possible therapeutic options.

  2. Abundance and diversity of soil mites of fragmented habitats in a biosphere reserve in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEJO MOSADOLUWA ADETOLA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples were collected from the top 7.5 cm of soil in a Strict Natural Reserve (SNR, a surrounding buffer zone, a cassava farm and matured plantations of Gmelina, teak, and pine, so as to determine if plantation establishment and intensive cultivation affect the density and diversity of soil mites. Altogether, 41 taxonomic groups of mites were identified. The diversity and densities of mites in within the SNR, the buffer zone and the Gmelina were more than the diversity and densities in the cassava farm, teak and pine plantations. Each plantation had its own unique community structure which was different from the community structure in the SNR plot. The SNR plot and Gmelina were dominated by detritivorous cryptostigmatid mites unlike teak and pine which were dominated by predatory mesostigmatid and prostigmatid mites respectively. Low cryptostigmatid mite densities in the plantations and cassava farm were seen as a consequence of low fertility status of the soil, the evidence of which was revealed by soil pH and organic matter data.

  3. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.

  4. Do other components of bedding dust affect sensitisation to house dust mites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Stanley, Thorsten; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Bedding dust is a mixture of many components, of which the house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, is the most allergenic. There has been little work to investigate the effect of other bedding dust components on HDM sensitisation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of endotoxin in bedding dust on the allergic response in HDM-sensitised individuals. Twenty-nine house dust mite-sensitised adults were skin prick and allergen patch tested against a sterile solution of their own bedding dust and against a solution containing the same concentration of Der p 1 as the bedding solution for comparison. There was no significant difference in wheal size between the diluted house dust mite solution and the bedding dust in spite of their high levels of endotoxin. Symptomatic subjects had larger, but not statistically significant, responses to commercial house dust mite solution than asymptomatic subjects. Allergen patch test responses were negative in 22/29 of subjects using either bedding dust solutions or comparable diluted house dust mite solutions. An individual's own bedding dust does not appear to contain factors that enhance skin prick test or atopy patch test responses to house dust mites.

  5. Richness, infestation and specificity of spinturnicid mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats.

  6. [Mites in mattress dust and relevant environmental factors in student dormitories in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhi-gang; Ran, Pi-xin; Gao, Qiao; Luo, Chun-hui; Ai, Mei

    2009-02-28

    Three hundred and eight mattress dust samples were collected from college dormitories in Shenzhen with a mite prevalence of 88% (271/308). From the samples, 6163 mites were isolated and identified. Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis were three most abundant species, occupying 29.7%, 21.7% and 17.9%, respectively. It was found that sex of the students, mattress cover (bamboo mat or bed sheet), with or without air conditioner installation, and daily using of air conditioner (8 h) had no significant influence on the mite prevalence (P>0.05). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of mite sensitization in male student dormitory was significantly lower than that in female dormitory (OR=0.55, P=0.038), and the risk of using bed sheets was significantly higher than using bamboo mats (OR=2.13, P=0.040). Both mite prevalence and the risk of mite sensitization significantly decreased with higher floor of the dormitory building.

  7. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions.

  8. [Dynamics of infection of Fringilla coelebs chaffinch nestlings with feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L

    2002-01-01

    A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral

  9. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control...... weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites....

  10. Mites (Arachnida, Acari) on Astronium fraxinifolium Schott (Anacardiaceae) from the Cerrado remnants associated with nickel mining areas

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Karine,; Araújo, Fernanda,; De Lima, Edgar,; Daud, Rodrigo,

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Cerrado biome suffers constant impacts mainly due to agricultural activities, which can reduce food resources and habitats for many plant-dwelling mites, including important species to agriculture, such as predators. However, the mite fauna from this biome are still poorly known. Here, we present a checklist of mite species on Astronium fraxinifolium Schott, a Brazilian plant species threatened with extinction, from the Cerrado remnants associated with nickel minin...

  11. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  12. [Mites (Acari: Arachnida) associated with Bauhinia variegata L. (Leguminosae) in northeast of State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Rodrigo D; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of mites on Bauhinia variegata L., a species introduced in Brazil as ornamental, was studied. Two plants of this species were sampled monthly from May 2000 to April 2001. A total of 8,482 mites, belonging to 25 species in 11 families were collected. The abundance of phytophagous mites was higher, being Lorryia formosa Cooreman the dominant species. The dominance of L. formosa might be caused by stress conditions of sampled plants and low number of predaceous mites on those plants.

  13. Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounsey Kate E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7 Mb and 86 (± 2 Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion.

  14. Longevity and developmental stability in the dung fly Sepsis cynipsea, as affected by the ectoparasitic mite, Pediculoides mesembrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA is a widely employed measure of developmental stability. It has been found to increase with many stressors including parasite infection. Associations between parasites and FA may exist for several reasons in addition to parasites being the direct cause of increased FA. Developmentally stable individuals may have superior immune systems, and be less susceptible to parasite infection, and/or may be less exposed to parasites than developmentally unstable ones. Mites negatively impact host fitness in a number of insects, and if FA is a reflection of general genetic quality, as has been proposed, associations between mite number and FA are predicted. Potential relationships were investigated between an ectoparasitic mite, Pediculoides mesembrinae (Canestrini (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae and FA in the common dung fly Sepsis cynipsea (L. (Diptera: Sepsidae. While it was found that mite infested flies died much faster than flies without mites, indicating that mites indeed stress their hosts, counter to expectations, no associations between mites and FA were found in any analyses. Additionally, FA in mite-infected flies generally did not differ from previously published FA data from uninfected S. cynipsea. Nevertheless, parasitized males tended to be somewhat less asymmetrical than non-parasitized males, but based on our data, it does not appear that mite infestation is generally associated with developmental stability in S. cynipsea.

  15. P elements and MITE relatives in the whole genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouaud Danielle

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miniature Inverted-repeat Terminal Elements (MITEs, which are particular class-II transposable elements (TEs, play an important role in genome evolution, because they have very high copy numbers and display recurrent bursts of transposition. The 5' and 3' subterminal regions of a given MITE family often show a high sequence similarity with the corresponding regions of an autonomous Class-II TE family. However, the sustained presence over a prolonged evolutionary time of MITEs and TE master copies able to promote their mobility has been rarely reported within the same genome, and this raises fascinating evolutionary questions. Results We report here the presence of P transposable elements with related MITE families in the Anopheles gambiae genome. Using a TE annotation pipeline we have identified and analyzed all the P sequences in the sequenced A. gambiae PEST strain genome. More than 0.49% of the genome consists of P elements and derivates. P elements can be divided into 9 different subfamilies, separated by more than 30% of nucleotide divergence. Seven of them present full length copies. Ten MITE families are associated with 6 out of the 9 Psubfamilies. Comparing their intra-element nucleotide diversities and their structures allows us to propose the putative dynamics of their emergence. In particular, one MITE family which has a hybrid structure, with ends each of which is related to a different P-subfamily, suggests a new mechanism for their emergence and their mobility. Conclusion This work contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between full-length class-II TEs and MITEs, in this case P elements and their derivatives in the genome of A. gambiae. Moreover, it provides the most comprehensive catalogue to date of P-like transposons in this genome and provides convincing yet indirect evidence that some of the subfamilies have been recently active.

