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Sample records for cotton leaf worm

  1. The Influence of Cadmium on the Food Consumption and Utilization of the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Shahenda A. Abu ElEla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instars of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval, 1833 were reared on castor bean leaves Ricinus communis (Linnaeus, 1753 treated with cadmium 100 mg CdCl2/kg, using the dipping method, to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd on nutritional indices. It was observed that the consumption index was significantly decreased at all the studied instars except for the third instar. The absorptive capacity, in terms of approximate digestibility, was significantly decreased at the sixth instar. The food utilization efficiencies, in terms of the conversion of ingested and digested food (ECD to biomass, were significantly decreased at both fourth and fifth instars. Moreover, the ECD was significantly decreased at the sixth instar. The growth rate decreased at the different studied instars except for the sixth instar.

  2. Toxical effect of Peganum harmala L. leaves on the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoids Microplitis rufiventris Kok.

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    Shonouda, Mourad; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    2008-02-15

    The leaf extract and its fractions of Peganum harmala L. have shown pronounced mortal effect, decreased percent pupation and adult emergence of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extract and its ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the leaf fractions of P. harmala showed significant effect on the percentage of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis showed the major constituent in ethyl acetate fraction was (23S) ethylcholest-5-en-3 beta-ol (28.04%) while those of chloroform fraction were hydroxyfuranocoumarin (Bergaptol) (15.68%), piperidinone (12.08%), thymol (11.82%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (9.80%) and trimethyl-nonenol (9.66%). The medicinal plant P. harmala could be carefully applied in integrated pest management due to its strong effect on cotton leaf worm pest.

  3. Impact of Lead Acetate on Quantitative Consumption and Utilization of the Cotton Leaf Worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval, 1833 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Shahenda A. Abu ElEla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th instars of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval, 1833 were treated with lead acetate, 100 mg lead [Pb (C2H3O24]/kg, using the leaf-dip method, toevaluate the effect of Pb on nutritional indices. The consumption index was significantly increasedat the 3rd and 6th instars. The growth rate significantly increased in 4th instars. The reverse wastrue in 6th instars. The absorptive capacity, in terms of approximate digestibility, wasinsignificantly changed in the entire instars. The food utilization efficiencies, in terms of theconversion of ingested (ECI and digested food (ECD to biomass, were significantly increased in4th instars. However, the ECD was significantly decreased in the 5th and 6th instars. In conclusion,treatment with lead may adversely affect the population biomass of S. littoralis due to the grossreduction in the final weight gain of larvae approaching to pupation. This might lead to reducedlevel of population size.

  4. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-12-14

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica.

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  6. Expression of an engineered synthetic cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis in marker free transgenic tobacco facilitated full-protection from cotton leaf worm (S. littoralis) at very low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Srimonta; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of resistant insects limits the sustainability of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop plants for insect management. Beside this, the presence of unwanted marker gene(s) in the transgenic crops is also a major environmental and health concern. Thus, development of marker free transgenic crop plants expressing a new class of toxin having a different mortality mechanism is necessary for resistance management. In a previous study, we generated an engineered Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin which has a different mortality mechanism as compared to first generation Bt toxin Cry1A, and this engineered toxin was found to enhance 4.1-6.6-fold toxicity against major lepidopteran insect pests of crop plants. In the present study, we have tested the potency of this engineered synthetic Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin as a candidate in the development of insect resistant transgenic tobacco plants. Simultaneously, we have eliminated the selectable marker gene from the Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) expressing tobacco plants by exploiting the Cre/lox mediated recombination methodology, and successfully developed marker free T2 transgenic tobacco plants expressing the engineered Cry2Aa toxin. Realtime and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of engineered toxin gene in transgenic plants. Insect feeding assays revealed that the marker free T2 progeny of transgenic plants expressing Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin showed 82-92 and 52-61 % mortality to cotton leaf worm (CLW) and cotton bollworm (CBW) respectively. Thus, this engineered Cry2Aa toxin could be useful for the generation of insect resistant transgenic Bt lines which will protect the crop damages caused by different insect pests such as CLW and CBW.

  7. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official classification.... Currently, the leaf grade is determined by visual examination and comparison to the Official...

  8. Scaling leaf measurements to estimate cotton canopy gas exchange

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    Diurnal leaf and canopy gas exchange of well watered field grown cotton were measured. Leaf measurements were made with a portable photosynthesis system and canopy measurements with open Canopy Evapo-Transpiration and Assimilation (CETA) systems. Leaf level measurements were arithmetically scaled to...

  9. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... January 9, 2012 (76 FR 80278). AMS received four comments: One from a national trade organization that... Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the procedures for determining the official leaf grade...

  10. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

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    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  11. Worm

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Worm is the gripping story of the 'Conficker' computer virus- which, since its introduction in November 2008, has infected millions of computers around the world - and the cyber security elites who have joined forces in a high-tech game of cops and robbers to find its creators and defeat them. This dramatic cybercrime story travels from the Ukraine to the United States (and all parts in between) to explore the next frontier in terrorism. It is the story of a dazzling battle of wits over the future of the Internet. In Worm, Mark Bowden delivers an unputdownable account of the ongoing and large

  12. Silk gland gene expression during larval-pupal transitionin the cotton leaf roller Sylepta derogate (Lepidoptera: pyralidae)

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    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used t...

  13. Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

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    Akbar Fazal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV] and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant

  14. Classification of Cotton Leaf Spot Disease Using Support Vector Machine

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    Prof. Sonal P. Patil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain more value added products, a product quality control is essentially required Many studies show that quality of agriculture products may be reduced from many causes. One of the most important factors of such quality plant diseases. Consequently, minimizing plant diseases allows substantially improving quality of the product Suitable diagnosis of crop disease in the field is very critical for the increased production. Foliar is the major important fungal disease of cotton and occurs in all growing Indian cotton regions. In this paper I express Technological Strategies uses mobile captured symptoms of Cotton Leaf Spot images and categorize the diseases using support vector machine. The classifier is being trained to achieve intelligent farming, including early detection of disease in the groves, selective fungicide application, etc. This proposed work is based on Segmentation techniques in which, the captured images are processed for enrichment first. Then texture and color Feature extraction techniques are used to extract features such as boundary, shape, color and texture for the disease spots to recognize diseases.

  15. Cotton leaf curl disease - an emerging threat to cotton production worldwide.

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    Sattar, M Naeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-04-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton which has characteristic symptoms, the most unusual of which is the formation of leaf-like enations on the undersides of leaves. The disease is caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) in association with specific, symptom-modulating satellites (betasatellites) and an evolutionarily distinct group of satellite-like molecules known as alphasatellites. CLCuD occurs across Africa as well as in Pakistan and north-western India. Over the past 25 years, Pakistan and India have experienced two epidemics of the disease, the most recent of which involved a virus and satellite that are resistance breaking. Loss of this conventional host-plant resistance, which saved the cotton growers from ruin in the late 1990s, leaves farmers with only relatively poor host plant tolerance to counter the extensive losses the disease causes. There has always been the fear that CLCuD could spread from the relatively limited geographical range it encompasses at present to other cotton-growing areas of the world where, although the disease is not present, the environmental conditions are suitable for its establishment and the whitefly vector occurs. Unfortunately recent events have shown this fear to be well founded, with CLCuD making its first appearance in China. Here, we outline recent advances made in understanding the molecular biology of the components of the disease complex, their interactions with host plants, as well as efforts being made to control CLCuD.

  16. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

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    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  17. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  18. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  19. Dominant Gene cplsr1 Corresponding to Premature Leaf Senescence Resistance in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqing Zhao; Tengfei Jiang; Zhi Liu; Wenwei Zhang; Guiliang Jian; Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) premature leaf senescence-resistant inbred XLZ33 and senescencesusceptible inbred lines XLZ13 were selected and crossed to produce F1,F1-reciprocal,F2 and BC1 generations for evaluation of leaf senescence process and inheritance.The results showed that leaf senescence processes for XLZ13 and XLZ33 were obviously different and leaf senescence traits could be distinguished between the two parents at particular periods of cotton growth.Inheritance anlysis for the cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait further showed that the segregation in the F2 fit a 3:1 ratio inheritance pattern,with resistance being dominant.The backcross of F1 to the susceptible parent produced a 1:1 ratio,confirming that cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait was from a single gene.The single dominant gene controlling cotton premature leaf senescence resistance in XLZ33 was named as cotton premature leaf senescence resistance 1,with the symbol cplsr1.

  20. Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton.

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    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Abdullaev, A A; Saha, S; Buriev, Z T; Arslanov, D; Kuryazov, Z; Mavlonov, G T; Rizaeva, S M; Reddy, U K; Jenkins, J N; Abdullaev, A; Abdukarimov, A

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research was to tag loci associated with natural leaf defoliation using microsatellite markers in Upland cotton. The F2 populations developed from reciprocal crosses between the two parental cotton lines--AN-Boyovut-2 (2n = 52), a late leaf defoliating type, and Listopad Beliy (2n = 52), a naturally early leaf defoliating type--demonstrated that the naturally early leaf defoliation trait has heritability values of 0.74 and 0.84 in the reciprocal F2 population. The observed phenotypic segregation difference in reciprocal crosses suggested a minor cytoplasmic effect in the phenotypic expression of the naturally early leaf defoliation trait. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) nonparametric test revealed that JESPR-13 (KW = 6.17), JESPR-153 (KW = 9.97), and JESPR-178 (KW = 13.45) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are significantly associated with natural leaf defoliation in the mapping population having stable estimates at empirically obtained critical thresholds (P < .05-.0001). JESPR-178 revealed the highest estimates (P < .0001) for association with the natural leaf defoliation trait, exceeding maximum empirical threshold values. JESPR-178 was assigned to the short arm of chromosome 18, suggesting indirectly that genes associated with natural leaf defoliation might be located on this chromosome. This microsatellite marker may have the potential for use to introgress the naturally early leaf defoliation quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the donor line Listopad Beliy to commercial varieties of cotton through marker-assisted selection programs.

  1. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

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    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  2. Spectral discrimination of two pigweeds from cotton with different leaf colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To implement strategies to control Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) infestations in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, managers need effective techniques to identify the weeds. Leaf light reflectance measurements have shown...

  3. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

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    James R. Mahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  4. Estimating Cotton Nitrogen Nutrition Status Using Leaf Greenness and Ground Cover Information

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    Farrah Melissa Muharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing nitrogen (N status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describes and tests a novel method of utilizing physical characteristics of N-fertilized cotton and combining field spectral measurements made at different spatial scales as an approach to estimate in-season chlorophyll or leaf N content of field-grown cotton. In this study, leaf greenness estimated from spectral measurements made at the individual leaf, canopy and scene levels was combined with percent ground cover to produce three different indices, named TCCLeaf, TCCCanopy, and TCCScene. These indices worked best for estimating leaf N at early flowering, but not for chlorophyll content. Of the three indices, TCCLeaf showed the best ability to estimate leaf N (R2 = 0.89. These results suggest that the use of green and red-edge wavelengths derived at the leaf scale is best for estimating leaf greenness. TCCCanopy had a slightly lower R2 value than TCCLeaf (0.76, suggesting that the utilization of yellow and red-edge wavelengths obtained at the canopy level could be used as an alternative to estimate leaf N in the absence of leaf spectral information. The relationship between TCCScene and leaf N was the lowest (R2 = 0.50, indicating that the estimation of canopy greenness from scene measurements needs improvement. Results from this study confirmed the potential of these indices as efficient methods for estimating in-season leaf N status of cotton.

  5. Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract on resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V; Perfeito, Márcia L G; Guimarães, Maria A; dos Santos, Raimunda C; Lima, David F; Nascimento, Carlos; Silva, Marcos P N; Soares, Maria José dos S; Ropke, Cristina D; Eaton, Peter; de Moraes, Josué; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-12-04

    There are ethnopharmacological reports supporting the use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf against bacterial and worm infections. However there is a lack of studies about its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the in vitro effects of neem leaf ethanolic extract (Neem EE) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and against S. mansoni worms. Quantification of the Azadirachtin (AZA), thought to be one of their main compounds related to biological effects, was performed. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of Neem EE on biofilm formation and planktonic aggregates of S. aureus was tested using the crystal violet dye method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, respectively. Changes in S. mansoni motor activity and death of worms were analyzed in vitro after exposition to the extract. Treated schistosomes were also examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was observed the presence of AZA in the extract (0.14 ± 0.02 mg/L). Testing Neem EE sub-inhibitory concentrations, a significant biofilm adherence inhibition from 62.5 µg/mL for a sensitive S. aureus and 125 µg/mL for two MRSA strains was observed. AFM images revealed that as the Neem EE concentration increases (from 250 to 1000 µg/mL) decreased ability of a chosen MRSA strain to form large aggregates. In relation of anti-schistosoma assay, the extract caused 100% mortality of female worms at a concentration of 50 µg/mL at 72 h of incubation, while 300 µg/mL at 24h of incubation was required to achieve 100% mortality of male worms. The extract also caused significant motor activity reduction in S. mansoni. For instance, at 96 h of incubation with 100 µg/mL, 80% of the worms presented significant motor activity reduction. By the confocal microscopy analysis, the dorsal surface of the tegument of worms exposed to 300 µg/mL (male) and 100 µg/mL (female) of the extract

  6. Amplicon based RNA interference targeting V2 gene of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain can provide resistance in transgenic cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An RNAi based gene construct designated “C2” was used to target the V2 region of the cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) genome which is responsible for virus movement. The construct was transformed into two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289. A shoot apex method of plant transformation using Agr...

  7. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

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    Lijun Su

    Full Text Available Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm. In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  8. Cotton Leaf Curl Virus: lonic Status of Leaves and Symptom Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naeem Iqbal; Muhammad Yasin Ashraf; Farrukh Javed; Muhammad Ashraf; Sohail Hameed

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the nutritional status of leaves and the development of symptoms of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (i.e. CIM-240 and S-12) was investigated. The incidence of disease attack was found to be 100% in the S-12 cultivar and 16% in the CIM-240 cultivar. Geminivirus particles in infected leaves were confirmed by transmission electron microscope examination of highly specific geminivirus coat protein antisera-treated cell sap. The CLCuV impaired the accumulation of different nutrients in both cultivars. A marked decrease in the accumulation of Ca2+ and K+ was observed in infected leaves. However, the disease had no effect on leaf concentrations of Na+, N, and P. It was observed that the curling of leaf margins in CLCuV-infected plants was associated with the leaf Ca2+ content; leaf curling was severe in plants with a significant reduction in Ca2+ content.Moreover, leaf K+ content was found to be associated with resistance/susceptibility to CLCuV infection.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  10. SNP Marker Discovery in Pima Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Leaf Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Pratibha; Ulloa, Mauricio; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the known narrow genetic diversity and discover single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for marker-assisted breeding within Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) leaf transcriptomes. cDNA from 25-day plants of three diverse cotton genotypes [Pima S6 (PS6), Pima S7 (PS7), and Pima 3-79 (P3-79)] was sequenced on Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 28.9 million reads (average read length of 138 bp) were generated by sequencing cDNA libraries of these three genotypes. The de novo assembly of reads generated transcriptome sets of 26,369 contigs for PS6, 25,870 contigs for PS7, and 24,796 contigs for P3-79. A Pima leaf reference transcriptome was generated consisting of 42,695 contigs. More than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between the genotypes, with 100% SNP frequency and a minimum of eight sequencing reads. The most prevalent SNP substitutions were C—T and A—G in these cotton genotypes. The putative SNPs identified can be utilized for characterizing genetic diversity, genotyping, and eventually in Pima cotton breeding through marker-assisted selection.

  11. Coat protein promoter from cotton leaf curl virus is not a tissue-specifically expressed promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geminivirus is a kind of single-stranded DNA virus. Experimental results from tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) showed that expression pattern of coat protein gene (cp) promoter was phloem specifically expressed. In this note, the studies on cp promoter of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) which is found and identified recently suggest that the promoter is not phloem specifically expressed. The expressing activity of gus gene driven by the promoter exists not only in phloem but also in mesophyll tissues and root tip meristem. Transient expression suggests that cp promoter transactivated by AC2 shows expressing activity in mesophyll and vascular tissue of leaf vein.

  12. The promoter structure differentiation of a MYB transcription factor RLC1 causes red leaf coloration in Empire Red Leaf Cotton under light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenrui; Liu, Chuanliang; Zhang, Yanzhao; Li, Ying; Yi, Keke; Zhao, Xinhua; Cui, Min-Long

    2013-01-01

    The red leaf coloration of Empire Red Leaf Cotton (ERLC) (Gossypium hirsutum L.), resulted from anthocyanin accumulation in light, is a well known dominant agricultural trait. However, the underpin molecular mechanism remains elusive. To explore this, we compared the molecular biological basis of anthocyanin accumulation in both ERLC and the green leaf cotton variety CCRI 24 (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Introduction of R2R3-MYB transcription factor Rosea1, the master regulator anthocyanin biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus, into CCRI 24 induced anthocyanin accumulation, indicating structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis are not defected and the leaf coloration might be caused by variation of regulatory genes expression. Expression analysis found that a transcription factor RLC1 (Red Leaf Cotton 1) which encodes the ortholog of PAP1/Rosea1 was highly expressed in leaves of ERLC but barely expressed in CCRI 24 in light. Ectopic expression of RLC1 from ERLC and CCRI 24 in hairy roots of Antirrhinum majus and CCRI 24 significantly enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Comparison of RLC1 promoter sequences between ERLC and CCRI 24 revealed two 228-bp tandem repeats presented in ERLC with only one repeat in CCRI 24. Transient assays in cotton leave tissue evidenced that the tandem repeats in ERLC is responsible for light-induced RLC1 expression and therefore anthocyanin accumulation. Taken together, our results in this article strongly support an important step toward understanding the role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the regulatory menchanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in red leaf cotton under light.

  13. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; HAO Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; JIANG Cun-cang

    2016-01-01

    To find out the effect of potassium(K) and boron(B) on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1), B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1) hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane rela...

  15. The promoter structure differentiation of a MYB transcription factor RLC1 causes red leaf coloration in Empire Red Leaf Cotton under light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenrui Gao

    Full Text Available The red leaf coloration of Empire Red Leaf Cotton (ERLC (Gossypium hirsutum L., resulted from anthocyanin accumulation in light, is a well known dominant agricultural trait. However, the underpin molecular mechanism remains elusive. To explore this, we compared the molecular biological basis of anthocyanin accumulation in both ERLC and the green leaf cotton variety CCRI 24 (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Introduction of R2R3-MYB transcription factor Rosea1, the master regulator anthocyanin biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus, into CCRI 24 induced anthocyanin accumulation, indicating structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis are not defected and the leaf coloration might be caused by variation of regulatory genes expression. Expression analysis found that a transcription factor RLC1 (Red Leaf Cotton 1 which encodes the ortholog of PAP1/Rosea1 was highly expressed in leaves of ERLC but barely expressed in CCRI 24 in light. Ectopic expression of RLC1 from ERLC and CCRI 24 in hairy roots of Antirrhinum majus and CCRI 24 significantly enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Comparison of RLC1 promoter sequences between ERLC and CCRI 24 revealed two 228-bp tandem repeats presented in ERLC with only one repeat in CCRI 24. Transient assays in cotton leave tissue evidenced that the tandem repeats in ERLC is responsible for light-induced RLC1 expression and therefore anthocyanin accumulation. Taken together, our results in this article strongly support an important step toward understanding the role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the regulatory menchanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in red leaf cotton under light.

  16. Gene expression profiles deciphering leaf senescence variation between early- and late-senescence cotton lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqiang Kong

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence varies greatly among genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutium L, possibly due to the different expression of senescence-related genes. To determine genes involved in leaf senescence, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the main-stem leaves of an early- (K1 and a late-senescence (K2 cotton line at 110 day after planting (DAP using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis indicated that 1132 genes were up-regulated and 455 genes down-regulated in K1 compared with K2 at 110 DAP. The Solexa data were highly consistent with, and thus were validated by those from real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR. Most of the genes related to photosynthesis, anabolism of carbohydrates and other biomolecules were down-regulated, but those for catabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and nutrient recycling were mostly up-regulated in K1 compared with K2. Fifty-one differently expressed hormone-related genes were identified, of which 5 ethylene, 3 brassinosteroid (BR, 5 JA, 18 auxin, 8 GA and 1 ABA related genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, indicating that these hormone-related genes might play crucial roles in early senescence of K1 leaves. Many differently expressed transcription factor (TF genes were identified and 11 NAC and 8 WRKY TF genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, suggesting that TF genes, especially NAC and WRKY genes were involved in early senescence of K1 leaves. Genotypic variation in leaf senescence was attributed to differently expressed genes, particularly hormone-related and TF genes.

  17. Differential Cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2010-12-01

    A Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV)-based gene silencing vector containing a fragment of the Gossypium hirsutum Magnesium chelatase subunit I was used to establish endogenous gene silencing in cotton of varied genetic backgrounds. Biolistic inoculation resulted in systemic and persistent photo-bleaching of the leaves and bolls of the seven cultivars tested, however, the intensity of silencing was variable. CLCrV-VIGS-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein was used to monitor the in planta distribution of the vector, indicating successful phloem invasion in all cultivars tested. Acala SJ-1, one of the cotton cultivars, was identified as a particularly optimal candidate for CLCrV-VIGS-based cotton reverse-genetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Advances of research on Cotton leaf curl virus%棉花曲叶病毒研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小兰; 赵竹; 李明福

    2013-01-01

    The Cotton leaf curl virus as a quarantine virus in China is severely harmful to the production of the cotton. It caused destructive damage on cotton production in Pakistan and India. The virus could be transimitted by the whitefly and had a wide host range. In 2006, the Cotton leaf curl virus was found to infect Hibiscus rosa -sinensis in Guangdong. Moreover, in 2010, CLCuV was reported to be associated with cotton leaf curl disease in a experimental field of Nanning, Guangxi province in China. Cotton is an important crop in China, once the virus is spread to the main cotton producing areas, the consequences would be disastrous. In this paper, the variants of the virus, distribution and popular trend, disease epidemiology, the influence of CLCuV on cotton production and quality traits and disease control are analysed. In addition, the interesting issues and effective management measures for CLCuV were discussed also.%棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton leaf curl virus,CLCuV)是我国的进境检疫性有害生物,严重危害棉花生长,在巴基斯坦和印度的棉花产区已造成毁灭性灾害.该病毒主要由烟粉虱传播,寄主范围广泛.2006年在广东首次发现棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)入侵我国危害朱槿,2010年有报道证实CLCuV已侵染广西南宁试验田的棉花.我国是棉花生产大国,该病毒一旦扩散传播到棉花主产区,后果将不堪设想.本文对CLCuV的变异、国内外分布和流行趋势、影响棉花曲叶病流行的因素、病毒对棉花的品质和产量的影响及病害治理等方面进行综述,并探讨了棉花曲叶病毒研究存在的问题及有效防止该病毒传播和扩散的措施.

