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Sample records for cotton-top tamarin saguinus

  1. Fluctuating and directional asymmetry in the long bones of captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

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    Reeves, Nicole M; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Sylvester, Adam D

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal asymmetries reflect developmental stability and mechanical, functional, and physiological influences on bone growth. In humans, researchers have documented the greatest limb bone bilateral asymmetry in diaphyseal breadths, with less asymmetry in articular and maximum length dimensions. However, it remains unclear as to whether the pattern observed for humans is representative of nonhuman primates, wherein bilateral loading may minimize directional asymmetry. This study adds to the small body of asymmetry data on nonhuman primates by investigating patterns of long bone asymmetry in a skeletal sample of Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin). Humeri, radii, ulnae, femora, and tibiae of 76 adult captive cotton-top tamarin skeletons (48 males, 28 females) were measured bilaterally. We included maximum length, midshaft diaphyseal breadths, and at least one articular measurement for each bone to assess directional (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in each dimension. Most dimensions exhibit significant FA, and very few have significant DA; DA is limited to the lower limb, especially in knee dimensions. Overall, the magnitudes of asymmetry in tamarins have a consistent ranking that follows the same pattern as found in humans. This first study of DA and FA among multiple dimensions throughout the limbs of a non-hominoid primate suggests that previously-reported patterns of human bilateral asymmetry are not exclusive to humans. The results further indicate potential underlying differences in constraints on variation within limb bones. While processes shaping variation await further study, our results argue that different long bone dimensions may reflect dissimilar evolutionary processes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An Assessment of the Population of Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus and Their Habitat in Colombia.

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    Anne Savage

    Full Text Available Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made "lure strip transect" method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species' range. Estimated population size in the surveyed region was approximately 2,050 in 2005 and 1,900 in 2012, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 10%. The estimated population change between surveys was -7% (a decline of approximately 1.3% per year suggesting a relatively stable population. If densities of inaccessible forest parcels are similar to those of surveyed samples, the estimated population of cotton-top tamarins in the wild in 2012 was 6,946 individuals. We also recorded little change in the amount of suitable habitat for cotton-top tamarins between sample periods: in 2005, 18% of surveyed forest was preferred habitat for cotton-top tamarins, while in 2012, 17% percent was preferred. We attribute the relatively stable population of this Critically Endangered species to increased conservation efforts of Proyecto Tití, conservation NGOs, and the Colombian government. Due to continued threats to cotton-top tamarins and their habitat such as agriculture and urban expansion, ongoing conservation efforts are needed to ensure the long-term survival of cotton-top tamarins in Colombia.

  3. Characteristics of implicit chaining in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

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    Locurto, Charles; Gagne, Matthew; Nutile, Lauren

    2010-07-01

    In human cognition there has been considerable interest in observing the conditions under which subjects learn material without explicit instructions to learn. In the present experiments, we adapted this issue to nonhumans by asking what subjects learn in the absence of explicit reinforcement for correct responses. Two experiments examined the acquisition of sequence information by cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) when such learning was not demanded by the experimental contingencies. An implicit chaining procedure was used in which visual stimuli were presented serially on a touchscreen. Subjects were required to touch one stimulus to advance to the next stimulus. Stimulus presentations followed a pattern, but learning the pattern was not necessary for reinforcement. In Experiment 1 the chain consisted of five different visual stimuli that were presented in the same order on each trial. Each stimulus could occur at any one of six touchscreen positions. In Experiment 2 the same visual element was presented serially in the same five locations on each trial, thereby allowing a behavioral pattern to be correlated with the visual pattern. In this experiment two new tests, a Wild-Card test and a Running-Start test, were used to assess what was learned in this procedure. Results from both experiments indicated that tamarins acquired more information from an implicit chain than was required by the contingencies of reinforcement. These results contribute to the developing literature on nonhuman analogs of implicit learning.

  4. Implicit learning in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia).

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    Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin.

  5. A test of object permanence in a new-world monkey species, cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

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    Neiworth, Julie J; Steinmark, Eric; Basile, Benjamin M; Wonders, Ryann; Steely, Frances; DeHart, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    Cotton top tamarins were tested in visible and invisible displacement tasks in a method similar to that used elsewhere to test squirrel monkeys and orangutans. All subjects performed at levels significantly above chance on visible ( n=8) and invisible ( n=7) displacements, wherein the tasks included tests of the perseverance error, tests of memory in double and triple displacements, and "catch" trials that tested for the use of the experimenter's hand as a cue for the correct cup. Performance on all nine tasks was significantly higher than chance level selection of cups, and tasks using visible displacements generated more accurate performance than tasks using invisible displacements. Performance was not accounted for by a practice effect based on exposure to successive tasks. Results suggest that tamarins possess stage 6 object permanence capabilities, and that in a situation involving brief exposure to tasks and foraging opportunities, tracking objects' movements and responding more flexibly are abilities expressed readily by the tamarins.

  6. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

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    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  7. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

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    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Suppurative peritonitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive gold-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas).

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    Guerra, Maria F L; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ribeiro, Vanessa L; Cunha, Marcos P V; Oliveira, Maria G X; Davies, Yamê M; Silva, Ketrin C; Silva, Ana P S; Lincopan, Nilton; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2016-02-01

    This report describes an outbreak of suppurative peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in an adult female of captive golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas). Two virulent and multidrug-resistant strains were isolated and classified through MLST as ST60 and ST1263. The microbiological diagnosis works as a support tool for preventive measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarin species in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru

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    Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W.; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367–371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix’s black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells’ black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarin species are of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them. PMID:20878203

  10. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne-Edwards, 1878): distributions and sympatry of four tamarins in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru [corrected].

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    Rylands, Anthony B; Matauschek, Christian; Aquino, Rolando; Encarnación, Filomeno; Heymann, Eckhard W; de la Torre, Stella; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2011-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus (Milne Edwards, 1878), in Amazonian Peru and Ecuador is of particular relevance, not only because it is poorly known but also because it was on the basis of its supposed sympatry with the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus) that Thorington (Am J Primatol 15:367-371, 1988) argued that it is a distinct species rather than a saddleback tamarin subspecies, as was believed by Hershkovitz (Living new world monkeys, vol I. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1977). A number of surveys have been carried out since 1988 in the supposed range of S. tripartitus, in both Ecuador and Peru. Here we summarize and discuss these issues and provide a new suggestion for the geographic range of this species; that is, between the ríos Napo and Curaray in Peru and extending east into Ecuador. We also review current evidence for the distributions of Spix's black-mantle tamarin (S. nigricollis nigricollis), Graells' black-mantle tamarin (S. n. graellsi), and the saddleback tamarin (S. fuscicollis lagonotus), which are also poorly known, and examine the evidence regarding sympatry between them. We conclude that despite the existence of a number of specimens with collecting localities that indicate overlap in their geographic ranges, the fact that the four tamarins are [corrected] of similar size and undoubtedly very similar in their feeding habits militates strongly against the occurrence of sympatry among them.

  11. Dentition of moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax mystax) from Padre Isla, Peru, part 1: quantitative variation.

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    Tornow, Matthew A; Ford, Susan M; Garber, Paul A; de Sa Sauerbrunn, Edward

    2006-07-01

    Analyses of dental variation in geographically restricted, wild populations of primates are extremely rare; however, such data form the best source for models of likely degrees of variation within and between fossil species. Data from dental casts of a geographically restricted population of moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax mystax) from Padre Isla, Peru, document high levels of dental variability, as measured by coefficients of variation, in a nonsexually dimorphic species, despite its isolation and small population size. Like other primates, moustached tamarins show lower variability in the dimensions of the first molars and increased variability in the dimensions of the final molars in the toothrow. Moustached tamarins from Padre Isla have a distinctive pattern of variability in the remaining teeth, including more stable tooth lengths in the anterior and posterior portions of the toothrow, and more stable tooth widths in the midregion of the toothrow. High variability in incisor width may be due to age effects of a distinctive diet and pattern of dental wear.

  12. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).

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    Owen, Yvonne; Amory, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a humane process that can reduce stress and improve welfare. This study details the use of operant conditioning using positive reinforcement training (PRT) and target training to train a family of 5 captive red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in a wildlife park to voluntarily enter a transportation box and remain calm for 1 min after 54 training sessions. Observations of 2 unrelated net-capture processes provided measures of locomotion and vocalizations as indicators of stress behavior that were compared with those of the trained tamarins. Net-captured monkeys exhibited rapid erratic locomotion and emitted long, high-frequency vocalizations during capture whereas the trained tamarins exhibited minimal locomotion and emitted only 4 brief vocalizations (root mean square 35 dB) during capture. This indicates that the use of PRT considerably reduced potential for stress and improved welfare during the capture and containment of the tamarins. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  13. Variation in Oxytocin is Related to Variation in Affiliative Behavior in Monogamous, Pairbonded Tamarins

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    Snowdon, Charles T.; Pieper, Bridget A.; Boe, Carla Y.; Cronin, Katherine A.; Kurian, Aimee V.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2010-01-01

    Oxytocin plays an important role in monogamous pairbonded female voles, but not in polygamous voles. Here we examined a socially-monogamous cooperatively breeding primate where both sexes share in parental care and territory defense for within species variation in behavior and female and male oxytocin levels in 14 pairs of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), In order to obtain a stable chronic assessment of hormones and behavior, we observed behavior and collected urinary hormonal samples...

  14. Primeiro processo de reabilitação e reintrodução de um grupo de titís cabeciblancos (Saguinus oedipus)

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    Arango Guerra, Heidi Liliana; Ballesteros Ruíz, Sandy; García Castillo, Francisco; Monsalve Buriticá, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) is one of the 25 most threatened primates in the world. The loss of habitats, the hunting activities, the widening of the agricultural and livestock frontier, the capture for the illegal pet market and their restricted distribution in the Northwest of Colombia are the most important reasons for such a threat. In addition, there are no reports of rehabilitation or reintroduction of this species into their natural habi...

  15. Vocal divergence and discrimination of long calls in tamarins: A comparison of allopatric populations of Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons and S. f. lagonotus.