  16. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Phan

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils, increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance. We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  17. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  18. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  19. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  20. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory ...

  1. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the predator

  2. Potential of astigmatid mites (Acari: Astigmatina) as prey for rearing edaphic predatory mites of the families Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2016-07-01

    Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.

  3. Plant defence in a tritrophic context : chemical and behavioural analysis of the interactions between spider mites, predatory mites and various plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a serious pest in field crops, glasshouse vegetables and fruit crops. It is a generalist herbivore with several hundreds of host plant species. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is one of its natural enemies. Investigations of the tritrophic system of

  4. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  5. LA GLOBALIZACIÓN POSIBLE: LÍMITES Y ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el concepto de globalización desde diferentes puntos de vista, su evolución, su soporte ideológico, sus límites y alternativas posibles. La investigación se basa en una revisión documental de los principales autores que han escrito sobre el tema. Se concluye que mientras persista el actual patrón de acumulación capitalista, sustentado en el carácter parasitario de la misma, el proceso de globalización no podrá desplegar todo su potencial positivo, sino que contribuirá a profundizar la brecha que separa a la mayoría de los países de un puñado de potencias en lo económico, lo científico, lo tecnológico, lo político y lo militar. Todo esto hace de la globalización un proceso incompleto y asimétrico.

  6. mites de la tecnología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El desarrollo tecnológico presenta una dimensión social y cultural que trasciende su faceta económica, de modo que debería estar limitado, controlado y dirigido de alguna manera. Al reflexionar aquí sobre las bases teóricas de la política tecnológica, el primer punto de apoyo es la diferencia conceptual entre ciencia y tecnología. A este respecto, la tecnología, en mayor medida que la ciencia, está siempre bajo el influjo de valores sociales, y es preciso pensar los procedimientos de decisión que permitan a los ciudadanos participar en la valoración y control del cambio tecnológico. Para tratar estos límites de la tecnología, conviene resaltar que el progreso tecnológico debería basarse en la verdad científica objetiva acerca de las propiedades fácticas y las capacidades de los instrumentos así como en los valores éticos humanísticos que conciernen a los objetivos deseables y a las funciones de los instrumentos. De esta forma, la tecnología debería ser capaz de satisfacer su importante promesa de aumentar la libertad humana positiva.

  7. Significance and control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O A E; George, D R; Harrington, D W J; Giangaspero, A

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, poses a significant threat to poultry production and hen health in many parts of the world. With D. gallinae increasingly suspected of being a disease vector, and reports indicating that attacks on alternative hosts, including humans, are becoming more common, the economic importance of this pest has increased greatly. As poultry production moves away from conventional cage systems in many parts of the world, D. gallinae is likely to become more abundant and difficult to control. Control remains dominated by the use of synthetic acaricides, although resistance and treatment failure are widely reported. Alternative control measures are emerging from research devoted to D. gallinae and its management. These alternative control measures are beginning to penetrate the market, although many remain at the precommercial stage. This review compiles the expanding body of research on D. gallinae and assesses options for its current and future control. We conclude that significant advances in D. gallinae control are most likely to come through an integrated approach adopting recent research into existing and novel control strategies; this is being combined with improved monitoring and modeling to better inform treatment interventions.

  8. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth. PMID:26005221

  9. EL TRASTORNO LÍMITE DE LA PERSONALIDAD: CONTROVERSIAS ACTUALES

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    Vicente E. Caballo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de personalidad representan hoy día una de las áreas de mayor desafío para la psicología científica. Aunque los principales sistemas de clasificación de la psicopatología (DSM-IV y CIE-10 les dedican un considerable espacio, son, quizás, unos de los grupos de síndromes más desconocidos a todos los niveles: epidemiología, etiología, evaluación, tratamiento, etc. En el breve trabajo que aquí presentamos intentamos describir brevemente diversos aspectos de uno de los trastornos de personalidad más representativos actualmente: el trastorno límite de la personalidad (TLP. A pesar de que este síndrome comparte con el resto de los trastornos de personalidad una escasez de conocimiento, es, probablemente, uno de los más investigados y sobre el que se han desarrollado una variedad de terapias cognitivo-conductuales. A lo largo de este trabajo planteamos también algunas de las controversias actuales más candentes y resaltamos la necesidad de una mayor y más sistematizada investigación sobre el TLP.

  10. Scabies mite peritrophins are potential targets of human host innate immunity.

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    Angela Mika

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1 was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD. Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL, the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the

  11. Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.

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    Pearl M Swe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS

  12. Simulation of temperature and humidity in mattresses to evaluate risks on house dust mite allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginkel, J.T. [OTB Research Inst. for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Sustainable and Healthy Housing

    2004-07-01

    Mattresses and carpets in bedrooms are the main habitats of house dust mites in thermally well-insulated homes. The major source of allergens are the feces of house mites which feed on human skin scales and which extract vapour from the air by hygroscopic secretion. The critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) is the relative humidity at which the rate of water loss is equal to the rate of water uptake. House dust mites live in human habitats where the relative humidity is greater than the CEH. This paper presents a newly developed simulation model which shows the transient and spatial distribution of temperature and humidity levels in a mattress influenced by skin scales and ambient conditions. It was developed in an attempt to reduce risks on house dust mite allergy from mattresses and carpets. Preliminary results indicate that transmission of water vapour occurs much faster than the transmission of heat. It was suggested that a spring mattress has a lower risk for growth of house mites than a foam mattress. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. [Sensitization to three species of mites in allergic patients from the coastal area of Havana city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarales, Raúl L Castro; Castelló, Mirta Alvarez; Díaz, Mercedes Ronquillo; Canosa, José S Rodríguez; Gómez, Iris García; León, Mayda González; Domínguez, Irene Enríquez; Rosado, Alexis Labrada; Viltre, Bárbara I Navarro; Díaz, Yunia Oliva; Morejón, Maytee Mateo

    2009-01-01

    Sensitization to three allergic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis) from house dust in Cuba has been reported in different studies. To assess allergic sensitization to these mites in a north coast area of Havana city. A total of 210 allergic patients were selected, classified in two groups: from 1 to 14 years, and from 15 to 55 years. Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed on all patients using standardized allergenic extracts VALERGEN-BT (B. tropicalis), VALERGEN-DS (D. siboney) and VALERGEN-DP (D. pteronyssinus) manufactured by BIOCEN, Cuba. The test was considered positive when the average wheal diameter was greater or equal to 3 mm. Both groups showed higher sensitization to D. pteronyssinus (>78%), while for the remaining mites it was below 60%. In patients older than 14 years, the sensitization was apparently higher, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the skin reactivity in this group was significantly greater (p < 0.05) for the three allergens. Unusually, mean wheal size in both groups was significantly superior toward B. tropicalis (p < 0.05). In spite of being D. pteronyssinus the mite showing the highest sensitization, Blomia tropicalis showed to be also an important aeroallergen with more than 50% sensitization and greater skin reactivity. Therefore, in our population it would be advisable to perform SPT with the three mites extracts, simultaneously and to combine it in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  14. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  15. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  16. Distribution and evolutionary dynamics of Stowaway Miniature Inverted repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Miguel; Pimentel, Manuel; Mason-Gamer, Roberta; Catalan, Pilar