  19. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY-1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photo-assimilate in crop plants and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders ha...

  20. [FTIR Spectroscopic Characterization of Material Composition in Functional Leaf of Cotton under Stress of Potassium and Boron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-wen; Hao, Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; Jiang, Cun-cang

    2016-03-01

    Potassium (K) and boron (B) are essential nutrient elements for plants, and the elements play an important role for plant growth, development and physiological metabolism. Cotton has a higher demand for K and B; K deficiency or B deficiency often occurs in cotton though. To reveal the component changes in functional leaf of cotton under K and B stress and investigate effects on material composition from K and B. A pot experiment was conducted at Huazhong Agricultural University. (1) the characteristic peaks at 1 546.86, 1 438.85, 1 153.39 and 1 024.17 cm(-1) disappeared due to B deficiency, and relative absorbance of other characteristic peaks was decreased compared with normal, which suggested that the structures of protein, fiber, soluble sugar and ribosome in cotton functional leaf changed and decreased in cotent when lack of K. (2) the relative absorbance of all characteristic peaks was increased in the B-deficient cotton leaves compared with normal, suggesting B deficiency leads to the accumulation in leaves of protein, and fiber, soluble sugar and other carbohydrates because of the hindered transportation. (3) lack of both potassium and boron, induced significant changes to both the locations and relative absorbance of characteristic peaks, and the content of protein, and soluble sugar and other carbohydrates increased, while the content of nucleic acids and polysaccharides dropped. K deficiency led to the structures of protein, fiber, soluble sugar and ribosome in cotton functional leaf changed and decreased in content; B deficiency gave rise to the accumulation in leaves of protein, and fiber, soluble sugar and other carbohydrates; the content of protein and soluble sugar and other carbohydrates increased, while the content of nucleic acids and polysaccharides dropped when K and B were all in short supply.

  1. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  2. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  3. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 刘玉乐; 朱祯

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5’ end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoterdeletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a c/s-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and

  4. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  5. CRISPR/CAS9: A TOOL TO CIRCUMSCRIBE COTTON LEAF CURL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar eIqbal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae associated with cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD pose a major threat to cotton productivity in South-East Asia including Pakistan and India. These viruses have single-stranded, circular DNA genome, of ~2800 nt in size, encapsidated in twinned icosa-hedera, transmitted by ubiquitous whitefly and are associated with satellite molecules referred to as alpha- and betasatellite. To circumvent the proliferation of these viruses numerous techniques, ranging from conventional breeding to molecular approaches have been applied. Such devised strategies worked perfectly well for a short time period and then viruses relapse due to various reasons including multiple infections, where related viruses synergistically interact with each other, virus proliferation and evolution. Another shortcoming is, until now, that all molecular biology approaches are devised to control only helper begomoviruses but not to control associated satellites. Despite the fact that satellites could add various functions to helper begomoviruses, they remain ignored. Such conditions necessitate a very comprehensive technique that can offer best controlling strategy not only against helper begomoviruses but also their associated DNA-satellites. In the current scenario clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR associated nuclease 9 (Cas9 has proved to be versatile technique that has very recently been deployed successfully to control different geminiviruses. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been proved to be a comprehensive technique to control different geminiviruses however, like previously used techniques, only a single virus is targeted and hitherto it has not been deployed to control begomovirus complexes associated with DNA-satellites. Here in this article, we proposed an inimitable, unique and broad spectrum controlling method based on multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 system where a cassette of sgRNA is designed to target

  6. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ryan J; Coneva, Viktoriya; Frank, Margaret H; Tuttle, John R; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Han, Sang-Won; Kaur, Baljinder; Zhu, Linglong; Fang, Hui; Bowman, Daryl T; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Haigler, Candace H; Jones, Don C; Holland, James B; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kuraparthy, Vasu

    2017-01-03

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D1), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D1 locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D1 locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Xiu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find out the effect of potassium(K and boron(B on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1, B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1 hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane relative permeability, the content of MDA and Pro significantly increased compared with the normal B(0.2 mgB·L-1, and the relative concentration of bound B, R value, cell wall material and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B increased by 10.32%, 21.28%, 31.35% and 31.35%, respectively. In contrast, under low K(2 mgK·L-1 supply, B deficiency produced a very significant decrease in the relative concentration of bound B and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B. The above results showed that under either K-deficient or K-sufficient condition, B deficiency damaged the cotton leaf cell membrane and cell membrane permeability. In normal B-supplied plants, lacking of B induced more B into the cytoplasm, but increased the proportion of B that combined with the pectic polysaccharides in cell wall. However, under K-deficient treatment, the proportion of B cross-linked pectic polysaccharides in cell wall decreased.

  8. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5' end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoter deletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a cis-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and stems and losing GUS activity in roots. The functional domains of complementary sense gene promoter of CLCuV were firstly analyzed and compared. It was found that the promoter activity with the deletion of negative cis-elements was much stronger than that of full-length promoter and was about twelve times on average that of CaMV 35S promoter, suggesting that the promoter has great application potential. Results also provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms of geminivirus gene regulation and interaction between virus and plant.

  9. Genotoxic potential of the latex from cotton-leaf physicnut (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marcos de Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, popularly known as cotton-leaf physicnut, is a milky shrub notable for its medicinal properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the latex of J. gossypiifolia, using Allium cepa L. as test system. Seeds of A. cepa were exposed to five concentrations of the latex (1.25; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20 mL/L in order to evaluate parameters of toxicity (evaluation of root growth, cytotoxicity (mitotic index frequency and genotoxicity (frequency of chromosome alterations. The latex showed a significant decrease in root mean growth value as well as mitotic index for the tested concentrations, except for 1.25 mL/L, when compared to results from the negative control. The 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mL/L concentrations induced significant chromo-some adherences, C-metaphases and/or chromosome bridges, as genotoxic effects. The significant frequency of chromosome bridges also indicated mutagenic potential for chromosomes of J. gossypiifolia as discussed in the paper. Considering that the latex is used in popular therapies, and that the test system A. cepa presents good correlation with tests carried out in mammals, it can be pointed out that its use for medicinal purposes may be harmful to human health especially if ingested.

  10. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture.

  11. Whitefly-mediated transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite: evidence for betasatellite encapsidation in coat protein of helper begomoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabein, S; Behjatnia, S A Akbar; Anabestani, A; Izadpanah, K

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease of cotton in the Indian subcontinent. CLCuMB depends on helper virus replication-associated protein for its replication and on viral coat protein (CP) for its encapsidation. However, no direct evidence of encapsidation of CLCuMB in viral CP has been available. In the present study, non-viruliferous whiteflies were placed on tomato plants that had been agroinoculated with infectious clones of an Iranian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) and CLCuMB for an acquisition access period of 72 h and then transferred to healthy tomato seedlings at the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Typical symptoms of TYLCV-[Ab] appeared on inoculated seedlings 30-45 days post-inoculation. The presence of TYLCV-[Ab] and CLCuMB DNAs in symptomatic test plants and viruliferous whiteflies was confirmed by PCR analysis using specific primers and DIG Southern blotting. Furthermore, the possibility of CLCuMB DNA encapsidation in TYLCV-[Ab] CP within infected plants was examined by immunocapture PCR. The results showed that CLCuMB DNA was encapsidated in TYLCV-[Ab] CP. Whitefly-mediated transmission of CLCuMB in the presence of helper virus is additional evidence for encapsidation of CLCuMB by TYLCV-[Ab] CP.

  12. Overexpression of a Potato Sucrose Synthase Gene in Cotton Accelerates Leaf Expansion,Reduces Seed Abortion, and Enhances Fiber Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Xu; Elizabeth Brill; Danny J.Llewellyn; Robert T.Furbank; Yong-Ling Ruan

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength,especially in crop species,based on mutational and gene suppression studies.It remains elusive,however,whether,or to what extent,increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development.We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development.Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development,which reduced seed abortion,hence enhanced seed set,and (3) promoted fiber elongation.In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines,fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas,in elongating fibers,both fructose and glucose levels were increased.Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves,in contrast to developing fibers,it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation,probably through sugar signaling.The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%.However,further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight,indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect.Finally,based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number,a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole,rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  13. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  14. Expression and modulation of neuroligin and neurexin in the olfactory organ of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Maïbèche, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Carboxylesterases are enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. In insects, they have been mainly involved in dietary metabolism and detoxification function. Interestingly, several members of this family called carboxylesterase-like adhesion molecules (CLAMs) have lost their catalytic properties and are mainly involved in neuro/developmental functions. CLAMs include gliotactins, neurotactins, glutactins, and neuroligins. The latter have for binding partner the neurexin. In insects, the function of these proteins has been mainly studied in Drosophila central nervous system or neuromuscular junction. Some studies suggested a role of neuroligins and neurexin in sensory processing but CLAM expression within sensory systems has not been investigated. Here, we reported the identification of 5 putative CLAMs expressed in the olfactory system of the model pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. One neuroligin, Slnlg4-yll and its putative binding partner neurexin SlnrxI were the most expressed in the antennae and were surprisingly associated with olfactory sensilla. In addition, both transcripts were upregulated in male antennae after mating, known to modulate the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in S. littoralis, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in sensory plasticity.

  15. Programmed Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  16. Expressing activity of promoter elements of large intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a type of single-stranded DNAvirus, belonging to geminivirus of subgroup III. In order to determine the function of CLCuV large intergenic region (LIR), total DNA of CLCuV-infected cotton leaves was used as template, and fragment of LIR was obtained by PCR and inserted into clone vector. The fragment of LIR was fused with gus reporter gene and nos terminator in the orientation of transcription of virion sense and complementary sense respectively, and the plant expression vectors were constructed. GUS activity of Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic tobacco was measured. The result indicated that LIR showed strong promoter activity in complementary sense gene orientation. Average GUS activity of the complementary sense promoter was 5-6 times that of CaMV 35S promoter, and the highest GUS activity of individual plant was ten times of that of CaMV 35S promoter. Histochemical localization confirmed its activity in both mesophyll and vascular tissues. Activity of virion sense of LIR was rather low. Thus LIR isolated from CLCuV could be used as a novel strong promoter in plant genetic manipulation.

  17. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  18. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  19. Development of Gene Expression and Gene Silencing Vectors Based onCotton Leaf Curl Virus for Functional Genomics in Cotton `%基于抗卷叶病毒棉花基因组研究的基因表达和基因沉默载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid MANSOOR; Muhammad SAQIB; Mazhar HUSSAIN; Rob BRIDDON; Kauser A. MALIK; Yusuf ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton leaf curl virus is the first example of a cotton-infecting virus where infectious clones are available. Plant viruses are valuable tools in understanding plant biology as they can be engineered for expression of foreign genes or silencing of genes homologous to cloned genes.

  20. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  1. Investigation on the effect of RF air plasma and neem leaf extract treatment on the surface modification and antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideki, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Rajendran, R.; Thilagavathi, G.

    2008-02-01

    A thorough investigation on the antimicrobial activity of RF air plasma and azadirachtin (neem leaf extract) treated cotton fabric has been dealt with in this paper. The cotton fabric was given a RF air plasma treatment to improve its hydrophilicity. The process parameters such as electrode gap, time of exposure and RF power have been varied to study their effect in improving the hydrophilicity of the cotton fabric and they were optimized based on the static immersion test results. The neem leaf extract (azadirachtin) was applied on fabric samples to impart antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial efficacy of the samples have been analysed and compared with the efficacy of the cotton fabric treated with the antimicrobial finish alone. The investigation reveals that the RF air plasma has modified the surface of the fabric, which in turn increased the antimicrobial activity of the fabric when treated with azadirachtin. The surface modification due to RF air plasma treatment has been analysed by comparing the FTIR spectra of the untreated and plasma treated samples. The molecular interaction between the fabric, azadirachtin and citric acid which was used as a cross linking agent to increase the durability of the antimicrobial finish has also been analysed using FTIR spectra.

  2. Identification and application of biocontrol agents against Cotton leaf curl virus disease in Gossypium hirsutum under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memoona Ramzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.

  3. Relationship Between Leaf C/N Ratio and Insecticidal Protein Expression in Bt Cotton as Affected by High Temperature and N Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; LÜ Chun-hua; CHEN Yuan; WANG Gui-xia; CHEN Yuan; CHEN De-hua

    2014-01-01

    Expression of insecticidal protein for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is unstable and related to nitrogen metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between leaf carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N) and insecticidal efifcacy of two Bt cotton cultivars. C/N ratio and Bt protein content were both measured at peak square period and peak boll period respectively under 5-7 d high temperature and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on the Yangzhou University Farm and the Ludong Cotton Farm, China. All plants were grown in ifeld. The results showed that the C/N ratio enhanced slightly and the Bt protein content remained stable at peak square period, but significant increases for the C/N ratio and decreases markedly for the leaf Bt protein concentration were detected at the peak boll period. The similar patterns at the two growth periods were found for the leaf C/N ratio and Bt protein content by different N fertilizer treatments. When nitrogen rate was from 0 to 600 kg ha-1, the C/N ratio was reduced by 0.017 and 0.006 for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3 at peak square period, compared to the 1.350 to 1.143 reduction for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3 at peak boll period, respectively. Correspondingly, the leaf Bt protein contents were bolstered by 2.6-11.8 and 26.9-36.9% at the two different growth periods, respectively. The results suggested that enhanced C/N ratio by high temperature and nitrogen application may result in the reduction of insectiocidal efifcacy in Bt cotton, especially in peak boll period.

  4. 棉花曲叶病毒对棉花造成的经济损失评估%The economic losses of Cottone leaf curl virus invading China on cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶玉燕; 沈玲丽; 朱水芳; 严进; 黄冠胜

    2011-01-01

    棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton leaf curl virus)是我国进境检疫性病毒,严重危害棉花的生长,给棉花生产带来巨大经济损失.文中分析此病毒可能给棉花生产所造成的损失,包括直接经济损失、间接经济损失和防治费用.估算了棉花曲叶病毒对棉花造成的经济损失值为77.27亿元~498.61亿元.%The Cotton leaf curl virus as a quarantine virus in China severly harmed cotton, and leaded to seriously economical losing. In this paper we analyzed all the possible losses including three parts: direct economic losses,indirect economic losses and the cost of its control on this virus, and estimated the losses would be about 7727 million to 49 861 million yuan RMB.

  5. Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aleem Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional gene promoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant.

  6. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Akhtar, A.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  7. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K.

  8. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilili Abuduwaili

    Full Text Available Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1 Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2 The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2>B(400g.m-2>C(300g.m-2>D(200g.m-2>E(100g.m-2>F(0g.m-2. (3The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the

  9. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  10. Crestamento foliar, nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum Cotton leaf blight, a new symptomatology caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemar Atílio Malavolta Jr.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi observada recentemente no Estado de São Paulo uma nova sintomatologia em algodoeiro cv. Makina, IAC 24 e Detaopal, causada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam, denominada "crestamento foliar". Caracteriza-se por crestamento foliar, geralmente acompanhado por halo clorótico, podendo também causar sintomas de "V" invertido, a partir dos bordos foliares. Linhagens de Xam foram comparadas, por meio de testes de patogenicidade, bioquímicos, sorológicos, culturais e PCR-RFLP da região espaçadora 16S-23S DNAr. Independentemente do tipo de sintoma, as linhagens apresentaram características e perfis idênticos aos apresentados pela linhagem tipo, confirmando a identidade dos isolados como Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum.Recently a new symptomatology on cotton plants (cv. Makina, IAC 24 and Deltaopal caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam was observed in São Paulo state, Brazil, and named "bacterial leaf blight". The symptom was characterized by leaf blight, generally exhibiting chlorotic haloes and sometimes showing V-shaped lesions beginning at the leaves' border. Strains of Xam responsible for typical angular leaf spots and bacterial leaf blight were compared through pathological, biochemical, serological, cultural and RFLP-PCR tests of the 16S-23S spacer region. Independently of the symptom type, the strains exhibited characteristics and profiles that were identical to those exhibited by the type strain, which confirms the isolates identity Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum

  11. Mancha de mirotécio em algodoeiro causada por Myrothecium roridum Myrothecium leaf spot of cotton caused by Myrothecium roridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Conrado Meyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de mirotécio causada por Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. foi observada em lavouras de algodão no sul do Maranhão, causando reduções de produtividade de até 60%. Os sintomas da doença são lesões necróticas, circulares, com estruturas salientes, os esporodóquios, de distribuição irregular. Foram observadas lesões nos pecíolos, brácteas, folhas e maçãs de algodoeiro cv. Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 e Sure Grow 821. O isolamento do fungo foi realizado em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA. O teste de patogenicidade foi realizado em maçãs sadias, destacadas de algodoeiro cv. Fibermax 966, no estádio vegetativo R6, previamente desinfestadas. Foram testados 13 isolados de M. roridum, oito provenientes de algodão e cinco de soja. Avaliações das estruturas fúngicas foram realizadas com auxílio de microscópio óptico equipado com um micrômetro ocular. Os isolados causaram infecções em maçãs de algodão e destacou-se como mais agressivo o MA-75, proveniente de algodão, apresentando diâmetro médio de lesão de 1,3cm, aos sete DAI e 2,7cm aos 14 DAI. Todos os isolados formaram esporodóquios dispostos concenticamente em meio BDA. Os conídios são unicelulares, hialinos a oliváceos, abundantemente produzidos em massa verde-oliva a preta. Os conídios de isolados provenientes de algodão mediram, em média, 5,1µm x 1,5µm, e os obtidos de soja, 5,8µm x 1,5µm. Estes resultados relatam a ocorrência da mancha de mirotécio, causada por M. roridum, em lavouras comerciais de algodão no Brasil.Myrothecium leaf spot caused by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. was observed on cotton fields in Maranhão State, Brazil, causing yield reduction of up to 60%. Disease symptoms are lesions with concentric necrotic rings, with salient structures (sporodochia irregularly distributed. Symptoms were observed on petioles, bracts, leaves and bolls of cotton cultivars Deltapine Acala 90, Fibermax 966 and Sure Grow 821

  12. Effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable N, subtending leaf N concentration, fiber yield, and quality of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, which is sensitive to N fertilization rate, is one of the indicators of soil nitrogen supplying capacity. Two field experiments were conducted in Dongtai (120°19″ E, 32°52″ N, Jiangsu, China in 2009 and Dafeng (120°28″ E, 33°12″ N, Jiangsu province, China in 2010. Six nitrogen rates (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg ha− 1 were used to study the effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content (SAHNC, subtending leaf nitrogen concentration (SLNC, yield, and fiber quality. In both Dongtai and Dafeng experiment station, the highest yield (1709 kg ha− 1, best quality (fiber length 30.6 mm, fiber strength 31.6 cN tex− 1, micronaire 4.82, and highest N agronomic efficiency (2.03 kg kg− 1 were achieved at the nitrogen fertilization rate of 375 kg ha− 1. The dynamics of SAHNC and SLNC could be simulated with a cubic and an exponential function, respectively. The changes in SAHNC were consistent with the changes in SLNC. Optimal average rate (0.276 mg day− 1 and duration (51.8 days of SAHNC rapid decline were similar to the values obtained at the nitrogen rate of 375 kg ha− 1 at which cotton showed highest fiber yield, quality, and N agronomic efficiency. Thus, the levels and strategies of nitrogen fertilization can affect SAHNC dynamics. The N fertilization rate that optimizes soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content would optimize the subtending leaf nitrogen concentration and thereby increase the yield and quality of the cotton fiber.

  13. 7 CFR 28.517 - Leaf Grade No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 7. 28.517 Section 28.517 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.517 Leaf Grade No. 7. American Pima cotton which in leaf is inferior to...

  14. 7 CFR 28.514 - Leaf Grade No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 4. 28.514 Section 28.514 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.514 Leaf Grade No. 4. Leaf grade No. 4 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  15. 7 CFR 28.516 - Leaf Grade No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 6. 28.516 Section 28.516 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.516 Leaf Grade No. 6. Leaf grade No. 6 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  16. 7 CFR 28.513 - Leaf Grade No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 3. 28.513 Section 28.513 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.513 Leaf Grade No. 3. Leaf grade No. 3 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  17. 7 CFR 28.515 - Leaf Grade No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 5. 28.515 Section 28.515 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.515 Leaf Grade No. 5. Leaf grade No. 5 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  18. 7 CFR 28.511 - Leaf Grade No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 1. 28.511 Section 28.511 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.511 Leaf Grade No. 1. Leaf grade No. 1 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  19. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which...

  20. 棉铃虫发生程度与降雨量关系的研究%Studies on the Relationship between Occurrence Degree of Cotton Boll-worm and Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学义; 王洪涛; 高伟力; 范小九; 李淑英; 卫金燕; 崔素华; 王华; 申予鲁

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the study is to investigate the factors causing the outbreak of cotton boUworm and to provide effective measures for con-trolling cotton bollworm. [Method] Based on the analysis of the data about insect and weather situation in Luyi County in 32 years, the meteorological pre-diction model was established for monitoring the quarterly or monthly, occurrence trend of cotton bollworm. [Result] The cotton bnflworm oceurred slightly in the years with rainfalls of 3 months over 500 nm and severely in the years with rainfalls of 3 months less than 400 nm. The results of correlation analysis show that annual occurrence degrees of cotton bollworm and occurrence degrees of 4th generation of cotton bollworm are extremely negatively correlated with rainfall during June - August ; the occurrence degrees of 3rd and 4th generations of cotton bollworra are also extremely negatively correlated with rainfall in July. [Condusion] The occurrence of cotton bollworm in field is heavily influenced by rainfall in at its occurrence stage, moreover, the rainfall during June - August is the decisive factors influencing the occurrence of cotton bollworm.

