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Sample records for cotton gossypium arboreum

  1. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  2. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid CottonGenome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS Thea A

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our under-standing of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a "white paper" published in2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated up-land cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degreeof conservation between diploid progenitors and AD species that will allow information derived fromdiploid genomes to be directly applied to the tetraploids.

  3. Identification and Characterization of miRNA Transcriptome in Asiatic Cotton (Gossypium arboreum Using High Throughput Sequencing

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    Muhammad Farooq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small 20–24nt molecules that have been well studied over the past decade due to their important regulatory roles in different cellular processes. The mature sequences are more conserved across vast phylogenetic scales than their precursors and some are conserved within entire kingdoms, hence, their loci and function can be predicted by homology searches. Different studies have been performed to elucidate miRNAs using de novo prediction methods but due to complex regulatory mechanisms or false positive in silico predictions, not all of them express in reality and sometimes computationally predicted mature transcripts differ from the actual expressed ones. With the availability of a complete genome sequence of Gossypium arboreum, it is important to annotate the genome for both coding and non-coding regions using high confidence transcript evidence, for this cotton species that is highly resistant to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we have analyzed the small RNA transcriptome of G. arboreum leaves and provided genome annotation of miRNAs with evidence from miRNA/miRNA∗ transcripts. A total of 446 miRNAs clustered into 224 miRNA families were found, among which 48 families are conserved in other plants and 176 are novel. Four short RNA libraries were used to shortlist best predictions based on high reads per million. The size, origin, copy numbers and transcript depth of all miRNAs along with their isoforms and targets has been reported. The highest gene copy number was observed for gar-miR7504 followed by gar-miR166, gar-miR8771, gar-miR156, and gar-miR7484. Altogether, 1274 target genes were found in G. arboreum that are enriched for 216 KEGG pathways. The resultant genomic annotations are provided in UCSC, BED format.

  4. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L..

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    Min Wang

    Full Text Available To date, no miRNAs have been identified in the important diploid cotton species although there are several reports on miRNAs in upland cotton. In this study, we identified 73 miRNAs, belonging to 49 families, from Asiatic cotton using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. Several of the predicted miRNAs were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The length of miRNAs varied from 18 to 22 nt with an average of 20 nt. The length of miRNA precursors also varied from 46 to 684 nt with an average of 138 ±120 nt. For a majority of Asiatic cotton miRNAs, there is only one member per family; however, multiple members were identified for miRNA 156, 414, 837, 838, 1044, 1533, 2902, 2868, 5021 and 5142 families. Nucleotides A and U were dominant, accounted for 62.95%, in the Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs. The Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs had high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE and adjusted MFE (AMFE and high MFE index (MFEI. Many miRNAs identified in Asiatic cotton suggest that miRNAs also play a similar regulatory mechanism in diploid cotton.

  5. Simple Sequence Repeat Genetic Linkage Maps of A-genome Diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Xia Ma; Bao-Liang Zhou; Yan-Hui Lü; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces the construction of the first intraspacific genetic linkage map of the A-genome diploid cotton with newly developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using 189 F2 plants derived from the cross of two Asiatic parents were detected using 6 092 pairs of SSR primers. Two-hundred and sixty-eight pairs of SSR pdmers with better polymorphisms were picked out to analyze the F2 population. In total, 320 polymorphic bands were generated and used to construct a linkage map with JoinMap3.0. Two-hundred and sixty-seven loci, Including three phenotypic traits were mapped at a logarithms of odds ratio (LOD) ≥ 3.0 on 13 linkage groups. The total length of the map was 2 508.71 cM, and the average distance between adjacent markers was 9.40 cM. Chromosome assignments were according to the association of linkages with our backbone tetraploid specific map using the 89 similar SSR loci. Comparisons among the 13 suites of orthologous linkage groups revealed that the A-genome chromosomes are largely collinear with the At and Dt sub-genome chromosomes. Chromosomes associated with inversions suggested that allopolyploidization was accompanied by homologous chromosomal rearrangement. The inter-chromosomal duplicated loci supply molecular evidence that the A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton is paleopolyploid.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Landraces in Gossypium arboreum L. Race sinense Assessed with Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-Zhen Guo; Bao-Liang Zhou; Lu-Ming Yang; Wei Wang; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an "Old World" cultivated cotton species, the sinense race of which is planted extensively in China. This species is still used in the current tetraploid cotton breeding program as an elite germplasm line, and is also used as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, 60 cotton microsatellite markers, averaging 4.6 markers for each A-genome chromosome,were chosen to assess the genetic diversity of 109 accessions. These included 106 G. arboreum landraces,collected from 18 provinces throughout four Asiatic cotton-growing regions in China. A total of 128 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.13 alleles per locus. The largest number of alleles, as well as the maximum number of polymorphic loci, was detected in the A03 linkage group. No polymorphic alleles were detected on chromosome 10. The polymorphism information content for the 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci varied from 0.52 to 0.98, with an average of 0.89. Genetic diversity analysis revealed that the landraces in the Southern region had more genetic variability than those from the other two regions, and no significant difference was detected between landraces in the Yangtze and the Yellow River Valley regions. These findings are consistent with the history of sinense introduction, with the Southern region being the presumed center of origin for Chinese Asiatic cotton, and with subsequent northeastward extension to the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys. Cluster analysis, based on simple sequence repeat data for 60 microsatellite loci, clearly differentiated Vietnamese and G. herbaceum landraces from the sinense landrace. No relationship between inter-variety similarity and geographical ecological region was observed. The present findings indicate that the Southern region landraces may have been directly introduced into the provinces in the middle and lower Yangtze River Valley, where Asiatic cotton was most extensively grown, and further race

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Gossypium arboreum germplasm accessions using genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijuan; Erpelding, John E

    2016-10-01

    The diploid cotton species Gossypium arboreum possesses many favorable agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and disease resistance, which can be utilized in the development of improved upland cotton cultivars. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1600 G. arboreum accessions. Little information is available on the genetic diversity of the collection thereby limiting the utilization of this cotton species. The genetic diversity and population structure of the G. arboreum germplasm collection were assessed by genotyping-by-sequencing of 375 accessions. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism sequence data, two major clusters were inferred with 302 accessions in Cluster 1, 64 accessions in Cluster 2, and nine accessions unassigned due to their nearly equal membership to each cluster. These two clusters were further evaluated independently resulting in the identification of two sub-clusters for the 302 Cluster 1 accessions and three sub-clusters for the 64 Cluster 2 accessions. Low to moderate genetic diversity between clusters and sub-clusters were observed indicating a narrow genetic base. Cluster 2 accessions were more genetically diverse and the majority of the accessions in this cluster were landraces. In contrast, Cluster 1 is composed of varieties or breeding lines more recently added to the collection. The majority of the accessions had kinship values ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. Eight pairs of accessions were identified as potential redundancies due to their high kinship relatedness. The genetic diversity and genotype data from this study are essential to enhance germplasm utilization to identify genetically diverse accessions for the detection of quantitative trait loci associated with important traits that would benefit upland cotton improvement.

  8. Molecular Cloning,Expression,and Characterization of an Adenylyl Cyclase-associated Protein from Gossypium arboreum Fuzzless Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng; ZHAO Guo-hong; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ CAP,an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein,is predicted to be involved in cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction.Recently,we found that CAP may play an important role in fuzz-like fiber cell initiation in cotton.For the further research,we isolated two CAP homologues from wild type cotton Gossypium arboreum L.(DPL971) and its natural fuzzless mutant (DPL972).The gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,416 nucleotides encoding a protein of 471 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 50.6 kDa.

  9. Molecular Cloning, and Characterization of an Adenylyl Cyclase-Associated Protein from Gossypium arboreum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng; ZHAO Guo-hong; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clone CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) gene from Gossypium arboreum L. and develop a platform for expressing and purifying CAP protein, which is a base for the construction and function researches of CAP. In this work, a CAP homolog from cotton (DPL971) ovule was identified and cloned. And the cDNA sequence consisted of an open reading frame of 1416 nucleotides encoding a protein of 471 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 50.6 kDa. To gain insight on the CAP role in cotton fiber development, the cloned CAP cDNA was expressed. A significant higher yield pure protein was obtained with the chromatographic method. Further experiments showed that the purified protein can bind with the actin in vitro indicating that the recombinant cotton CAP is functional. The procedure described here produced high yield pure protein through one chromatographic step, suitable for further structure-function studies.

  10. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

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    Yu Chen

    Full Text Available Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1 kinetin and 250 mg(-1 casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  11. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA) between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Jianwei; Feng, Shouli; Nazeer, Wajad; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA) native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD) and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 250 mg(-1) casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination) hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  12. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  13. The Complexity of Posttranscriptional Small RNA Regulatory Networks Revealed by In Silico Analysis of Gossypium arboreum L. Leaf, Flower and Boll Small Regulatory RNAs.

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    Hongtao Hu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs and secondary small interfering RNAs (principally phased siRNAs or trans-acting siRNAs are two distinct subfamilies of small RNAs (sRNAs that are emerging as key regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression in plants. Both miRNAs and secondary-siRNAs (sec-siRNAs are processed from longer RNA precursors by DICER-LIKE proteins (DCLs. Gossypium arboreum L., also known as tree cotton or Asian cotton, is a diploid, possibly ancestral relative of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., the predominant type of commercially grown cotton worldwide known as upland cotton. To understand the biological significance of these gene regulators in G. arboreum, a bioinformatics analysis was performed on G. arboreum small RNAs produced from G. arboreum leaf, flower, and boll tissues. Consequently, 263 miRNAs derived from 353 precursors, including 155 conserved miRNAs (cs-miRNAs and 108 novel lineage-specific miRNAs (ls-miRNAs. Along with miRNAs, 2,033 miRNA variants (isomiRNAs were identified as well. Those isomiRNAs with variation at the 3'-miRNA end were expressed at the highest levels, compared to other types of variants. In addition, 755 pha-siRNAs derived 319 pha-siRNA gene transcripts (PGTs were identified, and the potential pha-siRNA initiators were predicted. Also, 2,251 non-phased siRNAs were found as well, of which 1,088 appeared to be produced by so-called cis- or trans-cleavage of the PGTs observed at positions differing from pha-siRNAs. Of those sRNAs, 148 miRNAs/isomiRNAs and 274 phased/non-phased siRNAs were differentially expressed in one or more pairs of tissues examined. Target analysis revealed that target genes for both miRNAs and pha-siRNAs are involved a broad range of metabolic and enzymatic activities. We demonstrate that secondary siRNA production could result from initial cleavage of precursors by both miRNAs or isomiRNAs, and that subsequently produced phased and unphased siRNAs could result that also serve as triggers

  14. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes in four Gossypium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucleotide binding site (NBS) genes encode a large family of disease resistance (R) proteins in plants. The availability of genomic data of the two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, and the two allotetraploid cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum (TM-1) and Gossypium ...

  15. mRNA-seq analysis of the Gossypium arboreum transcriptome reveals tissue selective signaling in response to water stress during seedling stage.

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    Xueyan Zhang

    Full Text Available The cotton diploid species, Gossypium arboreum, shows important properties of stress tolerance and good genetic stability. In this study, through mRNA-seq, we de novo assembled the unigenes of multiple samples with 3h H(2O, NaCl, or PEG treatments in leaf, stem and root tissues and successfully obtained 123,579 transcripts of G. arboreum, 89,128 of which were with hits through BLAST against known cotton ESTs and draft genome of G. raimondii. About 36,961 transcripts (including 1,958 possible transcription factor members were identified with differential expression under water stresses. Principal component analysis of differential expression levels in multiple samples suggested tissue selective signalling responding to water stresses. Venn diagram analysis showed the specificity and intersection of transcripts' response to NaCl and PEG treatments in different tissues. Self-organized mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data also revealed strong tissue selectivity of transcripts under salt and osmotic stresses. In addition, the enriched gene ontology (GO terms for the selected tissue groups were differed, including some unique enriched GO terms such as photosynthesis and tetrapyrrole binding only in leaf tissues, while the stem-specific genes showed unique GO terms related to plant-type cell wall biogenesis, and root-specific genes showed unique GO terms such as monooxygenase activity. Furthermore, there were multiple hormone cross-talks in response to osmotic and salt stress. In summary, our multidimensional mRNA sequencing revealed tissue selective signalling and hormone crosstalk in response to salt and osmotic stresses in G. arboreum. To our knowledge, this is the first such report of spatial resolution of transcriptome analysis in G. arboreum. Our study will potentially advance understanding of possible transcriptional networks associated with water stress in cotton and other crop species.

  16. QTL mapping in A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton and their congruence analysis with AD-genome tetraploid cotton in genus Gossypium.

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    Ma, Xuexia; Ding, Yezhang; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Lv, Yanhui; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2008-12-01

    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an Old World cultivated cotton species. The sinense race was planted extensively in China. Due to the advances in spinning technology during the last century, the species was replaced by the New World allotetraploid cotton G. hirsutum L. Gossypium arboreum is still grown in India and Pakistan and also used as an elite in current cotton breeding programs. In addition, G. arboreum serves as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, we generated an A-genome diploid cotton intraspecific genetic map including 264 SSR loci with three morphological markers mapped to 13 linkage groups. The map spans 2,508.71 cM with an average distance of 9.4 cM between adjacent loci. A population containing 176 F(2:3) families was used to perform quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for 17 phenotypes using Multiple QTL Model (MQM) of MapQTL ver 5.0. Overall, 108 QTLs were detected on 13 chromosomes. Thirty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F2 population. Forty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F(2:3) families with a total of 43 QTLs for fiber qualities. Two QTLs for seed cotton weight/plant and lint index and three QTLs for seed index were consistently detected both in F2 and F(2:3). Most QTLs for fiber qualities and yields were located at the same interval or neighboring intervals. These results indicated that the negative correlation between fiber qualities and yield traits may result from either pleiotropic effect of one gene or linkage effects of multiple closely linked genes.

  17. Gossypolhemiquinone, a dimeric sesquiterpenoid identified in cotton (Gossypium)

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    The report that the cotton leaf perforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella, is one of the few insect herbivores to attack Gossypium thurberi prompted an investigation of the terpenoids present in the leaves of this wild species of cotton. Members of Gossypium produce subepidermal pigment glands in their ...

  18. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum.

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    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article "Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum" [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information." [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8) with the Pfam database, "Pfam: the protein families database" [4].

  19. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  20. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid CottonGenome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun; WANG Kun-bo; LI Fu-guang; KOHEL Russell J; PERCY Richard G; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's nationaleconomy.Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cottonproduction,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 MbDNA.

  1. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum

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    Wei Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper is supporting the research article “Genome-Wide Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum” [1]. In this data article, we present phylogenetic tree showing dichotomy with two different clusters of SODs inferred by the Bayesian method of MrBayes (version 3.2.4, “Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models” [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, “SWISS-MODEL: modelling protein tertiary and quaternary structure using evolutionary information.” [3] and motif sequences of SODs identified by InterProScan (version 4.8 with the Pfam database, “Pfam: the protein families database” [4].

  2. Inhibitory potential of Gossypium arboreum leaf extracts on diabetes key enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase

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    Mutiu Idowu Kazeem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the antidiabetic therapeutic approaches is the reduction in gastrointestinal glucose production and absorption by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This present study evaluated the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of the aqueous, ethanolic and acetone leaf extracts of Gossypium arboreum and to further determine the mode of inhibition of the enzymes using kinetic analysis. The aqueous and acetone extract exhibited potent α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 10.10 mg/mL and 2.75 mg/mL respectively. These extracts are likely to contain non-competitive inhibitors of both enzymes with reduced Vmax values. The extracts were also found to contain phytochemicals such as tannins and steroids which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect. The results show that the aqueous and acetone extracts of G. arboreum leaf inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase at relatively low concentrations and this could be the reason why the species is employed in the management of blood sugar related disorders by reasonable populations in Nigeria.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Genotypes That Are Susceptible, Resistant, and Hypersensitive to Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis.

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    Ruijuan Li

    Full Text Available Reniform nematode is a semi-endoparasitic nematode species causing significant yield loss in numerous crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. An RNA-sequencing analysis was conducted to measure transcript abundance in reniform nematode susceptible (DP90 & SG747, resistant (BARBREN-713, and hypersensitive (LONREN-1 genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. with and without reniform nematode infestation. Over 90 million trimmed high quality reads were assembled into 84,711 and 80, 353 transcripts using the G. arboreum and the G. raimondii genomes as references. Many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed between the three different genotypes both prior to and during nematode pathogenesis, including transcripts corresponding to the gene ontology categories of cell wall, hormone metabolism and signaling, redox reactions, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, stress responses, and signaling. Further analysis revealed that a number of these differentially expressed transcripts mapped to the G. raimondii and/or the G. arboreum genomes within 1 megabase of quantitative trait loci that had previously been linked to reniform nematode resistance. Several resistance genes encoding proteins known to be strongly linked to pathogen perception and resistance, including LRR-like and NBS-LRR domain-containing proteins, were among the differentially expressed transcripts mapping near these quantitative trait loci. Further investigation is required to confirm a role for these transcripts in reniform nematode susceptibility, hypersensitivity, and/or resistance. This study presents the first systemic investigation of reniform nematode resistance-associated genes using different genotypes of cotton. The candidate reniform nematode resistance-associated genes identified in this study can serve as the basis for further functional analysis and aid in further development of reniform a nematode resistant cotton germplasm.