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of Stowaway MITEs and their potential footprints in the grasses was assessed within an explicit phylogenetic framework. An organismal tree was used to analyze the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of these elements and their potential excision footprints in the fourth intron of the β-amylase gene and in other introns of several nuclear genes across the Poaceae. Megablast and discontiguous megablast searches in the Entrez nucleotide database were performed for the β-amylase, blz-1, dmc1, nuc, and xly genes MITEs. These elements and their potential footprints were distributed in introns and intergenic spacers of many other nuclear genes throughout the BEP lineages; however, they were absent in the studied PACCMAD lineages. A plausible underlying dynamic of successive acquisitions and deletions of β-amylase Stowaway MITEs in the temperate grasses could be explained by three alternative hypotheses: (i) a single early acquisition of a palindrome element, similar to Tc1-Mariner, in the fourth intron of the β-amylase gene in the ancestor of the Pooideae, followed by multiple independent losses, (ii) multiple independent acquisitions of MITEs in non-related pooid lineages or (iii) different waves of acquisition of MITEs, followed by multiple losses and horizontal transfers in the temperate grasses. This last hypothesis seems to fit best with the evidence found to date.

  17. Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Mark; Erdmann, Georgia; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Domes, Katja

    2009-09-22

    Frequent convergent evolution in phylogenetically unrelated taxa points to the importance of ecological factors during evolution, whereas convergent evolution in closely related taxa indicates the importance of favourable pre-existing characters (pre-adaptations). We investigated the transitions to arboreal life in oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), a group of mostly soil-living arthropods. We evaluated which general force-ecological factors, historical constraints or chance-was dominant in the evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites. A phylogenetic study of 51 oribatid mite species and four outgroup taxa, using the ribosomal 18S rDNA region, indicates that arboreal life evolved at least 15 times independently. Arboreal oribatid mite species are not randomly distributed in the phylogenetic tree, but are concentrated among strongly sclerotized, sexual and evolutionary younger taxa. They convergently evolved a capitate sensillus, an anemoreceptor that either precludes overstimulation in the exposed bark habitat or functions as a gravity receptor. Sexual reproduction and strong sclerotization were important pre-adaptations for colonizing the bark of trees that facilitated the exploitation of living resources (e.g. lichens) and served as predator defence, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that ecological factors are most important for the observed pattern of convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites, supporting an adaptationist view of evolution.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on predatory mites and the role of refuges in plant structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onzo, Alexis; Sabelis, Maurice W; Hanna, Rachid

    2010-04-01

    Most studies on ecological impact of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation generally focus on plants. However, UV radiation can also affect organisms at other trophic levels. Protection against mortality induced by solar UV has, therefore, been hypothesized as one of the reasons why Typhlodromalus aripo hides in the apex of cassava plants during the day and comes out at night to prey on spider mites on leaves. In laboratory experiments using UV lamps, we determined the impact of UVA and UVB radiation on survival and oviposition of two leaf-inhabiting mites (Amblydromalus manihoti, Euseius fustis) and the apex-inhabiting mite (T. aripo), all three species being predators used for controlling the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa in Africa. Whereas on leaf discs UVA has no negative impact on survival of the three predators, UVB is lethal to all of them. In contrast, nearly 85% of T. aripo survived after exposure to UVB inside apex of cassava plants. Exposure of A. manihoti and E. fustis to UVB radiation on the lower surface of a cassava leaf resulted in 36% survival. Oviposition and hatching of eggs laid after exposure to UVB were not affected, but eggs directly exposed to UVB did not hatch. Although caution should be exercised to extrapolate laboratory studies to the field, our results support the hypothesis that lower side of leaves, but especially plant apices, represent refuges that protect predatory mites from UVB. This might explain why T. aripo moves out of the apex to forage on leaves only during the night.

  19. Airway Microbial Diversity is Inversely Associated with Mite-Sensitized Rhinitis and Asthma in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Chan, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Chen, Ssu-An; Wang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Chung, I-Fang

    2017-05-12

    Microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with atopic diseases. We sought to evaluate relationships among airway microbiota, serum IgE levels, allergic sensitization and their relevance to rhinitis and asthma. Microbial characterization was performed using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 87 throat swabs collected from children with asthma (n = 32) and rhinitis (n = 23), and from healthy controls (n = 32). Data analysis was performed using QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) v1.8. Significantly higher abundance of Proteobacteria was found in children with rhinitis than in the healthy controls (20.1% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.009). Bacterial species richness (Chao1 index) and diversity (Shannon index) were significantly reduced in children with mite sensitization but not in those with food or IgE sensitization. Compared with healthy children without mite sensitization, the mite-sensitized children with rhinitis and asthma showed significantly lower Chao1 and Shannon indices. Moraxella and Leptotrichia species were significantly found in the interaction of mite sensitization with rhinitis and asthma respectively. Airway microbial diversity appears to be inversely associated with sensitization to house dust mites. A modulation between airway dysbiosis and responses to allergens may potentially cause susceptibility to rhinitis and asthma in early childhood.

  20. An evaluation of three predatory mite species for the control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medd, Nathan C; GreatRex, Richard M

    2014-10-01

    Within integrated pest control programmes, the use of high mite inoculations to control hot spots of whitefly is desirable for many growers. In this experiment, two species of predatory mites established as commercial biological control agents, Typhlodromips montdorensis and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae), were compared with another, more recently introduced species, Amblydromalus limonicus, for their ability to control dense populations of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus). Mite formulation type had a significant effect on the number of mites found on plants, but this did not correspond to increased whitefly control. Plots treated with A. limonicus or T. montdorensis, applied as loose product, had significantly reduced whitefly populations throughout the trial. Analysis showed that no species was observed more often on leaves with higher whitefly densities than on those with lower densities. No species was clearly identified as a suitable candidate for treatment of high-density whitefly colonies, but results suggest the highest level of predation in A. limonicus. Strategies for the effective use of these predatory mite species in control programmes are discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Occurrence of Two-Spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch on Potentilla fruticosa Cultivars

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    Szafranek Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae Juss. is one of the most popular deciduous shrubs cultivated in Poland. Among pests identified so far on P. fruticosa, a serious threat is caused by two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. During three-year study, the occurrence of two-spotted spider mite T. urticae on four cultivars of P. fruticosa: ‘Goldfinger’, ‘McKay’s White’, ‘Uman’ and ‘Pink Beauty’ grown in field conditions was compared. While conducting experiment, weather conditions were monitored. The number of eggs and motile forms of two-spotted spider mite were recorded separately. The most attractive cultivar to spider mite was ‘Goldfinger’. The largest amount of motile forms of mites and their eggs were found on the leaves of this cultivar in all three years of study. The least number of pests occurred on the cv. ‘Pink Beauty’. However, differences in the abundance of this pest on all studied cultivars were variable during the growing seasons.