  1. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite DNA as a Tool to Deliver and Express the Human B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Gene in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Sara; Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-05-01

    The betasatellite DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) contains a single complementary-sense ORF, βC1, which is a pathogenicity determinant. CLCuMB was able to replicate in plants in the presence of diverse helper geminiviruses, including Tomato leaf curl virus-Australia (TLCV-Au), Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]), and Beet curly top virus (BCTV-Svr), and can be used as a plant gene delivery vector. To test the hypothesis that CLCuMB has the potential to act as an animal gene delivery vector, a specific insertion construct was produced by the introduction of a human B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cDNA into a mutant DNA of CLCuMB in which the βC1 was deleted (β∆C1). The recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 construct was successfully replicated in tomato and tobacco plants in the presence of TLCV-Au, BCTV-Svr and TYLCV-[Ab]. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 DNA showed that Bcl-2 gene was expressed in an acceptable level in these plants, indicating that β∆C1 can be used as a tool to deliver and express animal genes in plants. This CLCuMB-based system, having its own promoter activity, offers the possibility of production of animal recombinant proteins in plants.

  2. Estimação da área foliar do algodoeiro por meio de dimensões e massa das folhas Cotton leaf area estimates based on leaf dimensions and dry mass methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo B. A. Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar dois métodos de estimação da área foliar do algodoeiro, por meio de suas dimensões e massa seca das folhas. Foram utilizadas as cultivares IAC 23 e Coodetec 401. No método que utilizou dimensões, as folhas do algodoeiro foram agrupadas em novas, cordiformes e maduras. Para cada tipo de folha, de cada cultivar, foi determinado um fator de forma (FF por meio de análise de regressão entre o produto do comprimento (C pela largura (L e a área das folhas. Avaliou-se a correlação entre a área foliar estimada pelo fator FF e sua medida direta, utilizando-se dados independentes. Testou-se, ainda, um fator único para cada cultivar, independente do estádio da cultura e, também, um fator geral para as duas cultivares. No método que utilizou a massa seca, as folhas foram agrupadas em novas e maduras. Determinou-se o fator de massa seca (FM por meio da análise de regressão entre a massa seca de folhas e respectivas áreas foliares. Em seguida, avaliou-se a correlação entre dados estimados por FM e dados medidos de forma direta, em nova amostra. O método das dimensões é viável para a estimação de área foliar do algodoeiro, por apresentar boa precisão e exatidão, com r² entre 0,71 e 0,98 e com coeficiente angular da regressão entre 0,87 e 0,95. No entanto, pelo método da massa seca, observaram-se precisão e exatidão maiores, com r² entre 0,94 e 0,98, e coeficiente angular da regressão entre 0,97 e 1,00, com a vantagem de ser menos trabalhoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate two different methods to estimate cotton leaf area (LA, based on leaf dimensions (length - L and width - W and leaf dry mass (DM. Two cultivars, IAC 23 and Coodetec 401, were used. For leaf dimensions method, leaves were classified by age: young, heart-shape, and mature. For each age class, a leaf shape factor (LSF was obtained by simple linear regression between L*W and LA. For leaf dry mass method, leaves

  3. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  4. 工厂化棉苗与营养钵棉苗的形态及叶片解剖特征比较%Comparision of Morphology and Leaf Anatomical Feature between Cotton Industrial Seedling and Seedling of Nutritional Bowl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝西; 代丹丹; 李彦鹏; 郭红霞; 杨铁钢

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of stress resistance in industrial cotton seedling,this study compared its morphology and leaf anatomical property with those of nutritional bowl cotton seedling by phenotype observation and paraffin section.Morphological comparison found that compared with nutritional bowl cotton seedling,the industrial cotton seedling showed a concave at the edge of the blade,as well as an increase in blade thickness.Besides,its seedling height and leaf fresh weight significantly reduced,and the root and leaf ratio increased by 143.8%.Stomata and anatomical characteristics comparison also found that its palisade tissue and spongy tissue thickened significantly,and stomatal density and stomatal index increased by 63.3 % and 40.8%,respectively.Results indicated that the strong stress resistance of industrial cotton seedling was related to its higher root/shoot ratio,leaf sickness,leaf fresh weight,stomatic density,and thickness of palisade tissue.%为明确工厂化棉苗抗逆性形成的生理基础,通过表型观察与石蜡切片分析,比较了工厂化棉苗与营养钵棉苗的形态及叶片解剖特征差异.形态特征比较发现,与营养钵棉苗相比,工厂化棉苗表现为叶片边缘上凹、叶片厚度增加、苗高和叶鲜质量显著降低、根叶比增加143.8%;叶片气孔及解剖特征比较发现,工厂化棉苗的栅栏组织与海绵组织极显著加厚,气孔密度和气孔指数较营养钵棉苗分别增加63.3%和40.8%.结果表明,工厂化棉苗较强的抗逆性与其较高的根叶比、叶片厚度、叶鲜质量、气孔密度、栅栏组织厚度高度相关.

  5. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  6. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  7. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  8. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  9. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  10. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  11. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  12. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  13. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus......, the work focuses on ecologists who, in turn, examine worms; and worms amateurs who learn to collect and identify them in the field. Composting, and the waste-eating of earthworms are also experimented with. The "living together " that worms unearth is about eating and being eaten - a set of relations...

  14. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  15. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  16. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  17. Analysis of Qualitative Inheritance of Wrinkled Leaf Mutative Character in Upland Cotton%陆地棉皱缩叶突变性状质量遗传规律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭升; 狄佳春; 马晓杰

    2012-01-01

    以自主发现的皱叶突变体“W2 - 24 -2”为试验材料,该突变体约从第8果枝叶出现皱叶性状,并一直延续到植株的未了节位.在F,群体近等基因条件下分析显示:与正常叶株相比,突变体株的棉铃圆而较小、单株结铃性较差、籽指较小、每囊粒数较少,但衣分则表现增高趋势.分析皱缩叶与正常叶杂交后代的叶型遗传特征表明:该皱叶突变是受一对隐性基因控制的质量性状.该突变体表型与前人已报道皱叶突变并不相同,故将其基因符号暂定为wr3.%The wrinkled leaf mutant " W2 -24 -2" found by us independently was used as the tested material. This mutant appears wrinkled leaves from about the eighth fruiting branch to the last one. In the F2 group, we compared the mutant plants with the normal -leaf plants, and it was found that the mutant plants had round and smaller bolls, less number of bolls per plant, smaller seed index, less grains per capsule, but the lint percentage increased. The genetic analyses of leaf type of the offspring from the hybridization between wrinkled - leaf plant and normal - leaf plant showed that the wrinkled leaf mutation was a qualitative trait controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and the phenntyne, of this mutant was different from that of the wrinkled - leaf upland cotton mutants reported by the predecessors, so its gene symbol was denominated wr3 tentatively.

  18. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  19. Fungitoxicidade de grupos químicos sobre Myrothecium roridum in vitro e sobre a mancha-de-mirotécio em algodoeiro Fungitoxicity of chemical groups on Myrothecium roridum in vitro and on myrothecium leaf spot on cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano César da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fungitoxicidade de produtos pertencentes aos grupos dos benzimidazóis, triazóis, estrobilurinas, isoftalonitrilas e ditiocarbamatos sobre a germinação conidial e o crescimento micelial in vitro de isolados de Myrothecium roridum e, in vivo, sobre a severidade da mancha-de-mirotécio em plantas de algodoeiro. Nos testes in vitro os fungicidas foram solubilizados em meio BDA, utilizando-se as concentrações de 0,1, 1, 10 e 100 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo. A fungitoxidade dos produtos foi avaliada por meio da ED50 (dose necessária para inibir 50% da germinação conidial ou crescimento micelial. Em casa de vegetação, estimou-se a severidade da mancha-de-mirotécio pela porcentagem de área foliar lesionada nas plantas de algodoeiro tratadas antes (preventivo e depois (curativo da inoculação do patógeno. Os fungicidas tiofanato metílico, carbendazim, metconazol, tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil, piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, piraclostrobina + metiram, triflostrobina + propiconazol e tebuconazol inibiram com alta eficácia (ED50The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of benzimidazoles, triazoles, strobilurins, isoftalonitrils and ditiocarbamats on Myrothecium roridum conidial germination and micelial growth in vitro, and the myrothecium leaf spot severity on cotton plants. On in vitro tests, fungicides were solubilized in PDA media at the following concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1. The toxicity of the products were evaluated by the ED50 rate (required for inhibiting 50% of the conidial germination or mycelial growth. In greenhouse tests, the severity of myrothecium leaf spot was quantified by measuring the leaf area affected by the pathogen in cotton plants sprayed before (preventive and after (curative the pathogen inoculation. The fungicides thiophanate methyl, carbendazim, metconazole, thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil, pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole, pyraclostrobin

  20. 钾对不同钾效率棉花基因型叶片解剖结构的影响%Effects of potassium fertilization on leaf anatomical structures of different cotton genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜存仓; 郝艳淑; 王晓丽; 夏颖; 王运华

    2011-01-01

    以钾高效高潜基因型HG103和低效低潜基因型LG122为材料,在盆栽条件下研究了钾对不同棉花基因型叶片解剖结构的影响。结果表明,花铃期施钾条件下HG103上部叶主叶脉的上、下表皮细胞排列较LG122紧密和整齐,而下部叶片则相反;缺钾后HG103上部叶主叶脉比LG122发育得好;HG103叶脉维管束木质部具有较多导管数,利于养分和水分等的运输,而LG122木质部导管数相对较少;HG103上部叶叶脉的韧皮部比LG122较为发达,利于光合产物运输。花铃期施钾条件下HG103上部叶的叶肉细胞结构与LG122差别不大,下部叶的栅栏组织则没有LG122排列的整齐。缺钾时,HG103上部叶叶肉的上表皮细胞比LG122排列的较为整齐,栅栏组织和海绵组织形状较规则;而下部叶LG122栅栏组织和海绵组织比HG103分化得好。%To study the effects of potassium(K) on leaf anatomical structures of different cotton genotypes,a pot experiment was conducted at Huazhong Agricultural University.There were two cotton genotypes(HG103,and LG122),two K application levels(0 and 0.4 g/kg soil).The HG103(high K efficiency genotype) and LG122(low K efficiency genotype) were selected from 86 cotton cultivars(Gossypium hirsutum L.).The results show that the upper leaves main veins of the upper or the lower epidermis cells of HG103 are more tight and neat than those of LG122 when adding K,while the main veins of lower leaves are opposite.The upper leaf main veins of HG103 are better than those of LG122 under the no K level.HG103 has lots of vascular xylem vein catheters which benefits nutrients and moisture transportion,while LG122 has small number of xylem conduits.The phloem veins of the upper part of HG103 are better than those of LG122,which could help HG103 transport much of photosynthetic products.The structures of upper leaf mesophyll cells of HG103 and LG122 are not very different when applying K,but lower leaf

  1. 棉花叶片茸毛和色素腺数量与绿盲蝽抗性的关系%Relationship between the Number of Cotton Leaf Pastels, Pigment Gland Points and the Resistance to Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒珺瑜; 崔金杰; 王春义; 张帅; 吕丽敏; 辛惠江

    2011-01-01

    The different resistance levels of different cotton varieties to Apolygus lucoruw Meyer-Dtir and the relationships between the number of cotton leaf pastels, the pigment gland points and their resistance to Apolygus luconun Meyer-Dtir were studied in the net room and laboratory. The results showed that the difference of the resistance of different cotton varieties to Apolygus lucowm Meyer-Diir was obvious. The number of cotton leaf pastels and the pigment gland points indicated very clear difference in different cotton varieties and different cotton growing stages. The number of the cotton leaf pastels in the front and the back and the total in the seedling stage indicated the negative linear correlation with the resistance to Apolygus lucorum. The number of pigment gland points in the leaf nervure of front and back and the total in the boiling stage indicated the positive linear correlation with the resistance to Apolygus lucotum. These results could provide the basis for the cotton resistant breeding and IPM to Apolygus lucorum.%通过网室抗性鉴定和室内观察,研究了不同棉花品种(系)对绿盲蝽的抗性水平及棉花叶片茸毛数量和色素腺密度与绿盲蝽抗性的关系,为抗棉盲蝽棉花品种选育和制定棉盲蝽防治技术策略提供依据.结果表明,不同棉花品种对绿盲蝽的抗性水平存在明显的差异;不同棉花品种(系)叶片茸毛、色素腺点在不同生长期均存在显著差异;棉花叶面、叶背和叶片茸毛总数在苗期与绿盲蝽抗性存在显著负相关,茸毛稀少品种对绿盲蝽的危害具有一定的抗性;叶面叶脉、叶背叶脉及整叶色素腺点数在花铃期与绿盲蝽抗性存在显著正相关.

  2. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  3. A Can of Sea Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  4. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  5. 7 CFR 28.521 - Application of color and leaf grade standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of color and leaf grade standards. 28.521... Explanatory Terms § 28.521 Application of color and leaf grade standards. American Pima cotton which in color... the color standard irrespective of the leaf content. American Pima cotton which in leaf is within...

  6. Intelligent System for Worm Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Sobh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms are on the top of malware threats attacking computer system although of the evolution of worms detectiontechniques. Early detection of unknown worms is still a problem. This paper produce a method for detecting unknown wormsbased on local victim information. The proposed system uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN for classifying worm/ nonwormtraffic and predicting the percentage of infection in the infected network. This prediction can be used to support decisionmaking process for network administrator to respond quickly to worm propagation in an accurate procedure.

  7. Worm attack detection and response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; YU Xiangzhan; FANG Binxing; YUN Xiaochun

    2007-01-01

    There appear many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years,which have caused severe damage to the society.It is clear that a simple self-propagation worm can quickly spread across the Internet.Therefore,it is necessary to implement automatic mitigation which can detect worm and drop its packet.In this paper,the worm's framework was first analyzed and its two characteristies were detected.Based on the two characteristics,a defending algorithm was presented to protect network.Experimental results verify that our algorithm is very effective to constrain the worm propagation and meanwhile it almost does not interfere in normal activity.

  8. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct......) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...

  9. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  10. OCCURRENCE OF LEAF SPOTS CAUSED BY FUNGI AND A BACTERIUM ON COTTON CULTIVARS OCORRÊNCIA DE MANCHAS FOLIARES CAUSADAS POR FUNGOS E BACTÉRIA EM CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferreira Soria

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The cotton leaf spot diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are a growing problem, leading to an increasing use of fungicides. During the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 growing seasons, field experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with five replications, aiming to evaluate the behavior of the cotton cultivars Ita-90, CD-401, CD-402, CD-403, CD-404, Fibermax 986, DeltaOpal, and Facual, as related to leaf spot diseases caused by Stemphylium spp., Alternaria spp., Ramularia areola, and the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. The cotton cultivars Ita-90 and Facual were the less susceptible to the Stemphylium/Alternaria complex and R. areola. However, Ita-90 was more susceptible to X. axonopodis pv. Malvacearum. The cultivars with the least incidence of X. axonopodis were CD-403, Fibermax 986, and DeltaOpal. The cotton cultivar Facual presented the lowest yield, while the remaining cultivars showed similar yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Malvacearum; Stemphylium spp; Alternaria spp; Ramularia areola.

    As manchas foliares causadas por fungos e bactérias no algodoeiro são um problema cada vez mais grave, levando à utilização, cada vez maior, de fungicidas para controlá-las. Nas safras de 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, foram realizados experimentos m campo, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco epetições, objetivando avaliar o comportamento das

  11. Mecanismos bioquímicos da defesa do algodoeiro à mancha de ramulária mediados pelo silício Biochemical aspects of cotton resistance to ramularia leaf spot mediated by silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo

    2013-01-01

    plantas da cv. BRS Buriti supridas com Si, houve aumento nas atividades da QUI e da GLU aos 21 dai em relação às não supridas com Si. Conclui-se que a resistência do algodoeiro à mancha de ramulária foi bioquimicamente potencializada pelo Si, principalmente para as plantas da cv. NuOpal consideradas suscetíveis à mancha de ramulária.This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si on cotton resistance to ramularia leaf spot (Ramularia areola. Plants of cotton (cvs. NuOpal and BRS Buriti were grown in nutrient solution containing 0 (+Si or 2 mM Si L-1 (-Si and inoculated with a conidial suspension of R. areola at 30 days after emergence. The incubation period (IP, latent period (LP60, severity, number of lesions (NL per cm² of leaf area, lesion size (LS, foliar Si concentration and the activities of defense enzymes peroxidases (POX, polyphenoloxidases (PPO, chitinases (CHI, β-1,3-glucanases (GLU, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL were evaluated. Data from severity were used to calculate the area under ramularia leaf spot progress curve (AURLSPC. Leaf Si concentration increased by 64% on plants supplied with Si compared to plants not supplied with this element. There were increases of 10 and 14.7% for IP and LP60, respectively, on plants supplied with Si. Reductions of 38.6 and 62.4% for NL and 17.2 and 26.6% for LS occurred, respectively, for plants from NuOpal and BRS Buriti cvs supplied with Si. AURLSPC was reduced by 35% for the +Si treatment compared to the -Si treatment. The concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds on plants of both cv. supplied with Si increased during the progress of ramularia, but the lowest values occurred for the -Si treatment until 18 days after inoculation (dai. The increase on the concentration of lignin derivatives was significant only for plants of cv. BRS Buriti infected by R. areola and supplied with Si. POX activity was higher on plants from the two cultivars supplied with Si compared to plants not supplied with

  12. Mecanismos bioquímicos da defesa do algodoeiro à mancha de ramulária mediados pelo silício Biochemical aspects of cotton resistance to ramularia leaf spot mediated by silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo

    2013-03-01

    plantas da cv. BRS Buriti supridas com Si, houve aumento nas atividades da QUI e da GLU aos 21 dai em relação às não supridas com Si. Conclui-se que a resistência do algodoeiro à mancha de ramulária foi bioquimicamente potencializada pelo Si, principalmente para as plantas da cv. NuOpal consideradas suscetíveis à mancha de ramulária.This study investigated the effect of silicon (Si on cotton resistance to ramularia leaf spot (Ramularia areola. Plants of cotton (cvs. NuOpal and BRS Buriti were grown in nutrient solution containing 0 (+Si or 2 mM Si L-1 (-Si and inoculated with a conidial suspension of R. areola at 30 days after emergence. The incubation period (IP, latent period (LP60, severity, number of lesions (NL per cm² of leaf area, lesion size (LS, foliar Si concentration and the activities of defense enzymes peroxidases (POX, polyphenoloxidases (PPO, chitinases (CHI, β-1,3-glucanases (GLU, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL were evaluated. Data from severity were used to calculate the area under ramularia leaf spot progress curve (AURLSPC. Leaf Si concentration increased by 64% on plants supplied with Si compared to plants not supplied with this element. There were increases of 10 and 14.7% for IP and LP60, respectively, on plants supplied with Si. Reductions of 38.6 and 62.4% for NL and 17.2 and 26.6% for LS occurred, respectively, for plants from NuOpal and BRS Buriti cvs supplied with Si. AURLSPC was reduced by 35% for the +Si treatment compared to the -Si treatment. The concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds on plants of both cv. supplied with Si increased during the progress of ramularia, but the lowest values occurred for the -Si treatment until 18 days after inoculation (dai. The increase on the concentration of lignin derivatives was significant only for plants of cv. BRS Buriti infected by R. areola and supplied with Si. POX activity was higher on plants from the two cultivars supplied with Si compared to plants not supplied with

  13. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8 ± 1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM + 33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM + 67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P  0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P goats supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P goats gained more (P goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P > 0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems.

  14. Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yichang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear by using SolidWorks. On the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Obtain the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear. Modal analysis laid the foundation for further study on dynamics analysis, Also for the worm and worm gear structure optimization design provides a reference.

  15. Gossypolhemiquinone, a dimeric sesquiterpenoid identified in cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report that the cotton leaf perforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella, is one of the few insect herbivores to attack Gossypium thurberi prompted an investigation of the terpenoids present in the leaves of this wild species of cotton. Members of Gossypium produce subepidermal pigment glands in their ...

  16. Preliminary Functional Studies on AC2, a Novel Trans-acting Factor from Cotton Leaf Curl Virus%棉花曲叶病毒反式作用因子AC2的功能初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 孟蒙; 朱祯; 吴茜; 徐鸿林; 刘玉乐

    2001-01-01

    Studies on tomato golden mosaic virus and African cassava mosaicvirus suggested that virion sense promoter was trans-activated in transient expression by AC2 encoded by geminivirus. The AC2 gene fragment of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was obtained from total DNA of CLCuV infected tobacco leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplified DNA fragment was cloned into vector. Transient expression vectors were constructed by fusing the AC2 gene fragment with CaMV 35S promoter and nopaline terminator. These constructs were delivered into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf cells for transient expression by particle bombardment. Results indicated that activity of virion sense promoter was activated by AC2 and increased remarkably. However, the activity of trans-activated virion sense promoter was still lower than that of complementary sense promoter. Expression pattern of trans-activated virion sense promoter was similar to that of complementary sense promoter with the high activity in both mesophyll and vascular of leaf vein. In this paper, the expression behavior of AC2 in Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic plants was also discussed.%有关非洲木薯花叶病毒(ACMV)、番茄金色花叶病毒(TGMV)的研究表明,双生病毒编码的反式作用因子AC2反式激活病毒链基因启动子的瞬时表达。以棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)侵染的烟草叶片组织总DNA为模板,通过聚合酶链反应扩增CLCuV的AC2基因片段并插入克隆载体。将AC2置于CaMV35S启动子下构建了瞬时表达载体。通过基因枪法将质粒载体导入烟草(Nicotianatabacum L.)和棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)叶片细胞中进行瞬时表达,结果表明,在反式作用因子AC2的激活下,病毒链基因启动子驱动的GUS活性明显增强,然而激活后的病毒链基因启动子的活性仍低于互补链基因方向启动子;其表达方式与互补链基因启动子相似,即在叶肉及叶脉

  17. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  18. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  19. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  20. Worms by number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, C J; Glasby, S P; Pleijel, F

    2008-09-22

    This paper investigates alternation patterns in length, shape and orientation of dorsal cirri (fleshy segmental appendages) of phyllodocidans, a large group of polychaete worms (Annelida). We document the alternation patterns in several families of Phyllodocida (Syllidae, Hesionidae, Sigalionidae, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae and Acoetidae) and identify the simple mathematical rule bases that describe the progression of these sequences. Two fundamentally different binary alternation patterns were found on the first four segments: 1011 for nereidiform families and 1010 for aphroditiform families. The alternation pattern in all aphroditiform families matches a simple one-dimensional cellular automaton and that for Syllidae (nereidiform) matches the Fibonacci string sequence. Hesionidae (nereidiform) showed the greatest variation in alternation patterns, but all corresponded to various known substitution rules. Comparison of binary patterns of the first 22 segments using a distance measure supports the current ideas on phylogeny within Phyllodocida. These results suggest that gene(s) involved in post-larval segmental growth employ a switching sequence that corresponds to simple mathematical substitution rules.