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    Bradley, Caitlin E; McClung, Maureen R

    2015-06-01

    Divergence in vocalizations can reduce gene flow by serving as a premating barrier during secondary contact between previously isolated populations. In primates, vocal divergence in long calls of separated populations has been documented, yet recognition of these differences by the respective populations has seldom been studied in the field. To investigate this issue, we studied populations of two subspecies of saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons and S. f. lagonotus) that are separated by the Amazon River in Peru. We recorded long calls of each subspecies and detected significant differences between the populations in the number of notes per call, duration of calls, and shifts in starting frequency of notes over the length of calls. In addition, a population of S. f. nigrifrons responded more overtly in measures of approach to playback of long calls of its own subspecies compared to long calls of S. f. lagonotus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that allopatric divergence of long calls might contribute to reproductive isolation of these subspecies of saddle-back tamarins, which adds to growing evidence suggesting full species status for these taxa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus).

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    Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, H M; Smith, A C

    2005-04-01

    For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and cohesive mixed-species groups in the wild. We explored whether an induced food aversion toward a preferred food is modified during and after social interaction with non-averse conspecifics or congeners. Sets of intra- and interspecific pairs were presented with two foods, one of which was considered distasteful by one of the pairs (the other was palatable), and their behavior was compared pre-interaction, during interaction, and post-interaction. For the aversely-conditioned individuals of both species, the change in social context corresponded to a change in their preference for the food that they considered unpalatable, regardless of whether they had interacted with a conspecific or congeneric pair, and the change in food preference was maintained post-interaction. In a control condition, in which averse individuals did not have the opportunity to interact with non-averse animals, S. fuscicollis sampled the preferred food, but not as quickly as when given the opportunity to interact. We conclude that the social learning demonstrated here may allow individual tamarins to track environmental change, such as fruit ripening, more efficiently than asocial learning alone, because social learners can more quickly and safely focus on appropriate behavior by sharing up-to-date foraging information. Furthermore, since the behavior of congeners, as well as conspecifics, acts to influence food choice in a more adaptive direction, social learning about food palatability may be an advantage of mixed-species group formation to tamarins of both species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

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    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. General intelligence in another primate: individual differences across cognitive task performance in a New World monkey (Saguinus oedipus.

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    Konika Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g. At present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. What is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. To this end, we administered a large battery of tasks, representing a broad range of cognitive domains, to a population of captive cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a Bayesian latent variable model, we show that the pattern of correlations among tasks is consistent with the existence of a general factor accounting for a small but significant proportion of the variance in each task (the lower bounds of 95% Bayesian credibility intervals for correlations between g and task performance all exceed 0.12. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in cognitive abilities within at least one other primate species can be characterized by a general intelligence factor, supporting the hypothesis that important aspects of human cognitive function most likely evolved from ancient neural substrates.

  19. Infection rates and genotypes of Trypanosoma rangeli and T. cruzi infecting free-ranging Saguinus bicolor (Callitrichidae), a critically endangered primate of the Amazon Rainforest.

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    Maia da Silva, F; Naiff, R D; Marcili, A; Gordo, M; D'Affonseca Neto, J A; Naiff, M F; Franco, A M R; Campaner, M; Valente, V; Valente, S A; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G; Miles, M A

    2008-08-01

    Parasites of wild primates are important for conservation biology and human health due to their high potential to infect humans. In the Amazon region, non-human primates are commonly infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli, which are also infective to man and several mammals. This is the first survey of trypanosomiasis in a critically endangered species of tamarin, Saguinus bicolor (Callitrichidae), from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. Of the 96 free-ranging specimens of S. bicolor examined 45 (46.8%) yielded blood smears positive for trypanosomes. T. rangeli was detected in blood smears of 38 monkeys (39.6%) whereas T. cruzi was never detected. Seven animals (7.3%) presented trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Hemocultures detected 84 positive tamarins (87.5%). Seventy-two of 84 (85.7%) were morphologically diagnosed as T. rangeli and 3 (3.1%) as T. cruzi. Nine tamarins (9.4%) yielded mixed cultures of these two species, which after successive passages generated six cultures exclusively of T. cruzi and two of T. rangeli, with only one culture remaining mixed. Of the 72 cultures positive for T. rangeli, 62 remained as established cultures and were genotyped: 8 were assigned to phylogenetic lineage A (12.9%) and 54 to lineage B (87.1%). Ten established cultures of T. cruzi were genotyped as TCI lineage (100%). Transmission of both trypanosome species, their potential risk to this endangered species and the role of wild primates as reservoirs for trypanosomes infective to humans are discussed.

  20. Differential chromosomal organization between Saguinus midas and Saguinus bicolor with accumulation of differences the repetitive sequence DNA.

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    Serfaty, Dayane Martins Barbosa; Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Gross, Maria Claudia; Gordo, Marcelo; Schneider, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Saguinus is the largest and most complex genus of the subfamily Callitrichinae, with 23 species distributed from the south of Central America to the north of South America with Saguinus midas having the largest geographical distribution while Saguinus bicolor has a very restricted one, affected by the population expansion in the state of Amazonas. Considering the phylogenetic proximity of the two species along with evidence on the existence of hybrids between them, as well as cytogenetic studies on Saguinus describing a conserved karyotypic macrostructure, we carried out a physical mapping of DNA repeated sequences in the mitotic chromosome of both species, since these sequences are less susceptible to evolutionary pressure and possibly perform an important function in speciation. Both species presented 2n = 46 chromosomes; in S. midas, chromosome Y is the smallest. Multiple ribosomal sites occur in both species, but chromosome pairs three and four may be regarded as markers that differ the species when subjected to G banding and distribution of retroelement LINE 1, suggesting that it may be cytogenetic marker in which it can contribute to identification of first generation hybrids in contact zone. Saguinus bicolor also presented differences in the LINE 1 distribution pattern for sexual chromosome X in individuals from different urban fragments, probably due to geographical isolation. In this context, cytogenetic analyses reveal a differential genomic organization pattern between species S. midas and S. bicolor, in addition to indicating that individuals from different urban fragments have been accumulating differences because of the isolation between them.

  1. Anti-leptospiral agglutinins in marmosets (Saguinus oedipus and Saguinus leucopus from illegal trade

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    Viviana Gonzalez-Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the infection status with pathogenic Leptospira of one Saguinus oedipus and nine Saguinus leucopus at the Cali Zoo that had been confiscated in Colombia from illegal trade. Materials and methods. A full physical examination, blood work, urinalysis were conducted in all individuals during the reception health check-up, in addition to running the microagglutination test with a pool of 19 serovars, with a starting dilution of 1:50. Results. A high positive titer (≥1:3200 to Leptospira alexanderi serovar manhao in an asymptomatic S. oedipus was detected. All S. leucopus tested negative or less than 1:50. Conclusions. Captive locations have been documented to artificially enhance opportunities to come into contact with contaminated bodily fluids from peridomestic rodents. However, infectious diseases acquired during the illegal transport of wildlife to major metropolitan centers are rarely considered a wildlife conservation or public health threat. Infection with zoonotic pathogens should also be considered an additional threat to endangered wild primates involved in illegal trade, which could hamper reintroduction efforts or other population management procedures for primate species with restricted and fragmented distributions.

  2. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

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    Snowdon, Charles T.; Teie, David

    2009-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations...

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Primates based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications for conservation

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    Claudia Helena Tagliaro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates, a group of small monkeys from South America and Panama, remains an area of considerable discussion despite many investigations, there being continuing controversy over subgeneric taxonomic classifications based on morphological characters. The purpose of our research was to help elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the monkey genus Saguinus (Callitrichinae using a molecular approach to discover whether or not the two different sections containing hairy-faced and bare-faced species are monophyletic, whether Saguinus midas midas and Saguinus bicolor are more closely related than are S. midas midas and Saguinus midas niger, and if Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli really are different species. We sequenced the 957 bp ND1 mitochondrial gene of 21 Saguinus monkeys (belonging to six species and nine morphotypes and one Cebus monkey (the outgroup and constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic trees obtained divided the genus Saguinus into two groups, one containing the small-bodied species S. fuscicollis and the other, the large-bodied species S. mystax, S. leucopus, S. oedipus, S. midas, S. bicolor. The most derived taxa, S. midas and S. bicolor, grouped together, while S. fuscicollis melanoleucus and S. f. weddelli showed divergence values that did not support the division of these morphotypes into subspecies. On the other hand, S. midas individuals showed divergence compatible with the existence of three subspecies, two of them with the same morphotype as the subspecies S. midas niger. The results of our study suggest that there is at least one Saguinus subspecies that has not yet been described and that the conservation status of Saguinus species and subspecies should be carefully revised using modern molecular approaches.

  4. Topografia do cone medular do sauim (Saguinus midas Topography of the medullary cone in sauim (Saguinus midas

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    Danielli Martinelli Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Primata endêmico do Brasil, especificamente da floresta Amazônica, o Sauim alimentam-se de pequenos vertebrados, invertebrados, exudatos, flores, néctar, folhas e fungos, cuja morfologia é pouco conhecida. Assim, objetivou-se estabelecer parâmetros morfométricos e topográficos do cone medular dessa espécie, que sirvam de base para a prática das anestesias epidurais. Para tanto, foram avaliados quatro exemplares, provenientes da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. O Saguinus midas apresentou sete vértebras lombares e três vértebras sacrais. Após a dissecação do cone medular, registrou-se os aspectos anatômicos de interesse, enfatizando seu início (base e seu término (ápice, que, após mensuração, revelou base em nível de L4 e ápice em S2, com comprimento médio de 5,38cm, o que leva a sugerir a região lombosacral como sendo a mais adequada para o desenvolvimento da prática de anestesias epidurais.Primate endemic to Brazil, specifically in the Amazon rainforest, the Sauim feed on small vertebrates, invertebrates, exudates, flowers, nectar, leaves and fungi whose morphology is poorly known. Thus, the objective was to establish morphometric parameters and topographical conus of this species, as a basis for the practice of epidural anesthesia. For this purpose, four samples were evaluated, from the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. The Saguinus midas had seven lumbar vertebrae and three sacral vertebrae. After dissection of the conus, we recorded the anatomy of interest, emphasizing its beginning (base and its end (apex, revealed that after measuring the level of base peak in L4 and S2, with an average length of 5.38cm, which leads us to suggest the lumbosacral region as the most suitable for the development of the practice of epidural anesthesia.