  4. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

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    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  5. Rapid plant regeneration from cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A simple and rapid regeneration method of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.cv.Xinluzao 4) is described.The proper use of phytohormone KT and IBA validly promoted the survival rate of test-tube plants and shortened the period of culture in combination with the techniques of micro-propagation and graft.

  6. Isolation of a (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene CAD1-A and analysis of its expression pattern in seedlings of Gossypium arboreum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁婉琪; 谭晓萍; 陈晓亚; Takashi; Hashimoto; Yasuyuki; Yamada; Peter; Heinstein

    2000-01-01

    The cotton sesquiterpene cyclase, (+)-δ-cadinene synthase.is encoded by a gene family, which can be divided into two subfamilies: CAD1-A and CAD1-C. The gene CAD1-A was isolated from G. arboreum. In situ hybridization performed on seven-day-old cotton seedlings localized transcripts of both the CAD1-A and CAD1-C mainly in lateral root primordium and apical ground meristem, vascular tissues of emerging lateral roots, and also in procambium and some subepidermal cells of the hypocotyl. The CAD1-A promoter showed a similar tissue-specificity in transgenic tobacco plants. Histochemistry showed occurrence of sesquiterpene aldehydes in outer cells of the lateral root tips, as well as in pigment glands. The CAD1 gene expression in G. arboreum seedlings and the spatial pattern of sesquiterpene biosynthesis constitute a chemical defense machinery in cotton seedlings.

  7. Isolation of a (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene CAD1-A and analysis of its expression pattern in seedlings of Gossypium arboreum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The cotton sesquiterpene cyclase,(+)-δ-cadinene synthase,is encoded by a gene family,which can be divided into two subfamilies:CAD1-A and CAD1-C.The gene CAD1-A was isolated from G.arboreum.In situ hybridization performed on seven-day-old cotton seedlings localized transcripts of both the CAD1-A and CAD1-C mainly in lateral root primordium and apical ground meristem,vascular tissues of emerging lateral roots,and also in procambium and some subepidermal cells of the hypocotyl.The CAD1-A promoter showed a similar tissue-specificity in transgenic tobacco plants.Histochemistry showed occurrence of sesquiterpene aldehydes in outer cells of the lateral root tips,as well as in pigment glands.The CAD1 gene expression in G.arboreum seedlings and the spatial pattern of sesquiterpene biosynthesis constitute a chemical defense machinery in cotton seedlings.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes. We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboreum, and G. raimondii. These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G. raimondii with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups, with 20 members in group I, 88 in group II, and 12 in group III. The 88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups, groups IIa–e, containing 7, 16, 37, 15, and 13 members, respectively. We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins. The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response. Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiping; Cai; Erli; Niu; Hao; Du; Liang; Zhao; Yue; Feng; Wangzhen; Guo

    2014-01-01

    WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes.We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species,Gossypium hirsutum,Gossypium barbadense,Gossypium arboreum,and G.raimondii.These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G.raimondii with uneven distribution.Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups,with 20 members in group I,88 in group II,and 12 in group III.The88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups,groups IIa–e,containing 7,16,37,15,and 13 members,respectively.We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins.The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response.Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  10. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  11. Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D; Zach S Liechty; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium ra...

  12. CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shaolin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD http://www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. Description At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays data for three of the microsatellite projects that have been screened against a panel of core germplasm. The standardized panel consists of 12 diverse genotypes including genetic standards, mapping parents, BAC donors, subgenome representatives, unique breeding lines, exotic introgression sources, and contemporary Upland cottons with significant acreage. A suite of online microsatellite data mining tools are accessible at CMD. These include an SSR server which identifies microsatellites, primers, open reading frames, and GC-content of uploaded sequences; BLAST and FASTA servers providing sequence similarity searches against the existing cotton SSR sequences and primers, a CAP3 server to assemble EST sequences into longer transcripts prior to mining for SSRs, and CMap, a viewer for comparing cotton SSR maps. Conclusion The collection of publicly available cotton SSR markers in a centralized, readily accessible and curated web-enabled database provides a more efficient utilization of microsatellite resources and will help accelerate basic and applied research in molecular breeding and genetic mapping in Gossypium spp.

  13. Data set for phylogenetic tree and RAMPAGE Ramachandran plot analysis of SODs in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Chen, Jie; Deng, Fenni; Yuan, Rui; Zhang, Xiaopei; Shen, Fafu

    2016-01-01

    ...), "Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models" [2], Ramachandran plots of G. raimondii and G. arboreum SODs, the protein sequence used to generate 3D sructure of proteins and the template accession via SWISS-MODEL server, "SWISS-MODEL...

  14. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  15. Gossypolone and Gossypolhemiquinone: Biological activity of terpenoids found in cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild cotton plant, Gossypium thurberi grows in the Sonoran Desert in northern Mexico and southern Arizona, and is attacked by few herbivorous insects (Korban, 1999). In general, members of Gossypium produce a rich assortment of sesquiterpenoid and sesterterpenoids in the subepidermal pigment gl...

  16. Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) resistance locus from Gossypium aridum identified and introgressed into upland cotton (G. hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSR markers associated with reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) resistance were identified and mapped using progeny from a cross between a tri-species hybrid [Gossypium arboreum × (G 371 - G. hirsutum × G. aridum -)] and G. hirsutum MD51ne. The 50 most resistant and 26 most susceptible prog...

  17. Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOGHADDAM Mohammad Reza Ramazani; MAJIDI Eslam; MOFIDABADI Ali Jafari

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium species (+49) represent a vast resource of genetic diversity for improvement of cultivated cotton.To determine intra- and inter-specific genetic diversity and relationships,we employed 30 RAPD random detainer primers on twenty eight cotton accessions from 2 diploid cultivated species (G.arboreum,G.herbaceum) and 2 tetraploid cultivated species (G.hirsuturn,G.barbadense).

  18. Molecular tools for contemporary cotton breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among approximately 50 Gossypium (cotton) species are two tetraploids (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) and two diploids (G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) that are domesticated to produce raw materials for global textile and oilseed industries with an increasing demand for high-yield and high-quality of co...

  19. Confamiliar transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) to twenty two Malvaceous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya, Pratik; Paswan, Pramod Kumar; Ghosh, Swagata; Majumdar, Snehalata; Ali, Nasim

    2016-06-01

    Cross-species transferability is a quick and economic method to enrich SSR database, particularly for minor crops where little genomic information is available. However, transferability of SSR markers varies greatly between species, genera and families of plant species. We assessed confamiliar transferability of SSR markers from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and jute (Corchorus olitorius) to 22 species distributed in different taxonomic groups of Malvaceae. All the species selected were potential industrial crop species having little or no genomic resources or SSR database. Of the 14 cotton SSR loci tested, 13 (92.86 %) amplified in G. arboreum and 71.43 % exhibited cross-genera transferability. Nine out of 11 jute SSRs (81.81 %) showed cross-transferability across genera. SSRs from both the species exhibited high polymorphism and resolving power in other species. The correlation between transferability of cotton and jute SSRs were highly significant (r = 0.813). The difference in transferability among species was also significant for both the marker groups. High transferability was observed at genus, tribe and subfamily level. At tribe level, transferability of jute SSRs (41.04 %) was higher than that of cotton SSRs (33.74 %). The tribe Byttnerieae exhibited highest SSR transferability (48.7 %). The high level of cross-genera transferability (>50 %) in ten species of Malvaceae, where no SSR resource is available, calls for large scale transferability testing from the enriched SSR databases of cotton and jute.

  20. Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for the A-Genome of Cotton (G. arboreum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the A-genome of cotton has been constructed from the leaves of G. arboreum L cv. Jianglinzhongmian. It is used as elite A-genome germplasm resources in the present cotton breeding program and has been used to build a genetic reference map of cotton. The BAC library consists of 123,648 clones stored in 322 384-well plates. Statistical analysis of a set of 103 randomly selected BAC clones indicated that each clone has an average insert length of 100.2 kb per plasmid, with a range of 30 to 190 kb. Theoretically, this represents 7.2 haploid genome equivalents based on an A-genome size of 1697 Mb. The BAC library has been arranged in column pools and superpools allowing screening with various PCR-based markers. In the future, the A-genome cotton BAC library will serve as both a giant gene resource and a valuable tool for map-based gene isolation, physical mapping and comparative genome analysis.

  1. Introgression of Gossypium klotzschianum Genome into Cultivated Cotton,G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin-lian; ZHANG Xiang-gui; YANG Yu-wen; CAO Zhi-bin; NI Wan-chao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Exotic Gossypium germplasm is a rich source of useful agronomic traits for improvement programs of cultivated cotton.Efficient use of genetic variation available in the wild relatives depends on the ability to identify and introgress desirable DNA segments from wild species into cultivated cotton.

  2. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fibre and a significant oilseed crop. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an allotetraploid derived from A- and D-genome progenitors, accounts for >95% of world production. Here, we sequenced and assembled 88% of the 2.5-gigabase genome of the ...

  3. Measuring diversity in Gossypium hirsutum using the CottonSNP63K Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CottonSNP63K array and accompanying cluster file has been developed and includes 45,104 intra-specific SNPs and 17,954 inter-specific SNPs for automated genotyping of cotton (Gossypium spp.) samples. Development of the cluster file included genotyping of 1,156 samples, a subset of which were iden...

  4. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  5. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  6. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler Ron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers" of cotton (Gossypium, using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of Gossypium barbadense inoculated with Verticillium dahliae provides a resource for cotton improvement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is the most severe disease in cotton (Gossypium spp.), causing great lint losses worldwide. Disease management could be achieved in the field if genetically improved, resistant plants were used. However, the interaction between V. dahliae and cotton is a complicated process, and its molecular mechanism remains obscure. To understand better the defense response to this pathogen as a means for obtaining more toler...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    OpenAIRE

    María J Ek-Ramos; Wenqing Zhou; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Gaylon D Morgan; David L. Kerns; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in f...

  9. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium sp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S.; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Shermatov, Shukhrat E.; Ruziboev, Haydarali S.; Shapulatov, Umidjon; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z.; Percy, Richard G.; Devor, Eric J.; Sharma, Govind C.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Krol, van der Sander; Kater, Hake D.; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I.; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of

  10. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium sp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S.; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Shermatov, Shukhrat E.; Ruziboev, Haydarali S.; Shapulatov, Umidjon; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z.; Percy, Richard G.; Devor, Eric J.; Sharma, Govind C.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Krol, van der Sander; Kater, Hake D.; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I.; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of functio

  11. Isolation and Analysis of Expansins from the Gossypium barbadense Cotton Elongating Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-li; DENG Feng-lin; TAN Jia-fu; LI Yang; ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium barbadense L.is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness,luster,long staple,and high strength.Transferring the excellent fiber traits from G.barbadense as the secondary gene pool to the widely cultivated G.hirsutum via traditional and molecular-aided selection is an attractive aim of breeders.

  12. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  13. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function ...

  14. Molecular Cloning,Expression,and Characterization of an Adenylyl Cyclase-associated Protein from Gossypium arboreum Fuzzless Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CAP,an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein,is predicted to be involved in cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction.Recently,we found that CAP may play an important role in fuzz-like fiber cell initiation in cotton.For the further research,we isolated two CAP homologues from wild type

  15. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  16. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.. The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialisation.

  17. Comparative evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jeong Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ~5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution.

  18. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton.

  19. Targeted mutagenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiugui; Lu, Xuke; Shu, Na; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Delong; Guo, Lixue; Ye, Wuwei

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in various plants because of its simplicity, high efficiency and design flexibility. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in cotton. Here, we report the genome editing and targeted mutagenesis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., hereafter cotton) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We designed two guide RNAs to target distinct sites of the cotton Cloroplastos alterados 1 (GhCLA1) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (GhVP) genes. Mutations in these two genes were detected in cotton protoplasts. Most of the mutations were nucleotide substitutions, with one nucleotide insertion and one substitution found in GhCLA1 and one deletion found in GhVP in cotton protoplasts. Subsequently, the two vectors were transformed into cotton shoot apexes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in efficient target gene editing. Most of the mutations were nucleotide deletions, and the mutation efficiencies were 47.6–81.8% in transgenic cotton plants. Evaluation using restriction-enzyme-PCR assay and sequence analysis detected no off-target mutations. Our results indicated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was an efficient and specific tool for targeted mutagenesis of the cotton genome. PMID:28287154

  20. Rapid diversification of the cotton genus (Gossypium: Malvaceae) revealed by analysis of sixteen nuclear and chloroplast genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Tamara Hanselkorn; Jonathan F. Wendel

    2002-01-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have failed to resolve the branching order among the major cotton (Gossypium) lineages, and it has been unclear whether this reflects actual history (rapid radiation) or sampling properties of the genes evaluated. In this paper, we reconsider the phylogenetic relationships of diploid cotton genome groups using DNA sequences from...

  1. A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrna Dave

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF. A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT and Vitis vinifera (VV whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence.

  2. Cytogenetic Characteristics of New Monosomic Stocks of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina F. Sanamyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aneuploid lines significantly increases the effectiveness of molecular-genetic analysis and the development of superior quality breeding lines via substitutions by alien chromosomes. To date, however, a complete set of aneuploid series for each cotton chromosome is not available. Here, we present the development of a monosomic stock collection of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. from Uzbekistan, including the origin of 92 primary monosomics, meiotic metaphase-I analysis, study of tetrads of microspores, pollen fertility, and monosomic transmission rates for some monosomic lines. We report desynaptic effects of some monosomes detected both in parental and daughter monosomics, a positive role of interchanges in translocation heterozygous monosomics due to selective advantages of gametes with deficiency and a simultaneous interchange, pollen fertility variation, and strong differences in transmission rates. This monosomic cotton collection, developed using single genome background, will be useful for future breeding, genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular-genetic investigations of the cotton genome.

  3. Cytogenetic Characteristics of New Monosomic Stocks of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamyan, Marina F; Petlyakova, Julia E; Sharipova, Elnora A; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2011-01-01

    The use of aneuploid lines significantly increases the effectiveness of molecular-genetic analysis and the development of superior quality breeding lines via substitutions by alien chromosomes. To date, however, a complete set of aneuploid series for each cotton chromosome is not available. Here, we present the development of a monosomic stock collection of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from Uzbekistan, including the origin of 92 primary monosomics, meiotic metaphase-I analysis, study of tetrads of microspores, pollen fertility, and monosomic transmission rates for some monosomic lines. We report desynaptic effects of some monosomes detected both in parental and daughter monosomics, a positive role of interchanges in translocation heterozygous monosomics due to selective advantages of gametes with deficiency and a simultaneous interchange, pollen fertility variation, and strong differences in transmission rates. This monosomic cotton collection, developed using single genome background, will be useful for future breeding, genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular-genetic investigations of the cotton genome.

  4. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  5. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukarimov Abdusattor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp., including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2 in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA, before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for

  6. Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium,BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

  7. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan; WU Han-wen; JIANG Wei-li; MA Ya-jie; MA Yan

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop ifeld wil provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010–2012 to determine the inlfuence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m–1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m–1 of row signiifcantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6–19.2 goosegrass plant m–1 of row would result in a 50%cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Bol production was not affected in the early growing season. But bol numbers per plant were reduced about 25%at the den-sity of 4 plants m–1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton bol weight and seed numbers per bol were signiifcantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m–1 of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint ifber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspeciifc competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142–387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m–2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identiifed in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  8. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M

    2013-01-16

    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  9. 陆地棉抗虫遗传工程%Genetic Engineering of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) for Insect-resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwei ZHU; Jingsan SUN; Yinchuan TIAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ In order to improve insect-resistance of cotton and cultivate new cotton varieties ,tissue culture and plant regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) were studied with Xinluzao 4,Xi 550,Jizi 492,Hengwu 89-30,Han 93-2 and Jizi 123 . A system of cotton tissue culture for rapid plant regeneration was developed.

  10. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    welcome

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... sp is not susceptible to Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac toxin so, there is ... encodes an insecticidal protein Cry1EC, (ii) 35S promoter from cauliflower ... the embryogenic calli were treated with the bacterial suspension by shaking ...

  11. Dominant Gene cplsr1 Corresponding to Premature Leaf Senescence Resistance in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqing Zhao; Tengfei Jiang; Zhi Liu; Wenwei Zhang; Guiliang Jian; Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) premature leaf senescence-resistant inbred XLZ33 and senescencesusceptible inbred lines XLZ13 were selected and crossed to produce F1,F1-reciprocal,F2 and BC1 generations for evaluation of leaf senescence process and inheritance.The results showed that leaf senescence processes for XLZ13 and XLZ33 were obviously different and leaf senescence traits could be distinguished between the two parents at particular periods of cotton growth.Inheritance anlysis for the cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait further showed that the segregation in the F2 fit a 3:1 ratio inheritance pattern,with resistance being dominant.The backcross of F1 to the susceptible parent produced a 1:1 ratio,confirming that cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait was from a single gene.The single dominant gene controlling cotton premature leaf senescence resistance in XLZ33 was named as cotton premature leaf senescence resistance 1,with the symbol cplsr1.