  1. Effects of Exogenous Methanol on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cotton Leaf%外源甲醇对棉叶中抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 拜彦茹; 杨平; 沈林强; 南俊华; 遆晓南

    2016-01-01

    利用外源甲醇(MeOH)处理棉叶后,对棉叶中 H2 O2、·O-2两种活性氧含量以及过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)3种抗氧化酶活性进行了连续20 d 的监测。发现经 MeOH 处理后的棉叶中 H2 O2和·O-2含量分别下降了17.80%和22.56%,CAT、POD 和 SOD 活性分别增加53.40%、39.38%和19.59%,监测期内测定项目变化趋势与温度的变化较为一致。表明外源 MeOH 可抑制光呼吸,减轻 H2 O2造成的光抑制危害。%The two active oxidates H2 O2 ,·O-2 in cotton leaf and antioxidant enzyme (CAT),peroxidase (POD),superoxide dismutase (SOD)were investigated for continuous 20 days.It was found that the con-tent in H2 O2 and ·O-2 were decreased by 17.80% and 22.56%,the activity of CAT,POD and SOD were increased by 53.40%,39.38% and 19.59%,respectively,and the result of the tested two active oxidates and activity of the three antioxidant enzyme activities had a close relation with changes of the temperature, which showed that exogenous MeOH can inhibit photorespiration and alleviate the photoinhibition damage.

  2. NEDAC: A WORM COUNTERMEASURE MECHANISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    disruption of services and significant financial losses to government, transportation ... A vulnerability can be exploited by a worm if it is network reachable, provides .... of the detection and containment systems across of local network across two ...

  3. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  4. Promoting Flowering, Lateral Shoot Outgrowth, Leaf Development, and Flower Abscission in Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-Like Gene GhFT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggested that sufficient level of foreign FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  5. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  6. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  7. LUBRICATION BASIS THEORY OF WORM PAIR AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON WORM GEAR SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The lubrication basis theory of worm pair is given. The lubrication state of worm gear is analyzed. It is found that the temperature distribution on the tooth surface of worm gear is closely related with the lubrication state and that the temperature on the tooth surface of worm gear is consistent with the characteristic term of mesh and motion of worm pair.

  8. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin , S.; M. FAIZAL A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  9. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  10. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  11. Brocade SilkWorm 3250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越

    2004-01-01

    Brocade SilkWorm 3250是一款8端口的入门级光纤交换机产品。它采用1U设计,主要被设计用来简化SAN存储系统的部署和监控管理。作为基于Brocade第三代通信技术的产品之一.SilkWorm 3250能够提供2Gbps的光纤通道吞吐量.可大幅度改善交换机的运行状况。

  12. Curvas pressão-volume e expansão foliar em cultivares de algodoeiro submetidos à défcit hídrico Pressure-volume curves and leaf expansion in cotton cultivars under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Jamil Marur

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o comportamento de dois cultivares de algodoeiro em resposta ao déficit hídrico, utilizando-se a expansão foliar como parâmetro discriminatório, bem como a metodologia das curvas pressão-volume para comparar suas habilidades com relação ao ajustamento osmótico. Nos tratamentos estressados, os valores dos Ys em plena turgescência e em turgescência zero obtidos para 'IAC 13-1' foram 0,1 MPa menores do que os obtidos para 'IAC 20'. O ajustamento osmótico em plena turgescência foi de 0.15 e 0.03 MPa, e em turgescência zero foi de 0.18 e 0.07 MPa, respectivamente para os dois cultivares. Os menores valores obtidos para o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parecem indicar que seus tecidos suportam o estresse por um tempo maior antes das células atingirem o estado de plasmólise. Os valores do módulo volumétrico de elasticidade aumentaram quando os dois cultivares foram submetidos ao estresse hídrico, sendo que o cultivar 'IAC 13-1' parece apresentar paredes celulares com maior elasticidade. Os valores de Ya, antes do amanhecer, em que ocorreu a paralização do crescimento da folha foram -1,04 MPa e -0,98 MPa para os cultivares 'IAC 13-1' e 'IAC 20', respectivamente, mas não detectou-se diferenças significativas entre os dois cultivares.The response of two cotton cultivars to water deficit was studied using leaf expansion and pressure-volume curves method to compare their ability in relation to osmotic adjustment. The osmotic potential at full saturation and at the turgor loss point, for 'IAC 13-1', were 0.1 MPa lower than for `IAC 20' under later stress. Osmotic adjustment at full saturation was 0.15 and 0.03 MPa, and at turgor loss point was 0.18 and 0.07 MPa for 'IAC 13-1'and 'IAC 20', respectively. The low osmotic potential values observed for 'IAC 13-1' suggests that the tissues support water deficit longer, before cells reach plasmolysis. The values for bulk modulus of elasticity were higher when both cultivars were under water

  13. Effect of Water Stress on Root Vigor and Leaf Physiology of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation%水分胁迫对覆膜滴灌棉花根系活力和叶片生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传杰; 罗毅; 孙林; 甘容; 吉力力·阿不都外力; 张艳

    2012-01-01

    采用田间试验法,分析不同程度水分胁迫条件下棉花花铃期根尖根系活力、叶片叶绿素、脯氨酸和丙二醛含量变化,并对叶片脯氨酸、丙二醛含量和根系活力与土壤含水率进行相关性分析。试验以60 cm土层田间持水量的105%、100%、95%、90%、85%、80%为灌溉上限,共设6个灌水梯度,即5 400、4 950、4 500、3 750、2 850m3/hm2和2 550 m3/hm2。结果表明:单株叶片干重及叶面积、地上部干生物量、株高、叶绿素含量随灌水量的减少而降低,根冠比随灌水量的减少而增加。脯氨酸及丙二醛含量随灌水量的降低而升高,且与土壤含水率呈负相关关系,相关系数(r)分别为-0.704和-0.667;根系活力随灌水量的降低而降低,与土壤含水率呈正相关关系,其相关系数为0.67。当灌水上限为95%,即灌水量为4 500 m3/hm2时,作物表现出轻微的水分胁迫,随灌溉量的继续降低,胁迫加重。植物体内脯氨酸、丙二醛含量及根系活力与土壤含水率的相关关系在一定程度上可以用来表征棉花受干旱程度,可为棉花的灌溉管理提供参考依据。%Water stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and physiological response of cotton plants to soil moisture stress under mulch drip irrigation. The total irrigation volumes of 5 400, 4 950, 4 500, 3 750, 2 850 and 2 550 m^3/hm^2 were designed for each treatment ac-cording to the upper irrigation limits of 105% , 100% , 95% , 90% , 85% and 80% of field capacity, respectively. Differences in root vigor, chlorophyll, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were tested at cotton flores- cence and boll stage so as to reveal the physiological response of cotton plants to soil moisture stress. The relation- ships between soil moisture content and the praline and MDA contents as well as root vigor were analyzed. The re-sults showed that the biomasses of dry

  14. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  16. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  17. GhCPS and GhKS Encoding Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzymes Involve in Inhibition of Leaf Growth by Mepiquat Chloride in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)%赤霉素生物合成酶基因GhCPS和GhKS参与甲哌鎓对棉花幼苗叶片生长的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 张明才; 杜明伟; 田晓莉; 李召虎

    2014-01-01

    室内盆栽欣抗4,在棉花幼苗第3片真叶完全展平时(第4叶未展开)鎓叶面喷施甲哌(DPC),研究DPC对棉花幼苗叶片生长的控制与赤霉素(GA)合成早期关键酶柯巴基焦磷酸合酶(CPS)和内根-贝壳杉烯合酶(KS)基因表达的关系。结果表明, DPC处理显著减小棉花幼苗第3和第4叶的叶面积,第4叶叶面积受控制程度较第3叶大;80 mg L-1 DPC处理的棉花幼苗第3和第4叶中GA4含量分别于处理后4 d和4~6 d显著低于对照;与对照相比,80 mg L-1 DPC处理的棉花幼苗第3叶中GhCPS和GhKS表达在处理后1~4 d显著降低,而第4叶中GhCPS和GhKS的表达在处理后1~6 d显著降低。由此可见, DPC通过影响GhCPS和GhKS的表达,降低内源活性GA4的含量,控制棉花幼苗叶片生长,且较幼嫩叶片对DPC较敏感。%Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) are the key enzymes involved in the early steps of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. This paper aimed at elucidating whether the action of mepiquat chloride (DPC) on leaf growth was related to the expression levels of GhCPS and GhKS in cotton seedlings. DPC was foliar applied to seedlings at the 3rd leaf expanded stage of cotton cultivar Xinkang 4 by pot culture. The results showed that DPC significantly decreased the leaf area, and the area of the 4th leaf was decreased more than that of the 3rd leaf. DPC at 80 mg L-1 markedly reduced GA4 content in the 3rd leaf at four days after treatment and in the 4th leaf from four to six days after treatment. The expression levels of GhCPS and GhKS in the 3rd leaf were decreased by DPC from one to four days after treatment, and similar trends were observed in the 4th leaf from one to six days after treatment. All the results suggested that DPC could reduce endogenous GA4 content by downregu-lating GhCPS and GhKS expressions, leading to a smaller leaf size. Otherwise, the younger leaf was more sensitive to DPC.

  18. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  19. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  20. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  1. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  2. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  3. 钠钾替代条件下不同基因型棉花叶片的 FTIR 光谱研究%FTIR Study of Leaf of Different Cotton Genotypes under Potassium Substitution with Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晶; 郝艳淑; 吴秀文; 姜存仓

    2016-01-01

    钾缺乏是制约棉花生长的重要因子之一,而钠钾替代的研究一直是国内外关注的重点。以不同钾效率基因型棉花(钾高效 HG103和钾低效 LG122)为材料,利用傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)对不同钾钠处理下棉花叶片的物质组成进行研究,分析不同钾钠条件下,叶片红外光谱图谱的差异,探讨钠钾替代对其物质成分和结构的影响,以及基因型的差异。结果表明:(1)缺钾条件下施钠,2960,2855,2926,1103和1078 cm -1这5个特征峰的相对吸光度均有所升高,其中 HG103在2960,2855和2926 cm -1处增加的量与LG122几乎一致,而在1103和1078 cm -1附近,HG103增加的量高于 LG122;然而适钾的条件下施钠,这5个特征峰的相对吸光度都有所减少,且 HG103减少的量都小于 LG122,表明缺钾时施钠促进糖类、蛋白质和酯类的合成,其中对糖类的促进作用是 HG103的大于 LG122的,而对蛋白质和酯类的则没有差异;适钾时施钠则有抑制作用,对 HG103的抑制作用小于 LG122。(2)缺钾时,1734和1437 cm -1附近的特征峰缺失,而补充钠后这些缺失的峰也未出现,说明缺钾破坏了叶片中蛋白质酰胺Ⅰ带和纤维素的结构,而缺钾补充钠并不能缓解这种破坏,即对于钾的这些功能,钠不能完全代替钾。%Potassium (K) deficiency affects cotton growth .The substitution effects of sodium (Na) and potassium research have been the focus of attention at home and abroad .The aim of this paper was to study the substitution effects of Na and K on mate‐rial composition in leaf of two kinds of K‐efficiency cotton genotypes (HG103 and LG122) using Fourier to transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy .The results showed that :(1) the increment of the relative absorbance of HG103 at peaks 2 960 ,2 855 and 2 926 cm - 1 were the same with LG122 with addition of Na in deficient K ,while at peaks 1 078 and 1

  4. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  5. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  6. Worms--a "license to kill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  7. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  8. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  9. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  10. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  11. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  12. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Epée, Emillienne; Koki, Godefroy; Owono, Didier; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.

  13. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  14. Worms and Humans: A Happy Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Hannah; Britton, Sven; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic asymptomatic worm infection, often in combination with tuberculosis (TB), is common in low-income countries. Indeed, a life without worm infestation, as is now the case in most high-income countries, is a recent condition for humankind. Worms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis give rise to different immune response patterns (Th2 vs. Th1 driven), and we have studied whether chronic worm infection affects the susceptibility to and control of TB in the low income country of Ethiopia. Our results, as well of those in the general literature, are inconclusive, although we have some rather strong data in support of adult deworming in relation to vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against TB. In addition, we discuss briefly the putative relationship between chronic worm infestation and autoimmunity/allergy.

  15. Comparison of hydrocarbon yields in cotton from field grown vs. greenhouse grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four accession of cotton (SA-1181, 1403, 1419, and 2269) were grown both in field conditions and a greenhouse to compare the environmental effects on leaf biomass, % yield of hydrocarbons (HC), and total HC (g HC /g leaves) under natural and controlled (protected) conditions. Leaf biomass was simi...

  16. Method of accurate grinding for single enveloping TI worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Yuehai; ZHENG; Huijiang; BI; Qingzhen; WANG; Shuren

    2005-01-01

    TI worm drive consists of involute helical gear and its enveloping Hourglass worm. Accurate grinding for TI worm is the key manufacture technology for TI worm gearing being popularized and applied. According to the theory of gear mesh, the equations of tooth surface of worm drive are gained, and the equation of the axial section profile of grinding wheel that can accurately grind TI worm is extracted. Simultaneously,the relation of position and motion between TI worm and grinding wheel are expounded.The method for precisely grinding single enveloping TI worm is obtained.

  17. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  18. An introduction to worm lab: from culturing worms to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Parihar, Manish; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2011-01-11

    This protocol describes procedures to maintain nematodes in the laboratory and how to mutagenize them using two alternative methods: ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen combined with ultraviolet light (TMP/UV). Nematodes are powerful biological systems for genetics studies because of their simple body plan and mating system, which is composed of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males that can generate hundreds of progeny per animal. Nematodes are maintained in agar plates containing a lawn of bacteria and can be easily transferred from one plate to another using a pick. EMS is an alkylating agent commonly used to induce point mutations and small deletions, while TMP/UV mainly induces deletions. Depending on the species of nematode being used, concentrations of EMS and TMP will have to be optimized. To isolate recessive mutations of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, animals of the F2 generation were visually screened for phenotypes. To illustrate these methods, we mutagenized worms and looked for Uncoordinated (Unc), Dumpy (Dpy) and Transformer (Tra) mutants.

  19. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  20. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  2. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  3. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  4. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  5. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  6. The self-organizing worm algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-modal optimization algorithm called the self-organizing worm algorithm (SOWA) is presented for optimization of multi-modal functions.The main idea of this algorithm can be described as follows:disperse some worms equably in the domain;the worms exchange the information each other and creep toward the nearest high point;at last they will stop on the nearest high point.All peaks of multi-modal function can be found rapidly through studying and chasing among the worms.In contrast with the classical multi-modal optimization algorithms,SOWA is provided with a simple calculation,strong convergence,high precision,and does not need any prior knowledge.Several simulation experiments for SOWA are performed,and the complexity of SOWA is analyzed amply.The results show that SOWA is very effective in optimization of multi-modal functions.

  7. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  8. Effects of water temperature and substrate type on spore production and release in eastern Tubifex tubifex worms infected with Myxobolus cerebralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Waldrop, T.B.; Schill, W.B.; Densmore, Christine L.; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    Eastern Tubifex tubifex worms were exposed to Myxobolus cerebralis spores at 9, 13, 17, and 20 C in 1-L jars that contained sand, mud, or leaf litter as substrata. Beginning 60 days after exposure, water from each jar was filtered daily and examined for the presence of waterborne triactinomyxon spores (TAMs). On discovering a single TAM from an experimental jar, 48 T. tubifex worms from that jar were placed individually into 24-well plates. Spores released from individual infected T. tubifex worms were quantified to determine the first day of TAM release from infected worms, the infection rate, the total number of TAMs released per worm, and the duration of release. No TAMs were found in any of the jars incubated at 20 C or in uninfected, control worms at any temperature. The total number of TAMs released by infected worms in mud and sand was highest at 13 C compared with other temperatures. Infection rates among individual worms increased with temperature between 9 and 17 C. Higher temperatures (up to 17 C) induced earlier TAM releases among infected worms, and substratum did not influence this production parameter. The average duration of TAM release decreased as the temperature increased from 9 to 17 C, and there was a significant effect of substratum in the groups maintained at 13 and 17 C. In all temperature treatments between 9 and 17 C, the duration of release was least in the worms maintained in leaf litter, as was the total number of TAMs released during the experimental period and the median number of TAMs per production day.

  9. Quantification of Cry1Ac protein at different stages of plant growth in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan during cotton growing season 2009-10. Nine cotton cultivars with Cry 1 Ac gene (Mon 531 event selected for current experiment to characterize the toxin level of Cry1Ac protein in different Bt cotton cultivars and to record the variation in Cry1Ac protein at various plant growth stages. It was found that age of plant was having an influence on the expression of gene. Maximum level of endotoxin (0.373g/g was observed in genotype CIM-595 at 100 days of planting. While minimum value (0.166g/g was observed in genotype V-1 at 160 days of planting. Similarly different cotton genotypes showed different boll worm damage % at different growth stages. CEMB-2 was found to be most susceptible genotype showing 93.33 % boll worm damage at 160 days after planting. While V-5 proved to be most resistant showing no boll worm damage at 70 and 100 days after planting.

  10. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  11. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  12. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  13. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  14. 木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒基因重组和缺失产生DNAβ相关的新型小分子%Novel DNA-β associated molecules produced by sequence recombination and deletion of cotton leaf curl Multan virus complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖艺祯; 谢科; 蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 李战彪; 刘玉乐

    2012-01-01

    [目的]棉花曲叶病是棉花生产上的一种重要的病毒病害,在巴基斯坦和印度等国家地区大面积流行,造成严重的经济损失.近年在中国广西南宁的棉花田间发现了棉花曲叶病害,在广西的黄秋葵中也发生了曲叶病,二者的病原均为木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus,CLCuMV),为了对这2个病害有更深的了解,本文对该双生病毒伴随的DNA小分子进行测序分析.[方法]分别从广西南宁地区感染CLCuMV的3棵棉花和3棵黄秋葵中提取总DNA,用CLCuMV DNAβ的特异引物进行PCR扩增,将产物分离纯化并克隆测序,进行序列比对分析.[结果]从棉花曲叶病害中分离得到了1384 nt的新型重组DNA分子,以及从黄秋葵曲叶病害中分离得到了754 nt的新型缺失型DNA分子.研究结果表明1384 nt重组分子是由CLCuMV GX1的DNA-A和DNAβ重组而成.重组分子大部分来源于CLCuMV的DNA-A,包含基因间隔区,附近的部分AV2和AC1基因,以及反向互补的部分AC3基因.其余部分来源于伴随的DNAβ,包含A-rich区域.分析拼接片段的附近序列,发现接头部分含有2-3个共同碱基,推测为重组作用发生的位点.与以前报道的在实验室中产生的CLCuMV重组分子进行比较显示,DNA-A的基因间隔区和DNAβ的A-rich 区在重组过程中非常保守.另外,754 nt的重组小分子是由CLCuMV Okra1 DNAβ缺失突变产生,缺失了大部分的编码C1蛋白开放阅读框(Open Reading Frame,ORF)以及小部分的A-rich区.[结论]本研究在自然条件下分离到了来源于CLCuMV和卫星DNAβ的重组分子,以及DNAβ缺陷型分子.这2种重组小分子以前未见报道,这也是在中国发现的棉花曲叶病毒中首次发现重组分子.这种基因组变异现象在棉花曲叶病毒的进化和寄主适应过程中可能有重要的意义.%[Objective] Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a major constraint to cotton production, causing great economic losses

  15. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  16. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  17. Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on the Growth and Foliar Chemistry of Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Feng Ge; Yu-Cheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    A field study was carried out to quantify plant growth and the foliar chemistry of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)cotton (cv. GK-12) exposed to ambient CO2 and elevated (double-ambient) CO2 for different lengths of time (1, 2 and 3 months) in 2004 and 2005. The results indicated that CO2 levels significantly affected plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf chemistry of transgenic Bt cotton. Significantly, higher plant height and leaf area per plant were observed after cotton plants that were grown in elevated CO2 were compared with plants grown in ambient CO2 for 1, 2 and 3 months in the investigation. Simultaneously, significant interaction between CO2 level x investigating year was observed in leaf area per plant. Moreover, foliar total amino acids were increased by 14%, 13%, 11% and 12%, 14%, 10% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Condensed tannin occurrence increased by 17%, 11%, 9% in 2004 and 12%, 11%, 9% in 2005 in transgenic Bt cotton after being exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3 months compared with ambient CO2 for the same time. However, Bt toxin decreased by 3.0%,2.9%, 3.1% and 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.9% in transgenic Bt cotton after exposed to elevated CO2 for 1, 2 or 3months compared with ambient CO2 for same time in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Furthermore, there was prominent interaction on the foliar total amino acids between the CO2 level and the time of cotton plant being exposed to elevated CO2. It is presumed that elevated CO2 can alter the plant growth and hence ultimately the phenotype allocation to foliar chemistical components of transgenic Bt cotton, which may in turn, affect the plant-herbivore interactions.