  2. Efficacy of two fungus-based biopesticide against the honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelaal A; Abd-Elhady, Hany K

    2013-08-15

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), is known as the most serious ectoparasitic mite on honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the world. Based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi, two commercial preparations; Bioranza (Metarhizium anisopliae) and Biovar (Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated through application into the hives against varroa mite. Data showed significant differences between treatments with Bioranza and Biovar, the results were significant after 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Mean a daily fallen mite individual was significantly different between the hives before and after the applications of the two biopesticides and wheat flour. Also, mites' mortality was, significantly, different between the hives before and after treatments. There were significant differences between treatments with the two biopesticides in worker's body weight. Bioranza and Biovar did not infect the honeybee in larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed spores and hyphae penetration through stigma and wounds on varroa. The results suggest that Bioranza and Biovar are potentially are effective biopesticides against V. destructor in honeybee colonies.

  3. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

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    M Estrella Santamaria

    Full Text Available C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari. The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  4. Inhibitory properties of cysteine protease pro-peptides from barley confer resistance to spider mite feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Arnaiz, Ana; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems.

  5. Orchestration of an uncommon maturation cascade of the house dust mite protease allergen quartet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve eDumez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite (HDM allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, groups 1 are cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6 and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6 and 9 through complex intra- or intermolecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6 and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation and interconnection.

  6. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mites of the Phytoseiidae family have been extensively studied as biological control agents of different mites and insect pests. Some species also feed on nematodes, fungal spores, pollen and exudates from plants and insects. About 2,300 phytoseiid species belonging to 90 genera have been described in this family (Chant and McMurtry 2007. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to the collection and identification of the predaceous phytoseiid mites in Iran (Rahmani et al. 2010. Despite some studies on phytoseiid mites in Iran, our knowledge remains limited about their fauna and diversity in Mazandaran province. The data of these studies showed that until recently, only 75 species were reported from Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity of Phytoseiidae and access to effective predatory mites for biological control of injurious mite pests in Sari, the center of Mazandaran province (Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, 35 ° 47'-36 ° 35' N, 50 ° 34'-54 ° 10' E Materials and methods Samples were taken from 80 plant species belonging to 46 plant families including forest trees, orchards and farm crops representing three types of ecosystems from September 2011 to October 2012. Harvested samples of each plant were separately collected in plastic bags and labeled with region and date of collection. The bags were transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in a refrigerator at about 4°C for up to a week, until the materials washed for mite extraction. Samples were composed of leaves, stems and shoots of different ages and the number of leaves per sample varied between plant species. In order to assimilate the samples, a volume nearly equal mass of each sample were put in a two-liter water container. The mites were floated on water by adding 1.5 liters of tap water and a few droplets of detergent. The plant leaves and shoots were shaken for several times until the mites fall from

  7. Prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor in allergic patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Niemeijer, NR; Hovenga, H; de Monchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    The prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus sire (AS), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), and Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) was studied in 250 sera of patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) by measuring IgE binding to

  8. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

  9. Prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor in allergic patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Niemeijer, NR; Hovenga, H; de Monchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus sire (AS), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), and Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) was studied in 250 sera of patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) by measuring IgE binding to e

  10. Clinical effectiveness of a mite allergen-impermeable bed-covering system in asthmatic mite-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Lisette; van Knapen, Lieke; de Vries, Marjolein P; Jansen, Margreet; Cloosterman, Sonja; van Schayck, Constant P

    2004-10-01

    Exposure to allergens plays a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in the chronic inflammatory response seen in asthmatic patients. House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of allergen. Reduction of these allergens might lead to better lung function and reduction of asthma symptoms. The effect of HDM-impermeable covers on HDM allergen levels, peak flow values, and asthma symptoms were measured. Therefore a randomized clinical trial was carried out. Fifty-two allergic asthmatic patients were randomly allocated to use the HDM-impermeable or placebo covers. During the study period, daily peak flow and asthma symptom scores were recorded. Dust samples were taken from the mattresses. We observed a significant reduction in HDM allergen levels on the mattresses after encasing them with HDM-impermeable covers (reduction of 87% of Der p 1 in micrograms per gram of dust; P impermeable covers significantly decreased the level of HDM allergens. Furthermore, morning peak flow was significantly increased during the intervention period. This study indicates that HDM allergen-avoidance measures might have beneficial effects on allergen reduction and asthma outcome.

  11. Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-05-15

    The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Reciprocal responses in the interaction between Arabidopsis and the cell-content-feeding chelicerate herbivore spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Bruinsma, K.A.; Arbona, V.; Santamaria, M.E.; Cazaux, M.; Wybouw, N.; Osborne, E.J.; Ens, C.; Rioja, C.; Vermeirssen, V.; Rubio-Somoza, I.; Krishna, P.; Diaz, I.; Schmid, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Van de Peer, Y.; Grbić, M.; Clark, R.M.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Grbić, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most molecular-genetic studies of plant defense responses to arthropod herbivores have focused on insects. However, plant-feeding mites are also pests of diverse plants, and mites induce different patterns of damage to plant tissues than do well-studied insects (e.g. lepidopteran larvae or aphids).

  13. House dust mite allergen avoidance and self-management in allergic patients with asthma: randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, L. van den; Aretz, K.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Muris, J.W.M.; Kester, A.D.; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of bed covers that are impermeable to house dust mites has been disputed. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the combination of 'house dust mite impermeable' covers and a self-management plan, based on peak flow values and symptoms, leads to reduced

  14. The 8-year follow-up of the PIAMA intervention study assessing the effect of mite-impermeable mattress covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; de Jongste, J.C.; Kerkhof, M.; Oldewening, M.; Postma, D.; van Strien, R.T.; Wijga, A.H.; Willers, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834696; Wolse, A.; Gerritsen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336510160; Smit, H.A.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to high levels of house dust mite (HDM) allergens is associated with the development of allergic sensitization to HDM, a risk factor for the development of asthma, rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis. We studied the effect of an early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress co

  15. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  16. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Greta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Methods Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. Results No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Conclusions Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma.

  17. Effects of prey mite species on life history of the phytoseiid predators Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.; Yaninek, J.S.; Hanna, R.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of prey mite suitability on several demographic characteristics of phytoseiid predators and the relationship of these effects to the potential of phytoseiid predators to control herbivorous mite populations are well documented. Evidence has also accumulated in the last 20 years

  18. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruse

  19. Comparative performance of two mite-resistant stocks of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama beekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth; Danka, Robert; Ward, Rufina

    2008-06-01

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared with that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Truman (Acari: Varroidae), were measured twice each year, and colonies that reached established economic treatment thresholds (one mite per 100 adult bees in late winter; 5-10 mites per 100 adult bees in late summer) were treated with acaricides. Infestations of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), were measured autumn and compared with a treatment threshold of 20% mite prevalence. Honey production was measured in 2005 and 2006 for colonies that retained original test queens. Throughout the three seasons of measurement, resistant stocks required less treatment against parasitic mites than the Italian stock. The total percentages of colonies needing treatment against varroa mites were 12% of VSH, 24% of Russian, and 40% of Italian. The total percentages requiring treatment against tracheal mites were 1% of Russian, 8% of VSH and 12% of Italian. The average honey yield of Russian and VSH colonies was comparable with that of Italian colonies each year. Beekeepers did not report any significant behavioral problems with the resistant stocks. These stocks thus have good potential for use in nonmigratory beekeeping operations in the southeastern United States.