  12. Genome physical mapping of polyploids: a BIBAC physical map of cultivated tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Huang, James J; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

  13. Genetic Diversity of the Two Commercial Tetraploid Cotton Species in the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Lori L; Gazave, Elodie; Gore, Michael A; Fang, David D; Scheffler, Brian E; Yu, John Z; Jones, Don C; Frelichowski, James; Percy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    A diversity reference set has been constructed for the Gossypium accessions in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection to facilitate more extensive evaluation and utilization of accessions held in the Collection. A set of 105 mapped simple sequence repeat markers was used to study the allelic diversity of 1933 tetraploid Gossypium accessions representative of the range of diversity of the improved and wild accessions of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The reference set contained 410 G. barbadense accessions and 1523 G. hirsutum accessions. Observed numbers of polymorphic and private bands indicated a greater diversity in G. hirsutum as compared to G. barbadense as well as in wild-type accessions as compared to improved accessions in both species. The markers clearly differentiated the 2 species. Patterns of diversity within species were observed but not clearly delineated, with much overlap occurring between races and regions of origin for wild accessions and between historical and geographic breeding pools for cultivated accessions. Although the percentage of accessions showing introgression was higher among wild accessions than cultivars in both species, the average level of introgression within individual accessions, as indicated by species-specific bands, was much higher in wild accessions of G. hirsutum than in wild accessions of G. barbadense. The average level of introgression within individual accessions was higher in improved G. barbadense cultivars than in G. hirsutum cultivars. This molecular characterization reveals the levels and distributions of genetic diversity that will allow for better exploration and utilization of cotton genetic resources.

  14. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  15. Selection and Characterization of a Novel Glyphosate Tolerant Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Mutant(R1098)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAUD; M; K

    2008-01-01

    Stepwise selection approach was adopted to obtain glyphosate-tolerant upland cotton mutant(R1098) from the embryogenic calli of Coker 312(Gossypium hirsutum L.).The calli were transferred to selection medium and multi-step selection pressure process was carried out until the calli

  16. Next Generation Genetic Mapping of the Ligon-lintless-2 (Li2) Locus in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing offers new ways to identify the genetic mechanisms that underlie mutant phenotypes. The release of a reference diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5) genome and bioinformatics tools to sort tetraploid reads into subgenomes has brought cotton genetic mapping into the genomics er...

  17. Urease from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seeds: isolation, physicochemical characterization, and antifungal properties of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Angela; Wassermann, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne Helene S; Feder, Vanessa; Carlini, Celia R

    2008-06-25

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide These enzymes, which are found in fungi, bacteria, and plants, show very similar structures. Despite an abundance of urease in vegetal tissues, the physiological role of this enzyme in plants is still poorly understood. It has been previously described that ureases from the legumes jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis) and soybean ( Glycine max) have insecticidal activity and antifungal properties. This work presents the physicochemical purification and characterization of a urease from cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum) seeds, the first description of this enzyme in Malvaceae. The urease content varied among different cotton cultivars. Cotton seed urease (98.3 kDa) displayed low ureolytic activity but exhibited potent antifungal properties at sub-micromolar concentrations against different phytopathogenic fungi. As described for other ureases, the antifungal effect of cotton urease persisted after treatment with an irreversible inhibitor of its enzyme activity. The data suggest an important role of these proteins in plant defense.

  18. SNP Marker Discovery in Pima Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Leaf Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Pratibha; Ulloa, Mauricio; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the known narrow genetic diversity and discover single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for marker-assisted breeding within Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) leaf transcriptomes. cDNA from 25-day plants of three diverse cotton genotypes [Pima S6 (PS6), Pima S7 (PS7), and Pima 3-79 (P3-79)] was sequenced on Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 28.9 million reads (average read length of 138 bp) were generated by sequencing cDNA libraries of these three genotypes. The de novo assembly of reads generated transcriptome sets of 26,369 contigs for PS6, 25,870 contigs for PS7, and 24,796 contigs for P3-79. A Pima leaf reference transcriptome was generated consisting of 42,695 contigs. More than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between the genotypes, with 100% SNP frequency and a minimum of eight sequencing reads. The most prevalent SNP substitutions were C—T and A—G in these cotton genotypes. The putative SNPs identified can be utilized for characterizing genetic diversity, genotyping, and eventually in Pima cotton breeding through marker-assisted selection.

  19. QTL analysis for early-maturing traits in cotton using two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengqi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Dong, Na; Zhao, Haihong; Xia, Zhe; Wang, Rui; Converse, Richard L; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-06-01

    Making use of the markers linked closely to QTL for early-maturing traits for MAS (Marker-assisted selection) is an effective method for the simultaneous improvement of early maturity and other properties in cotton. In this study, two F2 populations and their F2:3 families were generated from the two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses, Baimian2 × TM-1 and Baimian2 × CIR12. QTL for early-maturing traits were analyzed using F2:3 families. A total of 54 QTL (31 suggestive and 23 significant) were detected. Fourteen significant QTL had the LOD scores not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold. At least four common QTL, qBP-17 for bud period (BP), qGP-17a/qGP-17b (qGP-17) for growth period (GP), qYPBF-17a/qYPBF-17b (qYPBF-17) for yield percentage before frost (YPBF) and qHFFBN-17 for height of first fruiting branch node (HFFBN), were found in both populations. These common QTL should be reliable and could be used for MAS to facilitate early maturity. The common QTL, qBP-17, had a LOD score not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold, explaining 12.6% of the phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in MAS. Early-maturing traits of cotton are primarily controlled by dominant and over-dominant effects.

  20. Evolutionary Conservation and Divergence of Gene Coexpression Networks in Gossypium (Cotton) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Hovav, Ran; Grover, Corrinne E; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Kadmon, Noa; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2016-12-01

    The cotton genus (Gossypium) provides a superior system for the study of diversification, genome evolution, polyploidization, and human-mediated selection. To gain insight into phenotypic diversification in cotton seeds, we conducted coexpression network analysis of developing seeds from diploid and allopolyploid cotton species and explored network properties. Key network modules and functional associations were identified related to seed oil content and seed weight. We compared species-specific networks to reveal topological changes, including rewired edges and differentially coexpressed genes, associated with speciation, polyploidy, and cotton domestication. Network comparisons among species indicate that topologies are altered in addition to gene expression profiles, indicating that changes in transcriptomic coexpression relationships play a role in the developmental architecture of cotton seed development. The global network topology of allopolyploids, especially for domesticated G. hirsutum, resembles the network of the A-genome diploid more than that of the D-genome parent, despite its D-like phenotype in oil content. Expression modifications associated with allopolyploidy include coexpression level dominance and transgressive expression, suggesting that the transcriptomic architecture in polyploids is to some extent a modular combination of that of its progenitor genomes. Among allopolyploids, intermodular relationships are more preserved between two different wild allopolyploid species than they are between wild and domesticated forms of a cultivated cotton, and regulatory connections of oil synthesis-related pathways are denser and more closely clustered in domesticated vs. wild G. hirsutum. These results demonstrate substantial modification of genic coexpression under domestication. Our work demonstrates how network inference informs our understanding of the transcriptomic architecture of phenotypic variation associated with temporal scales ranging from

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  3. Genetic diversity of sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) revealed by mapped SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Feng, C H; Lin, Z X; Zhang, X L

    2011-12-08

    In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense), 237 commonly mapped SSR markers covering the cotton genome were used to genotype 56 sea-island cotton accessions. A total of 218 polymorphic primer pairs (91.98%) amplified 361 loci, with a mean of 1.66 loci. Polymorphism information content values of the SSR primers ranged from 0.035 to 0.862, with a mean of 0.320. The highest mean polymorphism information content value for the SSR motifs was from a compound motif (0.402), and for the chromosomes it was Chr10 (0.589); the highest ratio of polymorphic primers in Xinjiang accessions was from Chr21 (83.33%). Genetic diversity was high in Xinjiang accessions. AMOVA showed that variation was 8 and 92% among populations and within populations, respectively. The 56 sea-island accessions were divided into three groups in the UPGMA dendrogram: Xinhai5 was in the first group; accessions from Xinjiang, except the five main ones, were in the second group, and the other 34 accessions were in the third group. Accessions from the former Soviet Union and Xinjiang main accessions were closely related. Both PCA and UPGMA confirmed that Xinhai5 was distinct from the other accessions, and accessions from Xinjiang were in an independent group. Given the differences between principal components analysis and UPGMA results, it is necessary to combine molecular markers and pedigree information so that genetic diversity can be objectively analyzed.

  4. Study on the Mitochondrial Genome of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) by BAC Library Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ai-guo; LI Shuang-shuang; LIU Guo-zheng; LEI Bin-bin; KANG Ding-ming; LI Zhao-hu; MA Zhi-ying; HUA Jin-ping

    2014-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial genome displays complex features, particularly in terms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Therefore, research on the cotton mitochondrial genome may provide important information for analyzing genome evolution and exploring the molecular mechanism of CMS. In this paper, we present a preliminary study on the mitochondrial genome of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) based on positive clones from the bacterial artiifcial chromosome (BAC) library. Thirty-ifve primers designed with the conserved sequences of functional genes and exons of mitochondria were used to screen positive clones in the genome library of the sea island cotton variety called Pima 90-53. Ten BAC clones were obtained and veriifed for further study. A contig was obtained based on six overlapping clones and subsequently laid out primarily on the mitochondrial genome. One BAC clone, clone 6 harbored with the inserter of approximate 115 kb mtDNA sequence, in which more than 10 primers fragments could be ampliifed, was sequenced and assembled using the Solexa strategy. Fifteen mitochondrial functional genes were revealed in clone 6 by gene annotation. The characteristics of the syntenic gene/exon of the sequences and RNA editing were preliminarily predicted.

  5. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs for levant cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Satya Narayan; Srivastava, Anukool; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Sunil K; Nisar, Tarannum; Srivastava, Meenal; Bag, Sumit K; Mantri, Shrikant; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Sawant, Samir V

    2012-02-01

    Four microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries for CA(15), GA(15), AAG(8) and ATG(8) repeats and transcriptome sequences of five cDNA libraries of Gossypium herbaceum were explored to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 428 unique clones from repeat enriched genomic libraries were mined for 584 genomic SSRs (gSSRs). In addition, 99,780 unigenes from transcriptome sequencing were explored for 8,900 SSR containing sequences with 12,471 expressed SSRs. The present study adds 1,970 expressed SSRs and 263 gSSRs to the public domain for the use of genetic studies of cotton. When 150 gSSRs and 50 expressed SSRs were tested on a panel of four species of cotton, 68 gSSRs and 12 expressed SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 200 SSRs were further deployed on 15 genotypes of levant cotton for the genetic diversity assessment. This is the first report on the successful use of repeat enriched genomic library and expressed sequence database for microsatellite markers development in G. herbaceum.

  6. Genetic diversity and structure of elite cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, XianTao; Liang, YaJun; Wang, JunDuo; Zheng, JuYun; Gong, ZhaoLong; Guo, JiangPing; Li, XueYuan; Qu, YanYing

    2017-07-28

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural textile fiber crop, and Gossypium hirsutum L. is responsible for 90% of the annual cotton crop in the world. Information on cotton genetic diversity and population structure is essential for new breeding lines. In this study, we analyzed population structure and genetic diversity of 288 elite Gossypium hirsutum cultivar accessions collected from around the world, and especially from China, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers. The average polymorphsim information content (PIC) was 0.25, indicating a relatively low degree of genetic diversity. Population structure analysis revealed extensive admixture and identified three subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE. The results from both population structure and phylogenetic analysis were, for the most part, in agreement with pedigree information. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a larger amount of variation was due to diversity within the groups. Establishment of genetic diversity and population structure from this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and systematic utilization of the standing genetic variation in upland cotton.

  7. Extensive and biased intergenomic nonreciprocal DNA exchanges shaped a nascent polyploid genome, Gossypium (cotton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiyin; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X; Peterson, Daniel G; Scheffler, Brian E; Chee, Peng W; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Genome duplication is thought to be central to the evolution of morphological complexity, and some polyploids enjoy a variety of capabilities that transgress those of their diploid progenitors. Comparison of genomic sequences from several tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium species and genotypes with putative diploid A- and D-genome progenitor species revealed that unidirectional DNA exchanges between homeologous chromosomes were the predominant mechanism responsible for allelic differences between the Gossypium tetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Homeologous gene conversion events (HeGCEs) gradually subsided, declining to rates similar to random mutation during radiation of the polyploid into multiple clades and species. Despite occurring in a common nucleus, preservation of HeGCE is asymmetric in the two tetraploid subgenomes. At-to-Dt conversion is far more abundant than the reciprocal, is enriched in heterochromatin, is highly correlated with GC content and transposon distribution, and may silence abundant A-genome-derived retrotransposons. Dt-to-At conversion is abundant in euchromatin and genes, frequently reversing losses of gene function. The long-standing observation that the nonspinnable-fibered D-genome contributes to the superior yield and quality of tetraploid cotton fibers may be explained by accelerated Dt to At conversion during cotton domestication and improvement, increasing dosage of alleles from the spinnable-fibered A-genome. HeGCE may provide an alternative to (rare) reciprocal DNA exchanges between chromosomes in heterochromatin, where genes have approximately five times greater abundance of Dt-to-At conversion than does adjacent intergenic DNA. Spanning exon-to-gene-sized regions, HeGCE is a natural noninvasive means of gene transfer with the precision of transformation, potentially important in genetic improvement of many crop plants.

  8. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Wang; Chengqi Li; Qinglian Wang

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5 /chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  9. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chengqi; Wang, Qinglian

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5/chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for markerassisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  10. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  11. Biochemical Genetic Mechanism and QTLs of Early Maturing without Yield Loss in Short-season Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mei-zhen; YU Shu-xun; FAN Shu-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ The short season cotton (SSC) was important Upland plant ecotype (Gossypium hirsutum L.).The growth of SSC was very short that is 105~110 days (after planting).SSC could increase plant index and farmer incomes on the same soil in one year.However,there was a contradiction between the early maturing and high-yield potential of SSC varieties that restrict SSC development.The SSC varieties often exhibited premature senescence.

  12. An Integrated Genetic,Physical and Transcript Map of Homoeologous Chromosomes 12 and 26 in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhang-you; KOHEL Russell J; SONG Guo-li; CHO Jaemin; YU Jing; YU Shu-xun; TOMKINS Jeffrey; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ While Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world production,its genetic improvement is hindered by the shortage of effective genomic tools and resources.The complex allotetraploid genome of the Upland cotton presents a unique challenge to such research efforts including integrated genome mapping and sequencing,which are considered highly experimental.Here,we report an integrated genetic,physical,and transcript map of homoeologous chromosomes 12 and 26 based on BAC/BIBAC clones,DNA markers,and EST unigenes.

  13. Developing hybrid cotton (Gossypium spp.) using honey bees as pollinators and the Roundup Ready® Phenotype as the selection trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile fiber crop in the United States (US). Hybrid cotton is grown in several countries but the use of hybrids in the US has been limited due to seed production costs. The objective of this study was to investigate a novel method for the production of ...

  14. Differential Cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2010-12-01

    A Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV)-based gene silencing vector containing a fragment of the Gossypium hirsutum Magnesium chelatase subunit I was used to establish endogenous gene silencing in cotton of varied genetic backgrounds. Biolistic inoculation resulted in systemic and persistent photo-bleaching of the leaves and bolls of the seven cultivars tested, however, the intensity of silencing was variable. CLCrV-VIGS-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein was used to monitor the in planta distribution of the vector, indicating successful phloem invasion in all cultivars tested. Acala SJ-1, one of the cotton cultivars, was identified as a particularly optimal candidate for CLCrV-VIGS-based cotton reverse-genetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effect of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zare Feizabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., a Randomized Complete Block design with 12 treatments and four replications was conducted in Mahvelat of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of weeding, harrowing, burning, two times weeding, weeding + harrowing, weeding + burning, harrowing + harrowing, harrowing + weeding, harrowing + burning, weeding+ harrowing+ burning, weed free and weedy as a check treatment. Investigated traits were plant height, number of boll in plant, 20 boll weight, 20 boll cotton lint weight, cotton lint yield per plant, cotton yield, number and biomass of weeds, outcome, net and gross income. The result showed that treatments had significant effect (p

  16. Breeding Potential of Introgression Lines Developed from Interspecific Crossing between Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense: Heterosis, Combining Ability and Genetic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfa Zhang

    Full Text Available Upland cotton (Gossypium hirstum L., which produces more than 95% of the world natural cotton fibers, has a narrow genetic base which hinders progress in cotton breeding. Introducing germplasm from exotic sources especially from another cultivated tetraploid G. barbadense L. can broaden the genetic base of Upland cotton. However, the breeding potential of introgression lines (ILs in Upland cotton with G. barbadense germplasm integration has not been well addressed. This study involved six ILs developed from an interspecific crossing and backcrossing between Upland cotton and G. barbadense and represented one of the first studies to investigate breeding potentials of a set of ILs using a full diallel analysis. High mid-parent heterosis was detected in several hybrids between ILs and a commercial cultivar, which also out-yielded the high-yielding cultivar parent in F1, F2 and F3 generations. A further analysis indicated that general ability (GCA variance was predominant for all the traits, while specific combining ability (SCA variance was either non-existent or much lower than GCA. The estimated GCA effects and predicted additive effects for parents in each trait were positively correlated (at P<0.01. Furthermore, GCA and additive effects for each trait were also positively correlated among generations (at P<0.05, suggesting that F2 and F3 generations can be used as a proxy to F1 in analyzing combining abilities and estimating genetic parameters. In addition, differences between reciprocal crosses in F1 and F2 were not significant for yield, yield components and fiber quality traits. But maternal effects appeared to be present for seed oil and protein contents in F3. This study identified introgression lines as good general combiners for yield and fiber quality improvement and hybrids with high heterotic vigor in yield, and therefore provided useful information for further utilization of introgression lines in cotton breeding.