  18. Modeling and Detection of Camouflaging Worm using IP Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Preetha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active worms pose major security threats to the Internet. This is due to the ability of active worms to propagate in an automated fashion as they continuously compromise computers on the Internet. Active worms evolve during their propagation, and thus, pose great challenges to defend against them. A new class of active worms, referred to as Camouflaging Worm (C-Worm in short. The C-Worm is different from traditional worms because of its ability to intelligently manipulate its scan traffic volume over time. Thereby, the C-Worm camouflages its propagation from existing worm detection systems based on analyzing the propagation traffic generated by worms. The characteristics of the C-Worm and conduct a comprehensive comparison between its traffic and non-worm traffic (background traffic. The two types of traffic are barely distinguishable in the time domain. However, their distinction is clear in the frequency domain, due to the recurring manipulative nature of the C-Worm. Motivated by observations, designed a novel spectrum-based scheme to detect the C-Worm. The Power Spectral Density (PSD distribution of the scan traffic volume and its corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. Using a comprehensive set of detection metrics and real-world traces as background traffic, the extensive performance evaluations on proposed spectrum-based detection scheme. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation. Furthermore, show the generality of spectrum-based scheme in effectively detecting not only y the C-Worm, but traditional worms as well

  19. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  20. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  1. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  2. Dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton crops and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Yuting; He, Shun; Zhang, Heli; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    QuEChERS procedure and acetonitrile extraction, oscillation and ultrasonic procedure followed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS (QqQ) detections were established for determination of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton leaf, cotton seed and soil. At concentration levels of 0.005-1 mg kg(-1), recoveries were in the range of 80.5%-103.3%, with a RSD less than 14.2%. The LOQs of methods were 0.005, 0.003, 0.005 and 0.001 mg kg(-1) for the pakchoi, cotton leaf, soil and cotton seed samples, respectively. DA-6 was applied in supervised field trials at GAP conditions to pakchoi and cotton. It was found that the dissipation half-lives of DA-6 were 5.4-8.2 days and 1.1-2.2 days and 1.5-1.9 days in cotton crop, pakchoi and soil respectively. At harvest, no detectable residues (cotton samples. However, residues was detected in pakchoi (0.007-0.013 mg/kg) in Beijing and soil (0.008-0.014 mg/kg) in Changsha in 2008.

  3. P2P worm detection based on application identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chunhe; SHI Yunping; LI Xiaojian; GAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    P2P worm exploits common vulnerabilities and spreads through peer-to-peer networks.Despite being recognized as a potential and deadly threat to the Internet recently,few relevant countermeasures are found in extant literature.Once it breaks out,a P2P worm could result in unpredictable losses.Based on propagation characteristics of the worm,this paper presents a detection method called PWD (P2P Worm Detection),which is designed based on application identification and unknown worm detection.Simulation result and LAN-environment experiment result both indicate that PWD is an effective method to detect and block P2P worms.

  4. Detection and location algorithm against local-worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XinYu; SHI Yi; ZHU Huidun

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the worm causes great harm to the computer network. It has recently become the focus of the network security research. This paper presents a local-worm detection algorithm by analyzing the characteristics of traffic generated by the TCP-based worm. Moreover, we adjust the worm location algorithm, aiming at the differences between the high-speed and the low-speed worm scanning methods. This adjustment can make the location algorithm detect and locate the worm based on different scanning rate. Finally, we verified the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm by simulating it under NS-2,

  5. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  6. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  7. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  8. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  9. Modeling and analyzing of the interaction between worms and antiworms during network worm propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; DUAN Haixin; LI Xing

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of antiworms with a worm population of e.g. hosts of worm infected and hosts of antiworm infected must be considered as a dynamic process. This study is an attempt for the first time to understand how introduction of antiworm affects the dynamic of network worm propagation. In this paper, we create a mathematical model (SIAR model) using ordinary differential equations to describe the interaction of worms and antiworms. Although idealized, the model demonstrates how the combination of a few proposed nonlinear interaction rules between antiworms and worms is able to generate a considerable variety of different kinds of responses. Taking the Blaster and Nachi worms as an example, we give a brief analysis for designing a practical antiworm system. To the best of our knowledge, there is no model for the spread of an antiworm that employs the passive scan and the finite lifetime and we believe that this is the first attempt on understanding the interaction between worms and antiworms.

  10. Evaluation of learning vector quantization to classify cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Michael A.; Patil, Rajendra B.

    1997-03-01

    The cotton industry needs a method to identify the type of trash [nonlint material (NLM)] in cotton samples; learning vector quantization (LVQ) is evaluated as that method. LVQ is a classification technique that defines reference vectors (group prototypes) in an N-dimensional feature space (RN). Normalized trash object features extracted from images of compressed cotton samples define RN. An unknown NLM object is given the label of the closest reference vector (as defined by Euclidean distance). Different normalized features spaces and NLM classifications are evaluated and accuracies reported for correctly identifying the NLM type. LVQ is used to partition cotton trash into: (1) bark (B), leaf (L), pepper (P), or stick (S); (2) bark and nonbark (N); or (3) bark, combined leaf and pepper (LP), or stick. Percentage accuracy for correctly identifying 139 pieces of test trash placed on laboratory prepared samples for the three scenarios are (B:95, L:87, P:100, S:88), (B:100, N:97), and (B:95, LP:99, S:88), respectively. Also, LVQ results are compared to previous work using backpropagating neural networks.

  11. Arabidopsis EDT1/HDG11 improves drought and salt tolerance in cotton and poplar and increases cotton yield in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Shen-Jie; Peng, Yi-Shu; Liu, Rui-Na; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Jian-Bo; Jiao, Gai-Li; Pei, Yan; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two major environmental factors limiting crop production worldwide. Improvement of drought and salt tolerance of crops with transgenic approach is an effective strategy to meet the demand of the ever-growing world population. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a homeodomain-START transcription factor, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tall fescue and rice. Here we report that AtHDG11 also confers drought and salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and woody plant poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.). Our results showed that both the transgenic cotton and poplar exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress with well-developed root system. In the leaves of the transgenic cotton plants, proline content, soluble sugar content and activities of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes were significantly increased after drought and salt stress compared with wild type. Leaf stomatal density was significantly reduced, whereas stomatal and leaf epidermal cell size were significantly increased in both the transgenic cotton and poplar plants. More importantly, the transgenic cotton showed significantly improved drought tolerance and better agronomic performance with higher cotton yield in the field both under normal and drought conditions. These results demonstrate that AtHDG11 is not only a promising candidate for crops improvement but also for woody plants.

  12. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  13. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  14. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  15. Darknet-Based Inference of Internet Worm Temporal Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm attacks pose a significant threat to network security and management. In this work, we coin the term Internet worm tomography as inferring the characteristics of Internet worms from the observations of Darknet or network telescopes that monitor a routable but unused IP address space. Under the framework of Internet worm tomography, we attempt to infer Internet worm temporal behaviors, i.e., the host infection time and the worm infection sequence, and thus pinpoint patient zero or initially infected hosts. Specifically, we introduce statistical estimation techniques and propose method of moments, maximum likelihood, and linear regression estimators. We show analytically and empirically that our proposed estimators can better infer worm temporal characteristics than a naive estimator that has been used in the previous work. We also demonstrate that our estimators can be applied to worms using different scanning strategies such as random scanning and localized scanning.

  16. Depósito de pulverização com diferentes padrões de gotas em aplicações na cultura do algodoeiro Spray leaf deposition from different nozzles and drop patterns in late season applications on cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo T. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a deposição da calda de pulverização sobre plantas de algodão e a eficiência da pulverização com diferentes padrões de gotas sob condições adversas de temperatura e umidade, realizou-se um experimento para a determinação dos volumes de depósitos da pulverização no final de ciclo da cultura. O trabalho foi executado com pulverizador automotriz, equipado com pontas JA3 (jato cônico vazio e jato plano com indução a ar AD-IA/D 11003 (duplo, AD-IA 11003 que, na pressão trabalhada, proporcionaram volume de aplicação de 150 L ha-1, e a ponta AD-IA 11004 que, na mesma pressão, proporcionou volume aplicado de 200 L ha-1. Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de algodão, utilizou-se do corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização, na concentração de 0,179%. Após a pulverização, as folhas foram lavadas, e o volume recuperado foi analisado por espectrofotometria. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de regressão pelo modelo de Gompertz para a comparação entre os tratamentos. A ponta AD-IA 11003 proporcionou os maiores volumes de depósito nas diferentes posições da planta, e a eficiência da aplicação foi de 27,45; 35,08; 47,60 e 39,25% para as pontas JA3, AD-IA/D 11003, AD-IA 11003 e AD-IA 11004, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the leaf deposition and the efficiency of different drop pattern by spraying cotton plants at the end of the growing season, under adverse air temperature and humidity conditions. The sprays, applied at the same pressure, were made with a JACTO UNIPORT speed-sprayer equipped with the nozzles JA3 (hollow cone, AD-IA/D 11003 (double flat fan, and AD-IA 11003 (flat fan for 150 L ha-1 spray volume, and the nozzle AD-IA 11004 (flat fan for 200 L ha-1 spray volume. It was applied the FD&C Brue n.1 tracer at 0.179% in the spraying solution

  17. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator , but also more general correlators such as or , as well as condensates like , can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  18. Sampling of General Correlators in Worm Algorithm-based Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the complex $\\phi^4$-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a (bosonic) worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator $$, but also more general correlators such as $$ or $$ as well as condensates like $$ can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by (bosonic) worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  19. Ascariasis: challenges in the diagnosis of single worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S Poongodi Alias; Palaniappan, N; Arunagiri, A

    2013-09-01

    One of the most common parasitic infections in humans is ascariasis. While most infectionsare asymptomatic, mild to moderate symptoms may occur due to migration of adult worms. The frequency of single worm infection seems to be increasing. Ascaris eggs are not found in the faeces of most cases infected with a single worm because it is an immature male or female. Diagnosis of such single worm infection is challenging.

  20. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  1. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  2. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  3. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  4. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, F.

    1983-10-01

    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  5. Physiological Response to Salt (NaCl Stress in Selected Cultivated Tetraploid Cottons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Higbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the southwestern and western Cotton Belt of the U.S. soil salinity can reduce cotton productivity and quality. This study was conducted to determine the physiological responses of six genotypes including five Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars and one Pima cotton line (G. barbadense L. to NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Seeds were germinated and grown for 14 days prior to salt treatment (daily 100 ml of 200 mM NaCl for 21 days. Compared with the control (daily 100 ml tap water, the NaCl treatment significantly reduced plant height, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight. The NaCl stress also significantly increased leaf chlorophyll content, but did not affect leaf fluorescence. Of the six genotypes, Pima 57-4 and SG 747 had the most growth reduction, and were most sensitive to NaCl; DP 33B, JinR 422 and Acala Phy 72 had the least growth reduction and were most NaCl tolerant. Although all the six genotypes under the salt treatment had significantly higher Na and Cl accumulation in leaves, SG 747 and Pima 57-4 accumulated more Na and Cl than DP 33B. Increases in leaf N, Zn, and Mn concentrations were also observed in the NaCl-treated plants. While leaf P, Ca, and S concentrations remained unchanged overall in the genotypes tested, leaf K, Mg, Fe, and Cu concentrations significantly decreased during salt stress. Reduction in plant height is a simple, easy, sensitive, non-destructive measurement to evaluate salt tolerance in cotton.

  6. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  7. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  8. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  9. Worms,Your Unlikely Allies etc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Back in the Stone Age,humans had to put up with all sorts of creepy crawlies.Parasites - organisms that live on or in another organism - lingered inside our bodies,living off of our blood.Because internal parasites go mostly unnoticed,they were able to keep living with humans.People can survive a long time with tiny parasitic worms in their intestines.

  10. Parametric Analysis of the End Face Engagement Worm Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xingqiao; WANG Jueling; WANG Jinge; CHEN Shouan; YANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  11. Worm algorithm for the CPN−1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The CPN−1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CPN−1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CPN−1 model for N>2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CPN−1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CPN−1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  12. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  13. Modeling cotton (Gossypium spp) leaves and canopy using computer aided geometric design (CAGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to develop a geometrically accurate model of cotton crop canopies for exploring changes in canopy microenvironment and physiological function with leaf structure. We develop an accurate representation of the leaves, including changes in three-dimensional folding and orie...

  14. Growth and Eco-Physiological Performance of Cotton Under Water Stress Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-yan; Isoda Akihiro; LI Mao-song; WANG Dao-long

    2007-01-01

    A cotton cultivar Xinluzao 8 was grown under four levels of water stress treatments (normal irrigation, slight, mild and severe water stress) from the initial reproductive growth stage in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, in 2002, to evaluate the growth and eco-physiological performances. Under water stress conditions, the transpiration ability decreased while the leaf temperature increased. Although the relative leaf water content decreased as water stress increased, the differences among the treatments were small, indicating that cotton has high ability in maintaining water in leaf. The stomatal density increased as water stress increased, while the maximum stomatal aperture reduced only in the severest stressed plants.The time of the maximum stomatal aperture was delayed in the mild and severe stressed plants. When severe stress occurred, the stomata were kept open until the transpiration decreased to nearly zero, suggesting that the stomata might not be the main factor in adjusting transpiration in cotton. Cotton plant has high adaptation ability to water stress conditions because of decrease in both stomatal conductance and hydraulic conductance from soil-to-leaf pathway. The actual quantum yield of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) decreased under water stress conditions, while the maximum quantum yield of PS Ⅱ did not vary among treatments, suggesting that PS Ⅱ would not be damaged by water stress. The total dry weight reduced as water stress increased.

  15. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  16. Effects of climate change on phenological trends and seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ji, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981-2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2-9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49-3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17-4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future.

  17. WormBook: the online review of Caenorhabditis elegans biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Lisa R; Fiedler, Tristan J; Harris, Todd W; Carvalho, Felicia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Han, Michael; Sternberg, Paul W; Stein, Lincoln D; Chalfie, Martin

    2007-01-01

    WormBook (www.wormbook.org) is an open-access, online collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters on the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Since WormBook was launched in June 2005 with 12 chapters, it has grown to over 100 chapters, covering nearly every aspect of C.elegans research, from Cell Biology and Neurobiology to Evolution and Ecology. WormBook also serves as the text companion to WormBase, the C.elegans model organism database. Objects such as genes, proteins and cells are linked to the relevant pages in WormBase, providing easily accessible background information. Additionally, WormBook chapters contain links to other relevant topics in WormBook, and the in-text citations are linked to their abstracts in PubMed and full-text references, if available. Since WormBook is online, its chapters are able to contain movies and complex images that would not be possible in a print version. WormBook is designed to keep up with the rapid pace of discovery in the field of C.elegans research and continues to grow. WormBook represents a generic publishing infrastructure that is easily adaptable to other research communities to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge in the field.

  18. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  19. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: acemioglu@kilis.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  20. Physiological Responses of Cotton at Seedling Stage to Waterlogged Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-wen Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Jianghan plain as well as south China, cotton at seedling stage often encounter waterlogged stress, by which normal growth of cotton plants is affected, the purpose of the study is to analyze the responses to Waterlogging stress. Therefore flooding experiments of cotton in the seedling stage was made and a series of physiological indices were observed such as Chlorophyll Relative value (RC, chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Malondialdehyde (MDA, nomadic Proline (Pro, Dissoluble Sugar (DS, Peroxidase (POD and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Analytic results indicated that, after Waterlogging, chlorophyll hydrolysis rate was higher in the first 3 days, the peak value of chlorophyll fluorescence decrease occurred between the 6th to 9th day. It figured that stagnant water on the field should be drained off in 3 days after Waterlogging stress, to avoid the photosynthetic efficiency being strongly inhibited. The balance of normal physiological metabolic process in cotton leaf was broken after Waterlogging, some new negative changes occurred, as MDA content increasing and the activity of SOD decline. Some other positive changes were accompanied, as the increasing of DS and Pro content and the activity of POD, for protecting active tissues. These physiological indices appeared regularly changing characterized by fastslow- fast, which can be simulated in unary cubic regression curve model.

  1. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  2. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  3. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  4. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  5. Endoscopy in a rare presentation of worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be a life threatening complication. Hookworms infestation usually causes chronic blood loss resulting in anemia. A 52 year old male presented to us with massive gastrointestinal blood loss and hemodynamic instability. On examination he had anemia, which on evaluation was iron deficient microcytic hypochromic anemia with eosinophilia. On evaluation of small bowel mucosa showed multiple hookworms moving on the surface. He improved with anthelmintics, blood transfusion and supportive management. The repeat evaluation showed eradication of worms. Hookworms presenting as a massive gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare entity. Enteroscopy plays an important role in diagnosing hookworm infestation.

  6. Mini-hemoglobins from nemertean worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergon, Thomas L; Riggs, Austen F

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) found in members of the phylum Nemertea are smaller than any other known Hb molecules. These mini-Hbs have been of great interest because of their unique three-dimensional structure and their stable ligand-binding properties. Also of interest is the expression of mini-Hb in neural tissue, body wall muscle tissue, and red blood cells. This chapter outlines methods that may be used to isolate and purify functional mini-Hbs from all three tissue types in nemertean worms.

  7. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  8. NSME: a framework for network worm modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Siming; Cheng, Xueqi

    2006-01-01

    Various worms have a devastating impact on Internet. Packet level network modeling and simulation has become an approach to find effective countermeasures against worm threat. However, current alternatives are not fit enough for this purpose. For instance, they mostly focus on the details of lower layers of the network so that the abstraction of application layer is very coarse. In our work, we propose a formal description of network and worm models, and define network virtualization level...

  9. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  10. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  11. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  12. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator 〈ϕ⁎(xϕ(y〉, but also more general correlators such as 〈|ϕ(x||ϕ(y|〉 or 〈arg⁡(ϕ(xarg⁡(ϕ(y〉, as well as condensates like 〈|ϕ|〉, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  13. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  14. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  15. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  16. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  17. Study on cotton yield and components in apricot-cotton intercropping system%杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红国; 王飞; 张巨松; 王军; 曹公利; 敬碧; 余永江

    2011-01-01

    在新疆南疆自然生态条件下,研究了杏棉间作对棉花产量及其构成因素的影响.结果表明:间作棉花的LAI在整个生育期低于单作,且峰值出现早,后期下降缓慢,比单作低15.9%;叶片的净光合速率Pn与SPAD值联系密切,盛花期前叶片的Pn、SPAD值增长快,间作的叶片Pn和SPAD值均低于单作;间作棉花地上部干物质快速积累持续期比单作少10.7 d,最大积累时问间作棉花比单作早4.7 d,最大积累量间作比单作少0.42g/(d·株);间作棉花的"三桃"(伏前桃:伏桃:秋桃)比例为0.14:1:0.14;皮棉产量为1 395.3 kg/hm2,比单作低41.2%;经济收入间作比单作高37.8%.%Under the natural environment in south Xinjiang , we studied the effect of apricot~cotton intercropping on cotton yield and yield components , aimed at providing the theoretical basis for efficient cultivation technology of cotton in the apricotrxotton intercropping system . The results showed : The LAI of intercropped cotton was lower than that of sole cotton through the whole growth stage , and the peak of LAI appeared earlier and LAI of intercropped cotton decreased slowly at the later stage , and was lower than that of sole cotton by 15 .9% ; There was a close relation between leaf Pn and its SPAD value , before peak flowering , both the leaf Pn of intercropped cotton and sole cotton increased fast and so was the leaf SPAD value , but both of which were lower than that of sole cotton ; The fast accumulating period of dry mat- ter above ground of intercropped cotton was shorter than that of the sole cotton by 10 .7 days , and the max dry matter ac-cumulation time of intercropped cotton appeared earlier than that of sole cotton by 4 .7 days, and the max dry matter ac-cumulation amount was less than that of the sole cotton by 0 .42 g per plant; The ratio of the three kinds of bolls of inter- cropped cotton was 0 ,14!l!0 .14, and the lint yield was 1 395 .3 kg/hm lower than that of the sole cotton by 41

  18. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  19. Local structure of numerically generated worm hole spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siino, M.

    The author investigates the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, he interprets the evolution of the worm hole structure.

  20. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  1. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  2. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  3. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  4. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Nambu, Y; Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  5. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these sce

  6. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  7. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  8. Senescence and hyperspectral reflectance of cotton leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakani, V.G.; Reddy, K.R.; Zhao, D. [State Univ. Mississippi, Dept. af Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi (United States); Gao, W. [Univ. Ford Collins, Natural Resource Ecology Lab., Fort Collins (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of UV-B radiation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO{sub 2}]) on leaf senescence of cotton by measuring leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll content and to identify changes in leaf hyperspectral reflectance occurring due to senescence and UV-B radiation. Plants were grown in controlled-environment growth chambers at two [CO{sub 2}] (360 and 720 {mu}-mol mol{sup -}1) and three levels of UV-B radiation (0, 7.7 and 15.1 kJ m{sup -}2 day{sup -}1). Photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids and phenolic compounds along with leaf hyperspectral reflectance were measured on three leaves aged 12, 21 and 30 days in each of the treatments. No interaction was detected between [CO{sub 2}] and UV-B for any of the measured parameters. Significant interactions were observed between UV-B and leaf age for photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Elevated [CO{sub 2}] enhanced leaf photosynthesis by 32%. On exposure to 0, 7.7 and 15.1 kJ of UV-B, the photosynthetic rates of 30-day-old leaves compared with 12-day-old leaves were reduced by 52, 76 and 86%, respectively. Chlorophyll pigments were not affected by leaf age at UV-B radiation of 0 and 7.7 kJ, but UV-B of 15.1 kJ reduced the chlorophylls by 20, 60 and 80% in 12, 21 and 30-day-old leaves, respectively. The hyperspectral reflectance between 726 and 1142 nm showed interaction for UV-B radiation and leaf age. In cotton, leaf photosynthesis can be used as an indicator of leaf senescence, as it is more sensitive than photosynthetic pigments on exposure to UV-B radiation. This study revealed that, cotton leaves senesced early on exposure to UV-B radiation as indicated by leaf photosynthesis, and leaf hyperspectral reflectance can be used to detect changes caused by UV-B and leaf ageing. (au)

  9. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  10. Research and Development of P2P Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li You; Zhi-Guang Qin

    2011-01-01

    With the development and the application of many popular peer-to-peer (P2P) systems such as eMule and BitTorrent,worms probably employ the features of these P2P networks to put them at risk.Some features,such as the local routing table and the application routing mechanism,are helpful to quickly distribute the P2P worms into the networks.This paper aims to give a comprehensive survey of P2P worms.The definition and the classification of P2P worms are discussed firstly.Then,the research and development of P2P worms, including experimental analysis,propagation modeling,and defensive approaches,are addressed and analyzed in detail.

  11. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  12. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  13. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  14. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    CERN Document Server

    Concha, Andrés; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. Using anatomical images, high speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating micro-fluidic devices as well as novel ways for micro and nano fiber production using bioinspired strategi...

  15. In vitro effects of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2010-10-11

    Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of Manihot esculenta (Cassava) leaf were tested in vitro on four development stages of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects (PCassava possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be the terpenoids and condensed tannin compounds present in the leaf.

  16. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  17. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  18. Effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides for supplemental control of bollworm on Bt and non-Bt cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides for supplemental control of bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) on non-Bt (DP1441®) and Bt (DP1321®) cottons. Neonate and 3rd instar larvae survival were evaluated on leaf tissue treat...