  20. The presence of webbing affects the oviposition rate of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Magalhães, S.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of tetranychid mites including Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) construct complicated three-dimensional webs on plant leaves. These webs provide protection against biotic and abiotic stress. As producing web is likely to entail a cost, mites that arrive on a leaf with

  1. Differential impact of dimethoate on the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer Canestrini (Gamasida: Laelapidae) exposed at different life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Krogh, P. H.

    The acute toxicity of dimethoate was examined on different life stages (larvae, protonymph, deutonymph, male and female) of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. The mites were exposed for 7 days in an artificial soil to 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg kg-1. A comparison of LC50 values ranked the sensitivity...

  2. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of

  3. Top layer enhances biological ontrol of thrips in ornamentals :"Predatory mites survive better on rich soil cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, van K.; Grosman, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    An organic top layer over the soil or substrate can enhance the biological control of thrips in roses and alstroemerias. The top layer contains food for prey mites, which in turn serve as food for predatory mites. In this way the predators survive longer. Thus, as the thrips population increases, an

  4. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

  5. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  6. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  7. The response of Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatiles from gerbera: influence of starvation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, O.E.; Willems, P.E.I.; Gols, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    When leaves of the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii are damaged by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, they produce many volatile compounds in large quantities. Undamaged gerbera leaves produce only a few volatiles in very small quantities. In the headspace of spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves

  8. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  9. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Russian and unselected honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) stock as related to numbers of foragers with mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa mites are an external parasite of honey bees and a leading cause of colony losses worldwide. Varroa populations can be controlled with miticides, but mite resistant stocks such as the Russian honey bee (RHB) also are available. RHB and other mite resistant stock limit Varroa population growth...

  10. Comparative genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Vitis vinifera responses to adapted and non-adapted strains of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranyhus urticae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Riquelme, Jose; Zhurov, Vladimir; Rioja, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defense...

  11. Comparative genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Vitis vinifera responses to adapted and non-adapted strains of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranyhus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Riquelme, J.; Zhurov, V.; Rioja, C.; Pérez-Moreno, I.; Torres-Pérez, R.; Grimplet, J.; Carbonell-Bejerano, P.; Bajda, S.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Martínez-Zapater, J.M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist plant pest. Even though mites can feed on many plant species, local mite populations form host races that do not perform equally well on all potential hosts. An acquisition of the ability to evade plant defenses

  12. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  13. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  14. House Dust Mites Confer a Distinct Immunological Feature among Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Baris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well. The mean age was 8.93±5.17 years. HDM-allergic AD emerged as a distinct immunologic phenotype, with higher production of interleukin (IL-4, -5, -2 both at rest and when stimulated by Der p1 or SEB along with higher Th17. As for TH17 cell percentage, it was increased in all AD groups compared to healthy controls, while HDM-allergic group was distinguished with a significantly lower production of IL-17. Patients with sensitizations other than HDM were mostly similar to non-allergic AD, with increased Th17 and CD4+CD69+interferon-gamma (IFN-γ+ T cells percentage. The biopsy of lesional skin showed that HDM-allergic AD had lower IFN-γ and IFN-γ co-expressing CD8+ T cells compared to patients with other sensitizations (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Among the HDM allergic patients, pairwise comparison of lesional versus non-lesional skin revealed higher CD4+ T cells numbers, expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 and T-cell-specific transcription factor (T-bet (p=0.018, p=0.018, p=0.018, respectively. HDM-allergic AD is a distinct subtype with a predominant skewing in Th2 and higher Th17 cell percentage along with a blunted Th1 response in the skin, all of which may have therapeutic implications.

  15. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  16. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  17. Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menken Steph BJ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of asexuality using samples from 111 populations in Europe, South Africa and the United States, belonging to eleven Bryobia species. We also examine intraspecific clonal diversity for one species, B. kissophila, by genotyping individuals from 61 different populations. Knowledge on the origin of asexuality and on clonal diversity can contribute to our understanding of the paradox of sex. Results The majority (94% of 111 sampled populations reproduces asexually. Analysis of part of nuclear 28S rDNA shows that these asexuals do not form a monophyletic clade. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI region shows that intraspecific variation is extensive (up to 8.8%. Within B. kissophila, distinct clades are found, which are absent at the nuclear 28S rDNA level. Moreover, paraphyletic patterns are found at the mitochondrial DNA. Conclusion Asexuality is widespread in the genus Bryobia, signifying that some animal taxa do contain a high number of asexuals. We argue that asexuality originated multiple times within Bryobia. Wolbachia bacteria cause asexuality in at least two Bryobia species and may have infected different species independently. The high intraspecific clonal diversity and the patterns of paraphyly at the mitochondrial DNA in B. kissophila might be explained by a high mutation fixation rate and past hybridization events. Reproductive parasites like Wolbachia and Cardinium might influence these processes. We discuss the role these bacteria could play in the evolutionary success of asexual species.

  18. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-06-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses. In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH the efficacy was significantly lower for all tested compounds (P gallinae.

  19. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...... that 24 h exposure to surfaces treated with doses much lower than those recommended by the producers is sufficient to kill mites as fast as when they were dusted with massive doses. These data emphasise the need for thorough treatment of all surfaces in a poultry house in order to combat D. gallinae....

  20. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Hobbenaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16 four weeks old Ross broilers (308 were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia.

  1. Understanding the biology and control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Kuster, Tatiana; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite (PRM), is a blood-feeding ectoparasite capable of causing pathology in birds, amongst other animals. It is an increasingly important pathogen in egg layers and is responsible for substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Even though PRM poses a serious problem, very little is known about the basic biology of the mite. Here we review the current body of literature describing red mite biology and discuss how this has been, or could be, used to develop methods to control PRM infestations. We focus primarily on the PRM digestive system, salivary glands, nervous system and exoskeleton and also explore areas of PRM biology which have to date received little or no study but have the potential to offer new control targets.

  2. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia.

  3. The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae): a potential vector of pathogenic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente Moro, Claire; De Luna, Carlos J; Tod, Alexander; Guy, Jonathan H; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Zenner, Lionel

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, D. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. Nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. Consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account to maintain good health in commercial egg production. This paper addresses the vector capacity of the ectoparasite with special emphasis on salmonellae, pathogenic agents responsible for many of the most important outbreaks of food-borne diseases worlwide. It has been experimentally shown that D. gallinae could act as a biological vector of S. enteritidis and natural carriage of these bacteria by the mite on poultry premises has also been reported. It was also found that D. gallinae carried other pathogens such as E. coli, Shigella sp., and Staphylococcus, thus increasing the list of pathogenic agents potentially transmitted by the mite.