  17. Analyses of Fusarium wilt race 3 resistance in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Alisher A; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom B; Egamberdiev, Sharof Sh; Kuryazov, Zarif; Glukhova, Ludmila A; Adilova, Azoda T; Rizaeva, Sofiya M; Ulloa, Mauricio; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represents a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. For the last few decades, the FOV pathogen has become a significant problem in Uzbekistan causing severe wilt disease and yield losses of G. hirsutum L. cultivars. We present the first genetic analyses of FOV race 3 resistance on Uzbek Cotton Germplasm with a series of field and greenhouse artificial inoculation-evaluations and inheritance studies. The field experiments were conducted in two different sites: the experimental station in Zangiota region-Environment (Env) 1 and the Institute of Cotton Breeding (Env-2, Tashkent province). The Env-1 was known to be free of FOV while the Env-2 was known to be a heavily FOV infested soil. In both (Env-1 and Env-2) of these sites, field soil was inoculated with FOV race 3. F2 and an F3 Upland populations ("Mebane B1" × "11970") were observed with a large phenotypic variance for plant survival and FOV disease severity within populations and among control or check Upland accessions. Wilt symptoms among studied F2 individuals and F3 families significantly differed depending on test type and evaluation site. Distribution of Mendelian rations of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) phenotypes were 1S:1R field Env-1 and 3S:1R field Env-2 in the F2 population, and 1S:3R greenhouse site in the F3 population. The different segregation distribution of the Uzbek populations may be explained by differences in FOV inoculum level and environmental conditions during assays. However, genetic analysis indicated a recessive single gene action under high inoculum levels or disease pressure for FOV race 3 resistance. Uzbek germplasm may be more susceptible than expected to FOV race 3, and sources of resistance to FOV may be limited under the FOV inoculum levels present in highly-infested fields making the breeding process more complex.

  18. Cloning and expression of two sterol C-24 methyltransferase genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Luo; Kunling Tan; Zhongyi Xiao; Mingyu Hu; Peng Liao; Kuijun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important class of plant steroidal hormones that are essential in a wide variety of physiological processes. Two kinds of intermediates, sitosterol and campesterol, play a crucial role in cell elongation, cellulose biosynthesis, and accumulation. To illuminate the effects of sitosterol and campesterol on the development of cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) fibers through screening cotton fiber EST database and contigging the candidate ESTs, two key genes GhSMT2-1 and GhSMT2-2 controlling the sitosterol biosynthesis were cloned from developing fibers of upland cotton cv. Xuzhou 142. The full length of GhSMT2-1 was 1, 151bp, including an 8bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1, 086bp open reading frame (ORF), and a 57bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-1 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The full length of GhSMT2-2 was 1, 166bp, including an 18bp 5'-UTR, a 1, 086bp ORF, and a 62bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The two deduced amino acid sequences had high homology with the SMT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Furthermore, the typical conserved structures characterized by the sterol C-24 methyltransferase, such as region I (LDVGCGVGGPIVIRAI), region Ⅱ (IEATCHAP), and region Ⅲ (YEWGWGQSFHF), were present in both deduced proteins. Southern blotting analysis indicated that GhSMT2-1 or GhSMT2-2 was a single copy in upland cotton genome. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression levels of both genes were detected in 10 DPA (day post anthesis) fibers, while the lowest levels were observed in cotyledon and leaves. The expression level of GhSMT2-1 was 10 times higher than that of GhSMT2-2 in all the organs and tissues detected. These results indicate that the homologue of sterol C-24 methyltransferase gene was cloned from upland cotton and both GhSMT2 genes play a crucial

  19. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  20. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  1. Performance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines selected for high productivity in three environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J H; Ferguson, D

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) selections that had been screened in separate climatic zones within the San Joaquin Valley were tested for a 2-year period. Selection pressure had been applied solely upon productivity.Seven production attributes and eight fiber properties were influenced by the selection pressure on this material. The increase in number of bolls per m(2) virtually account for the genetic gains in yield.Environmental influences accounted for the larger part of the variability with both production and quality attributes. Years (seasons) and years x zone mean square values were highly significant for all production attributes except boll size. Fiber length was increased for one group of selections and decreased for the other two groups. Coarser fiber (micronaire increase) resulted from the selection effort with two groups.Genetic x environmental interactions encountered with major fiber properties have significant implications. The cryptic variability revealed indicates breeding procedures could be modified to exploit more fully the genetic potential of breeding material. Identifying and utilizing the "optimum selection enviroment" for specific attributes is suggested.

  2. Characteristics of Photosystem II Behavior in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Bract and Capsule Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-li; LUO Hong-hai; HU Yuan-yuan; Reto J. Strasser; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Though bract and capsule wall of boll in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have different photosynthetic capacities, the features of photosystem II (PS II) in these organs are scarce. In this paper, chlorophyll a lfuorescence emission was measured to investigate the difference in the photosynthetic apparatus of dark-acclimated (JIP-test) and light-acclimated (light-saturation pulse method) bract and capsule wall. Compared with leaves, the oxygen evolving system of non-foliar organs had lower efifciency. The pool size of PS II electron acceptor of non-foliar organs was small, and the photochemical activity of leaves was higher than that of the bract and capsule wall. In regard to the photosystem I (PS I) electron acceptor side, the pool size of end electron acceptors of leaves was larger, and the quantum yield of electron transport from QA (PS II primary plastoquinone acceptor) further than the PS I electron acceptors of leaves was higher than that of bract and capsule wall. In all green organs, the actual quantum yield of photochemistry decreased with light. The thermal dissipation fraction of light absorbed by the PS II antennae was the highest in bract and the lowest in capsule wall relative to leaves. Compared with leaves, capsule wall was characterized by less constitutive thermal dissipation and via dissipation as lfuorescence emission. These results suggested that lower PS II photochemical activity in non-foliar organs may be result from limitations at the donor side of PS II and the acceptor sides of both photosystems.

  3. Salt Tolerance Evaluation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Using RAPD Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. [Niab78 (N78, Deir-Ezzor22 (DE22, Deltapine50 (DP50 and Aleppo118 (A118] varieties towards salt stress (0 and 200 mM NaCl for 7 weeks based on RAPD marker. Our data showed that the highest total polymorphic bands identified by the 26 RAPD tested primers were 150 bands generated by N78 variety, while the lowest ones were recorded for DP50 (29 bands. Otherwise, unique (negative and positive markers characterized the two tolerant varieties (N78 and DE22 were 22 and 29 markers, respectively. Our data indicated that the highest polymorphism level was detected in N78 variety (68.5% followed by DE22 (60.9%, whereas, the lowest one was recorded for DP50 (21.3%. Our data obtained herein indicates that RAPD marker provided molecular markers for salinity tolerance screening in early stage in genetic improvement programs.

  4. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman ÇOPUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Subunits of Heteromeric Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Gossypium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yupeng; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Liu, Zhengjie; Ijaz, Babar; Huang, Yi; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is an important enzyme, which catalyzes acetyl-CoA’s carboxylation to produce malonyl-CoA and to serve as a committed step for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. In this study, 24 putative cotton BCCP genes were identified based on the lately published genome data in Gossypium. Among them, 4, 4, 8, and 8 BCCP homologs were identified in Gossypium raimondii, G. arboreum, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense, respectively. These genes were divided into two classes based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each class, these homologs were relatively conserved in gene structure and motifs. The chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that all the BCCP genes were distributed equally on corresponding chromosomes or scaffold in the four cotton species. Segmental duplication was a predominant duplication event in both of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The analysis of the expression profile showed that 8 GhBCCP genes expressed in all the tested tissues with changed expression levels, and GhBCCP genes belonging to class II were predominantly expressed in developing ovules. Meanwhile, the expression analysis for the 16 cotton BCCP genes from G. raimondii, G. arboreum and G. hirsutum showed that they were induced or suppressed by cold or salt stress, and their expression patterns varied among different tissues. These findings will help to determine the functional and evolutionary characteristics of the BCCP genes in Gossypium species. PMID:28507552

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Subunits of Heteromeric Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Hua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is an important enzyme, which catalyzes acetyl-CoA’s carboxylation to produce malonyl-CoA and to serve as a committed step for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. In this study, 24 putative cotton BCCP genes were identified based on the lately published genome data in Gossypium. Among them, 4, 4, 8, and 8 BCCP homologs were identified in Gossypium raimondii, G. arboreum, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense, respectively. These genes were divided into two classes based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each class, these homologs were relatively conserved in gene structure and motifs. The chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that all the BCCP genes were distributed equally on corresponding chromosomes or scaffold in the four cotton species. Segmental duplication was a predominant duplication event in both of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The analysis of the expression profile showed that 8 GhBCCP genes expressed in all the tested tissues with changed expression levels, and GhBCCP genes belonging to class II were predominantly expressed in developing ovules. Meanwhile, the expression analysis for the 16 cotton BCCP genes from G. raimondii, G. arboreum and G. hirsutum showed that they were induced or suppressed by cold or salt stress, and their expression patterns varied among different tissues. These findings will help to determine the functional and evolutionary characteristics of the BCCP genes in Gossypium species.

  7. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum Weed interference periods in cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Salgado

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos de períodos de controle e de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum, cultivar Delta-Opal, realizou-se um experimento que constou de dois grupos de tratamentos. No primeiro, a cultura permaneceu livre da competição das plantas daninhas desde a emergência até 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 dias e colheita (159 dias. No segundo, a cultura permaneceu em competição com a comunidade infestante desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos para a primeira série de tratamentos. Dentre as espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas na área experimental, destacaram-se a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus, o fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia, a anileira (Indigofera hirsuta e o capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus. Pelas condições edáficas, climáticas e florísticas sob as quais foi conduzida a cultura de algodão, o Período Anterior à Interferência (PAI dessa comunidade que reduziu em 5% a produtividade da cultura foi de oito dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE; o Período Total de Prevenção da Interferência (PTPI foi de 66 DAE; e o Período Crítico de Prevenção da Interferência (PCPI foi dos 8 aos 66 DAE.In order to evaluate the effects of weed control and weed coexistence periods on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Delta Opal yield, an experiment was carried out consisting of two treatment groups. In the first, the crop was weed free from from emergence until 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 days, and harvest (159 days respectively. In the second group, the crop was in competition with the weed community from emergence until the same period, as described for the first series of treatment, respectively. Among the weed species found in the experimental area, the most important were purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus, sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia, indigo (Indigofera hirsuta and sandbur (Cenchrus echinatus. The period after cotton plant

  8. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  9. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    To Identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode and fungal disease resistance traits, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) chromosome substitution (CS) lines were used in this study. The CS lines were developed in ...

  10. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown colour and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-coloured brown cotton fibres from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fibre loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have yet to be identified, and the mechan...

  11. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown color and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-colored brown cotton fibers from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fiber loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the me...

  12. Genetic studies of quantitative traits in interspecific hybrids of tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. X Gossypium barbadense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Patel, N. A. Patel, N. V. Soni and V. D. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty five inter specific hybrids between tetraploid species, G. hirsutum x G. barbadense derived involving nine diverse female parents of G.hirsutum and five pollen parents of G.barbadense were evaluated to study heterosis and combining ability for seed cotton yield and other characters viz., days to 50% flowering, number of monopodia/plant, number of sympodia/plant, seed index, lint index and oil content. The hybrid G. 67 x GSB 19 exhibited positively significant standard heterosis for seed cotton yield/plant, seed and lint index. Combining ability analysis suggested preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the characters under study except for days to 50% flowering. The female parent,G. 67 and male parent GSB 19 depicted positive significant gca effects for seed cotton yield/plant, seed and lint index; while, hybrid G. 247 x Suvin had significant positive sca effects for seed cotton yield/plant, number of monopodia/plant, number of sympodia/plant and oil content.

  13. Analysis of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii by Comparative Genomics Approaches

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    Changwei Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important economic crops and the primary source of natural fiber and is an important protein source for animal feed. The complete nuclear and chloroplast (cp genome sequences of G. raimondii are already available but not mitochondria. Here, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt DNA sequence of G. raimondii into a circular genome of length of 676,078 bp and performed comparative analyses with other higher plants. The genome contains 39 protein-coding genes, 6 rRNA genes, and 25 tRNA genes. We also identified four larger repeats (63.9 kb, 10.6 kb, 9.1 kb, and 2.5 kb in this mt genome, which may be active in intramolecular recombination in the evolution of cotton. Strikingly, nearly all of the G. raimondii mt genome has been transferred to nucleus on Chr1, and the transfer event must be very recent. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that G. raimondii, as a member of Malvaceae, is much closer to another cotton (G. barbadense than other rosids, and the clade formed by two Gossypium species is sister to Brassicales. The G. raimondii mt genome may provide a crucial foundation for evolutionary analysis, molecular biology, and cytoplasmic male sterility in cotton and other higher plants.

  14. Genotype and Planting Density Effects on Rooting Traits and Yield in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Zhen Zhang; Bao-Guo Li; Gen-Tu Yan; Wopke van der Werf; JHJ Spiertz; Si-Ping Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Root density distribution of plants is a major indicator of competition between plants and determines resource capture from the soil. This experiment was conducted in 2005 at Anyang, located in the Yellow River region, Henan Province, China. Three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were chosen: hybrid Bt-cultivar CRI46, conventional Bt-cultivars CRI44 and CRI45. Six planting densities were designed, ranging from 1.5 to 12.0 plants/m2. Root parameters such as surface area, diameter and length were analyzed by using the DT-SCAN image analysis method. The root length density (RLD), root average diameter and root area index (RAI), root surface area per unit land area, were studied. The results showed that RLD and RAI differed between genotypes; hybrid CRI46 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) RLD and RAI values than conventional cultivars, especially under low planting densities, less than 3.0 plants/m2. The root area index (RAI) of hybrid CRI46 was 61% higher than of CRI44 and CRI45 at the flowering stage. The RLD and RAI were also significantly different (P= 0.000) between planting densities. The depth distribution of RAI showed that at increasing planting densities RAI was increasingly distributed in the soil layers below 50 cm. The RAI of hybrid CRI46 was for all planting densities, obviously higher than other cultivars during the flowering and boll stages. It was concluded that the hybrid had a strong advantage in root maintenance preventing premature senescence of roots. The root diameter of hybrid CRI46 had a genetically higher root diameter at planting densities lower than 6.0 plants/m2. Good associations were found between yield and RAI in different stages. The optimum planting density ranged from 4.50 plants/m2 to 6.75 plants/m2 for conventional cultivars and around 4.0-5.0 plants/m2 for hybrids.

  15. Effect of Different Hormone Combinations on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton Cultivar Xinluzao 33(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panpan MA; Zongming XIE; Quansheng LI; Yousheng TIAN; Youzhong LI

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration for an upland cotton cultivar Xinluzao33 under the induction of different hormone combinations and thus to determine the optimal hormone combination. [Method] Cal i of Xinluzao33 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were in-duced from seedling hypocotyl tissue by a range of DK and BK combinations. Em-bryogenic cal i and embryos were induced on cal us-inducing medium (CIM) without any hormones. Cal us appearance and quality were compared to determine which medium was the optimal for cal us induction. Embryogenesis ratio was calculated to determine which medium was the best for somatic embryogenesis and plant regen-eration. [Result] Cal us induction rate was 100% in al the 12 hormone combinations. The cal i were yel ow or kel y, and their texture was loose or soft under low con-centrations of DK combinations, green or white, variably compact under high con-centrations of DK combinations. The cal i induced by BK combinations were kel y or green, covering creamy white substance. The best medium for cal us induction was DK6 (0.05 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.10 mg/L KT). Embryogenic cal i were successful y in-duced from al the combinations. The efficiency of embryogenic cal us induction, embryogenesis, and plantlet regeneration were significantly different among the 12 combinations. The result showed that the embryogenesis ratio was the highest in BK3 combination (0.50 mg/L IBA and 0.50 mg/L KT), 72.86% of embryogenic cal i differentiated into somatic embryos after being cultured on CIM for 80 d, and 80.93% of the somatic embryos final y regenerated into plants on SEM (somatic em-bryo induction medium). [Conclusion] These results indicate that hormone combina-tion BK3 (0.50 mg/LIBA and 0.50 mg/L KT) was the best medium for somatic em-bryogenesis and plant regeneration from Xinluzao33.