  5. Immunity against the GBV-B hepatitis virus in tamarins can prevent productive infection following rechallenge and is long-lived

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Engle, Ronald E; Govindarajan, Sugantha

    2008-01-01

    an infected tamarin, which was not infected with the related GBV-A viruses. Its infectivity titer was 10(6.6) tamarin 50% infectious doses per ml. Next, two tamarins that were convalescent from recombinant GBV-B infection were re-challenged. In the original infection viremia persisted for 8 and 12 weeks...

  6. Tocantins river as an effective barrier to gene flow in Saguinus niger populations

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    Marcelo Vallinoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saguinus represent the basal genus of the Callitrichinae subfamily. Traditionally this genus is divided into three groups: Hairy, Mottled and Bare-face, however, molecular data failed to validate these groups as monophyletic units, as well as raised some subspecies to the species status. This is the case of the former subspecies Saguinus midas midas and S. midas niger, which are now considered as different species. In the present study, we sequenced a portion of the D-loop mtDNA region in populations from the East bank of the Xingu and from both banks of the Tocantins river, in order to test the effectiveness of large rivers as barriers to the gene flow in Saguinus. According to our results, the populations from the East and West banks of the Tocantins river are more divergent than true species like S. mystax and S. imperator. The Tocantins river may be acting as a barrier to gene flow, and consequently these very divergent populations may represent distinct taxonomic entities (species?.

  7. Cariotipo del tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus): similitudes con el cariotipo humano

    OpenAIRE

    Tabares, Juan Hember; Fierro, Carlos Humberto; Pulido, Paola Del Pilar; Ossa Reyes, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    El tit? gris (Saguinus leucopus) es un primate end?mico de Colombia cuyo cariotipo se describe en el presente estudio a partir de una pareja de individuos ubicados en el Centro de Rehabilitaci?n de Fauna Silvestre del Oriente de Caldas, Colombia. Las muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas de la vena femoral y anticoaguladas con heparina de sodio. Los cromosomas se obtuvieron por el m?todo cl?sico de cultivo de linfocitos y bandeamiento Q y G Los individuos presentan 46 cromosomas (2n = 46: 30...

  8. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus

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    Vania M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs.

  9. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

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    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  10. CARIOTIPO DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus MEDIANTE BANDAS R-REPLICATIVAS KARYOTYPE OF TITÍ GREY (Saguinus leucopus THROUGH R-REPLICATIVE BANDS

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    Susana Posada Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Colombia es considerado un país megabiodiverso, ostentando varias especies endémicas como Saguinus leucopus. El Tití gris, como es vulgarmente llamado, habita bosques tropicales, es omnívoro y de hábitos diurnos, y se destaca como dispersor de semillas. Morfológicamente se caracteriza por su reducido tamaño, pelaje café y dorso plateado. Se organiza en grupos familiares formados por la pareja y su descendencia, con una hembra dominante, la cual es la única que cría. Debido a factores fundamentalmente de origen antrópico, se encuentra catalogada como especies en peligro de extinción por la UICN y está registrado en el apéndice I del CITES. Aun cuando se han realizados estudios sobre su biología básica, son pocos los reporte sobre la evaluación citogenética y ninguno sobre cariotipo con bandas R-Replicativa. En esta investigación se realizó el cariotipo y el idiograma, con bandas R-Replicativas, mediante la incorporación de 5'-bromo-2'-deoxiuridina (BrdU en sangre periférica estimulada con fitohemaglutinina de S. leucopus. Los resultados mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 46, con un número fundamental (NF de 76. Los cromosomas se organizaron en cinco grupos de acuerdo con su forma y tamaño. El grupo A, es conformado por 3 pares de cromosomas grandes submetacéntricos; el grupo B, por 5 pares de cromosomas de tamaño medio metacéntricos o submetacéntricos; el grupo C, por 6 pares acrocéntricos y el grupo D, por 8 pares subtelocéntricos y el par sexual XX/XY. El cromosoma "X" es de tamaño medio submetacéntrico y el "Y" es metacéntrico, y de los más pequeños del genoma. Finalmente, se propone un idiograma con bandas R- Replicativa con base en mitosis en estadio III de replicación.Abstract. Colombia is considered a mega-biodiverse country, boasting several endemic species such as Saguinus leucopus. The Marmoset gray, as is commonly called, inhabits tropical forests, is omnivorous and diurnal, and stands as seed

  11. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  12. Comparison of tamarins and marmosets as hosts for GBV-B infections and the effect of immunosuppression on duration of viremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, Robert E.; Chavez, Deborah; Notvall, Lena; Brasky, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    GBV-B virus is a close relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) that causes hepatitis in tamarins, and thus, is an attractive surrogate model for HCV. In this study, we demonstrate that the host range of GBV-B extends to the common marmoset with an infection profile similar to that observed for tamarins. Marmoset hepatocytes were susceptible to in vitro infection with GBV-B. Virus was efficiently secreted into the medium, and approximately 25% of hepatocytes were positive for NS3 staining. In an attempt to induce persistent infections, tamarins were immunosuppressed with FK506 and inoculated with GBV-B. Although no chronic infections were induced, the duration of viremia was increased in most animals. In one animal, the duration of viremia was extended to 46 weeks, but viral clearance occurred 18 weeks after stopping FK506 therapy. The greater availability of marmosets in comparison to tamarins will greatly facilitate future research efforts with this model

  13. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  15. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae

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    J. Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951 is one of the neotropical primates least studied. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimões River, between the Negro and Japurá Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia. Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japurá and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated. In this study, field data was composed of sightings and the collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR. For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest. New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amanã area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats.

  17. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Neotropical primates have evolved long calls, which have a role in spacing and cohesion of groups. Detection and "reading" of long calls as well as ranging of calling individuals seem essential for this role. This study used sound propagation experiments to investigate habitat caused degradation...... of long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...... effective sound propagation at 2.0 m (below the canopy and in the upper part of the dense undergrowth where they forage) facilitates reading of the information content of the long calls and hence their use for communication during foraging. Although the high degradation of the long calls with distance...

  18. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

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    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  19. Frugivory and seed dispersal of golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 in a forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    MJ. Lapenta

    Full Text Available The influence of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia as a seed disperser was studied by monitoring two groups of tamarins from December 1998 to December 2000 (871.9 hours of observations in a forest fragment in south-east Brazil. The tamarins consumed fruits of 57 species from at least 17 families. They ingested the seeds of 39 species, and 23 of these were put to germinate in the laboratory and/or in the field. L. rosalia is a legitimate seed disperser because the seeds of all species tested germinated after ingestion, albeit some in low percentages. These primates do not show a consistent effect in final seed germination, because they benefit some species while damaging others. Feces were examined for seeds that had been preyed upon or digested.

  20. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

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    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  1. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  2. New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae Novos dados sobre a ecologia e distribuição geográfica de Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsecchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951 is one of the neotropical primates least studied. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimões River, between the Negro and Japurá Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia. Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japurá and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated. In this study, field data was composed of sightings and the collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR. For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest. New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amanã area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats.Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951 é um dos primatas neotropicais menos estudados. No Brasil, a espécie ocorre ao norte do Rio Amazonas entre os Rios Negro e Japurá (Caquetá, e Guayabero-Guaviare na Colômbia. No entanto, devido ao pequeno número de espécimes coletados entre o baixo Japurá e o baixo Negro a distribuição geográfica é mal delineada. No presente estudo, os dados de campo são compostos por observações e coletas realizadas durante o levantamento da diversidade de mamíferos da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Amanã (RDSA. Para este levantamento, duas expedições de 40 dias foram realizadas em 2004. A primeira ocorreu durante a estação da cheia em junho e julho, e a segunda durante o pico da estação seca em outubro. Observações diretas foram feitas através de

  3. LIBERACIÓN Y SEGUIMIENTO DE DOS GRUPOS DE TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TOLIMA

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    A. Leal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentes de decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados durante aproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrollo y recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos al medio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberación en un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellas para iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizó un estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentales derivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevó a cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación de los individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientos relacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interacciones sociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación, los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento, lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraron variaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre las dos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con su objetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  4. Comunicación vocal de dos grupos de Tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en Mariquita, Colombia

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    Luz Elena Rueda-C.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio del repertorio vocal y su significado, de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en San Sebastián de Mariquita, departamento del Tolima. Uno de los grupos habita una zona urbana, la casa de la Fundación Segunda Expedición Botánica (Funbotánica y el otro se encuentra en el Bosque del Municipio (José Celestino Mutis. Se identificaron 27 tipos de sonidos, de los cuales se registraron 21 en el grupo Funbotánica y 13 en el grupo Bosque. Se caracterizaron cada una de las señales y en particular se hizo énfasis en la asociación entre las vocalizaciones y los patrones de comportamiento que exhibe la especie. Los titíes emitieron señales específicas en contextos como alimentación, alarma, amenaza y establecimiento de contacto con individuos que se encuentran fuera de vista (señales de llamada. Igualmente, se encontró relación entre las señales y algunos mensajes no conductuales (sexo, edad y posición jerárquica; esto demuestra que las vocalizaciones brindan gran cantidad de información sobre la identidad del emisor, acontecimientos en el ambiente y conductas específicas de los individuos. No se logró establecer diferencias estadísticas entre las señales emitidas en cada grupo, sin embargo, los titíes produjeron vocalizaciones similares en los dos ambientes, con algunas variaciones en frecuencia y duración; aspectos que podrían estar influenciados por las características propias del hábitat.