  4. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  5. Evidence for resistance to carbaryl in poultry red mites from the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Pavlicevic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the efficiency of carbaryl under laboratory conditions, based on field populations of poultry red mites from throughout the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro over a period of 6 years (2001-2006. In 2001 samples, an excellent efficiency level of 95.7% at 0.1% carbaryl concentration after 30-minute exposure was found. The total pharmacological profile of carbaryl in relation to D. gallinae mites resulted in adequate control. However, by 2003 a significant decline in carbaryl’s efficiency was apparent. By 2005, a population of D. gallinae was discovered which showed no apparent susceptibility to carbaryl. Poultry red mite populations had by then developed extreme resistance.

  6. Phytoseiid mites (Acari) associated with yerba mate in southern Brazil, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Dinarte; Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2013-12-11

    Yerba mate is a plant of great socioeconomic importance in southern South America. Little has been published about the phytoseiid mite fauna of yerba mate. This paper presents information about the morphology and distribution of phytoseiid mites collected in yerba mate in the Ilópolis and Putinga counties of Brazil between 2002 and 2004. Four areas with of different forms of cultivation in every county were sampled. A list of the species recorded from that state, and a key for their identification are provided. Sixteen phytoseiid mites species were identified, belonging to 11 genera in the subfamilies Amblyseiinae (13 species) and Typhlodrominae (three species). The most abundant genus was Amblyseius with three species. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961 and Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres, 2011 are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Sul state. This study also includes the description of a new species, Typhlodromips pallinii n. sp.

  7. Spatiotemporal heterogenesssity of tomato induced defense responses affects spider mite performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-08-31

    When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T. evansi intensified suppression of defenses locally, i.e. at its feeding site, after T. urticae mites were introduced onto adjacent leaf tissue. This hyper-suppression is paralleled by an increased oviposition rate of T. evansi, probably promoting its competitive population growth. Here we present additional data that not only provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of defense induction and suppression by mites, but that also suggest T. evansi to manipulate more than JA and SA defenses alone.

  8. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place.

  9. Gene silencing by RNA interference in the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Edward J; Sargison, Neil D; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Burgess, Stewart T G

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Trouessart, 1897. Using a non-invasive immersion method first developed for the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor, a significant reduction in the expression of D. pteronyssinus glutathione-S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (DpGST-mu1) was achieved following overnight immersion in double stranded RNA encoding DpGST-mu1. Although no detrimental phenotypic changes were observed following silencing, this technique can now be used to address fundamental physiological questions and assess the potential therapeutic benefit in silencing D. pteronyssinus target genes in selected domestic situations of high human-mite interface.

  10. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  11. Biological activity of the mite Sancassania sp. (Acari: Acaridae from bat guano associated with the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Estrada-Bárcenas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mites and the mammal pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum are the major components of bat guano microbiota. Interactions between mites and H. capsulatum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Acarid mites, mainly Sancassania sp., were the most abundant microarthropod in the sampled guano of the Mexican bat Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana and, based on its morphology, Sancassania sp. was similar to the cosmopolitan species Sancassania sphaerogaster. The mycophagous and vectoring activities of this mite were tested for H. capsulatum and two other fungal species, Sporothrix schenckii (pathogenic and Aspergillus sclerotiorum (non-pathogenic. S. ca. sphaerogaster was able to reproduce in H. capsulatum and S. schenckii colonies, multiplying in great numbers under controlled fungal mycelial-phase culture conditions. H. capsulatum colonies were completely destroyed after 14 days of in vitro interaction with mites. In contrast, S. ca. sphaerogaster did not reproduce in A. sclerotiorum cultures. S. ca. sphaerogaster was found vectoring H. capsulatum, but not the two other fungal species studied.

  12. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts.

  13. Populations of Stored Product Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae Differ in Their Bacterial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Erban

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tyrophagus putrescentiae colonizes different human-related habitats and feeds on various post-harvest foods. The microbiota acquired by these mites can influence the nutritional plasticity in different populations. We compared the bacterial communities of five populations of T. putrescentiae and one mixed population of T. putrescentiae and T. fanetzhangorum collected from different habitats. Material: The bacterial communities of the six mite populations from different habitats and diets were compared by Sanger sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA obtained from amplification with universal eubacterial primers and using bacterial taxon-specific primers on the samples of adults/juveniles or eggs. Microscopic techniques were used to localize bacteria in food boli and mite bodies. The morphological determination of the mite populations was confirmed by analyses of CO1 and ITS fragment genes.Results: The following symbiotic bacteria were found in compared mite populations: Wolbachia (2 populations, Cardinium (5 populations, Bartonella-like (5 populations, Blattabacterium-like symbiont (3 populations and Solitalea-like (6 populations. From 35 identified OTUs97, only Solitalea was identifed in all populations. The next most frequent and abundant sequences were Bacillus, Moraxella, Staphylococcus, Kocuria and Microbacterium. We suggest that some bacterial species may occasionally be ingested with food. The bacteriocytes were observed in some individuals in all mite populations. Bacteria were not visualized in food boli by staining, but bacteria were found by histological means in ovaria of Wolbachia-infested populations.Conclusion: The presence of Blattabacterium-like, Cardinium, Wolbachia and Solitalea-like in the eggs of T. putrescentiae indicates mother to offspring (vertical transmission. Results of this study indicate that diet and habitats influence not only the ingested bacteria but also the symbiotic bacteria of T. putrescentiae.

  14. Identification and evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens from the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Kathryn; Wright, Harry W; Huntley, John F; Manson, Erin D T; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nath, Mintu; Bartley, Yvonne; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2015-11-01

    An aqueous extract of the haematophagous poultry ectoparasite, Dermanyssus gallinae, was subfractionated using anion exchange chromatography. Six of these subfractions were used to immunise hens and the blood from these hens was fed, in vitro, to poultry red mites. Mite mortality following these feeds was indicative of protective antigens in two of the subfractions, with the risks of mites dying being 3.1 and 3.7 times higher than in the control group (P<0.001). A combination of two-dimensional immunoblotting and immunoaffinity chromatography, using IgY from hens immunised with these subfractions, was used in concert with proteomic analyses to identify the strongest immunogenic proteins in each of these subfractions. Ten of the immunoreactive proteins were selected for assessment as vaccine candidates using the following criteria: intensity of immune recognition; likelihood of exposure of the antigen to the antibodies in a blood meal; proposed function and known vaccine potential of orthologous molecules. Recombinant versions of each of these 10 proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and were used to immunise hens. Subsequent in vitro feeding of mites on blood from these birds indicated that immunisation with Deg-SRP-1 (serpin), Deg-VIT-1 (vitellogenin), Deg-HGP-1 (hemelipoglycoprotein) or Deg-PUF-1 (a protein of unknown function) resulted in significantly increased risk of mite death (1.7-2.8times higher than in mites fed blood from control hens immunised with adjuvant only, P<0.001). The potential for using these antigens in a recombinant vaccine is discussed.