  19. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  20. Short communication. Deterioration of cotton fibre characteristics caused by cotton leaf curl disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Prieto, V. M.; Rascon-Chu, A.; Romo-Chacon, A.; Berlanga-Reyes, D. I.; Orozco-Avitia, J. A.; Gardea-Bejar, A. A.; Parra-Quezada, R.; Sanchez-Chavez, E.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the significant variation in the initial fruit set of apples among seasons and producing regions of Chihuahua, Mexico, it is important to determine the cause(s). Apple fruit yield is strongly determined by the initial fruit set, which is the result of a series of physiological events, such as pollination, pollen tube growth, ovule longevity and fertilisation. During one or two seasons, in the two main apple-producing regions in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, the effective pollination period (EPP) was evaluated in Golden Delicious, Red Chief Delicious and Golden Delicious Tardio, a regional mutant of Golden Delicious. Daily manual pollinations after the full pink stage were made with Snow Drift pollen to determine the EPP. The initial fruit set at 30 days after the last day of hand pollination was evaluated. A daily sampling of flowers was used to measure the pollen tube growth (average growth of 11.70 mm at 96 h) in the pistil and ovule viability in the ovary. The EPP lasted 6 days for RedChief Delicious, 4 days for Golden Delicious, and 10 days for Golden Delicious Tardo. The average ovule longevity of 63% seemed to be a limiting factor for Golden Delicious, leading to a reduced initial fruit set. Additional key words: fruit set, ovule longevity, pollen tube growth. (Author) 13 refs.

  1. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  2. AGROCHEMICALS AFFECT THE ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE POTENTIAL of COTTON PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Asrorov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of insecticides used in cotton fields is often associated with secondary biotic stresses. One of possible reasons of such phenomenon is explained by decreased contents of plants’ defense components. As peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO are typical oxidoreductase enzymes scavenging cell oxidative damage, we studied their change levels in cotton leaves in response to the application of three insecticides field experiment. Moreover, the concentration of proline (Pro, methionine (Met and cysteine (Cys was studied. The plants were treated with Carbophos, Lannate and Sumi-alfa in early blooming stage at commonly used doses in. Leaf samples were taken on the 10thand 13th days of the treatment. A pyrethroid insecticide Sumi-alfa appeared to negatively impact activities of both POD and PPO (P≤0.05, contrasting the other two insecticides examined. On the other hand, levels of amino acids with antioxidative properties increased after application of all three insecticides at the end of experiment. Our results show that the oxidative balance of treated plants was interrupted by insecticides (especially Sumi-alfa with potential impact on vulnerability to secondary stresses. Effects of these insecticides on cotton should be considered and/or studied in more detail for efficient application in agriculture.

  3. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  4. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  5. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  6. Geminivirus-mediated delivery of florigen promotes determinate growth in aerial organs and uncouples flowering from photoperiod in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roisin C McGarry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant architecture and the timing and distribution of reproductive structures are fundamental agronomic traits shaped by patterns of determinate and indeterminate growth. Florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT in Arabidopsis and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT in tomato, acts as a general growth hormone, advancing determinate growth. Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a highly inbred, compact day-neutral plant that is managed as an annual row-crop. This dramatic change in plant architecture provides a unique opportunity to analyze the transition from perennial to annual growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore these architectural changes, we addressed the role of day-length upon flowering in an ancestral, perennial accession and in a domesticated variety of cotton. Using a disarmed Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV as a transient expression system, we delivered FT to both cotton accessions. Ectopic expression of FT in ancestral cotton mimicked the effects of day-length, promoting photoperiod-independent flowering, precocious determinate architecture, and lanceolate leaf shape. Domesticated cotton infected with FT demonstrated more synchronized fruiting and enhanced "annualization". Transient expression of FT also facilitated simple crosses between wild photoperiodic and domesticated day-neutral accessions, effectively demonstrating a mechanism to increase genetic diversity among cultivated lines of cotton. Virus was not detected in the F(1 progeny, indicating that crosses made by this approach do not harbor recombinant DNA molecules. CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend our understanding of FT as a general growth hormone that regulates shoot architecture by advancing organ-specific and age-related determinate growth. Judicious manipulation of FT could benefit cotton architecture to improve crop management.

  7. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  8. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  9. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  10. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  11. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  12. IMAGE SEGMENTATION WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY IN COTTON CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon A. Sartin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf analysis in a crop can present the need of a nutrient determined in the plant. The macronutrients deficiency in the cotton crop can be identified by specific type of colors variation by leaves images. Early identification of macronutrients deficiency can help in the growing suitable of the crop and reduce the use of agricultural inputs. This study investigates the image segmentation of the cotton leaves with deficiency of the phosphor. The segmentation is performed by difference of leaf pigmentation, according with the pattern related to macronutrient type in deficit and the cultivate. The image segmentation is made by an artificial neural network and the Otsu method. The results show satisfactory values with an optimized artificial neural network and better than the Otsu method. The results are presented by images and distinct parameters of quality analysis in the segmentation.

  13. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  14. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  17. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  18. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  19. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  20. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guevara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  1. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  3. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential ... development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at ..... systems.Agric. Wmles 2: 43--60. RAMISCH. H. & GRAFF. o. 1985.

  4. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, N. R.; Worley, A.; Grant, K. A. G.; A. R. Gorman; Vizard, V.; Plackett, H.; Doran, C.; Gamble, M. L.; Stumpe, M.; Sendova-Franks, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to co-ordinate their movements so that even at low densities t...

  5. Discrete Modeling of the Worm Spread with Random Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masato

    In this paper, we derive a set of discrete time difference equations that models the spreading process of computer worms such as Code-Red and Slammer, which uses a common strategy called “random scanning” to spread through the Internet. We show that the derived set of discrete time difference equations has an exact relationship with the Kermack and McKendrick susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, which is known as a standard continuous time model for worm spreading.

  6. WormBase: new content and better access

    OpenAIRE

    Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Ozersky, Philip; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Nansheng; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Girard, Lisa; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    WormBase (http://wormbase.org), a model organism database for Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematodes, continues to evolve and expand. Over the past year WormBase has added new data on C.elegans, including data on classical genetics, cell biology and functional genomics; expanded the annotation of closely related nematodes with a new genome browser for Caenorhabditis remanei; and deployed new hardware for stronger performance. Several existing datasets including phenotype descripti...

  7. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  8. Searching WormBase for information about Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-07-01

    WormBase is the major public biological database for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is meant to be useful to any biologist who wants to use C. elegans, whatever his or her specialty. WormBase contains information about the genomic sequence of C. elegans, its genes and their products, and its higher-level traits such as gene expression patterns and neuronal connectivity. WormBase also contains genomic sequences and gene structures of C. briggsae and C. remanei, two closely related worms. These data are interconnected, so that a search beginning with one object (such as a gene) can be directed to related objects of a different type (e.g., the DNA sequence of the gene or the cells in which the gene is active). One can also perform searches for complex data sets. The WormBase developers group actively invites suggestions for improvements from the database users. WormBase's source code and underlying database are freely available for local installation and modification.

  9. Development of a WormCAD using Parametric Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Oluwole Agboola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gears as power transmission devices are capable of changing the speed, torque, and direction of a power source and are considered to be one of the most important devices used in many types of machinery owing to their durability and higher power transmission efficiency. Worm gears as a type of gear are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are very useful in machine design but its design requires a lot of design assumptions and calculations. To achieve a rapid design devoid of errors, there is need to have a customized computer program capable of designing worm gears using standardized design equations; and that is what WormCAD stands for. The software was designed using JavaScript programming language and the Node.js platform. The WormCAD was tested to be accurate, faster and convenient hence it will be a viable software to be used by worm gear designers.

  10. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages. PMID:28302989

  11. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  13. Impact of Groundwater Level on Nitrate Nitrogen Accumulation in the Vadose Zone Beneath a Cotton Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Jiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impacts of groundwater level on nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone of a cotton field were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a cotton field at the CAS Ecological Agricultural Experiment Station in Nanpi from 2008 to 2010. A vertical observation well was drilled, and time-domain reflectometry probes and soil solution extractors were installed every 50 cm in the walls of the well to a depth of 5 m. The soil water content was monitored, and soil solution samples were obtained and analyzed every six days throughout the growing seasons during the three studied years. Additionally, a water consumption experiment was conducted, and the topsoil water content and leaf area index were measured in the cotton field. The resulting data were used to estimate parameters for use in a soil hydraulic and nitrate nitrogen movement model, and cotton evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman–Monteith method. Groundwater level increases and decreases of ±4 m were simulated during a ten-year period using HYDRUS-1D. The results showed significant nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone when the groundwater level remained unchanged or decreased, with increased accumulation as the groundwater depth increased. Additionally, increased precipitation and a deeper groundwater level resulted in greater nitrate nitrogen leaching in the cotton root zone. Therefore, irrigation and fertilization strategies should be adjusted based on precipitation conditions and groundwater depth.

  14. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Leaves in a Cotton Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; French, Andrew; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long-term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.Twice during one day, +- 3 hours from solar noon, we collected polarized imagery and relative water content data on a cotton test plot located at the Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Maricopa, AZ. The test plot, a small portion of a large cotton field, contained stressed plants ready for irrigation. The evening prior to data collection we irrigated several rows of plants within the test plot. Thus, ground MSPI imagery from both morning and afternoon included cotton plants with a range of water statuses. Data analysis includes classifying the polarized imagery into sunlit reflecting, sunlit transmitting, shaded foliage and bare soil. We estimate the leaf surface reflection and interior reflection based upon the per pixel polarization and sunview directions. We compare our cotton results with our prior polarization results for corn and soybean leaves measured in the lab and corn leaves measured in the field.

  15. Bollworm responses to release of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Xinwen; Zhang, Zhongxin; Wang, Hualin; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Peng, Huiyin; Vlak, Just M; Hu, Zhihong

    2002-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) has been developed as a commercial biopesticide to control the cotton bollworm, H. armigera, in China. The major limitation to a broader application of this virus has been the relative long time to incapacitate the target insect. Two HaSNPV recombinants with improved insecticidal properties were released in bollworm-infested cotton. One recombinant (HaCXW1) lacked the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene and in another recombinant (HaCXW2), an insect-selective scorpion toxin (AaIT) gene replaced the egt gene. In a cotton field situation H. armigera larvae treated with either HaCXW1 or HaCXW2 were killed faster than larvae in HaSNPV-wt treated plots. Second instar H. armigera larvae, which were collected from HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 treated plots and further reared on artificial diet, showed reduced ST(50) values of 15.3 and 26.3%, respectively, as compared to larvae collected from HaSNPV-wt treated plots. The reduction in consumed leaf area of field collected larvae infected with HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 was approximated 50 and 63%, respectively, as compared to HaSNPV-wt infected larvae at 108 h after treatment. These results suggest that in a cotton field situation the recombinants will be more effective control agents of the cotton bollworm than wild-type HaSNPV.

  16. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  17. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  18. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  19. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  20. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  1. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  2. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  3. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  4. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  5. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  6. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  7. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  8. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  9. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  10. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  11. Research on the Propagation Models and Defense Techniques of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yun Huang

    2008-01-01

    Internet worm is harmful to network security, and it has become a research hotspot in recent years. A thorough survey on the propagation models and defense techniques of Internet worm is made in this paper. We first give its strict definition and discuss the working mechanism. We then analyze and compare some repre sentative worm propagation models proposed in recent years, such as K-M model, two-factor model, worm-anti worm model (WAW), firewall-based model, quarantine based model and hybrid benign worm-based model, etc. Some typical defense techniques such as virtual honeypot, active worm prevention and agent-oriented worm defense, etc, are also discussed. The future direction of the worm defense system is pointed out.

  12. Production and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, Konasale J; Rodrigo-Simón, Ana; Ferré, Juan; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Sivasupramaniam, Sakuntala; Moar, William J

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-selected Bacillus thuringiensis-resistant colonies are important tools for elucidating B. thuringiensis resistance mechanisms. However, cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea, a target pest of transgenic corn and cotton expressing B. thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt corn and cotton), has proven difficult to select for stable resistance. Two populations of H. zea (AR and MR), resistant to the B. thuringiensis protein found in all commercial Bt cotton varieties (Cry1Ac), were established by selection with Cry1Ac activated toxin (AR) or MVP II (MR). Cry1Ac toxin reflects the form ingested by H. zea when feeding on Bt cotton, whereas MVP II is a Cry1Ac formulation used for resistance selection and monitoring. The resistance ratio (RR) for AR exceeded 100-fold after 11 generations and has been maintained at this level for nine generations. This is the first report of stable Cry1Ac resistance in H. zea. MR crashed after 11 generations, reaching only an RR of 12. AR was only partially cross-resistant to MVP II, suggesting that MVP II does not have the same Cry1Ac selection pressure as Cry1Ac toxin against H. zea and that proteases may be involved with resistance. AR was highly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab toxin but only slightly cross-resistant to Cry1Ab expressing corn leaf powder. AR was not cross-resistant to Cry2Aa2, Cry2Ab2-expressing corn leaf powder, Vip3A, and cypermethrin. Toxin-binding assays showed no significant differences, indicating that resistance was not linked to a reduction in binding. These results aid in understanding why this pest has not evolved B. thuringiensis resistance, and highlight the need to choose carefully the form of B. thuringiensis protein used in experiments.

  13. Effect of Different Norms of Under-Mulch-Drip Irrigation on Diurnal Changes of Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in High Yield Cotton of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wang-feng; REN Li-tong; WANG Zhen-lin; LI Shao-kun; GOU Ling; YU Songlie; CAO Lian-pu

    2003-01-01

    Under-mulch-drip irrigation is an advanced irrigation technique, which combines plastic-film-covered cultivation with drip irrigation. The influence of different norms of under-mulch-drip irrigation on di-urnal changes of photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton was studied, in orderto understand the physiological mechanisms of water-saving and high-yielding farming in Xinjiang. Results in-dicated that limited drip irrigation, which supplies 2/3 of 375 m3 ha-1 , the widely-used irrigation norm in cot-ton cultivation in Xinjiang, caused a water deficit in cotton field. Compared with the proper drip irrigation,the leaf photosynthetic rate under limited drip irrigation decreased during 9:00 to 11:00 a. m., and was sig-nificantly suppressed at midday, and then recovered afterwards. Using the chlorophyll fluorescence method,the absorption, transfer and transformation features of solar radiation by cotton leaf were investigated. Underlimited drip irrigation, the variable fluorescence (Fy) and primary light transfer efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm)in cotton leaves were reduced because of the high light intensities and high temperatures at noon, and the de-crease in Xinluzao8 was greater than that in Xinluzao6. Therefore, it could be concluded that Xinluzao6 has ahigher drought-tolerance, and the Fv/Fm ratio could be used as a drought-resistance index for cotton.

  14. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  15. Commwarrior worm propagation model for smart phone networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei; LI Zhao-hui; CHEN Zeng-qiang; YUAN Zhu-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Commwarrior worm is capable of spreading through both Bluetooth and multimedia messaging service (MMS) in smart phone networks. According to the propagation characteristics of Bluetooth and MMS, we built the susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered-dormancy (SEIRD) model for the Bluetooth and MMS hybrid spread mode and performed the stability analysis. The simulation results show good correlation with our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of this dynamic propagation model. On the basis of the SEIRD model, we further discuss at length the influence of the propagation parameters such as user gather density in groups, moving velocity of smart phone, the time for worm to replicate itself, and other interrelated parameters on the propagation of the virus. On the basis of these analytical and simulation results, some feasible control strategies will be proposed to restrain the spread of mobile worm such as commwarrior on smart phone network.

  16. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  17. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  18. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  19. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers.

  20. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  1. [Common tropical infections with protozoans, worms and ectoparasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin have become rarer in industrialized nations, but they still affect a considerable part of the population in tropical regions. Skin diseases induced by protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are among the 17 "neglected tropical diseases" defined by the WHO (leishmaniasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis). Skin symptoms in travellers returning from the tropics may challenge dermatologists in Germany regarding differential diagnostic assessment and therapy. Among the 12 most frequent skin diseases in travellers are cutaneous larva migrans, leishmaniasis and myiasis. In this review, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of some the most relevant tropical dermatoses due to protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are discussed.

  2. Ascariasis-associated worm encephalopathy in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram; Marwaha, R K; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Kunal

    2009-04-01

    Infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides in children has a varied manifestation, but encephalopathy is a very rare presentation. This report describes a case of ascariasis-associated encephalopathy in a child. An 18-month-old boy was admitted with altered sensorium. He had a history of vomiting and was passing Ascaris worms in the vomitus. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated with an antihelminthic drug and he recovered completely. Worm encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis for unexplained encephalopathy in tropical areas.

  3. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., paper, or non-woven cotton fabric, the payment will be calculated on 25 percent of the weight (gross... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or manufacture of non-woven cotton fabric, 25 percent of... definitions from the regulations for cotton non-recourse loans and loan deficiency payments. It clarifies...

  4. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  5. Cotton dust-mediated lung epithelial injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayars, G H; Altman, L C; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T; Chi, E Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. ...

  6. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  7. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  9. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Seçer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin wastes had been applied reached a toxic limit value in 2006. Boron in soil adversely affected long fibres; B in leaves had a positive effect on the fineness of fibres in 2006. Soil Ni adversely affected plant height in 2006 and seed cotton yield in 2003. Leaf Ni had an adverse effect on fibre elasticity in 2006. Soil Co increased ginning out-turn and Cr decreased the fibre fineness of cotton in 2003.

  10. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  11. Efeito do ataque de Alabama argillacea no crescimento vegetativo e sua relação com a fenologia do algodoeiro Effect of Alabama argillacea attack on vegetative growth and its relationship with cotton phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo da Silva Quirino

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ataque do curuquerê (Alabama argillacea Hübner, 1818, no desenvolvimento vegetativo do algodoeiro e sua relação com a fenologia da planta. Foram utilizadas as cultivares CNPA 7H e CNPA Precoce 2, e semeadas em vasos de plástico com capacidade para 10 kg de solo, mantendo-se uma planta por vaso após o desbaste. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizadas lagartas de terceiro ínstar de A. argillacea, provenientes de criação massal mantida em laboratório. A infestação por estas lagartas teve início 40 dias após o plantio, mediante a identificação das folhas que caracterizavam os tratamentos. Foram avaliadas as variáveis diâmetro caulinar e altura de plantas, em 1996; e em 1997, foi acrescentada a variável área foliar. O ataque de A. argillacea afeta o diâmetro caulinar e a altura das plantas em ambas as cultivares e em qualquer fase de desenvolvimento do algodoeiro. Com relação à área foliar, os maiores decréscimos foram verificados nos tratamentos que tiveram as folhas dos ramos principais consumidas; o tratamento mais afetado foi aquele em que o ataque ocorreu após a floração.This work was carried out to study the effect of cotton leaf worm attack on vegetative growth and its relation with plant phenology. The CNPA 7H and CNPA Precoce 2 cultivars were planted in plastic pots with capacity for 10 kg of soil, and one plant per pot was maintained after pruning. A completely randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replications. Third-instar caterpillars of Alabama argillacea were used in the experiment, which were originated from a massal rearing creation kept in laboratory. Infestation with caterpillars started 40 days after the planting by identification of leaves that characterized the treatments. The variables analyzed were plant diameter and height in 1996, and

  12. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  13. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cotton glucuronosyltranferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    A glucuronosyltranferase gene has been isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA, designated GhGlcAT1, is 1400 bp in length (AY346330) and contains an open reading frame of 1107 bp encoding a protein of 368 amino acids. Alignment of the GhGlcAT1 predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have high sequence similarity with animal glucuronosyltranferases. A phylogenic tree generated by the PHYLIP program package showed that GhGlcAT1 is clustered into the plant glucuronosyltranferase proteins and is distinct from those of other species. Homology modeling of the GhGlcAT1 structure using Homo sapiens native glucuronosyltranferase (1 kws and 1 fgg) structure as a template strongly suggests that the main-chain conformation and the folding patterns were similar to structural features characteristic of animal glucuronosyltranferases. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of GhGlcAT1 were abundant in fiber cells, moderate in stem, but not detected in ovule, flower, seed, root and leaf. Transcripts were most abundant at 15dpa fiber. The transcription occurred at both the primary wall elongation stage and former stage of secondary cell thickening, suggesting that GhGLcAT1 may be involved in non-cellulose polysacchrides biosynthesis of the cotton cell wall.

  15. Nitenpyram, Dinotefuran, and Thiamethoxam Used as Seed Treatments Act as Efficient Controls against Aphis gossypii via High Residues in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Yunhe; Lin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-14

    The effects of eight neonicotinoid seed treatments against the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemies in Bt cotton fields were evaluated, and the concentrations of these neonicotinoids in cotton leaves and soil were also investigated. The results showed that all neonicotinoid seed treatments efficiently reduced A. gossypii populations throughout the cotton seedling stage. The percentages of curly leaf plants in all of the neonicotinoid seed treatments were below the threshold for economic loss. Among the eight tested neonicotinoid seed treatments, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam showed high control efficiency against A. gossypii. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were higher than those of other neonicotinoids in cotton leaves. Moreover, residues of dinotefuran and nitenpyram remained at low levels in the soil. However, the abundance of natural enemies in the cotton field was to some extent influenced by neonicotinoid seed treatments. Therefore, neonicotinoids nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam used as seed treatment can provide effective protection that should play an important role in the management of early-season A. gossypii in Bt cotton fields; however, the risks of neonicotinoids to the environment should also be considered.

  16. Effect of Shading on Gas Exchange of Cotton Leaves Under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Effect of different shading levels (no-shading, 80% shading, and 40% shading) on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves were investigated under onditions of different soil water contents in summer midday. All cotton leaves exhibited similar basic responses to shading, including decreased netphotosynthetic rates, a tendency to decrease in transpiration rates, and increased stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration. The leaf conductance of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants increased by 28% and 16.7% compared with no-shaded plants at high water, respectively, but the net photosynthetic rates of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants declined by 50% and 14.73%, respectively. Results showed that combined effect of soil moisture and shading on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves was very remarkable.