  16. An opportunistic Pantoea sp. isolated from a cotton fleahopper that is capable of causing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bud rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea ananatis (Serano) representatives are known to have a broad host range including both humans and plants. The cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus, Reuter) is a significant pest that causes cotton bud damage that may result in significant yield losses. In this study, cotton fleahopp...

  17. Comparison of ionomic and metabolites response under alkali stress in old and young leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. seedlings

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    Rui Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is an important agriculture-related environmental problem. Alkali stress and salt stress strongly influence the metabolic balance in plants. Salt and alkali stresses exert varied effects on old and young tissues, which display different adaptive strategies. In this study, we used cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. plants as experimental material to investigate whether alkali stress exerts varied effects on ion balance and metabolism in old and young leaves of cotton plants exposed to alkali stress. Moreover, we compared the functions of young and old leaves in alkali tolerance. Results showed that alkali stress exerted a considerably stronger growth inhibition on old leaves than on young leaves. Under alkali stress, young leaves can maintain low Na and high K contents and retain relatively stable pigment accumulation and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, resulting in greater accumulation of photosynthetic metabolites. In terms of metabolic response, the young and old leaves clearly displayed different mechanisms of osmotic regulation. The amounts of inositol and mannose significantly increased in both old and young leaves of cotton exposed to alkali stress, and the extent of increase was higher in young leaves than in old leaves. In old leaves, synthesis of amino acids, such as GABA, valine, and serine, was dramatically enhanced, and this phenomenon is favorable for osmotic adjustment and membrane stability. Organs at different developmental stages possibly display different mechanisms of metabolic regulation under stress condition. Thus, we propose that future investigations on alkali stress should use more organs obtained at different developmental stages.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  19. Studies of new EST-SSRs derived from Gossypium barbadense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YanXin; LIN ZhongXu; LI Wu; TU LiLi; NIE YiChun; ZHANG XianLong

    2007-01-01

    Existing cotton EST-SSR markers are mostly derived from Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hir- sutum, but EST-SSR markers from Gossypium barbadense are scarce. One hundred and nineteen EST-SSRs were developed based on 98 unique ESTs from a cDNA library constructed in our laboratory using developing fibers from G. barbadense cv. Pima3-79. Among the SSRs, trinucleotide AAG appeared at a high frequency of 11.76%. 36 accessions (consisting of 13 diploids of the A genome, 11 diploids of the D genome and 12 allotetraploids of the AD genome) were employed to test new EST-SSRs. 76 EST-SSRs were successfully amplified, and 313 polymorphic fragments were yielded, with an average of 4.11 fragments per primer pair. The PIC ranged from 0.17 to 0.95 with an average of 0.53. Based on Jaccard's genetic similarity coefficient, these 36 accessions were clustered into three groups. 21 EST-SSRs exhibited polymorphisms in BC1 population ((Emian22 × Pima3-79) × Emian22), 24 polymor- phic loci were generated, while 22 of the 24 polymorphic loci were integrated with our interspecific BC1 backbone genetic linkage map, and anchored in 12 chromosomes. This study effectively proved that EST-SSRs from G. barbadense are valuable for genetic diversity analysis and genetic mapping.

  20. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

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    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  1. Genetic Dissection of Net Effects Between Yield and Its Components in Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zi-hong; MEI Yong-jun; ZOU Ke-qin; FU Xian-shu; JIANG Lin-shu

    2008-01-01

    The number of bolls,individual boll weight,and lint percentage are three important yield components of lint yield of cotton.In the present study,nine parents,twenty F1,and twenty F2 crosses of intraspecific hybrids of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) were grown at Tarim University,Alar,Xinjiang,China,in 2000 and 2001.Lint yield and its three component traits were measured and analyzed by an extended conditional mixed linear model approach.Lint percentage made the largest contribution to additive,additive x environment,and dominance x environment variations for lint yield.The contribution ratios of number of bolls,individual boll weight,and combined contribution of these two traits to additive x environment and dominance x environment variations for lint yield were not statistically significant.Lint yield of different parents could be affected differently by lint percentage.Lint yield of some parents was closely correlated with lint percentage,whereas for other parents,the behavior of individual boll weight and number of bolls played much more important roles on lint yield than that of lint percentage.It was shown by the conditional and conventional predicted additive x environment interaction effects of parents that the environment condition could influence different parents with varied effects.

  2. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.

  3. Salt-induced effects on some key morpho-physiological attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. at various growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Lubna Shaheen and Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a multidimensional stress affecting crop yield and productivity at various levels of plant organization. To assess salt induced adverse effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., ten cultivars were grown in sand culture supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrients solutions and different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Salt stress markedly reduced growth attributes, relative water contents, efficiency of photosystem II, net CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E and stomatal conductance in all cultivars. Reduction was maximum at the highest level of salt stress i.e. 200 mM. However, response of cotton cultivars was variable to various levels of salinity and even at various developmental stages. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant on the basis of their better growth performance and net CO2 assimilation rate whereas cvs. CIM-496, CIM-473 and FH-901 were relatively salt sensitive. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 exhibited high shoot fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic rate (A, and Photosystem II (Fv/Fm efficiency at both seedling and maturity growth stages. Results suggest that selection of plants having high photosynthetic rate and biomass at seedling stage may be a good source of high yield at mature stage of growth.

  4. A new interspecific, Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense, RIL population: towards a unified consensus linkage map of tetraploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Jacobs, J; Arioli, T; Derijcker, R; Forestier-Chiron, N; Llewellyn, D; Jean, J; Thomas, E; Viot, C

    2009-07-01

    We report the development of a new interspecific cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 140 lines deriving from an interspecific cross between Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), using the same two parents that have served for the construction of a BC(1) map and for the marker-assisted backcross selection program underway at CIRAD. Two marker systems, microsatellites and AFLPs, were used. An important feature of the RIL population was its marked segregation distortion with a genome-wide bias to Gh alleles (parental genome ratio is 71/29). The RIL map displays an excellent colinearity with the BC(1) map, although it is severely contracted in terms of map size. Existence of 255 loci in common (between 6 and 14 per chromosome) allowed the integration of the two data sets. A consensus BC(1)-RIL map based upon 215 individuals (75 BC1 + 140 RIL) was built. It consisted of 1,745 loci, spanned 3,637 cM, intermediate between the sizes of the two component maps, and constituted a solid framework to cross align cotton maps using common markers. The new RIL population will be further exploited for fiber property QTL mapping and eQTL mapping.

  5. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Pmapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  6. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  7. ACQUIREMENT OF TRANSGENIC COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. RESISTANT TO HERBICIDE AND INSECT USING GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT aroAM12 GENE AS A SELECTABLE MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Longxu

    2005-08-01

    , was used as a dominant selectable marker for cotton plant transformation. The genes were introduced into commercial cultivar Zhongmian12 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were directly selected on medium supplemented with 80μmol/L glyphosate. In this research, 40 regenerative cotton plantlets were obtained through screening. Integration of aroAM12 and Bts1m genes was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot, the results indicated that all the 40 plants possessed the aroAM12 gene, 28 of which possessed both the aroAM12 and BtS1m genes. Expression of both the genes was established by Western blots. Insect bioassay and glyphosate resistance assay indicated that the transgenic cotton plants obtained were highly resistant to glyphosate and insect. The results of glyphosate resistance and insect bioassay of T1 generation showed that the numbers of resistance and sensitive phenotypes showed Mendelian segregation ratio.

  8. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  9. Partial Dominance, Overdominance and Epistasis as the Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yumei; Hua, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Determination of genetic basis of heterosis may promote hybrid production in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This study was designed to explore the genetic mechanism of heterosis for yield and yield components in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations derived from a hybrid ‘Xinza No. 1’. Replicated yield field trials of the progenies were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Phenotypic data analyses indicated overdominance in F1 for yield and yield components. Additive and dominance effects at single-locus level and digenic epistatic interactions at two-locus level were analyzed by 421 marker loci spanning 3814 cM of the genome. A total of 38 and 49 QTLs controlling yield and yield components were identified in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations, respectively. Analyses of these QTLs indicated that the effects of partial dominance and overdominance contributed to heterosis in Upland cotton simultaneously. Most of the QTLs showed partial dominance whereas 13 QTLs showing overdominance in F2:3 population, and 19 QTLs showed overdominance in F2:4. Among them, 21 QTLs were common in both F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations. A large number of two-locus interactions for yield and yield components were detected in both generations. AA (additive × additive) epistasis accounted for majority portion of epistatic effects. Thirty three complementary two-locus homozygotes (11/22 and 22/11) were the best genotypes for AA interactions in terms of bolls per plant. Genotypes of double homozygotes, 11/22, 22/11 and 22/22, performed best for AD/DA interactions, while genotype of 11/12 performed best for DD interactions. These results indicated that (1) partial dominance and overdominance effects at single-locus level and (2) epistasis at two-locus level elucidated the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton. PMID:26618635

  10. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  11. Cloning of Two Genes Related to Plant Defense Response of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. )%两个与海岛棉防卫反应相关基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daolong DOU; Bingshan WANG; Yixiong TANG; Zhixing WANG; Jingsan SUN; Shirong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium wilt, caused by V. dahaliae, is a serious fungus disease of cotton in China.Nearly all cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties are sensitive to it. Some species of island cotton ( G. barbadense ),however, have a natural resistance to this pathogen. To investigate the mechanism of SAR signal transduction and response to pathogen,two genes, which play important roles in the development of SAR, are cloned by degenerated PCR.

  12. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cottonGossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan[1; WU Han-wen[2; JIANG Wei-li[1; MA Ya-jie[1; MA Yan[1

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010-2012 to determine the influence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m-1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m-1 of row significantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6-19.2 goosegrass plant m-1 of row would result in a 50% cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Boll production was not affected in the early growing season. But boll numbers per plant were reduced about 25% at the den- sity of 4 plants m-1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were significantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m-~ of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint fiber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142-387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m-2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identified in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  13. MicroRNA expression profiles during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) fiber early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Runrun; Li, Chao; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during cotton fiber development remains unclear. Here, a total of 54 miRNAs belonging to 39 families were selected to characterize miRNA regulatory mechanism in eight different fiber development stages in upland cotton cv BM-1. Among 54 miRNAs, 18 miRNAs were involved in cotton fiber initiation and eight miRNAs were related to fiber elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Additionally, 3,576 protein-coding genes were candidate target genes of these miRNAs, which are potentially involved in cotton fiber development. We also investigated the regulatory network of miRNAs and corresponding targets in fiber initiation and elongation, and secondary wall formation. Our Gene Ontology-based term classification and KEGG-based pathway enrichment analyses showed that the miRNA targets covered 220 biological processes, 67 molecular functions, 45 cellular components, and 10 KEGG pathways. Three of ten KEGG pathways were involved in lignan synthesis, cell elongation, and fatty acid biosynthesis, all of which have important roles in fiber development. Overall, our study shows the potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in cotton fiber development and the importance of miRNAs in regulating different cell types. This is helpful to design miRNA-based biotechnology for improving fiber quality and yield. PMID:28327647

  14. Agrobacterium-meditated Genetic Transformation of an Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 310) Using a Novel Bt Gene Cry 2Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THIRUVENGADAM V; RASHMI J A; UDYASURIAN V; BALASUBRAMANIAN P; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ The development of transgenic cotton varieties resistant to bollworms has been a major success of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture,evidenced by phenomenal increase in the cultivable area under (B.thuringiensis) Bt cotton in recent years worldwide.Of late,there are reports of insects developing resistance against the most commonly used Bt toxin CrylAc.Hence,there is an urgent need to broaden the source of resistance by employing new genes in order to reduce the chances of insects developing Bt resistance.Keeping this objective in view,cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn cv Coker 310) plants expressing a novel insecticidal crystal protein Cry2Ac were developed in the present study.

  15. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  16. Plant tissue culture independent Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated In-planta transformation strategy for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra B. Kalbande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method of transgenic development called “In-planta” transformation method, where Agrobacterium is used to infect the plantlets but the steps of in vitro regeneration of plants is totally avoided. In this study, we have reported a simple In-planta method for efficient transformation of diploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum cv LRK-516 Anjali using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA-105 harbouring recombinant binary vector plasmid pBinAR with Arabidopsis At-NPR1 gene. Four day old plantlets were used for transformation. A vertical cut was made at the junction of cotyledonary leaves, moderately bisecting the shoot tip and exposing meristem cells at apical meristem. This site was infected with Agrobacterium inoculum. The transgenic events obtained were tested positive for the presence of At-NPR1 gene with promoter nptII gene. They are also tested negative for vector backbone integration and Agrobacterium contamination in T0 events. With this method a transformation frequency of 6.89% was reported for the cv LRK-516.

  17. Cell synchrony and chromosomal protocols for somatic cells of cotton gossypium hirsutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van`t Hof, J.; Lamm, S.S.

    1994-10-10

    The intent of this pamphlet is to share information with others who are interested in useful protocols for cotton cytogenetics and cytology. The protocols described are a beginning effort and they are expected to be improved. All methods, results and data given pertain to cultivar MD 51ne. We are not satisfied with our results of in situ hybridization.

  18. Modeling cotton (Gossypium spp) leaves and canopy using computer aided geometric design (CAGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to develop a geometrically accurate model of cotton crop canopies for exploring changes in canopy microenvironment and physiological function with leaf structure. We develop an accurate representation of the leaves, including changes in three-dimensional folding and orie...

  19. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  20. New red flower germplasm lines of cotton selected from hybrid of Gossypium hirsutum × G. bickii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁正兰; 姜茹琴; 钟文南

    1997-01-01

    By means of dropping GA3 (50 ppm) and NAA (40 ppm) on the hybrid boll-embryo culture in vitro, one F1 plant of G. hirsutum G. bickii was obtained; when F1 branches were grafted on upland cotton and then back-crossed with upland cotton under short-day and cooler-night condition, some BC1 seeds could be harvested. The characteristic segregation was very violent in early generation. Through 3 times of back-crossing and selecting, ten stable hybrid lines with the character of both male parent (viz. red petal-purple spot and strong fibre) and female par-ent (plant type, earliness, white fibre, lint length, etc. ) were established. These lines were assigned as HB red flow-er lines (HBRL). Transference of character of G. bickii to upland cotton was proved to be successful for the first time. These new germplasms may play an important role in both the genetic research and new cotton variety breeding.

  1. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  2. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jieyu; YU Lixiang; WU Yuejin; TANG Canming

    2008-01-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine,including ion energy,total dose,dose rate,impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied.The best parameters were screened out.The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  3. The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kunbo; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Fuguang

    2012-01-01

    identified 2,355 syntenic blocks in the G. raimondii genome, and we found that approximately 40% of the paralogous genes were present in more than 1 block, which suggests that this genome has undergone substantial chromosome rearrangement during its evolution. Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao...

  4. [Glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Transformed with aroAM12 gene via Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long-Xu; Li, Yun-Feng; Xu, Pei-Lin

    2004-04-01

    A mutant, aroAM12, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate produced in a previous study using the staggered extension process with aroA genes from Salmonella typhimurium and Eschrichia coli. In this paper, we constructed a vector pGRA1300 carrying aroAM12 gene, comprising transit peptide of Arabidopsis EPSPS, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter and used as selectable marker for cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) transformation. Transgenic cottons with increased resistance to glyphosate were obtained by cotransformtion of hypocotyl segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and selected directly on medium containing glyphosate. Regeneration of glyphosate-resistant calli was carried out on a MS basic medium containing 2,4-D 0.1 mg/L, KT 0.1 mg/L, cefotaxime 500 mg/L and glyphosate 60 micromol/L. Globular embryos were induced and then developed by culturing on MSB (MS salts+B(5) vitamins) medium supplemented with asparagine 1 g/L and glutamine 2 g/L, but not containing hormone, for 40 d. The developed plantlets were then removed and cultured on an MS medium. After about 20 d, the deeply-rooted shoots were in soil. PCR analysis showed that the aroAM12 gene was present in all T(0) transgenic plants. The integration of the aroAM12 gene in the genomic DNA of cotton was further confirmed by Southern blot, which showed that the transgenic plants carried one or two copies of the aroAM12 genes. Western blot analysis showed that a 48-kD band of was detected in all T(0) transgenic plants. There was no apparent corelation between copy numbers and the expression level of the aroAM12 gene. Greenhouse screening for glyphosate resistance was performed to test 65 independent T(0) plants by spraying (three times) with an aqueous suspension at a dose corresponding to 9.317 kg/ha of Roundup (once every 5 d). After 15 d, phenotype examination was carried out of the plants in comparison with untransformed control plants. Under these conditions, it was observed that the plants transformed

  5. Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Genes Encoding Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhi-yong; LI Bo; Neumann MPeter; L Meng; FAN Ling

    2014-01-01

    Two genes (GhC4H1 and GhC4H2) that encode putative cotton cinnamate 4-hydroxylases that catalyze the second step in the phenylpropanoid pathway were isolated from developing cotton ifbers. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 each contain open reading frames of 1 518 base pairs (bp) in length and both encode proteins consisting of 505 amino acid residues. They are 90.89%identical to each other at the amino acid sequence level and belong to class I of plant C4Hs. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 genomic DNA are 2 247 and 2 161 bp long, respectively, and contain two introns located at conserved positions relative to the coding sequence. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters were isolated and found to contain many cis-elements (boxes P, L and AC-I element) previously identiifed in the promoters of other phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Histochemical staining showed GUS expression driven by the GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters in ovules and ifbers tissues. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 were also widely expressed in other cotton tissues. GhC4H2 expression reached its highest level during the elongation stage of ifber development, whereas GhC4H1 expression increased during the secondary wall development period in cotton ifbers. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the biochemical role of GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 in cotton ifber development.