  15. Proteome, Allergenome, and Novel Allergens of House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopong, Jintarat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2016-02-05

    Dermatophagoides farinae mite is a predominant source of indoor allergens causing high incidence of allergy worldwide. People with different genetic background respond differently to the mite components, and thus the component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is preferred to the conventional allergy test based on crude mite extract. In this study, proteome and culprit components in the D. farinae whole body extract that sensitized the allergic patients were studied by using SDS-PAGE (1DE) and 2DE-IgE immunoblotting followed by LC-MS/MS and database search for protein identification. From the 1DE, the mite extract revealed 105 proteins that could be classified into seven functionally different groups: allergens, structural components, enzymes, enzyme inhibitor, receptor proteins, transporters, and binding/regulatory/cell signaling proteins. From the 2DE, the mite extract produced 94 spots; 63 were bound by IgE in sera of 20 D. farinae allergic patients. One more protein that was not revealed by the 2DE and protein staining reacted with IgE in 2 allergic patients. Proteins in 40 spots could be identified as 35 different types. Three of them reacted to IgE of >50% of the allergic patients, and hence they are major allergens: tropomyosin or Der f 10 (75%), aconitate hydratase (70%), and one uncharacterized protein (55%). Aconitate hydratase is a novel D. farinae major allergen unraveled in this study. Several mite minor allergens that have never been previously reported are also identified. The data have clinical applications in the component-resolved diagnosis for tailor-designed allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  16. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  17. Ear Mite Infestation in Four Imported Dogs from Thailand; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maazi

    2010-12-01

    Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination. The specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Ami­traz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders.

  18. Neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis with intralobular Demodex mites: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Wilson, Lindsay H; Wada, David; Florell, Scott R; Bowen, Anneli R

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old white man presented with a 1-week history of an asymptomatic erythematous, annular plaque with minimal scale limited to the nasal bridge. Histological examination showed a mixed infiltrate of lymphocytes and neutrophils within sebaceous glands. The clinical and histopathological presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis. Several Demodex brevis mites were present deep within the affected sebaceous lobules. Demodex brevis mites are uncommon inhabitants of sebaceous glands of the nose, presenting more commonly on other body sites. The cause of neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis is unknown, but the presence of D. brevis in affected sebaceous glands in this case suggests a possible association.

  19. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  20. New Spiroplasma in parasitic Leptus mites and their Agathemera walking stick hosts from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBlasi, Emily; Morse, Solon; Mayberry, Jason R; Avila, Luciano J; Morando, Mariana; Dittmar, Katharina

    2011-07-01

    Here we report the presence of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA in populations of two parasitic Leptus mites (Leptus sayi; Leptus lomani) and their Agathemera walking stick hosts. In walking sticks Spiroplasmas were detected in the gut, as well as muscle-tissues, but not in eggs. Throughout Argentina 15.4% of L. sayi populations and 14.3% of L. lomani populations surveyed screened positive for Spiroplasma. Phylogenetic analyses (ML, BCMC) place all sequences within the Ixodetis group. Most sequences form a well-supported sister subclade to the rest of Ixodetis. We briefly discuss the role of Leptus mites in the natural transmission of Spiroplasma.

  1. Social environment affects the life history tactic of a phoretic mite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Müller, Josef K

    2009-01-01

    Phoretic animals use their hosts for travelling to habitat patches suitable for reproduction. Some species, such as the mite Poecilochirus carabi, are phoretic as juveniles and cannot leave their habitat once they reach adulthood. Previous work has shown that mites exercise choice over the habitat...... in which they will mature and reproduce based on abiotic parameters, but it is hitherto unknown whether their social environment influences this choice. By manipulating the composition of their conspecific company we show that P. carabi perform the adult moult in the presence of prospective mating partners...... influence of the social environment on a phoretic's habitat choice and life history....

  2. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-11

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  3. Structural elucidation and synthesis of 3-hydroxybenzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde from astigmatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, T; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-10-01

    The structure of a novel aromatic compound contained in the unidentified Rhizoglyhus mite (Acaridae: Astigmata) was elucidated, without its isolation, to be 3-hydroxybenzene-1,2-dicarbaldehyde (tentatively named gamma-acaridial) by a combination of GC/MS and GC/FT-IR together with knowledge of related mite compounds. The structure was confirmed by a 5-step synthesis, starting from methyl 3-hydroxybenzoate, in a 15% overall yield. The compound is widely distributed not only among Astigmata but also among Oribatida, although its biological function is obscure at present.

  4. Acaricidal effect and histological damage induced by Bacillus thuringiensis protein extracts on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstand-Guzmán, Emmanuel; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Pérez-Martínez, Mario; Hernández-Velazquez, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2015-05-24

    The mite Psoroptes cuniculi is a common worldwide ectoparasite and the most frequently found in rabbit farms. It causes significant economic losses on commercial rabbit breeding associated with poor leather quality, reduced conception rates, weight loss, poor growth and death. Several strategies have been proposed for the treatment of mange caused by this mite, ranging from the use of acaricides, entomopathogenic fungi, essential oils and vaccines. However, therapy and control of both human scabies and animal mange are still based mainly on the use of drugs and chemicals such as ivermectin, which involves disadvantages including genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, resistance and environmental damage. Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium, innocuous for human being, domestic animals and plants that produces highly biodegradable proteins, and has been used worldwide for biological control. The aim of this work was to find an alternative treatment based on biological control for scabies caused by Psoroptes cuniculi, using protein extracts from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. P. cuniculi mites were obtained from naturally infected New Zealand rabbits, and different doses of protein from B. thuringiensis were added to the mites. We measured mortality and obtained the median lethal concentration and median lethal times. For histological analysis, the mites were fixed in 10% formalin, processed according to the paraffin embedded tissue technique. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe the general histological structure. We report here for the first time evidence about the in vitro acaricidal effect caused by the strain GP532 of B. thuringiensis on the mite Psoroptes cuniculi, with an LC50 of 1.3 mg/ml and a LT50 of 68 h. Histological alterations caused by B. thuringiensis on this mite, included the presence of dilated intercellular spaces in the basal membrane, membrane detachment of the peritrophic matrix and morphological alterations in columnar cells

  5. Terapia dialéctico conductual para el trastorno de personalidad límite

    OpenAIRE

    Irene de la Vega; Sabrina Sánchez Quintero

    2013-01-01

    La terapia dialéctico conductual (TDC) es una terapia psicológica de tercera generación desarrollada por Marsha Linehan (1993a, 1993b) para tratar específicamente los síntomas característicos del trastorno límite de la personalidad: inestabilidad afectiva, trastorno de identidad, impulsividad y dificultades en las relaciones sociales. La TDC parte de un modelo biosocial del trastorno límite y combina técnicas cognitivo conductuales con aproximaciones zen y budistas basadas en la aceptación de...

  6. New species and records of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2015-12-01

    An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites from Cuba, including 16 species, 9 genera and 4 families, is provided. Three new species, Prototritia triangularibus Niedbała sp. nov. (Protoplophoridae), Hoplophthiracarus vinalesensis Niedbała sp. nov. and Protophthiracarus paratripartitus Niedbała sp. nov. (both Steganacaridae), are described from leaf litter. Three species of the subgenus Atropacarus (Hoplophorella)-A. (H.) andrei (Balogh, 1958), A. (H.) brachys Niedbała, 2004 and A. (H.) stilifer (Hammer, 1961)-are recorded in the Cuban mite fauna for the first time.