  5. Genetic variants related to disease susceptibility and immunotolerance in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC, Fy) gene in the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus, primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Ashley; Lewis, James D; Melnick, Don J; Martins, Cristiana; Valladares-Padua, Claudio; Perez-Sweeney, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    The DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes the DARC protein, which serves multiple roles in the immune system, as a binding site for the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a promiscuous chemokine receptor and a blood group antigen. Variation in DARC may play particularly significant roles in innate immunity, immunotolerance and pathogen entry in callitrichines, such as the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). We compared amino acid sequences of DARC in the black lion tamarin (BLT) to non-human Haplorhine primates and Homo sapiens. Consistent with prior studies in other Haplorhines, we observed that the chemokine receptor experiences two opposing selection forces: (1) positive selection on the Plasmodium binding site and (2) purifying selection. We observed also that D21N, F22L, and V25L differentiated BLT from humans at a critical site for P. vivax and P. knowlesi binding. One amino acid residue, F22L, was subject to both positive selection and fixation in New World monkeys, suggesting a beneficial role as an adaptive barrier to Plasmodium entry. Unlike in humans, we observed no variation in DARC among BLTs, suggesting that the protein does not play a role in immunotolerance. In addition, lion tamarins differed from humans at the blood compatibility Fy a /Fy b antigen-binding site 44, as well as at the putative destabilizing residues A61, T68, A187, and L215, further supporting a difference in the functional role of DARC in these primates compared with humans. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in the Plasmodium and Fy a /Fy b antigen-binding sites disrupt DARC function in callitrichines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Negative serosurvey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas from Niterói/RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira Molina

    Full Text Available Abstract New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25; all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T. gondii usually with high mortality rates.

  7. Liberación y seguimiento de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en el departamento de Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentesde decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados duranteaproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrolloy recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos almedio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberaciónen un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellaspara iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizóun estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentalesderivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevóa cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación delos individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientosrelacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interaccionessociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación,los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento,lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraronvariaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre lasdos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con suobjetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  8. Lineage-specific serology confirms Brazilian Atlantic forest lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Leontopithecus rosalia, as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II (TcII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. Kerr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Methods Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin, L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin, Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey. Results The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. Conclusions This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.

  9. Identification of IgH gene rearrangement and immunophenotype in an animal model of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Peng, Xueqin; Tang, Yunlian; Gan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chengkun; Xie, Lu; Xie, Xiaoli; Gan, Runliang; Wu, Yimou

    2016-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Because the susceptible hosts of EB virus are limited to human and cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), there have been no appropriate animal models until the lymphoma model induced by EBV in human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/SCID chimeric mice was reported. However, it is still controversial whether the EBV-associated lymphoma induced in hu-PBL/SCID mice is a monoclonal tumor. In this study, we transplanted normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from six donors infected with EBV into SCID mice to construct hu-PBL/SCID chimeric mice. The induced tumors were found in the mediastinum or abdominal cavity of SCID mice. Microscopic observation exhibited tumor cells that were large and had a plasmablastic, centroblastic or immunoblastic-like appearance. Immunophenotyping assays showed the induced tumors were LCA-positive, CD20/CD79a-positive (markers of B cells), and CD3/CD45RO-negative (markers of T cells). A human-specific Alu sequence could be amplified by Alu-PCR. This confirmed that induced tumors were B-cell lymphomas originating from the transplanted human lymphocytes rather than mouse cells. EBER in situ hybridization detected positive signals in the nuclei of the tumor cells. Expression of EBV-encoded LMP1, EBNA-1, and EBNA-2 in the tumors was significantly positive. PCR-based capillary electrophoresis analysis of IgH gene rearrangement revealed a monoclonal peak and single amplification product in all six cases of induced tumors. This indicated that EBV can induce monoclonal proliferation of human B lymphocytes and promotes the development of lymphoma. J. Med. Virol. 88:1804-1813, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    .... Species: Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) Black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus monacha) Jackass...

  11. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively. Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  12. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  13. Variation in prolactin is related to variation in sexual behavior and contact affiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Snowdon

    Full Text Available Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.

  14. No sex-biased dispersal in a primate with an uncommon social system—cooperative polyandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Díaz-Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An influential hypothesis proposed by Greenwood (1980 suggests that different mating systems result in female and male-biased dispersal, respectively, in birds and mammals. However, other aspects of social structure and behavior can also shape sex-biased dispersal. Although sex-specific patterns of kin cooperation are expected to affect the benefits of philopatry and dispersal patterns, empirical evidence is scarce. Unlike many mammals, Saguinus geoffroyi (Geoffroy’s tamarin has a breeding system in which typically multiple males mate with a single breeding female. Males typically form cooperative reproductive partnerships between relatives, whereas females generally compete for reproductive opportunities. This system of cooperative polyandry is predicted to result in female-biased dispersal, providing an opportunity to test the current hypotheses of sex-biased dispersal. Here we test for evidence of sex-biased dispersal in S. geoffroyi using demographic and genetic data from three populations. We find no sex bias in natal dispersal, contrary to the prediction based on the mating patterns. This pattern was consistent after controlling for the effects of historical population structure. Limited breeding opportunities within social groups likely drive both males and females to disperse, suggesting that dispersal is intimately related to the social context. The integration of genetic and field data revealed that tamarins are another exception to the presumed pattern of male-biased dispersal in mammals. A shift in focus from mating systems to social behavior, which plays a role in most all processes expected to influence sex-bias in dispersal, will be a fruitful target for research both within species and across taxa.

  15. Systematic, cross-cortex variation in neuron numbers in rodents and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Cahalane, Diarmuid J; Finlay, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Uniformity, local variability, and systematic variation in neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area across species and cortical areas have been claimed to characterize the isocortex. Resolving these claims has been difficult, because species, techniques, and cortical areas vary across studies. We present a stereological assessment of neuron numbers in layers II-IV and V-VI per unit of cortical surface area across the isocortex in rodents (hamster, Mesocricetus auratus; agouti, Dasyprocta azarae; paca, Cuniculus paca) and primates (owl monkey, Aotus trivigratus; tamarin, Saguinus midas; capuchin, Cebus apella); these chosen to vary systematically in cortical size. The contributions of species, cortical areas, and techniques (stereology, "isotropic fractionator") to neuron estimates were assessed. Neurons per unit of cortical surface area increase across the rostro-caudal (RC) axis in primates (varying by a factor of 1.64-2.13 across the rostral and caudal poles) but less in rodents (varying by a factor of 1.15-1.54). Layer II-IV neurons account for most of this variation. When integrated into the context of species variation, and this RC gradient in neuron numbers, conflicts between studies can be accounted for. The RC variation in isocortical neurons in adulthood mirrors the gradients in neurogenesis duration in development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 'They are stealing my island' : Residents' opinions on foreign investment in the residential tourism industry in Tamarin, Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortman, Tessa; Donaldson, Ronnie; van Westen, Guus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068876572

    2016-01-01

    The small nation of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, once a poor sugar plantation island, has successfully diversified and expanded its economy since independence, by attracting foreign investment in manufacturing and modern service industries. Tourism is a major part of the 'Mauritian Miracle'; in

  17. Molecular evolution of GB virus B hepatitis virus during acute resolving and persistent infections in experimentally infected tamarins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Faulk, Kristina N

    2010-01-01

    (-3) substitutions per site year(-1) during weeks 1-52 and 53-104, respectively. Thus, there was a significant decrease in evolution over time, as found for hepatitis C virus. The rate of non-synonymous substitution per non-synonymous site compared with that of synonymous substitution per synonymous site decreased...

  18. Temporal and demographic blood parasite dynamics in two free-ranging neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon A. Erkenswick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-host relationships are influenced by several factors intrinsic to hosts, such as social standing, group membership, sex, and age. However, in wild populations, temporal variation in parasite distributions and concomitant infections can alter these patterns. We used microscropy and molecular methods to screen for naturally occurring haemoparasitic infections in two Neotropical primate host populations, the saddleback (Leontocebus weddelli and emperor (Saguinus imperator tamarin, in the lowland tropical rainforests of southeastern Peru. Repeat sampling was conducted from known individuals over a three-year period to test for parasite-host and parasite-parasite associations. Three parasites were detected in L. weddelli including Trypanosoma minasense, Mansonella mariae, and Dipetalonema spp., while S. imperator only hosted the latter two. Temporal variation in prevalence was observed in T. minasense and Dipetalonema spp., confirming the necessity of a multi-year study to evaluate parasite-host relationships in this system. Although callitrichids display a distinct reproductive dominance hierarchy, characterized by single breeding females that typically mate polyandrously and can suppress the reproduction of subdominant females, logistic models did not identify sex or breeding status as determining factors in the presence of these parasites. However, age class had a positive effect on infection with M. mariae and T. minasense, and adults demonstrated higher parasite species richness than juveniles or sub-adults across both species. Body weight had a positive effect on the presence of Dipetalonema spp. The inclusion of co-infection variables in statistical models of parasite presence/absence data improved model fit for two of three parasites. This study verifies the importance and need for broad spectrum and long-term screening of parasite assemblages of natural host populations.

  19. Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Lugo

    Full Text Available The MHC class I (MHC-I region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10 and -B (15 loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally, a quantitative index for MHC:KIR affinity was proposed and tested to predict putative interacting pairs. Altogether, our data indicate that i MHC-I genes has expanded differentially among Platyrrhini species, ii Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets MHC-B loci have limited or tissue-specific expression, iii MHC-G-like genes have diversified more rapidly than MHC-B genes, and iv the MHC-I diversity is generated mainly by genetic polymorphism and gene copy number variation, likely promoted by natural selection for ligand binding.

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINALES DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus BAJO CONDICIONES DE CAUTIVERIO, OBTENIDAS POR ESTIMULACIÓN VIBRATORIA DEL PENE (EVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Poches

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la técnica de estimulación vibratoria del pene (evP para obtener semen en quince especímenes de S. leucopus bajo condiciones de cautiverio, en cuatro diferentes sitios en Colombia. adicionalmente, se estandarizó la técnica evP y se deter-minaron algunas características seminales (color, viscosidad, volumen, pH, motilidad, morfología, viabilidad, concentración y morfometría espermática. se empleó clorhidrato de ketamina a dosis entre 5 y 10 mg/kg i.M. para la sedación previa al muestreo a fin de disminuir el estrés de la captura y del procedimiento, ya que los especímenes no estaban acostumbrados o entrenados para procesos de obtención de muestras biológicas. en el uso de la técnica se logró un 52,6% de éxito en la combinación de 90 Hz de vibración y 1 mm de amplitud; el tiempo de eyaculación promedio fue de 12:35±6:42 minutos; el pH, 7,5±0,26; el volumen, 24±18,82 μl; la motilidad masal fue de 3,7/5,0±0,5; la motilidad individual progresiva, 97,1±45,4%; la concentración espermática fue de 87.617±21.327 x 104 spz/μl; la normalidad fue del 69,3±11,06% y la viabilidad del 93,7±4,9%. Las características seminales fueron similares a las reportadas en otras es-pecies de callitríchidos y obtenidas por la misma técnica. se empleó satisfactoriamente el diluyente Talp-Hepes y el cual no afectó las características antes descritas. La evP es un método innovador, replicable, viable y seguro para la obtención de semen en S. leucopus y a otros callitríchidos bajo sedación con ketamina en condiciones de cautiverio.