  6. Global gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Kong, Xiangqiang; Dai, Jianlong; Luo, Zhen; Li, Zhenhuai; Lu, Hequan; Xu, Shizhen; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Weijiang; Xin, Chengsong; Dong, Hezhong

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Seven hundred and ninety four genes were up-regulated and 1018 genes were down-regulated in waterlogged cotton leaves compared with non-waterlogged control. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis and plant hormone signal transduction. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis indicated that most genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis as well as circadian rhythm pathways were differently expressed. Waterlogging increased the expression of anaerobic fermentation related genes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), but decreased the leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis by down-regulating the expression of photosynthesis related genes. Many genes related to plant hormones and transcription factors were differently expressed under waterlogging stress. Most of the ethylene related genes and ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factors were up-regulated under water-logging stress, suggesting that ethylene may play key roles in the survival of cotton under waterlogging stress.

  7. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William W.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather ...

  8. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  9. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-06-29

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae.

  10. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying

    2006-01-01

    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  11. Monopodial and sympodial branching architecture in cotton is differentially regulated by the Gossypium hirsutum SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS and SELF-PRUNING orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Prewitt, Sarah F; Culpepper, Samantha; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer; Ayre, Brian G

    2016-10-01

    Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit. Virus-based manipulation of GhSP and GhSFT expression enabled unprecedented functional analysis of cotton development. GhSP maintains growth in all apices; in its absence, both monopodial and sympodial branch systems terminate precociously. GhSFT encodes a florigenic signal stimulating rapid onset of sympodial branching and flowering in side shoots of wild photoperiodic and modern day-neutral accessions. High florigen concentrations did not alter monopodial apices, implying that once a cotton apex is SP-determined, it cannot be reset by florigen. GhSP is also essential to establish and maintain cambial activity. Dynamic changes in GhSFT and GhSP levels navigate meristems between monopodial and sympodial programs in a single plant. SFT and SP influenced cotton domestication and are ideal targets for further agricultural optimization.

  12. Isolation and characterization of resistance and defense gene analogs in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yulong; GUO; Wangzhen; WANG; Lei

    2006-01-01

    Plant disease resistance gene (R gene) and defense response gene encode some conserved motifs. In the present work, a PCR strategy was used to clone resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and defense gene analogs (DGAs) from Sea-island cotton variety Hai7124 using oligonucleotide primers based on the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and serine/threonine kinase (STK) in the R-gene and pathogenesis-related proteins of class 2 (PR2) of defense response gene. 79 NBS sequences, 21 STK sequences and 11 DGAs were cloned from disease-resistance cotton. Phylogenic analysis of 79 NBS-RGAs and NBS-RGAs nucleotide sequences of cotton already deposited in GenBank identified one new sub-cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of NBS-RGAs and STK-RGAs were divided into two distinct groups respectively: Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) group and non-TIR group, A group and B group. The expression of RGAs and DGAs having consecutive open reading frame (ORF) was also investigated and it was found that 6 NBS-RGAs and 1 STK-RGA were induced, and 1 DGA was up-regulated by infection of Verticillium dahliae strain VD8. 4 TIR-NBS-RGAs and 4 non-TIR- NBS-RGAs were arbitrarily used as probes for Southern-blotting. There existed 2-10 blotted bands. In addition, since three non-TIR-NBS-RGAs have the same hybridization pattern, we conjecture that these three RGAs form a cluster distribution in the genome.

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Badigannavar; Gerald O. Myers

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47–25.16%, protein from 1.85–28.45% and fibre content from 15.88–37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content. With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of ST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  14. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M

    2010-02-01

    MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. Here, we cloned and sequenced MIC-3 genes from selected diploid and tetraploid cotton species to reveal sequence differences at the molecular level and identify chromosomal locations of MIC-3 genes in Gossypium species. Detailed sequence analysis and phylogenetic clustering of MIC-3 genes indicated the presence of multiple MIC-3 gene members in Gossypium species. Haplotypes of a MIC-3 gene family member were discovered by comparative analysis among consensus sequences across genotypes within an individual clade in the phylogram to overcome the problem of duplicated loci in the tetraploid cotton. Deficiency tests of the SNPs delimited six A(t)-genome members of the MIC-3 family clustered to chromosome arm 4sh, and one D(t)-genome member to chromosome 19. Clustering was confirmed by long-PCR amplification of the intergenic regions using A(t)-genome-specific MIC-3 primer pairs. The clustered distribution may have been favored by selection for responsiveness to evolving disease and/or pest pressures, because large variants of the MIC-3 gene family may have been recovered from small physical areas by recombination. This could give a buffer against selection pressure from a broad range of pest and pathogens in the future. To our knowledge, these are the first results on the evolution of clustering and genome-specific haplotype members of a unique cotton gene family associated with resistant response against a major pathogen.

  15. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W W

    1982-07-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather than by genetic resistance mechanisms. However, the nematode resistant cultivar did not support maturation of nematodes until a soil tempurature of 35 C was attained. This indicated that resistance mechanisms are partially repressed at 35 C and differences in nematode development cannot be explained in terms of accumulated heat units. The moderately resistant cultivar was significantly more sensitive to the effects of high temperature than was the resistant cultivar.

  16. In-ovulo embryo culture and seedling development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J M; Hsu, C L

    1977-01-01

    A convenient and reliable method for culturing cotton embryos is needed to obtain interspecific hybrids of this genus. C.A. Beasley and I.P. Ting (Amer. J. Bot. 60, 130, 1973) developed a phytohormone-supplemented medium (BTP) upon which the growth of ovules was similar that of in situ ovules. This medium was examined for in-ovulo embryo culture. Although good ovule growth occurred on BTP no embryos developed to maturity. However, when the medium was supplemented with NH 4 (+) , more than 50% of the ovules produced mature embryos, and many of these germinated precociously after 8-10 weeks of culture. After germination seedlings were established on a separate medium designed to give balanced root and shoot growth. Subsequently young plants could be transferred to pots for greenhouse culture.

  17. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Thyssen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  18. Polyamine and its metabolite H2O2 play a key role in the conversion of embryogenic callus into somatic embryos in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Han eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase understanding about the mechanism by which polyamines (PAs promote the conversion of embryogenic calli (EC into somatic embryos in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. We measured the levels of endogenous PAs and H2O2, quantified the expression levels of genes involved in the PAs pathway at various stages of cotton somatic embryogenesis (SE, and investigated the effects of exogenous PAs and H2O2 on differentiation and development of embryogenic calli. Putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm significantly increased from the EC stage to the early phase of embryo differentiation. The levels of Put then decreased until the somatic embryo stage whereas Spd and Spm remained nearly the same. The expression profiles of GhADC genes were consistent with changes in Put during cotton SE. The H2O2 concentrations began to increase significantly at the EC stage, during which time both GhPAO1 and GhPAO4 expressions were highest and PAO activity was significantly increased. Exogenous Put, Spd, Spm and H2O2 not only enhanced embryogenic callus growth and embryo formation, but also alleviated the effects of D-arginine and 1, 8-diamino-octane, which are inhibitors of polyamine synthesis and PAO activity. Overall, the results suggest that both PAs and their metabolic product H2O2 are essential for the conversion of EC into somatic embryos in cotton.

  19. Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphal feeding in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; DENNIS A. MARGOSAN; JAMES S. BUCKNER; THOMAS P. FREEMAN; THOMAS J. HENNEBERRY

    2007-01-01

    We used brightfield electron microscopy (BEM), differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the stylet pathways of Bemisia tabaci during nymphal feeding behavior in cotton leaves beginning with penetration of the abaxial leaf surface and ending with stylers in sieve tubes in phloem tissues. Most nymphal stylets within salivary sheaths penetrating leaf tissues made complex turns and developed more than one salivary sheath branch before ending in sieve tubes. The external morphology of the salivary sheaths and their routes between and through leaf cells are described during the present study. Results showed the presence of the stylet within the sieve tubes. B. tabaci nymphs may remove stylets and feed in different sieve tubes.Ten short movies showing the progression of the stylet penetrations from adaxial surface to the sieve tubes are attached to Figures 8-15. The report and movies can be viewed from the internet. Download the movies to a local drive in your compute rfirs tfor fast upload. The movies are posted on theweb sitehttp ://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm? docid= 14629.The movies can be used as a teaching aid in biology classes.

  20. Combining ability analysis in intraspecific F1 diallel cross of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Usharani*, P. Vindhiyavarman and P. Amala Balu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diallel analysis was carried out by involving nine parents and their 72 cross combinations in upland cotton for assessing their combining ability for yield and its component characters. Variance due to parents and hybrids showed significant differences between all the characters studied except number of bolls, boll weight, single plant yield, lint index and seed index. Significance of variance in parents versus hybrids interaction provides adequacy for comparing the heterotic expression for all the characters except boll weight, ginning per cent, lint index and seed index. The GCA variances were larger than those of SCA for all the traits except number of bolls per plant, indicating the preponderance of additive action. The parents MCU 5 and MCU 7 were proved to be good general combiners for single plant yield and other economic traits and hence need to be included in the yield improvement programmes. The hybrid combinations viz., MCU 5 x MCU 7, Khandwa 2 x Suraj, KC 2 x MCU 5, Anjali x MCU 7 and Anjali x Suraj recorded superior per se performance for number of bolls, boll weight and single plant yield and other characters. Among these crosses KC 2 x MCU 5, Anjali x Suraj and Anjali x MCU 7 exhibited additive type gene action with one good general combining ability parent for number of bolls, boll weight and lint index respectively. Hence, selection can be made in these crosses in early generation itself.

  1. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment. [Gossypium hirsumtum L. ; Medicago sativa L. ; Cucumis melo L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots.

  2. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats), wild/feral (protected habitats), and truly wild cotton (TWC) populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida), as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively low genetic

  3. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge

    Full Text Available Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats, wild/feral (protected habitats, and truly wild cotton (TWC populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida, as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively

  4. Fine mapping of the red plant gene R1 in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; CAI CaiPing; ZHANG TianZhen; GUO WangZhen

    2009-01-01

    Sub 16 is a substitution line with G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 genetic background except that the 16th chro-mosome (Chr. 16) is replaced by the corresponding homozygous chromosome of G. barbadense cv. 3-79, and T586 is a G. hirsutum multiple gene marker line with 8 dominant mutation genes. The R1 gene for anthocyanin pigmentation was tagged in Chr. 16 in T586. The objective of this research was to screen SSR markers tightly linked with R1 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants derived from the cross of Sub 16 and T586 and the backbone genetic linkage map from G. hir-sutumxG, barbadense BC1 newly updated by our laboratory. Genetic analysis suggested that the se-gregation ratio of red plants in the F2 population fit Mendelian 1:2:1 inheritance, confirming that the red plant trait was controlled by an incomplete dominance gene. Preliminary mapping of R1 was conducted using 237 randomLy selected F2 individuals and JoinMap v3.0 software. Then, a fine map of R1 was constructed using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants, and R1 was located between NAU4956 and NAU6752, with only 0.49 cM to the nearest maker loci (NAU6752). These results pro-vided a foundation for map-based cloning of R1 and further development of cotton cultivars with red fibers by transgenic technology.

  5. Modeling Fiber Fineness, Maturity, and Micronaire in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-qing; ZHOU Zhi-guo; MENG Ya-li; CHEN Bing-lin; WANG You-hua

    2013-01-01

    Crop performance is determined by the combined effects of the genotype of the crop and the environmental conditions of the production system. This study was undertaken to develop a dynamic model for simulating environmental (temperature and solar radiation) and N supply effects on fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire. Three different experiments involving genotypes, sowing dates, and N fertilization rates were conducted to support model development and model evaluation. The growth and development duration of fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire were scaled by using physiological development time of secondary wall synthesis (PDTSWSP), which was determined based on the constant ratio of SWSP/BMP. PTP (product of relative thermal effectiveness (RTE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), MJ m-2) and subtending leaf N content per unit area (NA, g m-2) and critical subtending leaf N content per unit area (CNA, g m-2) of cotton boll were calculated or simulated to evaluate effects of temperature and radiation, and N supply. Besides, the interactions among temperature, radiation and N supply were also explained by piecewise function. The overall performance of the model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets from three field experiments with two sowing dates, three or five flowering dates and three or four N fertilization rates for three subsequent years (2005, 2007, and 2009) at three ecological locations. The average RMSE and RE for fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire predictions were 372 m g-1 and 5.0%, 0.11 m g-1 and 11.4%, 0.3 m g-1 and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a good fit between the simulated and observed data. It appears that the model can give a reliable prediction for fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire formation under various growing conditions.

  6. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  7. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  8. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuange Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6 is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5 were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  9. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene,GhA OC1, in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange; Wang; Huaihua; Liu; Qingguo; Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase(AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid(JA)biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes(Gh AOC1–Gh AOC5) were cloned from upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.),sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of Gh AOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate(Me JA) and Cu Cl2 stresses. To investigate the role of Gh AOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton Gh AOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S(Ca MV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, Gh AOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress.This study provides the first evidence that Gh AOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  10. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange Wang; Huaihua Liu; Qingguo Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5) were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  11. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS AO COMPLEXO DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS NA CULTURA DO ALGODÃO (Gossypium hirsutum L. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES ON THE COMPLEX OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN COTTON CROP (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The selectivity of insecticides was evaluated in the complex of natural enemies of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crop. The cultivar Deltapine was used in a randomized block experimental design, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments, all in their commercial formulation, were: control; thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1; lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1; betacyflutrin (800 mL.ha-1; imidacloprid (70g.ha-1; diflubenzuron (6,0 g.ha-1; and endosulfan (1500 mL.ha-1. The insecticides were sprayed at 45 days after germination. Besides the initial evaluation, other evaluations were performed three and seven days after insecticide application. Each plot was sampled by the fabric beating method, with two random beatings per plot. Natural enemies were identified and counted. Three days after application, the insecticides thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1, lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1, and diflubenzuron (60 g.ha-1 did not showed negative effect on the complex of predators present in the cotton. However, seven days after application, only the lufenuron treatment maintained the selective effect over predator complex.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecticide; biological control; Gossypium.

  12. Characterization of an Organ Specific and Pathogen Responsive CC-NBS-LRR Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-long; NI Wan-chao; YANG Yu-wen; SHEN Xin-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton diseases represent a major challenge to cotton growth.Cloning of a cotton pathogen response gene and promoter is of great importance to improve disease resistance.In this study,a full length CC-NBS-LRR gene (GHNBS) and its 5L flanking sequence have been cloned by race and tail PCR and further studied.

  13. Identification of early salt-stress responsive proteins in seedling roots of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. employing iTRAQ-based proteomic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is highly tolerant to salinity; however, large-scale proteomic data of cotton in response to salt-stress are still scanty. Here, an iTRAQ-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the early differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from salt-treated cotton roots. 77 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated proteins were identified. The majority of the proteins have functions related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription related, protein metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, membrane and transport, signal transduction, as well as stress and defense. It is worth emphasizing that some novel salt-responsive proteins were identified, which involved in cell cytoskeleton metabolism(ARP2 and FLAs), membrane transport(TIPs and PIPs), signal transduction(LRR-RLKs)and stress responses(TLP, USP, DIR,desiccation-related protein PCC13-62. High positive correlation was evaluated between the abundance of some altered proteins (SOD, POD, GST, MDAR and MDH and their enzyme activity. The results demonstrate the iTRAQ-based proteomic technique is reliable for identifying and quantifying a large number of cotton root proteins. qRT-PCR was used to study the gene expression levels of five above-mentioned proteins, four patterns are consistent with those of induced protein. These results showed that cotton’s proteome to NaCl stress is complex, and that the comparative protein profiles of roots under salinity vs control improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the tolerance of plants to salt stress. It provides a good starting point for further functional elucidation of these DEPs using genetic and/or other approaches, and thereby candidate genes for genetic engineering to improve crop salt tolerance.