  7. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida) in Wild and Domestic Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N.; Armenta, Tiffany C.; Fraser, Devaughn L.; Kelly, Rochelle M.; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis. PMID:27802314

  8. Detection, Prevalence and Phylogenetic Relationships of Demodex spp and further Skin Prostigmata Mites (Acari, Arachnida) in Wild and Domestic Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.

  9. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  10. Human Permanent Ectoparasites; Recent Advances on Biology and Clinical Significance of Demodex Mites: Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota LITWIN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research.Methods: We conducted a broad review based on the electronic database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus with regard to the characteristics of the Demodex species, methods of examination and worldwide epidemiology, molecular studies and its role in the complex human ecosystem.Results: Demodex mites are organisms with a worldwide importance as they act in indicating several dermatoses, under certain conditions. However, correlations between Demodex and other parasites or microorganisms occupying one host, as well as interactions between these arachnids and its symbiotic bacteria should be considered. There are few methods of human mites' examination depending on purpose of the study. Nevertheless, paying attention must be needed as polymorphism of Demodex species has been reported.Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on different aspects of Demodex mites’ biology and significance of these arachnids in human’s health.

  11. International consensus (ICON) on: Clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Borges, M. (Mario); Fernandez-Caldas, E. (Enrique); Thomas, W.R. (Wayne R.); M.D. Chapman (Martin); Lee, B.W. (Bee Wah); L.R. Caraballo (L.); N. Acevedo (Nathalie); Chew, F.T. (Fook Tim); I.J. Ansotegui (I.); Behrooz, L. (Leili); Phipatanakul, W. (Wanda); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Pascal, D. (Demoly); K. Rosario (Karyna); Ebisawa, M. (Motohiro); Geller, M. (Mario); S. Quirce (S.); Vrtala, S. (Susanne); R. Valenta; Ollert, M. (Markus); G. Canonica (Gwalter); M. Calderon (Moises); Barnes, C.S. (Charles S.); A. Custovic; Benjaponpitak, S. (Suwat); Capriles-Hulett, A. (Arnaldo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSince mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  12. House-dust mite hypersensitivity, eczema, and other nonpulmonary manifestations of allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; de Monchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenetic role of house-dust mites (HDM) in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial, mainly because there is no common agreement on a provocation test that mimics ordinary exposure to HDM. This is related to the lack of knowledge of the mechanism of how HDM allergens enter the body.

  13. Preliminary study of the mite community structure in different black truffle producing soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Queralt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: The goals of this paper are to provide preliminary data on the composition of the mite community in truffle-producing soils (both wild and plantations; and to elucidate those species which may interact with the black truffle life cycle.Area of study: The study was carried out in two black truffle productive zones in Navarra (Spain, in four different plantations and five wild production areas.Material and Methods: Fauna was extracted using Berlese Tullgren funnels. Animals were separated into taxonomic groups, and mites were identified. To analyse the composition and community structure of the different habitats, parameters such as abundance, species richness, and Shanon Weiner diversity index (H’ were calculated.Main results: A total of 305 mites were recognized, belonging to 58 species representing the three major taxonomic groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata, Mesostigmata.Research highlights: The results show a possible trend towards wild areas having greater diversity and species richness than plantations. Furthermore, community analysis shows differences in species compositions among different study areas, and oribatid mites always exhibit the highest relative abundance and species richness.Keywords: Acari; Tuber melanosporum; Oribatida; Mesostigmata; Prostigmata; truffle orchards. 

  14. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  15. Do males evaluate female age for precopulatory mate guarding in the two-spotted spider mite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Saito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), because only the first mating results in fertilisation, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, the stage immediately before adult emergence. Previous studies showed that T. urticae males prefer to guard older rather

  16. Cloning, bioinformatics analysis, and expression of the dust mite allergen Der f 5 of Dermatophagoides farinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Cui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of house dust mites are used clinically for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma, perennial rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. However, crude extracts are complexes with non-allergenic antigens and lack effective concentrations of important allergens, resulting in several side effects. Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes; Acari: Pyroglyphidae is one of the predominant sources of dust mite allergens, which has more than 30 groups of allergen. The cDNA coding for the group 5 allergen of D. farinae from China was cloned, sequenced and expressed. According to alignment using the VECTOR NTI 9.0 software, there were eight mismatched nucleotides in five cDNA clones resulting in seven incompatible amino acid residues, suggesting that the Der f 5 allergen might have sequence polymorphism. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the matured Der f 5 allergen has a molecular mass of 13604.03 Da, a theoretical pI of 5.43 and is probably hydrophobic and cytoplasmic. Similarities in amino acid sequences between Der f 5 and allergens of other domestic mite species, viz. Der p 5, Blo t 5, Sui m 5, and Lep d 5, were 79, 48, 53, and 37%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Der f 5 and Der p 5 clustered together. Blo t 5 and Ale o 5 also clustered together, although Blomia tropicalis and Aleuroglyphus ovatus belong to different mite families, viz. Echimyopodidae and Acaridae, respectively.

  17. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus (Acari: Anystidae, in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  18. Parasite-host interactions between the Varroa mite and the honey bee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction

    Varroa mites as parasites of honey bees

    Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000), is the most important pest of European races of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., weakening bees and vectoring bee diseases (Matheson, 1993). Over the past decades it has spread

  19. Parallel evolution of cytochrome b mediated bifenazate resistance in the citrus red mite Panonychus citri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, T.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, P.; Vanholme, B.; Dermauw, W.; Nauen, R.; Tirry, L.

    2011-01-01

    Bifenazate is a recently developed acaricide that is mainly used to control spider mites on a variety of crops. Although first thought to be a neurotoxin, genetic evidence obtained from bifenazate resistant Tetranychus urticae strains suggested an alternative mode of action as a Qo pocket inhibitor

  20. Generalist red velvet mite predator (Balaustium sp.) performs better on a mixed diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cárdenas, Karen; Fuentes, Luz Stella; Cantor, R Fernando; Rodríguez, C Daniel; Janssen, Arne; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2014-01-01

    Generalist predators have the potential advantage to control more than one pest and to be more persistent than specialist predators because they can survive on different foods. Moreover, their population growth rate may be elevated when offered a mixture of prey species. We studied a generalist predatory mite Balaustium sp. that shows promise for biological control of thrips and whiteflies in protected rose cultures in Colombia. Although starting its life in the soil, this predator makes excursions onto plants where it feeds on various arthropods. We quantified life history parameters of the predator, offering high densities of three pest species: first-instar larvae of Frankliniella occidentalis, eggs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Tetranychus urticae, either alone or in combination. The predators completed their life cycle on each diet. The egg-to-egg period was c. 2 months. All eggs were laid in one batch in 1-2 days, indicating a pronounced semelparous reproduction pattern. In general, females reproduced earlier and laid more eggs on mixed diets, and these early reproducers consequently had higher population growth rates than late reproducers. The best diet in terms of egg-to-egg period and juvenile survival was the combination of eggs from whiteflies and spider mites. Spider mite eggs alone and western flower thrips larvae alone were the worst diets. It remains to be investigated whether mixed diets promote the population growth rate of Balaustium sufficiently for biocontrol of whiteflies and thrips in the presence of alternative prey, such as spider mites, to become effective.