  1. AcEST: DK948841 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G265|NETR_SAGLB Neurotrypsin OS=Saguinus labiatus GN=PRSS12... 30 8.6 sp|P20872|ENV_HV2ST Envelope glycoprot...G 187 >sp|Q5G265|NETR_SAGLB Neurotrypsin OS=Saguinus labiatus GN=PRSS12 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 875 Score = 30.4

  2. The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapleton, Jack T; Foung, Steven; Muerhoff, A Scott

    2011-01-01

    In 1967, it was reported that experimental inoculation of serum from a surgeon (G.B.) with acute hepatitis into tamarins resulted in hepatitis. In 1995, two new members of the family Flaviviridae, named GBV-A and GBV-B, were identified in tamarins that developed hepatitis following inoculation wi...

  3. Nuevos registros de nemátodes parásitos de animales de vida silvestre en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez para el Perú, 4 especies de nemátodes: Dipetalonema graciliformis Freitas, 1964 parásito de Saguinus labiatus; Evaginuris branickii (McCiure, 1932 Quentín, 1973 de Dinomys branickii; Alaeuris caudatus (Lent & Freitas, 1948 de Iguana iguana y Serpinema amazonicus de Podocnemis expansa. También, se considera a Saguinus labiatus como un nuevo huésped para Dipetalonema graciliformis.

  4. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infection of Animal Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Krump, Nathan A; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the first polyomavirus to be associated with human cancer. Mechanistic studies attempting to fully elucidate MCPyV's oncogenic mechanisms have been hampered by the lack of animal models for MCPyV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus (containing a green fluorescent protein [GFP] reporter construct), MCPyV recombinant virions, and several MCPyV chimeric viruses to infect dermal fibroblasts isolated from various model animals, including mouse ( Mus musculus ), rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ), rat ( Rattus norvegicus ), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta ), patas monkey ( Erythrocebus patas ), common woolly monkey ( Lagothrix lagotricha ), red-chested mustached tamarin ( Saguinus labiatus ), and tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ). We found that MCPyV-GFP pseudovirus was able to enter the dermal fibroblasts of all species tested. Chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts were the only type that supported vigorous MCPyV gene expression and viral replication, and they did so to a level beyond that of human dermal fibroblasts. We further demonstrated that both human and chimpanzee dermal fibroblasts produce infectious MCPyV virions that can successfully infect new cells. In addition, rat dermal fibroblasts supported robust MCPyV large T antigen expression after infection with an MCPyV chimeric virus in which the entire enhancer region of the MCPyV early promoter has been replaced with the simian virus 40 (SV40) analog. Our results suggest that viral transcription and/or replication events represent the major hurdle for MCPyV cross-species transmission. The capacity of rat dermal fibroblasts to support MCPyV early gene expression suggests that the rat is a candidate model organism for studying viral oncogene function during Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) oncogenic progression. IMPORTANCE MCPyV plays an important role in the development of a highly aggressive form of skin cancer, Merkel

  5. MUTATION AND ITS ROLE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Ismaila Y. Sudi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    to have far more potentials for providing desirable effects. In essence, this paper intends ... such a ionizing radiations and mutagenic radiations (Brown, 1989; Tamarin, 1999). 2. I ...... I :; I 2005 llartley, B.S. (1984) Experimental Evolution ofribitol.

  6. Phylogenetic inferences of Atelinae (Platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles b. marginatus

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, EHC; Neusser, M.; Pieczarka, J. C.; Nagamachi, C.; Sbalqueiro, I. J.; Müller, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three Atelinae species Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this Platyrrhini subfamily. Comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH) employing human, Saguinus oedipus and Lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes....

  7. Propriétés physico-chimiques des pâtes de fruits enrichies aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIRINA

    fois plus de calcium que le lait de vache, 4 fois plus de vitamine A que la carotte, 3 fois ... Pour pallier le risque de développement des micro-organismes lors de la ..... Figure 2A: Analyses à composantes principales (ACP) des pâtes de tamarin ...

  8. AcEST: DK956834 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urotrypsin OS=Saguinus labiatus GN=PRSS12... 35 0.31 sp|Q5G268|NETR_HYLLE Neurotr...Y Neurotrypsin OS=Pongo pygmaeus GN=PRSS12 PE... 32 3.5 sp|O13817|SEC7C_SCHPO Protein transport protein sec7...3 OS=Schizos... 31 4.5 sp|Q5G267|NETR_MACMU Neurotrypsin OS=Macaca mulatta GN=PRSS12...HUMAN Forkhead box protein J3 OS=Homo sapiens GN... 30 7.7 >sp|Q5G265|NETR_SAGLB Neurotrypsin OS=Saguinus labiatus GN=PRSS12...YPHYLPTEQRHRRTRPPPPLPRFPRPPRALPALRPHALQAGHTP 86 >sp|Q5G268|NETR_HYLLE Neurotrypsin OS=Hylobates leucogenys GN=PRSS12

  9. Radioactivity studies. Progress report, April 30, 1984-June 1, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, N.

    1985-06-01

    This report includes information pertaining to metabolic studies of neptunium and protactinium in the adult baboon. Recent investigations have provided additional data on the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of Np-237, Np-239 and Pa-233 in baboons following single intravenous and gavage administrations. Data is also presented on the gastrointestinal absorption of isotopes of uranium, neptunium and plutonium in individual baboons after receiving multiple gavage administrations at selected time intervals and nutritional states. The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption (f 1 values) and retention factors have been calculated for each of these nuclides. We have begun metabolic studies on the adult tamarin (Saquinis labiatus). Data are presented in this report on the preliminary results of the metabolism of Np-239 bicarbonate intravenously injected into three females and one male tamarin. These data are discussed in comparison with similar results obtained with our baboons and with other species. 28 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Test stálosti objektu u primátů

    OpenAIRE

    Gálik, Michal

    2014-01-01

    5 ABSTRACT Object permanence is a cognitive ability to perceive the continuous existence of objects, even if they cannot be directly observed, respectively perceived by other senses (Piaget 1954). In humans object permanence develops in 6 qualitatively different stages. By using a comparative approach, it was found that the last stage 6 of this ability also occurs in great apes, gibbons and some New World monkeys (capuchin, marmoset and tamarin). In this study, we conducted a study with a ser...

  11. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  12. Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    1989-03-15

    A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to 50 days.

  13. Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1 gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara do Nascimento Borges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri, in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus and one species of Callicebus (moloch, in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%, the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

  14. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  15. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  16. Phylogenetic inferences of Atelinae (Platyrrhini) based on multi-directional chromosome painting in Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles b. marginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, E H C; Neusser, M; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C; Sbalqueiro, I J; Müller, S

    2005-01-01

    We performed multi-directional chromosome painting in a comparative cytogenetic study of the three Atelinae species Brachyteles arachnoides, Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles belzebuth marginatus, in order to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this Platyrrhini subfamily. Comparative chromosome maps between these species were established by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) employing human, Saguinus oedipus and Lagothrix lagothricha chromosome-specific probes. The three species included in this study and four previously analyzed species from all four Atelinae genera were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis on the basis of a data matrix comprised of 82 discrete chromosome characters. The results confirmed that Atelinae represent a monophyletic clade with a putative ancestral karyotype of 2n = 62 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an evolutionary branching sequence [Alouatta [Brachyteles [Lagothrix and Ateles

  17. Conservación del bosque y fauna del Colegio Liceo Nacional como estrategia de educación ambiental en Ibagué, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cubillos

    2005-07-01

    más de 70 especies vegetales (excluyendo arbustos y herbáceas, y 25 especies animales entre aves, mamíferos y reptiles, destacándose la presencia del tití gris (Saguinus leucopus. Además, se llevaron a cabo cuatro talleres teóricoprácticos donde las alumnas conocieron las especies vegetales y animales que existen en el colegio, así como algunas nociones de taxonomía de aves, anfibios y reptiles presentes en el departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Con estas actividades se logró incentivar el sentido de pertenencia, conciencia ecológica y conservacionista en las alumnas y docentes por el bosque y fauna del colegio Liceo Nacional.

  18. BVOCs concentration in the Reunion Island tropical forests and the impact on photooxidants formation during the BIO-MAIDO 2015 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Aurelie; Duflot, Valentin; Tulet, Pierre; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Strasberg, Dominique; Deguillaume, Laurent; Vaitilingom, Mickael; Burnet, Frederic; Bourrianne, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    In March-April 2015 took place an intensive field campaign in the Reunion Island : BIO-MAÏDO 2015 campaign. The main objective of the campaign was to study the interactions between forests, gases, aerosols and clouds in this unique tropical natural science lab (Duflot at al, in prep). During this campaign volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were sampled at different part of the Reunion island. BVOCs (including isoprene, terpenes, and some oxygenated compounds) have different temporal and spatial variations depending on vegetation, on plant species and on environmental factors (ambient temperature, light intensity, air pollution..) (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998, Kesselmeier and Staudt, 1999). BVOCs are important atmospheric constituent of the troposphere. Due to high reactivity they have an important impact on the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (Granier et al., 2000; Poisson et al., 2000; Pfister et al., 2008), thus thave a significantey influence on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere (Houweling et al., 1998; Taraborrelli et al., 2012) on regional and global scales. BVOCs were studied at different locations: Maido Observatory (2160m) with semi-continous measurement (12 March - 9 April 2015); Tamarins forest; Cryptomeria forest; Primary forest (Belouve) and Mare Longue forest . BVOCs were sampled on adsorbents cartridges containing 250 mg Tenax TA and analysed later with a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde concentrations were determined at the Maido observatory using an AEROLASER 4021 instrument, based on the so called "Hantzsch"-reaction, and with a 30s resolution. Isoprene was the most important BVOCs concentration found in the Reunion Island forest, especially from the endemic Tamarins trees, followed by limonene and alpha-pinene. Formaldehyde at the Maido facility show a strong diurnal variation and a maximum concentration during day-time from 1 to 4 ppbv. The local emission of

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  20. The current status of the New World monkey phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHNEIDER HORACIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Four DNA datasets were combined in tandem (6700 bp and Maximum parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analyses were performed. The results suggest three groups emerging almost at the same time: Atelidae, Pitheciidae and Cebidae. The total analysis strongly supports the monophyly of the Cebidae family, grouping Aotus, Cebus and Saimiri with the small callitrichines. In the callitrichines, the data link Cebuela to Callithrix, place Callimico as a sister group of Callithrix/Cebuella, and show Saguinus to be the earliest offshoot of the callitrichines. In the family Pithecidae, Callicebus is the basal genus. Finally, combined molecular data showed congruent branching in the atelid clade, setting up Alouatta as the basal lineage and Brachyteles-Lagothrix as a sister group and the most derived branch. Two major points remain to be clarified in the platyrrhine phylogeny: (i what is the exact branching pattern of Aotus, Cebus, Saimiri and the small callitrichines, and (ii, which two of these three lineages, pitheciines, atelines or cebids, are more closely related?