  17. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Roots and Leaves Reveals Pathways Associated with Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Lei; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Shaodong; Peng, Jun; Gong, Wankui; Shi, Yuzhen; Zhang, Siping; Li, Junwen; Gong, Juwu; Ge, Qun; Liu, Aiying; Ma, Huijuan; Zhao, Xinhua; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth and development. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of cotton roots and leaf tissue following exposure to saline stress. 611 and 1477 proteins were differentially expressed in the roots and leaves, respectively. In the roots, 259 (42%) proteins were up-regulated and 352 (58%) were down-regulated. In the leaves, 748 (51%) proteins were up-regulated and 729 (49%) were down-regulated. On the basis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, we concluded that the phenylalanine metabolism and starch and sucrose metabolism were active for energy homeostasis to cope with salt stress in cotton roots. Moreover, photosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and phenylalanine metabolism were inhabited to reduce energy consumption. Characterization of the signaling pathways will help elucidate the mechanism activated by cotton in response to salt stress.

  18. Foraging on individual leaves by an intracellular feeding insect is not associated with leaf biomechanical properties or leaf orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fiene

    Full Text Available Nearly all herbivorous arthropods make foraging-decisions on individual leaves, yet systematic investigations of the adaptive significance and ecological factors structuring these decisions are rare with most attention given to chewing herbivores. This study investigated why an intracellular feeding herbivore, Western flower thrips (WFT Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, generally avoids feeding on the adaxial leaf surface of cotton cotyledons. WFT showed a significant aversion to adaxial-feeding even when excised-cotyledons were turned up-side (abaxial-side 'up', suggesting that negative-phototaxis was not a primary cause of thrips foraging patterns. No-choice bioassays in which individual WFT females were confined to either the abaxial or adaxial leaf surface showed that 35% fewer offspring were produced when only adaxial feeding was allowed, which coincided with 32% less plant feeding on that surface. To test the hypothesis that leaf biomechanical properties inhibited thrips feeding on the adaxial surface, we used a penetrometer to measure two variables related to the 'toughness' of each leaf surface. Neither variable negatively co-varied with feeding. Thus, while avoiding the upper leaf surface was an adaptive foraging strategy, the proximate cause remains to be elucidated, but is likely due, in part, to certain leaf properties that inhibit feeding.

  19. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  20. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  1. Round worm in the ear: A clinical rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhushan Rangappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body in otolaryngology practice is a common scenario. There have been very few documentations of a worm entering the ear through the Eustachian tube. We hereby report a very interesting such case and also discuss the possible cause postulated for such events.

  2. Opinion dynamics driven by leaders, media, viruses and worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, and worms and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. Effects of some time varying drives, (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated. Key words: Opinion; Leader; Media; Market; Buyers; Sellers; Excess

  3. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  4. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for Classroom"; and (8) "Case Studies". Appendices include educational…

  5. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms.

  6. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the applica

  7. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  8. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  9. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  10. Theoretical study on real tooth surface of novel toroidal worm by the forming method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel toroidal worm-gearing is a kind of worm transmission with spherical meshing elements, which is made up of worm, steel balls and worm gear, and its loading capacity and adaptability to errors can be improved by the mismatched technology applied to the meshing pair. Based on the directrix of worm surface, the mathematic model of worm surface is established, and the directrix-based forming method for machining worm surface is proposed. Further, the principle error in the machining process is analyzed, and the theoretic and real tooth surfaces of worm are fitted and compared on OpenGL platform. The results show that the tooth profile error can be controlled at the range of 0~1×10-5mm, and it is always 0 at the pressure angle.

  11. Expression of an insecticidal fern protein in cotton protects against whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anoop Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Manisha; Saurabh, Sharad; Singh, Rahul; Singh, Harpal; Thakur, Nidhi; Rai, Preeti; Pandey, Paras; Hans, Aradhana L; Srivastava, Subhi; Rajapure, Vikram; Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Mithlesh Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Chandrashekar, K; Verma, Praveen C; Singh, Ajit Pratap; Nair, K N; Bhadauria, Smrati; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Sarika; Sharma, Sharad; Omkar; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh; Ranade, Shirish A; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) damages field crops by sucking sap and transmitting viral diseases. None of the insecticidal proteins used in genetically modified (GM) crop plants to date are effective against whitefly. We report the identification of a protein (Tma12) from an edible fern, Tectaria macrodonta (Fee) C. Chr., that is insecticidal to whitefly (median lethal concentration = 1.49 μg/ml in in vitro feeding assays) and interferes with its life cycle at sublethal doses. Transgenic cotton lines that express Tma12 at ∼0.01% of total soluble leaf protein were resistant to whitefly infestation in contained field trials, with no detectable yield penalty. The transgenic cotton lines were also protected from whitefly-borne cotton leaf curl viral disease. Rats fed Tma12 showed no detectable histological or biochemical changes, and this, together with the predicted absence of allergenic domains in Tma12, indicates that Tma12 might be well suited for deployment in GM crops to control whitefly and the viruses it carries.

  12. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  13. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations...), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee. Equivalent Instrument means a cotton dust...

  15. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  16. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  17. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  18. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  19. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  20. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  1. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  2. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  3. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  4. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  5. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  6. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... creates technical problems if the loan schedules and base grade specifications are changed. CCC... cotton industry to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). AMS can and does change...

  7. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  8. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  9. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  10. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Computer Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真.%In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid model, putting the changeable parameters design were put in the part 3D model creating procedure. The rapid modeling of worm gear and worm were realized by generating visual variable parameters dialog box. On this basis,the virtual assembly and motion simulation were made for rapid modeling of worm gear and worm.

  11. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extent practicable, at 4 p.m. eastern time each Thursday continuing through the last Thursday of March...) of this section is referred to as the “Far East price” (FE). (4) If quotes are not available for 1 or... an upland cotton crop for M 1 3/32-inch, leaf 3, (micronaire 3.5 through 3.6 and 4.3 through...

  12. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  13. Oxygation Enhances Growth, Gas Exchange and Salt Tolerance of Vegetable Soybean and Cotton in a Saline Vertisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surya P. Bhattarai; David J. Midmore

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m ECe. In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl-concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  14. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may request... members to represent cotton importers on the Cotton Board. Such eligibility shall be based, in addition...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization which has been certified by the...

  16. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  17. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  18. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  19. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  20. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  1. Test of pressure transducer for measuring cotton-mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a cotton harvester yield monitor was developed based on the relationship between air pressure and the mass of seed cotton conveyed. The sensor theory was verified by laboratory tests. The sensor was tested on a cotton picker with seed cotton at two moisture contents, 5.9% and 8.5% we...

  2. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  3. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  4. Pre-stressed Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear%蜗杆蜗轮有预应力的模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜敞; 田春林; 刘涛; 王晓军

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the ordinary cylindrical worm and worm gear as the research object, which is used for transmission mechanism for automatic clutch in automobile. The three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear is established by using SolidWorks. First of all on the worm and worm gear is static analysis, get the equivalent nephogram and the displacement nephogram of worm and worm gear. In order to prevent resonance, respectively on the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. By modal analysis, the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear is gotten. From the analysis of results, resonance did not occur between the worm and worm gear. This result provides a theoretical basis for the structure improvement and later dynamic analysis of the worm and worm gear.%本文以汽车自动离合器传动机构的蜗杆和蜗轮为研究对象,运用SolidWorks建立蜗杆和蜗轮的三维模型,将模型导入到ANSYS Workbench中,再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行静力学分析,得到蜗杆和蜗轮的等效应力云图和位移云图;然后再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行模态分析,通过对模型进行模态分析,获得了蜗杆和蜗轮的前6阶固有频率和振型特征,通过结果分析,发现蜗杆和蜗轮之间不会发生共振,该结果为蜗杆和蜗轮的结构改进设计以及以后的动力学分析提供了理论依据。

  5. Dynamic transcriptome analysis and volatile profiling of Gossypium hirsutum in response to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Jie-Yin; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Wu, Juan; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit elevated levels of volatile organic compounds for direct and indirect resistance. However, little is known about the molecular and genomic basis of defense response that insect herbivory trigger in cotton plants and how defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we monitored the transcriptome changes and volatile characteristics of cotton plants in response to cotton bollworm (CBW; Helicoverpa armigera) larvae infestation. Analysis of samples revealed that 1,969 transcripts were differentially expressed (log2|Ratio| ≥ 2; q ≤ 0.05) after CBW infestation. Cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Among CBW-induced genes, those associated with indirect defense and jasmonic acid pathway were clearly over-represented, indicating that these genes play important roles in CBW-induced defenses. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that CBW infestation could induce cotton plants to release volatile compounds comprised lipoxygenase-derived green leaf volatiles and a number of terpenoid volatiles. Responding to CBW larvae infestation, cotton plants undergo drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome and the volatile profile. The present results increase our knowledge about insect herbivory-induced metabolic and biochemical processes in plants, which may help improve future studies on genes governing processes.

  6. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution.

  7. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  8. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  9. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in cotton is of great industrial importance due to the demanding consumer market for high performance textiles. It is not only a high value- added characteristic but it also has high commercial use and wide spectra of applications. Super- hydrophobicity... stream_source_info Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7375 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile...

  10. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  11. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  12. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  13. Modeling leaf venation morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Laguna, M F; Jagla, E A

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the formation of leaf venation patterns is driven by mechanical instabilities in the growing leaf. In contrast to the prevalent canalization hypothesis based on polar auxin transport, mechanical instabilities lead very naturally to hierarchical patterns with an abundant number of closed loops as they exists in almost every leaf venation. We propose a continuum model where the vein formation is driven by a mechanical collapse of the mesophyll layer in the growing leaf, and present a numerical study of this model using a phase field approach. The results show the same qualitative features as real venation patterns and, furthermore, have the same statistical properties.

  14. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  15. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  16. Effect of Age of Explant on Transgenic Cotton (Gossypium Plant Due to Expression of Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene from Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynelle van Emmenes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important textile plant in the world and is one of the most important crops for the production of oilseed. Because of its worldwide economic importance, new cultivars are constantly being released in the world. Although great improvements have been achieved through traditional breeding methods, cotton breeders are facing many problems, i.e., narrow genetic base, inability to use alien genes and difficulty in breaking gene linkages. Genetic transformations analyses are main tools used by breeders to overcome these problems. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to determine the effect of age of explant on regeneration response of apical shoot for tissue culture and gene transfer systems of cotton. This enabled us evaluate it effects on cotton transformation. The age of explants was observed to have significant effect on shoot tip elongation. The elongation rates of the three varieties studied were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.1573 and was observed to be affected by the size of isolated tips. It was observed that if the starting size of the apex was less than 1 mm, the tips would not grow at all. Insecticidal lectin gene from Allium sativum was transferred into the transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using shoot apices as explants. Putative transgenic plants were confirmed by leaf GUS assay, kanamycin leaf test and molecular analysis of plantlet.

  17. 水氮运筹对膜下滴灌棉花光合特性及产量形成的影响%Effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the leaf photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏海; 张宏芝; 陶先萍; 张亚黎; 张旺锋

    2013-01-01

    Taking different genotype cotton varieties as test materials, a soil column culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Under the management mode W4N2, i. e. , pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering in combining with basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) , actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (ΦPSⅡ) ,adn photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) at full-flowering stage all decreased significantly, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was inhibited, as compared with those under common drip irrigation. From full-flowering stage to boll-opening stage, the chlorophyll content, gs,, Pn, ΦPSⅡ , and qP increased with increasing water and nitrogen supply, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was enhanced by compensation, which benefited the translocation and distribution of photosynthates to seed cotton. Under the fertilization mode of basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzaol3 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + common drip irrigation (W3) , but that of Xinluzao43 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering (W4 ) . It was concluded that under the condition of pre-sowing irrigation, to appropriately decrease the water and nitrogen supply before full-flowering stage and increase the water and nitrogen supply at middle and late growth stages could extend the active photosynthesis duration and promote the photosynthates allocation to reproductive organ, which would fully exploit the yield-increasing potential of cotton with

  18. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. boll (LSCB of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79 and salt-sensitive (Simian 3 cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1 both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2 carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy in both the MSL and LSCB; 3 but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

  19. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  20. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Wang; David Blair; Tian Min; Fang Li; Dianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimuswestermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Methods: Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. Results: The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Conclusions: Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis.

  1. Achievements of Study Concerning Worm Face Gear Made in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Boloş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm face gears are a relatively new category of gear failure in 50 years in the USA. They are composed of a conical or cylindrical worm to engage the front wheel of a conical or flat. Geometric configuration to ensure a great contact ratio and lubrication between the flanks favorable conditions which allow their implementation of hardened steel, gray iron, bronze. Also they will produce big rapport of transmission in a single stage. Originally conceived by Illinois Tool Works Company Chicago they were taken and developed at the Institute of Mechanical Izhevsk (Russia. Experimental and theoretical developments were made in Britain, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. In the present paper is highlighted the concerns and the achievements of researchers from Romania in the period 1980-2009.

  2. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  3. An Improved Lower Bound for Moser's Worm Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2007-01-01

    We show that any convex region which contains a unit segment, an equilateral triangle of sides 1/2, and a square of side 1/3 always has area at least 0.227498. Using grid-search algorithm, we attempt to find a configuration of these three objects with minimal convex hull area. Consequently, we improve a lower bound for Moser's worm problem from 0.2194 to 0.227498.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png G...landiceps_hacksi_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  5. Multi-worm tracking using superposition of merit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Linda Ivonne; Potsaid, Benjamin; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    2008-11-01

    Traditional solutions for long term imaging of living small biological specimens and microorganisms lack efficiency due to computationally expensive algorithms, and field of view limitations in optical microscopes. This paper describes a new algorithm that allows for real time tracking of multiple 1mm nematodes called Caenorhabditis elegans with a novel optical microscope design called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), developed at the Center for Automation Technologies and Systems (CATS). Based on the real time experimentation, an improved algorithm to track multiple worms in the presence of entanglements is generated. The stages of this development start with an enhanced digital motion controller for the ASOM high speed scanning mirror to suppress undesired vibrations that limit the system capacity to track multiple organisms. The second phase is the integration of the ASOM apparatus, the high speed motion control, and a base tracking algorithm, all which allows for rapid image acquisition to track multiple C. elegans in real time. The base algorithm was developed at CATS and has been proven to track a single C. elegans in real time. Results demonstrating the efficacy of the complete system are presented. Lastly, an enhanced tracking algorithm is described that shows improved accuracy and robustness in tracking worms even when they become entangled. Taking into account the unique ASOM design, individual segments of the worm are tracked throughout an image sequence, and a mosaic pattern covering the entire worm is subsequently created. The algorithm takes advantage of geometric and dynamic knowledge of the C. elegans such as size, and movement patterns. The enhanced algorithm is tested on previously recorded footage. Simulated tracking experiments also illustrate the effectiveness of the enhanced algorithm and are presented.

  6. Technology and Mechanism of Rational Close Planting of Cotton in North Xinjiang%北疆棉花合理密植技术及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓福军; 林海; 韩焕勇; 宿俊吉

    2011-01-01

    以影响棉花产量的主要因子种植密度为主要处理,分析测定棉花各生育期的根系干物质积累、茎秆和叶片的干物质变化、叶面积指数和叶片光合速率变化以及棉花生育进程和产量构成,研究棉花合理密植技术及其机理.结果表明,中等肥力棉田膜下滴灌栽培时的最佳收获密度为1.20万/667 m2,播种密度1.40万/667m2,实现匀株密植,说明北疆中等肥力棉田中密度栽培时具有较高产量水平.%Plant density, one of the main factors affecting cotton production, was used as the processing factor, and, measured cotton root dry matter accumulation, changes in stem and leaf dry matter, leaf area index, and leaf photosynthetic rate of change at various growth stages, as well as cotton growing process and the yield components, to study technologies and mechanism of rational close planting cotton. The results showed that drip irrigation cotton cultivation medium fertility best harvested the number of plant density of 12 000/667 m2, 14 000/667 m2 planting density to achieve uniform strain dense. It is indicated that the cultivation of the middle population density would obtain the maximum yield in cotton farmland of the medium fertility.

  7. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  8. Worm algorithm for the CP N - 1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The CP N - 1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP N - 1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP N - 1 model for N > 2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP N - 1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP N - 1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  9. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  10. The mathematical and computer modeling of the worm tool shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, K. L.; Lyashkov, A. A.; Ayusheev, T. V.

    2017-06-01

    Traditionally mathematical profiling of the worm tool is carried out on the first T. Olivier method, known in the theory of gear gearings, with receiving an intermediate surface of the making lath. It complicates process of profiling and its realization by means of computer 3D-modeling. The purpose of the work is the improvement of mathematical model of profiling and its realization based on the methods of 3D-modeling. Research problems are: receiving of the mathematical model of profiling which excludes the presence of the making lath in it; realization of the received model by means of frame and superficial modeling; development and approbation of technology of solid-state modeling for the solution of the problem of profiling. As the basic, the kinematic method of research of the mutually envelope surfaces is accepted. Computer research is executed by means of CAD based on the methods of 3D-modeling. We have developed mathematical model of profiling of the worm tool; frame, superficial and solid-state models of shaping of the mutually enveloping surfaces of the detail and the tool are received. The offered mathematical models and the technologies of 3D-modeling of shaping represent tools for theoretical and experimental profiling of the worm tool. The results of researches can be used at design of metal-cutting tools.

  11. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  13. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  14. Global gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Kong, Xiangqiang; Dai, Jianlong; Luo, Zhen; Li, Zhenhuai; Lu, Hequan; Xu, Shizhen; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Weijiang; Xin, Chengsong; Dong, Hezhong

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Seven hundred and ninety four genes were up-regulated and 1018 genes were down-regulated in waterlogged cotton leaves compared with non-waterlogged control. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis and plant hormone signal transduction. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis indicated that most genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis as well as circadian rhythm pathways were differently expressed. Waterlogging increased the expression of anaerobic fermentation related genes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), but decreased the leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis by down-regulating the expression of photosynthesis related genes. Many genes related to plant hormones and transcription factors were differently expressed under waterlogging stress. Most of the ethylene related genes and ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factors were up-regulated under water-logging stress, suggesting that ethylene may play key roles in the survival of cotton under waterlogging stress.

  15. [Changes in the growth and photosynthesis of cotton seedlings under progressive drought after saltwater irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-jie; Bai, Xin-fu; Qi, Lin; Zhu, Jian-jun; Zhang, Zhen-hua

    2014-12-01

    Pot grown cotton plants were watered with saltwater (NaCl solutions of different concentrations), followed by a duration of progressive drought stress. The changes in plantlet growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence were measured, and the water status of the plantlets, such as relative water content, water potential, osmotic potential, the Na+ and K+ contents in leaves during drought were measured and analyzed, in order to get an insight into the role of Na+ played in the adaptation of cotton to drought stress. The results showed that the growth of the plantlets was significantly inhibited, the net photosynthetic rates were remarkably lowered by the drought stress, but the plant height, biomass, net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm values in the cotton plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) x NaCl solution under drought stress were significantly higher than those watered with water under the same intensity of drought stress. Meanwhile, the soil and leaf relative water content, cell turgor, Na+ concentration in plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) NaCl solution were all significantly higher compared with that of plants watered with water, but the plant water potential and tissue osmotic potential were significantly lower with the decrease in tissue osmotic potential significantly correlated with the Na+ content. These results indicated that the presence of a moderate amount of Na+ in the soil could improve the water status of both the soil and the cotton plants, accelerate the absorption and accumulation of Na+ in the roots, lower the tissue osmotic potential, thereby enhancing the suction force of water in plant for maintaining a high cell turgor to maintain a relatively higher photosynthetic rate and growth rate. In this sense, it was suggested that the existence of a certain amount of NaCl in soil could effectively alleviate the adverse effects of drought on cotton.

  16. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management.

  17. Expression profiling identifies genes expressed early during lint fibre initiation in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingru; Machado, Adriane C; White, Rosemary G; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2006-01-01

    Cotton fibres are a subset of single epidermal cells that elongate from the seed coat to produce the long cellulose strands or lint used for spinning into yarn. To identify genes that might regulate lint fibre initiation, expression profiles of 0 days post-anthesis (dpa) whole ovules from six reduced fibre or fibreless mutants were compared with wild-type linted cotton using cDNA microarrays. Numerous clones were differentially expressed, but when only those genes that are normally expressed in the ovule outer integument (where fibres develop) were considered, just 13 different cDNA clones were down-regulated in some or all of the mutants. These included: a Myb transcription factor (GhMyb25) similar to the Antirrhinum Myb AmMIXTA, a putative homeodomain protein (related to Arabidopsis ATML1), a cyclin D gene, some previously identified fibre-expressed structural and metabolic genes, such as lipid transfer protein, alpha-expansin and sucrose synthase, as well as some unknown genes. Laser capture microdissection and reverse transcription-PCR were used to show that both the GhMyb25 and the homeodomain gene were predominantly ovule specific and were up-regulated on the day of anthesis in fibre initials relative to adjacent non-fibre ovule epidermal cells. Their spatial and temporal expression pattern therefore coincided with the time and location of fibre initiation. Constitutive overexpression of GhMyb25 in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase in branched long-stalked leaf trichomes. The involvement of cell cycle genes prompted DNA content measurements that indicated that fibre initials, like leaf trichomes, undergo DNA endoreduplication. Cotton fibre initiation therefore has some parallels with leaf trichome development, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are clearly different.

  18. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  19. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  20. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  1. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid molding, putting the changeable parameter design in the part 3D model creating procedure. By generating visual variable parameters dialog box, realize the rapid modeling of worm gear and worm. On this basis, finished rapid modeling of worm gear and worm of virtual assembly and motion simulation, laid the foundation for the follow - up study of the worm and worm gear.%在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真,为蜗轮蜗杆机构的后续研究奠定了基础.