  14. A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yuhong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fiber length can potentially provide a valuable tool for cotton breeders to improve fiber length while maintaining high yields. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fiber mutation Ligon lintless-2 is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2 that results in significantly shorter fibers than a wild-type. In a near-isogenic state with a wild-type cotton line, Li2 is a model system with which to study fiber elongation. Results Two near-isogenic lines of Ligon lintless-2 (Li2 cotton, one mutant and one wild-type, were developed through five generations of backcrosses (BC5. An F2 population was developed from a cross between the two Li2 near-isogenic lines and used to develop a linkage map of the Li2 locus on chromosome 18. Five simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were closely mapped around the Li2 locus region with two of the markers flanking the Li2 locus at 0.87 and 0.52 centimorgan. No apparent differences in fiber initiation and early fiber elongation were observed between the mutant ovules and the wild-type ones. Gene expression profiling using microarrays suggested roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis and cytokinin regulation in the Li2 mutant phenotype. Microarray gene expression data led to successful identification of an EST-SSR marker (NAU3991 that displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus. Conclusions In the field of cotton genomics, we report the first successful conversion of gene expression data into an SSR marker that is associated with a genomic region harboring a gene responsible for a fiber trait. The EST-derived SSR marker NAU3991 displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus on

  15. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  16. The genome sequence of Sea-Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) provides insights into the allopolyploidization and development of superior spinnable fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Daojun; Tang, Zhonghui; Wang, Maojun; Gao, Wenhui; Tu, Lili; Jin, Xin; Chen, Lingling; He, Yonghui; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Longfu; Li, Yang; Liang, Qiqi; Lin, Zhongxu; Yang, Xiyan; Liu, Nian; Jin, Shuangxia; Lei, Yang; Ding, Yuanhao; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Xiaoan; Ruan, Yijun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum contributes the most production of cotton fibre, but G. barbadense is valued for its better comprehensive resistance and superior fibre properties. However, the allotetraploid genome of G. barbadense has not been comprehensively analysed. Here we present a high-quality assembly of the 2.57 gigabase genome of G. barbadense, including 80,876 protein-coding genes. The double-sized genome of the A (or At) (1.50 Gb) against D (or Dt) (853 Mb) primarily resulted from the expansion of Gypsy elements, including Peabody and Retrosat2 subclades in the Del clade, and the Athila subclade in the Athila/Tat clade. Substantial gene expansion and contraction were observed and rich homoeologous gene pairs with biased expression patterns were identified, suggesting abundant gene sub-functionalization occurred by allopolyploidization. More specifically, the CesA gene family has adapted differentially temporal expression patterns, suggesting an integrated regulatory mechanism of CesA genes from At and Dt subgenomes for the primary and secondary cellulose biosynthesis of cotton fibre in a “relay race”-like fashion. We anticipate that the G. barbadense genome sequence will advance our understanding the mechanism of genome polyploidization and underpin genome-wide comparison research in this genus. PMID:26634818

  17. Slow desiccation leads to high-frequency shoot recovery from transformed somatic embryos of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310 FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, B; Kumar, S; Prasad, K V S K; Oinam, G S; Burma, P K; Pental, D

    2003-06-01

    In Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310FR) the frequency at which somatic embryos were converted to plantlets was significantly improved by subjecting the embryos to slow physical desiccation. We used Agrobacterium strain GV3101 containing the binary vector pGSFR with the nos-nptII gene for in vitro selection and the 35S gus-int fragment as a reporter to optimize the transformation protocol. Although the concentration of kanamycin was reduced during embryogenesis and embryo maturation, even at the lower levels somatic embryos were predominantly abnormal, showing hypertrophy and reduced or fused cotyledons or poor radicle ends. A majority of these embryos (more than 75%) were beta-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive. Embryos with an abnormal appearance showed a very poor conversion to plantlets. However, these embryos, when subjected to slow physical desiccation followed by transfer to fresh medium, regenerated single or multiple shoots from the cotyledonary end. These shoots could be grafted on wild-type seedling stocks in vitro, which, following their transfer to soil, developed normally and set seeds. Regenerated plants tested positive for the transgene by Southern analysis. An overall scheme for the high-frequency production of cotton transgenics from both normal and abnormal appearing somatic embryos is presented.

  18. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton

  19. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was δ-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. δ-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from δ-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, δ-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sus Gene Family in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsong Zou; Cairui Lu; Haihong Shang; Xinrui Jing; Hailiang Cheng; Youping Zhang; Guoli Song

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism.In cotton,Sus (EC 2.4.1.13) is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat.This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L.,G.raimondii Ulbr.,and G.hirsutum L.,contained 8,8,and 15 Sus genes,respectively.Their structural organizations,phylogenetic relationships,and expression profiles were characterized.Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns,the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species.Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species,suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G.hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors.One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution.Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells.Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species.These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family,and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development.

  1. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  2. Effects of pigment glands andgossypol on somatic cell cul-ture of upland cotton (Gos-sypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of pigment glands and gossypol on the somatic cell culture of upland cotton were studied, using the materials as follows: three pairs of glanded and glandless upland cotton near isogenic lines, TM-1, and Coker 312. The results showed that the pigment glands and gossypol contents in the explants had great inhibiting effect on the induction and growth of callus in somatic cell culture of upland cotton, and the induction rate of callus and the single callus weight of glandless cotton were much higher than those of their glanded near isogenic lines. It was easier to obtain regeneration plants from glandless cotton than from their glanded near isogenic lines. There was a significant inverse correlation between the gossypol contents in the explants and callus induction rate, with the correlation coefficient of ?0.84. The vitro gossypol in the medium had some inhibiting effect on the induction and growth of callus, especially for the glandless cotton. However, a certain concentration of vitro gossypol in the medium (0.1 mg/L) was an aid to the steadiness growth of callus in glandless cotton somatic cell culture, with a high rate of embryogenic cells which was in favor of plant regeneration, and it was also relatively easy to obtain regeneration plants when they were transferred into differentiation medium with 0.1 mg/L of vitro gossypol, even for some cultivars which are difficult in somatic cell culture. In addition, the gossypol content and its variation in the seedlings and callus during culture of Coker 312 were discussed, as well as the relationship between gossypol variation in the explants and its somatic cell culture. The probability of vitro gossypol used in cotton somatic cell culture for the improvement of somatic cell culture was suggested.

  3. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

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    Qian Yan

    Full Text Available Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum, a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062 showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus.

  4. Assessment of Tolerance Level of some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine KARADEMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the tolerance level of some cotton varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. disease. Verticillium wilt is one of the major constraint diseases of cotton production worldwide and also in Turkey. The study was carried out at the Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute’s naturally infected experimental area during 2004-2006. In this study, 10 different commercial cotton varieties were used as plant material. The experimental design was a randomized complete-block with four replications. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI, vascular disease index (VDI and vascular disease rate (VDR were observed in addition to seed cotton yield and some fiber quality characteristics. According to the results, it was determined that with regards to FDI, VDI and VDR, the most tolerant varieties were ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’, while the most sensitive varieties were ‘Maraş 92’, ‘Sayar 314’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. The other varieties had moderate tolerance levels. The highest seed cotton yield and lint yield were obtained from ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. These results showed that some sensitive varieties had high yield; the reason for this situation may be related with early or late occurrence of the disease. The result of this study indicated that ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’ varieties must be preferred for infected areas; on the other hand, ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’ can be recommended and grown in uninfected areas. Additionally, ‘Carmen’, ‘GW-Teks’ and ‘GW-Golda’ varieties can be used as material for improving disease resistance in cotton breeding programs.

  5. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K.

  6. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  7. Dynamic transcriptome analysis and volatile profiling of Gossypium hirsutum in response to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Jie-Yin; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Wu, Juan; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit elevated levels of volatile organic compounds for direct and indirect resistance. However, little is known about the molecular and genomic basis of defense response that insect herbivory trigger in cotton plants and how defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we monitored the transcriptome changes and volatile characteristics of cotton plants in response to cotton bollworm (CBW; Helicoverpa armigera) larvae infestation. Analysis of samples revealed that 1,969 transcripts were differentially expressed (log2|Ratio| ≥ 2; q ≤ 0.05) after CBW infestation. Cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Among CBW-induced genes, those associated with indirect defense and jasmonic acid pathway were clearly over-represented, indicating that these genes play important roles in CBW-induced defenses. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that CBW infestation could induce cotton plants to release volatile compounds comprised lipoxygenase-derived green leaf volatiles and a number of terpenoid volatiles. Responding to CBW larvae infestation, cotton plants undergo drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome and the volatile profile. The present results increase our knowledge about insect herbivory-induced metabolic and biochemical processes in plants, which may help improve future studies on genes governing processes.

  8. Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Qayyum RAO; Muhammad IRFAN; Zafar SALEEM; Idrees Ahmad NASIR; Sheikh RIAZUDDIN; Tayyab HUSNAIN

    2011-01-01

    The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence.Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations,both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression ofArabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgeniccotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism,decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size.

  9. [Arachnofauna (araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypium hirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, María Ana; González, Alda

    2012-06-01

    Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 51, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1053, 83.91%), "Orb weavers" (n=85, 6.77%) and "Stalkers" (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider's community in cotton crops.

  10. Quantification of Cry1Ac protein at different stages of plant growth in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan during cotton growing season 2009-10. Nine cotton cultivars with Cry 1 Ac gene (Mon 531 event selected for current experiment to characterize the toxin level of Cry1Ac protein in different Bt cotton cultivars and to record the variation in Cry1Ac protein at various plant growth stages. It was found that age of plant was having an influence on the expression of gene. Maximum level of endotoxin (0.373g/g was observed in genotype CIM-595 at 100 days of planting. While minimum value (0.166g/g was observed in genotype V-1 at 160 days of planting. Similarly different cotton genotypes showed different boll worm damage % at different growth stages. CEMB-2 was found to be most susceptible genotype showing 93.33 % boll worm damage at 160 days after planting. While V-5 proved to be most resistant showing no boll worm damage at 70 and 100 days after planting.

  11. Efeito de tratamentos com fungicidas na conservação de sementes de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Fungicides treatment and storage of cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Cia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre a germinação de sementes das variedades comerciais de algodoeiro IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, mantendo-se as sementes em condições de labo-ratório durante dois anos e utilizando-se os seguintes tratamentos com fungicidas: 1 PCNB + thiram; 2 Benomyl; 3 deslintamento mecânico (testemunha; 4 deslintamento ácido (D.A.; 5 PCNB + thiram + D.A.; e 6 mercúrio metálico. A semeadura foi efetuada em canteiros de casa de vegetação, com três repetições, utilizando-se cinqüenta sementes por parcela. A avaliação dos dados foi feita através de índices de emergência (relação entre o stand inicial e o número de sementes utilizadas e de resistência a fungos do tombamento (relação entre a média ponderada das notas das plantas 25 dias após a emergência e o stand inicial. As notas variaram de 1 a 3 de acordo com a lesão de tombamento na altura do colo da planta. Pelos isolados obtidos de plantas com lesão, constatou-se maior incidência de Rhyzoctonia solani Kuhn. Nas condições do ensaio, os fungicidas à base de mercúrio metálico, PCNB + thiram e Benomyl apresentaram um bom efeito aos sete meses de tratamento, o qual foi mantido até os dezesseis meses com os mesmos tratamentos, exceção feita para Benomyl. O deslintamento com ácido deu bom resultado somente até os sete meses, pois aos dezesseis meses o poder germinativo piorou relativamente, sendo que esse efeito negativo foi diminuído com tratamento de PCNB + thiram.An experiment was carried out for two years in a greenhouse to study the effect of fungicides treatment on the germination of seeds of São Paulo cotton varieties, IAC 13-1 and IAC 17. Treated seeds were stored in uncontrolled conditions and germination was tested yearly. For each variety, the following treatments were applied: 1 PCNB + thiram, 2 Benomyl, 3 Check (mechanically delinted seed, 4 Acid delinted seed (D.A., 5 D.A. + PCNB + thiram, 6 Metallic mercury. For treatments 1, 2 and 6

  12. A high-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted mutagenesis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Unver, Turgay; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The complex allotetraploid genome is one of major challenges in cotton for repressing gene expression. Developing site-specific DNA mutation is the long-term dream for cotton breeding scientists. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is emerging as a robust biotechnology for targeted-DNA mutation. In this study, two sgRNAs, GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2, were designed in the identical genomic regions of GhMYB25-like A and GhMYB25-like D, which were encoded by cotton A subgenome and the D subgenome, respectively, was assembled to direct Cas9-mediated allotetraploid cotton genome editing. High proportion (14.2–21.4%) CRISPR/Cas9-induced specific truncation events, either from GhMYB25-like A DNA site or from GhMYB25-like D DNA site, were detected in 50% examined transgenic cotton through PCR amplification assay and sequencing analyses. Sequencing results also demonstrated that 100% and 98.8% mutation frequency were occurred on GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2 target site respectively. The off-target effect was evaluated by sequencing two putative off-target sites, which have 3 and 1 mismatched nucleotides with GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2, respectively; all the examined samples were not detected any off-target-caused mutation events. Thus, these results demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 is qualified for generating DNA level mutations on allotetraploid cotton genome with high-efficiency and high-specificity. PMID:28256588

  13. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Abril, Jorge; Camelo, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Pastrana, Iván; Rojas-Tapias, Daniel; Bonilla, Ruth

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton. Results revealed that both strains are capable of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, synthesizing indole compounds and producing hydrolytic enzymes. After 12 weeks, the glasshouse experiment showed that cotton growth was positively influenced due to bacterial inoculation with respect to chemical fertilization. Notably, we observed that microbial inoculation further influenced plant biomass (p<0.05) than nitrogen content. Co-inoculation, interestingly, exhibited a greater beneficial effect on plant growth parameters compared to single inoculation. Moreover, similar results without significant statistical differences were observed among bacterial co-inoculation plus 50% urea and 100% fertilization. These findings suggest that co-inoculation of A. chroococcum strains allow to reduce nitrogen fertilization doses up to 50% on cotton growth. Our results showed that inoculation with AC1 and AC10 represents a viable alternative to improve cotton growth while decreasing the N fertilizer dose and allows to alleviate the environmental deterioration related to N pollution. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm2, signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied.The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12—24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm2 condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  15. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  16. Transmission of the opportunistic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll pathogen Pantoea agglomerans by the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus Say)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to developing cotton bolls by piercing-sucking insects such as stink bugs has traditionally been attributed solely to pest feeding. Previously, we showed clear differences in severity of boll damage resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) fed sterile food compared to thos...

  17. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jieyu; Yu, Lixiang; Wu, Yuejin; Tang, Canming

    2008-10-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine, including ion energy, total dose, dose rate, impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied. The best parameters were screened out. The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  18. Ameliorative effects of potassium nutrition on yield and fiber quality characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. being moderately tolerant to salinity has been extensively grown in arid and semiarid regions where soil salinization is a major threat to plant growth and soil productivity. Excess salts in the growth medium may interfere with growth processes of cotton, leading to a severe decline in yield and fiber quality characteristics. Adequate mineral nutrient status of plants can provide an important strategy to improve plant tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment was planned to evaluate the ameliorative effects of additional potassium (K applied at 50 and 100 mg K2O kg-1 soil as potassium sulfate against NaCl stress of 100 and 180 mM in cotton. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomized design with five replications. NaCl caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in shoot sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl- with a corresponding decrease in shoot K+, K+: Na+ ratio, calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+. Plant growth, yield and fiber quality characteristics were also declined significantly by increasing external NaCl concentration. Additional K reduced shoot Na + while increased K+, K+: Na+ ratio, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with the consequent improvement in plant growth, lint yield and yield attributes as well as fiber quality characteristics at both levels of NaCl. Results revealed that K nutrition improved shoot K+: Na+ ratio by 116 and 246% at NaCl100 while 188 and 294% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively as compared to NaCl treated plants without additional K. Likewise, lint yield was improved by 38.27 and 60.49% at NaCl100 while 75.12 and 136% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively compared to NaCl stressed plants without additional K. Ameliorative effects of K against NaCl stress were relatively more prominent at higher K application at both NaCl levels. In conclusion, K-induced decrease in Na+, increase in Ca2+, K+, K+: Na+ ratio, relative water content and membrane stability index provide protective

  19. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar.

  20. A Long-Read Transcriptome Assembly of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Intraspecific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery

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    Hamid Ashrafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Upland cotton ( L. has a narrow germplasm base, which constrains marker development and hampers intraspecific breeding. A pressing need exists for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers that can be readily applied to germplasm in breeding and breeding-related research programs. Despite progress made in developing new sequencing technologies during the past decade, the cost of sequencing remains substantial when one is dealing with numerous samples and large genomes. Several strategies have been proposed to lower the cost of sequencing for multiple genotypes of large-genome species like cotton, such as transcriptome sequencing and reduced-representation DNA sequencing. This paper reports the development of a transcriptome assembly of the inbred line Texas Marker-1 (TM-1, a genetic standard for cotton, its usefulness as a reference for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq-based SNP identification, and the availability of transcriptome sequences of four other cotton cultivars. An assembly of TM-1 was made using Roche 454 transcriptome reads combined with an assembly of all available public expressed sequence tag (EST sequences of TM-1. The TM-1 assembly consists of 72,450 contigs with a total of 70 million bp. Functional predictions of the transcripts were estimated by alignment to selected protein databases. Transcriptome sequences of the five lines, including TM-1, were obtained using an Illumina Genome Analyzer-II, and the short reads were mapped to the TM-1 assembly to discover SNPs among the five lines. We identified >14,000 unfiltered allelic SNPs, of which ∼3,700 SNPs were retained for assay development after applying several rigorous filters. This paper reports availability of the reference transcriptome assembly and shows its utility in developing intraspecific SNP markers in upland cotton.