  1. The prion protein and New World primate phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The PrP C prion protein contains 250 amino acids with some variation among species and is expressed in several cell types. PrP C is converted to PrP Sc by a post-translational process in which it acquires amino acid sequences of three-dimensional conformation of beta-sheets. Variations in the prion protein gene were observed among 16 genera of New World primates (Platyrrhini, and resulted in amino acid substitutions when compared with the human sequence. Seven substitutions not yet described in the literature were found: W -> R at position 31 in Cebuella, T -> A at position 95 in Cacajao and Chiropotes, N-> S at position 100 in Brachyteles, L -> Q at position 130 in Leontopithecus (in the sequence responsible for generating the beta-sheet 1, D -> E at position 144 in Lagothrix (in the sequence responsible for the alpha-helix 1, D-> G at position 147 in Saguinus (also located in the alpha-helix 1 region, and M -> I at position 232 in Alouatta. The phylogenetic trees generated by parsimony, neighbor-joining and Bayesian analyses strongly support the monophyletic status of the platyrrhines, but did not resolve relationships among families. However, the results do corroborate previous findings, which indicate that the three platyrrhine families radiated rapidly from an ancient split.

  2. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  3. Morphological and genetic diversity in Callithrix hybrids in an anthropogenic area in southeastern Brazil (Primates: Cebidae: Callitrichinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle M. Cezar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two species of Callithrix, C. jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. penicillata (É. Geoffroy, 1812, are considered invasive in Rio de Janeiro. This study determined the genetic and morphological diversity and verified the species involved in the hybridization of 10 individuals from the municipalities of Silva Jardim (N = 9 and Rio das Ostras (N = 1. We compared the external morphology and skull of C. jacchus (N = 15 and C. penicillata (N = 14 specimens deposited in the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro (MN- UFRJ. Phylogenetic (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and phylogeographical analyses (network analysis were performed based on cytochrome b sequences. These analyses included hybrids from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (N = 3, C. penicillata (N = 2, C. jacchus (N = 2, C. geoffroyi (N = 2, C. kuhlii (N = 2, C. aurita (N = 1, and as outgroups, Mico emiliae (N = 1 and Saguinus mystax (N = 1. The pelage and skull characters of most hybrids were more closely related to C. jacchus. Skull morphometric analysis revealed an intermediate state for the hybrids. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a high similarity between the hybrids and C. penicillata. Six haplotypes of hybrids were identified. Network analysis including them and C. penicillata recovered the topology generated by phylogenetic analysis. The results corroborate that C. jacchus and C. penicillata participate in the hybridization process. There was no geographic structure between hybrids from the coastal lowlands and from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, Cristiani; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-10-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  5. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  6. Uso y competición por plantas alimenticias entre Pithecia aequatorialis (Primates: Pitheciidae y otros animales en la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis J. Charpentier J. Charpentier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este reporte proporcionamos información sobre plantas alimenticias del huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis y sus competidores en bosque de altura de la microcuenca del río Itaya, Amazonía peruana. De mayo a noviembre del 2009 y de enero a abril del 2010 seguimos silenciosamente a dos grupos familiares con el propósito de registrar las plantas cuyos frutos forman parte de su dieta. Durante los contactos tuvimos 90 eventos alimenticios en 48 especies de plantas agrupadas en 24 familias. De ellas, 36 habitan en bosque de colina baja y el resto en bosque de terraza alta. La mayor diversidad de plantas alimenticias está agrupada en siete familias que en conjunto representaron el 60.4%, sobresaliendo entre ellas las familias Moraceae (8 especies, Fabaceae (6 especies y Annonaceae (4 especies. Los frutos en su mayoría fueron consumidos en estado maduro, siendo el mesocarpio el más apreciado (40%. Entre los mamíferos, siete de los competidores fueron primates, siendo el principal el pichico pardo (Saguinus lagonotus y entre las aves el tucán de cuello blanco (Ramphastos tucanus. Finalmente, los frutos de Pseudolmedia laevigata (Moraceae fueron los más preferidos por los competidores (7 especies de mamíferos y 2 de aves.

  7. Diminished internalization and action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in dermal fibroblasts cultured from New World primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.S.; Gacad, M.A.; Baker, A.J.; Kheun, G.; Rude, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]-resistant osteomalacia in the New World primate colony of Saguinus imperator at the Los Angeles Zoo. The mean serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 was elevated 5-fold in the New World primates compared to that in their Old World counterparts. The specific internalization of 0.6 nM [ 3 H]1,25-(OH)2D3 by cultured dermal fibroblasts from New World primates was reduced 75% compared to that by cells from Old World primates or man. The decrease in hormone uptake resulted from a decrease in the number of high affinity intracellular binding sites for 1,25-(OH)2D3 and apparently caused a 90-95% reduction in 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase activity. There was no alteration in the capacity or avidity of New World primate serum for 1,25-(OH)2D3 compared to that of serum from Old World primates. These data suggest that the occurrence of vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia in New World primates is the result of decreased high affinity, receptor-mediated uptake of 1,25-(OH)2D3 by the target cell

  8. Effect of certain medicinal plants extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A queous, alcoholic and active ingredients extracts of karkatde, tamarind and licorice showed different inhibitory effects on the growth of some pathogenic srains. Active ingredients wwere the most effective on bacterial strains than alcoholic and aqueous extracts. Extracts of karkade and tamarind were more effective on diplococcus sp. and pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively than other bacterial strains under investigation and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 2 mu1/6 mm diameter disc. The extracts of karkade, tamarind and licorice increased the mycelial dry weight of aspergillus flavus by increasing the concentration of extracts in the media. Effect of extracted substances of tested plants on the ultra-structure of diplococcus sp. and p. aeruginosa and the changes in the morphological changes of A. flovus aflatoxin producer strain were studied by using electron and light microscopes, respectively. The treatment of p. aeruginosa with MIC (2 mu 1 ) of tamarined extract induced rupture of cell wall lysis of cytoplasmic ocntent. However, treatment of diplococcus sp. with 2 mu 1 of karkade extract caused patial rupture of cell wall while cell content still keeping its normal pattern. On the other hand, licorice extract stimulated germination of spores of A. Flavus.Total protein and carbohydrate contents of diplococcus sp., and p. aeruginosa decreased as a result of inhibition effect of active substance on bacterial cells. While, in A. flavus, it increased as a result of the stimulation effect of licorice extract on fungal spores

  9. Pairing Animal Cartoon Characters With Produce Stimulates Selection Among Child Zoo Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyn, Allison; Allen, Michael; Marks, Samantha; Filion, Nicole; Humphrey, Debora; Ye, Ai; May, Henry; Gardner, Meryl P

    2017-08-01

    In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image. In total, 755 produce selections were made. Significantly more products paired with a character were selected (62.38%) than the same products, not paired (37.62%), χ 2 = 46.32, df = 1, p < .001. The odds ratio of the treatment versus control was 1.66 (i.e., 471/284), indicating that children were 66% more likely to select a snack when paired with an animal cartoon. Study findings highlight the positive impact of animal cartoons on children's fruit and vegetable snack selections, and results suggest the potential for using animal cartoons to encourage fruit and vegetable selection for children.

  10. The ecological rationality of delay tolerance: insights from capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-04-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear whether it is accounted for by phylogenetic relatedness, feeding ecology, social structure, or metabolic rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we evaluated temporal preferences in capuchin monkeys, South-American primates that, despite splitting off from human lineage approximately 35 million years ago, show striking behavioural analogies with the great apes. Then, we compared capuchins' performance with that of the other primate species tested so far with the same procedure. Overall, capuchins showed a delay tolerance significantly higher than closely related species, such as marmosets and tamarins, and comparable to that shown by great apes. Capuchins' tool use abilities might explain their comparatively high preference for delayed options in inter-temporal choices. Moreover, as in humans, capuchin females showed a greater delay tolerance than males, possibly because of their less opportunistic foraging style. Thus, our results shed light on the evolutionary origins of self-control supporting explanations of delay tolerance in terms of feeding ecology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistent replication of a hepatitis C virus genotype 1b-based chimeric clone carrying E1, E2 and p6 regions from GB virus B in a New World monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Saori; Mori, Ken-Ichi; Higashino, Atsunori; Iwasaki, Yuki; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Maki, Noboru; Akari, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The development of effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccines is essential for the prevention of further HCV dissemination, especially in developing countries. Therefore the aim of this study is to establish a feasible and immunocompetent surrogate animal model of HCV infection that will help in evaluation of the protective efficacy of newly developing HCV vaccine candidates. To circumvent the narrow host range of HCV, an HCV genotype 1b-based chimeric clone carrying E1, E2 and p6 regions from GB virus B (GBV-B), which is closely related to HCV, was generated. The chimera between HCV and GBV-B, named HCV/G, replicated more efficiently as compared with the HCV clone in primary marmoset hepatocytes. Furthermore, it was found that the chimera persistently replicated in a tamarin for more than 2 years after intrahepatic inoculation of the chimeric RNA. Although relatively low (chimeric RNA was found in the pellet fraction obtained by ultracentrifugation of the plasma at 73 weeks, indicating production of the chimeric virus. Our results will help establish a novel non-human primate model for HCV infection on the basis of the HCV/G chimera in the major framework of the HCV genome. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Radioactivity studies: Final report, June 1985-August 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, L.; Cohen, N.