  2. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  3. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  4. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  5. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  6. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts

  7. Leaf growth is conformal

    CERN Document Server

    Alim, Karen; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  8. Leaf growth is conformal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  9. SORPTION PROPERTIES OF PERIODATE OXIDIZED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  10. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  11. The effects of high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration of Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Yuan; YAO Meng-hao; LI Yuan; WEN Yu-jin; ZHANG Xiang; CHEN De-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higher bol worm survival rates were detected after high temperature presented during square period in Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high temperature level on the Bt efifcacy of two different types of Bt cotton cultivars at squaring stage. During the 2011 to 2013 cotton growth seasons, high temperature treatments ranged from 34 to 44°C in climate chambers, and ifeld experiments under high temperature weather with various temperature levels were conducted to investigate the effects of the high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration and nitrogen metabolism. The climate chamber experiments showed that the square insecticidal protein contents reduced after 24 h elevated temperature treatments for both cultivars, whereas signiifcant declines of the square insecticidal protein contents were detected at temperature >38°C, and only slightly numerical reductions were observed when temperature below 38°C. Similar high temperature responses were also observed at the two ifeld experimental sites in 2013. Correspondingly, high temperature below 38°C seems have little effect on the square amino acid concentrations, soluble protein contents, glutam-ic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities as wel as protease and peptidase activities; however, when the temperature was above 38°C, reduced soluble protein contents, enhanced amino acid con-centrations, decreased GPT and GOT activities, bolstered protease and peptidase activities in square were detected. In general, the higher the temperature is (>38°C), the larger the changes for the above compound contents and key enzymes activities of the square protein cycle. The ifndings indicated that the unstable insect resistance of the square was related to high temperature level during square stage.

  12. Electro-worming: The Behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observati...

  13. A NOVEL METHOD FOR NETWORK WORM DETECTION BASED ON WAVELET PACKET ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Mingtao; Zhang Deyun; Hou Lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage. Methods On the basis of characteristics of network worm attack, the concept of failed connection flow (FCT) was defined. Based on wavelet packet analysis of FCT time series, this method computed the energy associated with each wavelet packet of FCT time series, transformed the FCT time series into a series of energy distribution vector on frequency domain, then a trained K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier was applied to identify the worm. Results The experiment showed that the method could identify network worm when the worm started to scan. Compared to theoretic value, the identification error ratio was 5.69%. Conclusion The method can detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage effectively.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of 44.6 kDa Protein from Schistosoma japonicum Male Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欲晓; 易新元; 曾宪芳; 袁仕善; 张顺科; LarryMCREYNOLDS

    2004-01-01

    Soluble male worm antigen of Schistosoma japonicurn (Sj) was investigated for development of new vaccine candidate. SDS--PAGE and Western blotting were performed to compare the difference between soluble antigens from worms of different sex. Mice vaccination with the testing purified protein was followed by Sj cereariae challenge to detect the protective effect against Sj. Sixteen bands were seen for the soluble male worm antigen and 12 for the female worm. In addition, a distinct band of 44.6 kDa from the male worm antigen was observed, and its antigenicity was demonstrated by Western blotting. This 44.6 kDa protein could induce significant worm and egg reduction rate in mice (39.31%, 41.98%, P < 0.001). Inthis study a 44.6 kDa protein was isolated and partially characterized. Its antigenicity, immunogenicity and the partial immune protection suggest its potential vaccine candidte against Sj.

  15. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  16. American Cotton Council International,Ready for more Cooperation with Chinese Cotton Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ America is a large cotton export country. 85% to 90% of the production is for export. The Council has been established for 50 years. It is a trade platform engaged into promoting the cotton export in the global range, making fashion shows, consumer promotions, etc.

  17. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  19. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  20. Cooperative Automated Worm Response and Detection Immune Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; McLeod, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The role of T-cells within the immune system is to confirm and assess anomalous situations and then either respond to or tolerate the source of the effect. To illustrate how these mechanisms can be harnessed to solve real-world problems, we present the blueprint of a T-cell inspired algorithm for computer security worm detection. We show how the three central T-cell processes, namely T-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation, naturally map into this domain and further illustrate how such an algorithm fits into a complete immune inspired computer security system and framework.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were...

  2. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  3. Free-Living Tube Worm Endosymbionts Found at Deep-Sea Vents▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Tara L.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Nussbaumer, Andrea D.; Bright, Monika; Ng, Andrew W.; DeChaine, Eric G.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep-sea vestimentiferan tube worms acquire their endosymbiotic bacteria from the environment each generation; thus, free-living symbionts should exist. Here, free-living tube worm symbiont phylotypes were detected in vent seawater and in biofilms at multiple deep-sea vent habitats by PCR amplification, DNA sequence analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. These findings support environmental transmission as a means of symbiont acquisition for deep-sea tube worms. PMID:18408062

  4. Fast Multicast on Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Multi-Head Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaodong; XU Ming; ZHOU Xingming

    1999-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes a new approach forimplementing fast multicast on multistage interconnection networks (MINs)with multi-head worms. For an MIN with n stages of k×k switches,a singlemulti-head worm can cover an arbitrary set of destinations with asingle communication start-up. Compared with schemes using unicastmessages, this approach reduces multicast latency significantly andperforms better than multi-destination worms.

  5. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  6. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  7. Effect of soil salinity on physiological characteristics of functional leaves of cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin

    2013-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of soil salinity on fatty acid composition, antioxidative enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and photosynthesis in functional leaves during the flowering and boll-forming stages of two cotton cultivars, namely, CCRI-44 (salt-tolerant) and Sumian 12 (salt-sensitive), grown under different soil salinity conditions. Saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (FA) contents (C18:1), as well as superoxide dismutase activity increased, whereas high-unsaturated FA (C18:2 and C18:3) decreased, with the increase in soil salinity. The production of malondialdehyde increased with increasing lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, indicating that LOX catalyzed FA peroxidation under salt stress. Soil salinity had no significant effect on catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) activity in the salt-sensitive cultivar Sumian 12, but significantly increased CAT and POD activities in the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-44. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of the cotton cultivars decreased in response to salt stress; however, CCRI-44 showed a smaller reduction in photosynthesis than Sumian 12. The results indicated that stomatal apparatus limited leaf photosynthetic capacity in the salinity-treated plants of both cultivars. The net photosynthetic rate, maximum photochemical efficiency, and photochemical quantum yield of the cotton functional leaves showed positive correlation with double-bond index (DBI). These results suggested that salt stress caused DBI reduction and decreased the photochemical conversion efficiency of solar radiation and, thereby resulting in lower net photosynthetic rates.

  8. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  9. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  10. 采用计算机视觉进行棉花虫害程度的自动测定%Automatic Measurement of Danger Degree of Cotton Insect Pests Using Computer Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳娟; 纪寿文; 李娟; 赵学笃

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by using computer vision technology, danger degree of cotton insect pests was automatically measured based on inside hole and irregular edge of cotton leaves. The local threshold algorithm was used to segment the cotton leaf from the background and the LOG algorithm was applied to recognize the edge of cotton leaf. The deformity of leaf edge was certified by using dilatation algorithm, and the hole of the cotton leaf was determined by using the edge tracking algorithm. The experiment results showed that the method can effectively judge the danger degree of insect pests of cotton, and the measurement error of danger degree was less than 0.05.%采用计算机视觉技术,根据棉花叶片的孔洞及叶片边缘的残缺,来测定棉花虫害的受害程度。该方法应用局部门限法完成图像与背景的分割;用高斯拉普拉斯算子,进行棉花图像的边缘检测;利用边缘跟踪算法确定棉叶中的孔洞;利用膨胀算法确定叶片边缘的残缺。实验结果表明,该方法可有效的测定棉花虫害的受害程度,其测定误差小于0.05。

  11. [Nitrogen absorption and allocation in cotton plant under effects of double-cropping wheat and cotton root mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhiguo; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Shu, Hongmei

    2006-12-01

    By the methods of 15N-foliar feeding and 15N dilution, a pot experiment of double-cropping wheat and cotton was conducted to study the nitrogen absorption and allocation in cotton plant under effects of wheat and cotton root mass. Three treatments were installed, i.e., no separation of wheat and cotton roots (treatment I), separation with nylon net (treatment II), and separation with plastic film (treatment III). The results showed that both the competition of 15N absorption between wheat and cotton root, and the translocation of absorbed 15N from wheat root to cotton were existed in the wheat-cotton double-cropping system. The absorbed 15N by cotton root was mostly allocated in aboveground part, and less in root. The aboveground part of cotton had the highest N utilization rate (NUR) in treatment I and the lowest one in treatment III, but the Ndff was lower in treatment I than in treatments II and III. At the early flowering stage of cotton when wheat was harvested and its straw was amended in situ, the absorbed nitrogen by cotton was mainly from the applied 15N, but not from the amended wheat straw. The allocation of absorbed 15N in different organs of cotton was quite different, being much higher in reproductive organs than in other organs. The biomass of cotton plant was also higher in treatment I than in treatments II and III.

  12. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... linters worked into the bale. (g) Mixed packed cotton. Cotton in a bale which, in the sample...

  13. Cotton Industry:Situation Report in March 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rapid development of the textile industry has made China the world’s largest cotton consumer and importer-cotton is the country’s third- largest product import after soybeans and edible oil.Generally

  14. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  15. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  16. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  17. Remote sensing in dryland cotton: relation to yield potential and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John J.; Iqbal, Javed; Thomasson, John A.; Willers, Jeffrey L.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of soil and topography information to explain crop yield variation across fields is often applied for crop management purposes. Remote sensed data is a potential source of information for site-specific crop management, providing both spatial and temporal information about soil and crop condition. Studies were conducted in a 104-acre (42-hectare) dryland cotton field in 2001 and 2002 in order to (1) qualitatively assess the spatial variability of soil physical properties from kriged estimates, (2) compare actual yields with normalized difference vegetation reflectance indices (NDVI) obtained from multispectral imagery and from in situ radiometer data, and (3) predict site-specific cotton yields using a crop simulation model, GOSSYM. An NDVI map of soybean in 2000 obtained from a multispectral image was used to establish four sites in each low, medium and high NDVI class. These 12 sites were studied in 2001 and 12 more sites selected at random were studied in 2002 (n = 24). Site-specific measurements included leaf area index (LAI), canopy hyperspectral reflectance, and three-band multispectral image data for green, red, and near-infrared reflectance wavebands at spatial resolutions of 2 m in 2001 and 0.5 m in 2002. Imagery was imported into the image analysis software Imagine (ERDAS, v. 8.5) for georegistration and image analysis. A 6x6 pixels (144 m2) area of interest was established on top of each field plot site and digital numbers (DN) from reflectance imagery were extracted from each band for derivation of NDVI maps for each of four sampling dates. Lint yield from each plot site was collected by hand and also by a cotton picker equipped with AgLeader yield monitor and OmniStar differential global positioning system. We found plant height, leaf area index, and lint yield were closely associated with NDVI maps and with NIR band values acquired from either an aircraft or handheld (GER-1500) sensor during peak bloom in mid July. Results indicate NDVI and NIR

  18. Mali's white revolution: smallholder cotton from 1960 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Tefft, James

    2004-01-01

    "One of the pillars of rural development in francophone Africa, the cotton sector serves as a principal motor of economic development, generating benefits to farmers, rural communities, private traders, cotton companies, and national governments.... Government and farmers alike consider cotton a strategic industry.... The Malian cotton model exemplifies the common vertical support system for smallholder agriculture, in which a single entity supplies inputs (usually on credit) in return for gu...

  19. Design and analysis of SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi; Fu, Peng; Dou, Changsheng; Li, Qing; Hu, Guangwu; Xia, Shutao

    2017-02-01

    The mobile Internet has considerably facilitated daily life in recent years. However, it has become the breeding ground for lots of new worms, including the Bluetooth-based worm, the SMS/MMS-based worm and the Wi-Fi-based worm. At present, Wi-Fi is widely used for mobile devices to connect to the Internet. But it exposes these devices to the dangerous environment. Most current worm propagation models aim to solve the problems of computer worms. They cannot be used directly in the mobile environment, particularly in the Wi-Fi scenario, because of the differences between computers and mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a worm propagation model in the Wi-Fi environment, called SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious- Quarantined-Recovered). In the model, infected nodes can be quarantined by the Wi-Fi base station, and a new state named the Quarantined state (Q) is established to represent these infected nodes. Based on this model, we present an effective method to inhibit the spread of the Wi-Fi-based worms. Furthermore, related stabilities of the worm-free and endemic equilibriums are studied based on the basic reproduction number R0. The worm-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, whereas the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our model by comprehensive experiments with different infection rates and quarantine rates. The results indicate that our mechanism can combat the worms propagated via Wi-Fi.

  20. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  1. More on Cotton Flow on Three Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Cotton flow tends to evolve a given initial metric on a three manifold to a conformally flat one. Here we expound upon the earlier work on Cotton flow and study the linearized version of it around a generic initial metric by employing a modified form of the DeTurck trick. We show that the flow around the flat space, as a critical point, reduces to an anisotropic generalization of linearized KdV equation with complex dispersion relations one of which is an unstable mode, rendering the the flat space unstable under small perturbations. We also show that Einstein spaces and some conformally flat non-Einstein spaces are linearly unstable. We refine the gradient flow formalism and compute the second variation of the entropy and show that generic critical points are extended Cotton solitons. We study some properties of these solutions and find a Topologically Massive soliton that is built from Cotton and Ricci solitons. In the Lorentzian signature, we also show that the pp-wave metrics are both Cotton and Ricci sol...

  2. Respiratory problems among cotton textile workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mansouri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long term occupational exposure to cotton dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and loss of pulmonary function. Aim: This study was conducted to explore respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and chest radiography of workers, and to evaluate the findings of high resolution computed tomographyand its correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFT. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 cotton workers as exposed group and 100 unexposed subjects. Smokers were excluded from the study. All workers were interviewed and examined by the pulmonologist. PFT and chest radiography were conducted for all subjects. HRCT was performed for those with abnormal PFT or chest radiography. Results: A total of 51% and 31% of the cotton textile workers had one or more respiratory symptoms and respiratory signs respectively. 28% of subjects in the exposed group and 5% of subjects in unexposed group had obstructive pattern. Bronchia wall thickening and air trapping were the most frequent chest radiography and HRCT abnormalities respectively. There was a significant correlation between HRCT and the results of PFT. Conclusion: We conclude that long term exposure to cotton dust is associated with obstructive disease that increase with duration of exposure (history of working years, also use of HRCT as a sensitive tool in the assessment of pathologic changes and it's correlation with PFT, confirms the expected pathophysiology of airway obstruction in cotton workers.

  3. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  4. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC

  5. Cotton as a World Crop: Origin, History, and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archaeological evidence indicates that cotton has been used by humans for more than 4000 yr. The history of cotton cultivation is at least 3000 yr old. There are four cultivated cotton species, two diploid species and two tetraploid species. In this chapter, the origin and history of these four spec...

  6. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    on chemical insecticides supplied by their contract cotton companies to ... Plantations Development Ltd.) in the three northern regions through multi-stage random sampling ... level of education, farm size, history of cotton cultivation and objectives. ..... Cotton production and marketing in northern Ghana: the dynamics of ...

  7. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  8. 75 FR 23300 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission.../cotton printcloth from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely...

  9. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; ZHANG Chao-jun; ZHANG Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than 1000 transgenie lines are selected from the transgenic plants with molecular assistant breeding and conventional breeding methods.

  10. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  11. Textiles: Some technocal information and data V: Cotton

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available ................. ............... Senegal South Africa .......... Spain ................ Sudan ................ Syria ................. Tanzania ............. Thailand ............. Togo ................. Turkey (Average) ...... Uganda .............. USSR ................ United... G . arboreum and G. herbaceum cottons. referred to as Asiatic cottons, are the short-staple types and are largely grown in India. China. Iran. Iraq, Turkey and RussiaIi6. Typically the cotton plant appears about one week after planting the seed...

  12. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  13. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  14. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  15. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than

  16. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for classification... be effected under the supervision of an exchange inspection agency or a supervisor of...

  17. Recovery of protein from urine specimens collected in cotton wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C; Taylor, C M

    1992-01-01

    Cotton wool balls have been used to aid the collection of urine from infants. Concentrations of two urinary proteins, albumin and retinol binding protein, decreased by 40 and 80% respectively within 15 minutes of contact with the cotton wool. Cotton wool balls should not be used when investigating proteinuria. PMID:1489230

  18. Sourcing USA Summit Engages Global Cotton Industry Leaders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From November 9-12,the"6th Biennial Sourcing USA Summit,"organized by Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated and with the support of the U.S.cotton industry and USDA, took place at Terranea in Rancho Palos Verdes,

  19. Cotton-based nonwovens and their potential scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the overall use of cotton fiber in modern nonwovens has been limited, certain recent commercial and research developments make the use of cotton and its derivatives more attractive in nonwovens. The commercial developments include the availability of pre-cleaned greige cotton, purified (ble...

  20. Potential development of a new cotton-based antimicrobial wipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of a cationic biocide on various cotton and synthetic nonwoven fabrics was investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The results reveal that rayon and greige cotton nonwovens adsorb nearly three times more cationic biocide than comparable bleached cotton substrates. Polyester...

  1. Evaluation of a load measurement system for cotton harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to develop and characterize the performance of a system used onboard a cotton harvester for obtaining seed cotton weight data. This system can be used to measure seed cotton weight on a load by load basis, thereby enhancing the ability for a producer to conduct on-farm ...

  2. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  3. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  4. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to caterpillar-induced volatiles from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming; Gao, Xiwu; Guo, Yuyuan

    2010-04-01

    Microplitis mediator Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important larval endoparasitoid of various lepidopteran pests, including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). In China, H. armigera is a key pest of cotton and is currently the focus of several biological control efforts that use M. mediator as principal natural enemy of this pest. To improve the success of biological control efforts, behavioral studies are needed that shed light on the interaction between M. mediator and H. armigera. In this study, we determined M. mediator response to volatile compounds from undamaged, mechanically injured, or H. armigera--damaged plants and identified attractive volatiles. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, we found that mechanically damaged plants and/or plants treated with H. armigera oral secretions did not attract wasps. However, volatiles from H. armigera-damaged plants elicited a strong attraction of both M. mediator sexes. Headspace extracts from H. armigera-damaged cotton were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), and a total of seven different compounds were found to elicit electroantennogram (EAG) responses, including an unknown compound. Six different EAD-active volatiles were identified from caterpillar-damaged cotton plants, of which 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were the principal compounds. Olfactometer assays indicated that individual synthetic compounds of 3, 7-dimethyl-1, 3, 6-octatriene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and nonanal were attractive to M. mediator. Field cage studies showed that parasitism of H. armigera larvae by M. mediator was higher on cotton plants to which 3,7-dimethyl-1,3, 6-octatriene was applied. Our results show that the combination of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles may not only facilitate host, mate, or food location but may also increase H. armigera parasitism by M. mediator.

  5. Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H

    2005-10-01

    Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated.

  6. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  7. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  8. Predicting cotton yield of small field plots in a cotton breeding program using UAV imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Joe Mari J.; Campbell, Todd; Camargo Neto, Joao; Astillo, Philip

    2016-05-01

    One of the major criteria used for advancing experimental lines in a breeding program is yield performance. Obtaining yield performance data requires machine picking each plot with a cotton picker, modified to weigh individual plots. Harvesting thousands of small field plots requires a great deal of time and resources. The efficiency of cotton breeding could be increased significantly while the cost could be decreased with the availability of accurate methods to predict yield performance. This work is investigating the feasibility of using an image processing technique using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) camera mounted on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to collect normal RGB images in predicting cotton yield on small plot. An orthonormal image was generated from multiple images and used to process multiple, segmented plots. A Gaussian blur was used to eliminate the high frequency component of the images, which corresponds to the cotton pixels, and used image subtraction technique to generate high frequency pixel images. The cotton pixels were then separated using k-means cluster with 5 classes. Based on the current work, the calculated percentage cotton area was computed using the generated high frequency image (cotton pixels) divided by the total area of the plot. Preliminary results showed (five flights, 3 altitudes) that cotton cover on multiple pre-selected 227 sq. m. plots produce an average of 8% which translate to approximately 22.3 kgs. of cotton. The yield prediction equation generated from the test site was then use on a separate validation site and produced a prediction error of less than 10%. In summary, the results indicate that a COTS camera with an appropriate image processing technique can produce results that are comparable to expensive sensors.

  9. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  10. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  11. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  12. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  13. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the so

  14. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  15. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  16. An opportunistic Pantoea sp. isolated from a cotton fleahopper that is capable of causing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bud rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea ananatis (Serano) representatives are known to have a broad host range including both humans and plants. The cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus, Reuter) is a significant pest that causes cotton bud damage that may result in significant yield losses. In this study, cotton fleahopp...

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods and techniques that can be used to transfer foreign genes into cells. In plant biotechnology, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used traditional method for inserting foreign genes into plant genome and obtaining transgenic plants, particularly for dicot plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton involves several important and also critical steps, which includes coculture of cotton explants with Agrobacterium, induction and selection of stable transgenic cell lines, recovery of plants from transgenic cells majorly through somatic embryogenesis, and detection and expression analysis of transgenic plants. In this chapter, we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol for obtaining transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  18. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  19. Potassium deficiency affects the carbon-nitrogen balance in cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Coomer, Taylor D; Loka, Dimitra A; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-06-01

    Potassium (K) plays important roles in the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but studies of K deficiency affecting C-N balance are lacking. This study explored the influence of K deficiency on C-N interaction in cotton leaves by conducting a field experiment with cotton cultivar DP0912 under two K rates (K0: 0 kg K2O ha(-1) and K67: 67 kg K2O ha(-1)) and a controlled environment experiment with K-deficient solution (K1: 0 mM K(+)) and K-sufficient solution (K2: 6 mM K(+)). The results showed that leaf K content, leaf number, leaf area, boll number, reproductive dry weight and total dry weight were significant lower under K deficiency (K0 or K1). Lower total chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio, and decreased Pn along with lower Gs and higher Ci were measured under K deficiency, suggesting that the decrease in Pn was resulted from non-stomatal limitation. Leaf glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch contents were higher under K deficiency, because lower sucrose export was detected in phloem. Although leaf nitrate and ammonium contents significantly decreased, free amino acid content was increased by 40-63% under K deficiency, since lower amino acid export was also measured in phloem. K deficiency also induced lower soluble protein content in leaves. Leaf ATP level was significantly increased under K deficiency, indicating ATP utilization was lower, so that less energy was supplied to C and N metabolism. The ratio of soluble sugar to free amino acid and the C/N ratio markedly increased under K deficiency, and one reason was that the phloem export reduced more prominent for sucrose (54.6-78.0%) than amino acid (36.7-85.4%) under K deficiency. In addition, lower phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity limited malate and citrate biosynthesis under K deficiency, causing a decrease of C flux into the amino acids, which was not beneficial for maintaining C-N balance. Sucrose phosphate synthase and nitrate reductase activities were lower under K deficiency

  20. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems.A novel multigroup SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure.Then,the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established.It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1,the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually,whereas,if R0 is greater than 1,one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable,thus the worm persists in the network.Finally,numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.