    1987-11-01

    We instigated studies of neptunium metabolism in two nonhuman primate species to derive dosimetric parameters necessary for accurate human radiation risk assessments. The metabolism of neptunium was studied in adult female baboons and tamarins following intravenous injection and intragastric intubation. Neptunium-237 and 239 Np isotopes were prepared as citrate, nitrate, and bicarbonate complexs with valence states of +4, +5 and +6. Samples of blood, urine, feces and autopsy tissues were measured by both gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry techniques. Retention of injected neptunium was determined in vivo using whole and partial body gamma-scintillation spectroscopy. Immediately following intravenous injection, neptunium (+5 and +6) cleared rapidly from blood, deposited primarily in the skeleton (54 +- 5%) and liver (3 +- 1%), and was excreted predominately via urine (40 +- 3%). For the first year post injection, neptunium was retained with a composite biological half-time of 100 yrs in liver and 1.5 yrs in bone. In comparison, injected Np(+4) was retained in blood in higher concentrations and was eliminated initially via urine to a lesser extent (12%). Np(+4) was deposited primarily in the carcass (38 +- 4%) and liver (43 +- 4%). Differences in the chemical forms and radionuclide concentrations injected did not alter neptunium metabolic patterns. 78 refs., 20 figs., 30 tabs

  13. Characteristic of “Betutu Chicken ”in Many Different Packaging Stored at 50C

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    Suciani Suciani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available “Betutu chicken” (whole chicken is traditional Balinese food. Originally was cooked for ritual offerings, but recently this food was one of the menu in hotels or restaurants in Bali. Research was carried out using completely randomized design (CRD with 3 different packaging treatment, such as treatment one was using alumunium foil, treatment too using banana leaf and alumunium foil and treatment three using “Upih” and alumunium foil. Whole chicken was squeezed with salt and tamarin, and then wash with water. Put into the cavity of the chicken all spices and ½ glass of cooking oil, close the cavity and wrap up according to the treatment then cooked in the live coal for (8 – 11 hours. After cooked and then stored at 50 C. the organoleptic test showed that this product keep for 7 days in 50 C still can safe and excepted by the consumen with organoleptic score between 6.0 – 7.0 in overall. Objective test showed that (p<0.05 for 3 treatment to pH (6.2 – 6.4, water content (44 – 48%, water holding capacity 68 – 70% and total aerobic count 4.503 – 5.041 cfu/g.   Keywords: Betutu chicken, Alumunium foil, “Upih”, Banana Leaf, Storage 50 C

  14. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...... plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6...

  15. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...... plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6...

  16. A organização social dos sauís-pretos, (Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan, na reserva em Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo (Primates Callithricidae

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    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the knowledge of the social organization of a population of Golden-rumped or Black-lion tamarin (L. chrysopygus living in a stripe of natural vegetation in the State Park along the banks of the lower Paranapanema River, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its composition and analysis based on captured groups, number of individuals and their distribuition in the area with concentrations; exchange of adults males, migration of individuals from groups and females home range establishment, indicate an organization which is likely to be matrilinear. The average number of individuals per group or expanded families, in the seven (7 captured groups was 3,57 specimens with a mean body weight in adults of 572,5 grams. In each group there is normally one reproducing couple with a double twin pregnancy in 2/3 (65 to 80% of the occasions, and the twins are dizygotic. This tends to repetition in multiparous females.

  17. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

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    Jennifer Vonk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002 and Vonk & MacDonald (2004 concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1, and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2. Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  18. Komposisi Senyawa Penyusun Minuman Sinom (curcuma domestica val.- tamarindus indica l.

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    Ni Ketut Wiradnyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinom beverages analternative functional food. The ingredients are curcumin and young tamarin leaves, it is easily available, relatively in expensive expected that is consumed, it contains antioxidant compounds. This study aimed to identification of sinom beverages antioxidant compounds to treatment of some types of solvent fractions are: hexane, chloroform and ethylacetate in vitro. With GCMS and TLC analysis of method.Hexana fraction all egedly contains compounds: ar-tumeron (21,32%, tumeron (49,84% and curlon (27,25%, cloroform fraction contains compounds: ar-tumeron (20,04%, tumeron (10% and curlon (15,84%, etil asetat fraction contain compounds: ar-tumeron (19,98%, tumeron (24,52% and curlon (16%. and the water fraction contain compounds: 9-oktadecanoid fatty acids (69,43%, ascorbic acid (32,7%, Ribovlafin (37,1%, ar-tumeron (1,31%, tumeron (2,85% and curlon (1,09%.,The results showed hexan, kloroform, etil asetat and water fraction of sinom beverages contains compound: 9-oktadecanoid fatty acids, ascorbic acid, Ribovlafin, ar-tumeron, tumeron and curlon.Keywords: Sinom beverage, compotition, solvent fraction

  19. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

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    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  20. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  1. Covariance structure in the skull of Catarrhini: a case of pattern stasis and magnitude evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Bandoni; Porto, Arthur; Marroig, Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    The study of the genetic variance/covariance matrix (G-matrix) is a recent and fruitful approach in evolutionary biology, providing a window of investigating for the evolution of complex characters. Although G-matrix studies were originally conducted for microevolutionary timescales, they could be extrapolated to macroevolution as long as the G-matrix remains relatively constant, or proportional, along the period of interest. A promising approach to investigating the constancy of G-matrices is to compare their phenotypic counterparts (P-matrices) in a large group of related species; if significant similarity is found among several taxa, it is very likely that the underlying G-matrices are also equivalent. Here we study the similarity of covariance and correlation structure in a broad sample of Old World monkeys and apes (Catarrhini). We made phylogenetically structured comparisons of correlation and covariance matrices derived from 39 skull traits, ranging from between species to the superfamily level. We also compared the overall magnitude of integration between skull traits (r2) for all Catarrhini genera. Our results show that P-matrices were not strictly constant among catarrhines, but the amount of divergence observed among taxa was generally low. There was significant and positive correlation between the amount of divergence in correlation and covariance patterns among the 30 genera and their phylogenetic distances derived from a recently proposed phylogenetic hypothesis. Our data demonstrate that the P-matrices remained relatively similar along the evolutionary history of catarrhines, and comparisons with the G-matrix available for a New World monkey genus (Saguinus) suggests that the same holds for all anthropoids. The magnitude of integration, in contrast, varied considerably among genera, indicating that evolution of the magnitude, rather than the pattern of inter-trait correlations, might have played an important role in the diversification of the

  2. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  3. Complex cooperative breeders: Using infant care costs to explain variability in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L

    2016-03-01

    The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be

  4. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M

    2015-10-29

    Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.

  5. Especies promisorias para el ecoturismo en “Campo Aventura Roca Madre”, Toluviejo-Sucre, Colombia

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    Alcides Sampedro-M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las especies de flora y fauna más importantes para el desarrollo del ecoturismo, en una localidad del departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un listado de las especies de flora y fauna observadas en el sendero ecológico de un centro de ecoturismo en Toluviejo, Sucre y se calculó su abundancia, importancia económica, estado de conservación y adaptaciones, que fueron evaluadas mediante un índice de importancia potencial para el ecoturismo, que suma los valores que se asignan a las variables consideradas de interés. Resultados. Se detectaron 18 especies promisorias de fauna, de 91 especies observadas y 16 especies vegetales de 53 observadas. Los animales de mayor potencial ecoturístico resultantes, fueron: Dendrobates truncatus y Saguinus oedipus, especies endémicas de Colombia, seguidas por Basiliscus basiliscus, Atta sp., Morpho peleides, Lycorea halia y Ara ararauna; todas estas con una alta abundancia y fácil detección. Dentro de las plantas, Anacardium excelsum obtuvo el mayor índice de importancia, como resultado de su endemismo y sus adaptaciones. Las especies Piper auritum, Matayba escrobiculata, Tabernaemontana cymosa y la comúnmente conocida como jazmín de monte, fueron fácilmente detectables y abundantes, además Brownea ariza y Tabebuia rosea resultaron las más representativas por la belleza de sus flores. Conclusiones. Se determinaron las especies que pueden ser de interés para los ecoturistas y esto hace posible mejorar el producto que se oferta a partir de profundizar en su conocimiento.

  6. INFECCIÓN POR PROTOZOARIOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TITÍ BEBE LECHE -S. fuscicollis-, TITÍ CABEZA BLANCA -S. oedipus-, TITÍ ARDILLA -S. sciureus-, SURICATO -S. suricatta- Y WALLABIE DE BENNETT -M. rufogriseus-: DESCRIPCIÓN DE CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. K. López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxoplasmosis es una de las zoonosis parasitarias más comunes y de especial atención en medicina humana y veterinaria en todo el mundo. Toxoplasma gondii comparte mu - chos de sus parámetros biológicos con otros parásitos apicomplexa, pero es único por su extremadamente amplio rango de huéspedes y su especificidad tisular. La susceptibilidad en especies de primates del Nuevo Mundo y diprotodontos a la infección por protozoarios es alta. Bajo condiciones de cautiverio la toxoplasmosis es una de las infecciones más comunes en macrópodos australianos. En el presente trabajo se exponen los hallazgos clínicos y postmortem de 11 individuos de primates ( Saguinus oedipus, S. fuscicollis, Saimiri sciureus , carnívoros ( Suricata suricatta y diprotodontos ( Macropus rufogriseus , de la Fundación Zoológica de Cali, diagnosticados con toxoplasmosis mediante métodos paraclínicos e histopatológicos. En la mayoría de los casos el cuadro clínico se caracterizó principalmente por disnea, secreción nasal espumosa y signos neurológicos. Los hallazgos más importantes de la necropsia fueron lesiones en pulmón, hígado y encéfalo. Los casos aquí descritos corresponden a cuadros clínicos de ocurrencia natural y permiten entender el desarrollo fisiopatológico y la presentación clínica de las infecciones por protozoarios en especies de fauna silvestre, a pesar de la falta de un diagnóstico definitivo mediante técnicas específicas de inmunohistoquímica para las distintas etiologías.

  7. Situación actual de primates en bosques de alta perturbación del nororiente de la Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En el nororiente peruano, el área comprendida entre la cuenca baja del río Tigre y sub cuenca del río Nanay es una de las más impactadas por las actividades del hombre. Con excepción del río Itaya y bajo Nanay, para el resto del área no existe información acerca de los primates que habitan, ni de las amenazas para sus poblaciones; motivo por el cual nos propusimos a la conducción de este estudio. De Febrero a Julio del 2013 fueron llevados a cabo censos por transecto y entrevistas a cazadores. Durante el recorrido de 1 218 km fueron registrados 373 grupos pertenecientes a 10 especies, siendo los más comunes Saguinus lagonotus (104 grupos y Lagothrix poeppigii (61 grupos. Grupos más pequeños fueron para Alouatta seniculus (3–4 individuos y Callicebus discolor (2–4 individuos y la más grande para Saimiri macrodon. La densidad poblacional más alta fue para S. macrodon (30,4 individuos/km2 seguido de S. lagonotus (25,8 individuos/km2 y la más baja para A. seniculus (1,4 individuos/km2 y C. discolor (2,3 individuos/km2. Durante los censos no observamos ni escuchamos vocalizaciones de Ateles belzebuth, en tanto que A. seniculus  estuvo ausente en el Alto Itaya. Entre las actividades, la caza y deforestación con diversos fines son las principales amenazas, por lo tanto, serían las responsables para la extinción local de A. belzebuth y escasa población de A. seniculus y C. discolor.

  8. Non-human primates avoid the detrimental effects of prenatal androgen exposure in mixed-sex litters: combined demographic, behavioral, and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Snowdon, Charles T; McGrew, William C; Lawler, Richard R; Guevara, Elaine E; McIntosh, Annick; O'Connor, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters. We examined whether neonatal testosterone exposure might be detrimental to females in mixed-sex litters by compiling data from long-term breeding records for seven primate species (Saguinus oedipus; Varecia variegata, Varecia rubra, Microcebus murinis, Mirza coquereli, Cheirogaleus medius, Galago moholi). Litter sex ratios did not differ from the expected 1:2:1 (MM:MF:FF for twins) and 1:2:2:1 (MMM:MMF:MFF:FFF for triplets). Measures of reproductive success, including female survivorship, offspring-survivorship, and inter-birth interval, did not differ between females born in mixed-sex versus all-female litters, indicating that litter-producing non-human primates, unlike humans and rodents, show no signs of detrimental effects from androgen exposure in mixed sex litters. Although we found no evidence for CYP19A1 gene duplications-a hypothesized mechanism for coping with androgen exposure-aromatase protein evolution shows patterns of convergence among litter-producing taxa. That some primates have effectively found a way to circumvent a major cost of multiple births has implications for understanding variation in litter size and life history strategies across mammals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among captive Neotropical primates in a Brazilian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Knox, Monique Britto; Reis, Filipe; Hagström, Luciana; Cuba, César A Cuba; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2016-01-26

    Neotropical primates are important sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Infection is often subclinical, but severe disease has been described in both free-ranging and captive primates. Panstrongylus megistus, a major T. cruzi vector, was found infesting a small-primate unit at Brasília zoo (ZooB), Brazil. ZooB lies close to a gallery-forest patch where T. cruzi circulates naturally. Here, we combine parasitological and molecular methods to investigate a focus of T. cruzi infection involving triatomine bugs and Neotropical primates at a zoo located in the Brazilian Savannah. We assessed T. cruzi infection in vectors using optical microscopy (n = 34) and nested PCR (n = 50). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine blood samples from 26 primates and necropsy samples from two primates that died during the study. We determined parasite lineages in five vectors and two primates by comparing glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6pi) gene sequences. Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 44 vectors and 17 primates (six genera and eight species); one Mico chrysoleucus and one Saguinus niger had high parasitaemias. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in three primates born to qPCR-negative mothers at ZooB and in the two dead specimens. One Callithrix geoffroyi became qPCR-positive over a two-year follow-up. All G6pi sequences matched T. cruzi lineage TcI. Our findings strongly suggest vector-borne T. cruzi transmission within a small-primate unit at ZooB - with vectors, and perhaps also parasites, presumably coming from nearby gallery forest. Periodic checks for vectors and parasites would help eliminate T. cruzi transmission foci in captive-animal facilities. This should be of special importance for captive-breeding programs involving endangered mammals, and would reduce the risk of accidental T. cruzi transmission to keepers and veterinarians.

  10. Molecular variation in AVP and AVPR1a in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini: evolution and implications for social monogamy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongren Ren

    Full Text Available The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a, may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM. AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP and AVPR1a genes in 22 species representing every genus in the three major platyrrhine families (Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae. For AVP, a total of 16 synonymous substitutions were detected in 15 NWM species. No non-synonymous substitutions were noted, hence, AVP is conserved in NWM. By contrast, relative to the human AVPR1a, 66 predicted amino acids (AA substitutions were identified in NWM. The AVPR1a N-terminus (ligand binding domain, third intracellular (G-protein binding domain, and C-terminus were variable among species. Complex evolution of AVPR1a is also apparent in NWM. A molecular phylogenetic tree inferred from AVPR1a coding sequences revealed some consensus taxonomic separation by families, but also a mixed group composed of genera from all three families. The overall dN/dS ratio of AVPR1a was 0.11, but signals of positive selection in distinct AVPR1a regions were observed, including the N-terminus, in which we identified six potential positive selection sites. AA substitutions at positions 241, 319, 399 and 409 occurred uniquely in marmosets and tamarins. Our results enhance the appreciation of genetic diversity in the mammalian AVP/AVPR1a system, and set the stage for molecular modeling of the neurohypophyseal hormones and social behavior in

  11. Romanian Words of Arabic Origin: Scientific and Technical Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Rata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 141 Romanian words of Arabic origin acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into Romanian. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering Romanian. To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. Given the nature of the journal in which the paper is to be published, the author selected for analysis only about 126 terms belonging to the scientific and technical vocabulary: Adobe, alambic, albatros, alcalin, alchimie, alcool, alfalfa, algebră, algoritm, alidadă, alizarină, amalgam, ambră, anil, antimoniu, azimuth, azur, benjoin, bezoar, bor, cafea, calibre, camfor, carat, carciofoi, caric, cârmâz, carob, chimie, cifru, coton, curcuma, cuşcuş, erg, falafel, fanfară, felucă, fenec, gazelă, gerbil, girafă, halva, hamada, humus, iasomie, jar, julep, kaliu, lac, lămâie, lazurit, liliac, lime, marcasit, masicot, mizenă, muson, nadir, natriu, papagal, rachetă, realgar, sabkha, safari, şah, sandarac, şaorma, şerbet, sirop, sodium, şofran, sorbet, spanac, sumac, tabac, tahân, taifun, talc, tamarin(d, tangerină, tar, tară, tarhon, tarif, tasă, ţechin, ton, varan, zahăr, zenith, zero, zircon, etc. Some of them are obsolescent, but a large number are in everyday use and have been so well assimilated into Romanian that they have produced other words through derivation and composition, or they have acquired new meanings.

  12. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

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    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  13. A cooperative interaction between nontranslated RNA sequences and NS5A protein promotes in vivo fitness of a chimeric hepatitis C/GB virus B.

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    Lucile Warter

    Full Text Available GB virus B (GBV-B is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV, infects small non-human primates, and is thus a valuable surrogate for studying HCV. Despite significant differences, the 5' nontranslated RNAs (NTRs of these viruses fold into four similar structured domains (I-IV, with domains II-III-IV comprising the viral internal ribosomal entry site (IRES. We previously reported the in vivo rescue of a chimeric GBV-B (vGB/III(HC containing HCV sequence in domain III, an essential segment of the IRES. We show here that three mutations identified within the vGB/III(HC genome (within the 3'NTR, upstream of the poly(U tract, and NS5A coding sequence are necessary and sufficient for production of this chimeric virus following intrahepatic inoculation of synthetic RNA in tamarins, and thus apparently compensate for the presence of HCV sequence in domain III. To assess the mechanism(s underlying these compensatory mutations, and to determine whether 5'NTR subdomains participating in genome replication do so in a virus-specific fashion, we constructed and evaluated a series of chimeric subgenomic GBV-B replicons in which various 5'NTR subdomains were substituted with their HCV homologs. Domains I and II of the GBV-B 5'NTR could not be replaced with HCV sequence, indicating that they contain essential, virus-specific RNA replication elements. In contrast, domain III could be swapped with minimal loss of genome replication capacity in cell culture. The 3'NTR and NS5A mutations required for rescue of the related chimeric virus in vivo had no effect on replication of the subgenomic GBneoD/III(HC RNA in vitro. The data suggest that in vivo fitness of the domain III chimeric virus is dependent on a cooperative interaction between the 5'NTR, 3'NTR and NS5A at a step in the viral life cycle subsequent to genome replication, most likely during particle assembly. Such a mechanism may be common to all hepaciviruses.

  14. Climate Literacy for Kids: Finding Medium, Message, and Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    . Various recycling bins (glass, plastic, metal, and paper) are lined up on the left and right sides of the screen, with a trash bin at the bottom. As an item drops, the player must quickly decide what kind of material it is made of and whether it is recyclable, then guide it into the appropriate bin. As the rate of items entering play increases, any missed items fall into the trash and stay there for a length of time proportional to their decomposition time. If the trash bin gets full, the game is over. While enjoying the increasing challenge of the game, players learn to identify many items as recyclable that they may not have recognized as recyclable before. Another feature on Climate Kids is "Climate Tales," a slightly edgy animated cartoon series (two episodes so far) about the adventures of a blundering polar bear, a chirpy tamarin monkey, and a grumpy old fish as "accidental tourists" around the planet, observing and dealing with the environmental conditions they encounter. Fairly complex concepts (such as reasons and implications of the declining abundance of phytoplankton) are woven into the tales. Climate Kids is a fun site for kids, educational and realistic, and yet positive and hopeful-the only reasonable stance to present to this young audience.

  15. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  16. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also