  1. Association mapping of fiber quality traits in Gossypium arboreum accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of association mapping to germplasm resources has a potential to revolutionize plant genetics. Information about the genome distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is of fundamental importance for association mapping. In addition, genetic diversity is desirable for long-term crop imp...

  2. Introduction of rol Genes into Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome and Effects of Transgene Expression on the Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yan; YANG Ye-hua; WU Zheng-bin; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jin

    2004-01-01

    The rol genes cloned from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were transferred to the cotton genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses and developmental identification of the putative transgenic plants were carried out by means of PCR, Southern blotting and field characterization. The results showed that the expression of rol genes greatly increased the rooting ability of the transgenic plants, and changed the plant development. Highly male-sterile plants with strong apical dominance and fertile plants with short internodes, stunted growth and improved economic characteristics were segregated from the T1 transgenic lines of wild rol B gene and the rol B gene driven by 35S promoter. The transgenic lines of rol ABC construct usually had normal boll setting and slow growth. Therefore we concluded that the rol genes, modified in suitable ways,could be used to create new cotton varieties with some highly valuable characteristics.

  3. Intragenome distribution of 5-methylcytosine in DNA of healthy and wilt-infected cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, V A; Kiryanov, G I; Vanyushin, B F

    1975-03-01

    Fractionation of DNA of healthy and wilt-infected cotton plants has been carried out according to the reassociation kinetics and the content of GC and 5-methylcytosine in the resulting fractions has been studied. The genome of cotton plant was found to be methylated quite unevenly. The GC rich (GC equals 64.7 mole%) fraction of highly reiterated sequences (Cot equals 0-3.7 times 10- minus 2) has a high content of 5-methylcytosine (5.8 mole%), whereas the methylation degree of the fraction of unique sequences (Cot larger than or equal to 487) is very low (the 5-methylcytosine content is about 0.5 mole%). In plants being infected with wilt, the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA or cotton leaves decreases two-fold; no changes in the structure and molecular population of DNA has been found. The sharp change in the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA of infected plants takes place at the expense of the decrease in the 5-methylcytosine content in fractions of highly reiterated sequences. The methylation degree of unique sequences (structural genes) remains unchanged.

  4. Site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean and susceptible-cotton photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. [Glycine max (L. ); Gossypium hirsutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, M.A.; Liebl, R.A.; Widholm, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the herbicidal site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Corsoy) (SB-M) and susceptible-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) cv Stoneville 825) (COT-M) photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. Although a 10 micromolar clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the terpene or mixed terpenoid content (microgram per gram fresh weight) of the SB-M cell line, there was over a 70% reduction in the chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR), and plastoquinone (PQ) content of the COT-M cell line. The tocopherol (TOC) content was reduced only 35.6%. Reductions in the levels of Chl, CAR, TOC, and PQ indicate that the site of clomazone action in COT-M cells is prior to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). The clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the flow of ({sup 14}C)mevalonate (({sup 14}C)MEV) (nanocuries per gram fresh weight) into CAR and the three mixed terpenoid compounds of SB-M cells. Conversely, ({sup 14}C)MEV incorporation into CAR and the terpene moieties of Chl, PQ, and TOC in COT-M cells was reduced at least 73%, indicating that the site of clomazone action must be after MEV. Sequestration of clomazone away from the chloroplast cannot account for soybean tolerance to clomazone since chloroplasts isolated from both cell lines incubated with ({sup 14}C)clomazone contained a similar amount of radioactivity (disintegrations per minute per microgram of Chl). The possible site(s) of clomazone inhibition include mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and/or a prenyl transferase.

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with semigamy in Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. through comparative microarray analysis

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    Stewart J McD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semigamy in cotton is a type of facultative apomixis controlled by an incompletely dominant autosomal gene (Se. During semigamy, the sperm and egg cells undergo cellular fusion, but the sperm and egg nucleus fail to fuse in the embryo sac, giving rise to diploid, haploid, or chimeric embryos composed of sectors of paternal and maternal origin. In this study we sought to identify differentially expressed genes related to the semigamy genotype by implementing a comparative microarray analysis of anthers and ovules between a non-semigametic Pima S-1 cotton and its doubled haploid natural isogenic mutant semigametic 57-4. Selected differentially expressed genes identified by the microarray results were then confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Results The comparative analysis between isogenic 57-4 and Pima S-1 identified 284 genes in anthers and 1,864 genes in ovules as being differentially expressed in the semigametic genotype 57-4. Based on gene functions, 127 differentially expressed genes were common to both semigametic anthers and ovules, with 115 being consistently differentially expressed in both tissues. Nine of those genes were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, seven of which were confirmed. Furthermore, several well characterized metabolic pathways including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of and response to plant hormones were shown to be affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic tissues. Conclusion As the first report using microarray analysis, several important metabolic pathways affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic cotton genotype have been identified and described in detail. While these genes are unlikely to be the semigamy gene itself, the effects associated with expression changes in those genes do mimic phenotypic traits observed in semigametic plants

  6. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Peliculização e tratamento químico de sementes de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Film-coating and chemical treatment of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Baptista de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento ideal de plantas no campo é determinado, dentre outros fatores, pela qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes utilizadas. Neste sentido, o tratamento químico de sementes torna-se essencial, pois proporciona melhor desempenho das mesmas no campo. Atualmente, em associação com o tratamento químico, a fim de aumentar a aderência dos produtos químicos nas sementes, dentre outros objetivos, tem sido estudada a utilização de películas de revestimento. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de algodoeiro de quatro lotes, tratadas quimicamente e peliculizadas com 2 tipos de películas comerciais. Utilizou-se dois lotes da cultivar Delta Opal, dois da cultivar Sure Grow, e dois tipos de películas, denominadas AG201 e TGBP1080. As sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento com a mistura dos fungicidas carboxin+thiram com o inseticida imidacloprid, na dosagem 5 mL/Kg + 5 mL/Kg de sementes e na dosagem 2,5 mL/Kg + 2,5 mL/Kg de sementes. Os tratamentos foram avaliados por teste de germinação, teste de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, teste de frio e de sanidade. O tratamento químico com a mistura de carboxin+thiram com imidacloprid, na dosagem 5 mL/Kg + 5 mL/Kg de sementes promove melhor desempenho das sementes, sendo eficaz no controle de fungos. O uso da peliculização não possibilita redução da dosagem do tratamento químico. A peliculização não afeta a germinação, emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência de lotes de alta qualidade.Physiological and healthy quality of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L. are decisive factor to establish an ideal stand in the field. The chemical seed treatment is necessary to preserve the healthy quality and to obtain a better development performance of the seeds in the field. Actually, researches on chemical treatment are liberally conducted, which film-coating technique has been used

  8. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome substitution (CS) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. In this study, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) CS lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. The CS lines were developed in the G. hirsutum L. TM-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment substitutions from G. barbadense L. Pima 3-79 or G. tomentosum. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) (races 1 and 4) resistance alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously placed on cotton chromosomes using SSR markers in two interspecific recombinant inbred line populations were chosen for testing. Phenotypic responses of increased resistance or susceptibility in controlled inoculation and infested field assays confirmed the resistance QTLs, based on substitution with the positive or negative allele for resistance. Lines CS-B22Lo, CS-B04, and CS-B18 showed high resistance to nematode root-galling, confirming QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 22 (long arm) with resistance alleles from Pima 3-79. Line CS-B16 had less fusarium race 1-induced vascular root staining and higher percent survival than the TM-1 parent, confirming a major resistance QTL on chromosome 16. Lines CS-B(17-11) and CS-B17 had high fusarium race 4 vascular symptoms and low survival due to susceptible alleles introgressed from Pima 3-79, confirming the localization on chromosome 17 of an identified QTL with resistance alleles from TM1 and other resistant lines. Analyses validated regions on chromosomes 11, 16, and 17 harboring nematode and fusarium wilt resistance genes and demonstrated the value of CS lines as both a germplasm resource for breeding programs and as a powerful genetic analysis tool for determining QTL effects for disease

  9. Development and Validation of a Fluorescent Multiplexed Immunoassay for Measurement of Transgenic Proteins in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Paul, Sudakshina; Nahirna, Iryna; Wang, Yongcheng; Deffenbaugh, Andrew E; Liu, Zi Lucy; Glenn, Kevin C

    2016-06-22

    In order to provide farmers with better and more customized alternatives to improve yields, combining multiple genetically modified (GM) traits into a single product (called stacked trait crops) is becoming prevalent. Trait protein expression levels are used to characterize new GM products and establish exposure limits, two important components of safety assessment. Developing a multiplexed immunoassay capable of measuring all trait proteins in the same sample allows for higher sample throughput and savings in both time and expense. Fluorescent (bead-based) multiplexed immunoassays (FMI) have gained wide acceptance in mammalian research and in clinical applications. In order to facilitate the measurement of stacked GM traits, we have developed and validated an FMI assay that can measure five different proteins (β-glucuronidase, neomycin phosphotransferase II, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab2, and CP4 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in cotton leaf from a stacked trait product. Expression levels of the five proteins determined by FMI in cotton leaf tissues have been evaluated relative to expression levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of the individual proteins and shown to be comparable. The FMI met characterization requirements similar to those used for ELISA. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that FMI results are equivalent to those determined by conventional individual ELISAs to measure GM protein expression levels in stacked trait products but with significantly higher throughput, reduced time, and more efficient use of resources.

  10. Fine mapping of the dominant glandless Gene Gle2 in Sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gle2 is a mutant gene that controls glandless trait in cotton plants and seeds. It is an important gene resource to gossypol-free cottonseed breeding. The objective of this research was to develop SSR markers tightly linked with Gle2 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1599 plants derived from the cross of G. hirsutum genetic standard line TM-1 and G. barbadense glandless mutant line Hai-1. Genetic analysis suggested that the Gle2 was an incomplete dominant gene. Based on the backbone of genetic linkage map from G. hirsutum × G. barbadense BC1 published by our laboratory, Gle2 was located between CIR362 and NAU2251b, NAU3860b, STV033, with a genetic distance 9.27 and 0.96 cM, respectively. This result is useful for cloning Gle2 gene by map-based cloning method.

  11. Identification and application of biocontrol agents against Cotton leaf curl virus disease in Gossypium hirsutum under greenhouse conditions

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    Memoona Ramzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.

  12. Major Gene Identiifcation and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Yield-Related Traits in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhe; ZHANG Xin; LIU Yang-yang; JIA Zi-fang; ZHAO Hai-hong; LI Cheng-qi; WANG Qing-lian

    2014-01-01

    Segregation analysis of the mixed genetic model of major gene plus polygene was used to identify the major genesfor cotton yield-related traits using six generations P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2 generated from the cross of Baimian 1×TM-1. In addition to boll size and seed index, the major genes for the other ifve traits were detected:one each for seed yield, lint percentage, boll number, lint index; and two for lint yield. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) mapping was performed in the F2 and F2:3 populations of above cross through molecular marker technology, and a total of 50 QTL (26 suggestive and 24 signiifcant) for yield-related traits were detected. Four common QTL were discovered: qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3)andqLP-19b (F2)/qLP-19(F2:3) for lint percentage, qBN-17(F2)/qBN-17(F2:3)for boll number, and qBS-26b(F2)/qBS-26(F2:3) for boll size. Especially, qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3), not only had LOD scores>3 but also exceeded the permutation threshold (5.13 and 5.29, respectively), correspondingly explaining 23.47 and 29.55% of phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in marker assisted selection (MAS). Segregation analysis and QTL mapping could mutually complement and verify, which provides a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of cotton yield-related traits by using major genes (QTL).

  13. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

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    Chen Aiqun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7 identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum. Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

  14. Controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine aplicado em mistura com outros herbicidas, na cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Weed control in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. with cyanazine and other herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de estudar a mistura de tanque mais eficiente com cyanazine em aplicação de pré-emergência na cultura algodoeira (Gossypium hirsutum L. , foram estudados os seguintes tratamentos: cyanazine + diuron nas doses de 0,8 + 0,8 kg i.a/ha e 1,0 + 1,0 kg i.a/ha; cyanazine+ oryzalin , nas do sés de 1,2 + 0,8 kg i.a/ha e 1,6 + 1,2 kg i.a/h a; cyanazyne + metol a chlor, nas doses de 1,4 + 2,0 kg i.a/ha e 1,75 + 2,52 kg i.a/ ha;cianazine na dose de 1,75 kg i.a /ha; oryzalin na dose de 1,12 kg i.a/ha; metol achlor na dose de 2,52 kg i.a /ha e diuron na dose de 1,6 kg i.a /ha. Para efeito de comparação, utilizou-se uma testemunha sem capina e outra com capina manual. Nenhum tratamento apresentou injúria para as plantas de algodão e não houve diferenças significativas para o "stand" inicial. Já no "stand" final, a testemunha sem capina apresentou o menor número de plantas, sendo que não houve diferenças significativas dos outros tratamentos com a testemunha capinada. Para o rendimento, a mistura cyanazine + metolachior em ambas as doses estudadas, não apresentaram diferenças significativas da testemunha capinada. Quanto à altura da planta, peso de 100 sementes, porcentagem e índice de fibras não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos estudados, somente o peso do capulho foi afetado pelo oryzalin. Pela avaliação visual (EWRC 1 a 9*, os herbicidas apres entaram um controle satisfatório somente até os 30 dias após aplicação, sendo que a mistura cyanazine + metolachlor foi efici ente quanto a testemunha capinada. No controle da Portulaca oleracea , a mistura cyanazine + oryzalin na maior dose e oryzalin apresentaram 71,4% de controle ate os 30 dias e 79,4% e 82,4%, respectivamente, até 45 dias da aplicação. Para Amaranthus sp., à exceção da cyanazine e cyanazine + diuron nas doses menores, não apresentaram nenhum controle, sendo que os outros herbicidas controlaram com eficiência superior a 70

  15. Textiles: Some technocal information and data V: Cotton

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available ................. ............... Senegal South Africa .......... Spain ................ Sudan ................ Syria ................. Tanzania ............. Thailand ............. Togo ................. Turkey (Average) ...... Uganda .............. USSR ................ United... G . arboreum and G. herbaceum cottons. referred to as Asiatic cottons, are the short-staple types and are largely grown in India. China. Iran. Iraq, Turkey and RussiaIi6. Typically the cotton plant appears about one week after planting the seed...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  18. Dynamics of soil diazotrophic community structure, diversity, and functioning during the cropping period of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli

    2015-01-01

    The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site.

  19. Carbon source dependent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2 through suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2005-10-01

    Highly reproducible and simple protocol for cotton somatic embryogenesis is described here by using different concentrations of maltose, glucose, sucrose and fructose. Maltose (30 g/l) is the best carbon source for embryogenic callus induction and glucose (30 g/l) was suitable for induction, maturation of embryoids and plant regeneration. Creamy white embryogenic calli of hypocotyl explants were formed on medium containing MS basal salts, myo-inositol (100 mg/l), thiamine HCI (0.3 mg/l), picloram (0.3 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and maltose (30 g/l). During embryo induction and maturation, accelerated growth was observed in liquid medium containing NH3NO4 (1 g/l), picloram (2.0 mg/l), 2 ip (0.2 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Before embryoid induction, large clumps of embryogenic tissue were formed. These tissues only produced viable embryoids. Completely matured somatic embryos were germinated successfully on the medium fortified with MS salts, myo-inositol (50 mg/l), thiamine HCl (0.2 mg/l), GA3 (0.2 mg/l), BA (1.0 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Compared with earlier reports, 65% of somatic embryo germination was observed. The abnormal embryo formation was highly reduced by using glucose (30 g/l) compared to other carbon sources. The regenerated plantlets were fertile but smaller in height than the seed derived control plants.

  20. A new synthetic allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2 between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: bridging for simultaneously transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum, a cultivated diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, A1A1, has favorable traits such as excellent drought tolerance and resistance to sucking insects and leaf curl virus. G. australe, a wild diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, G2G2, possesses numerous economically valuable characteristics such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis (which is conducive to the production of seeds with very low levels of gossypol as a potential food source for humans and animals and resistance to insects, wilt diseases and abiotic stress. Creating synthetic allotetraploid cotton from these two species would lay the foundation for simultaneously transferring favorable genes into cultivated tetraploid cotton. Here, we crossed G. herbaceum (as the maternal parent with G. australe to produce an F1 interspecific hybrid and doubled its chromosome complement with colchicine, successfully generating a synthetic tetraploid. The obtained tetraploid was confirmed by morphology, cytology and molecular markers and then self-pollinated. The S1 seedlings derived from this tetraploid gradually became flavescent after emergence of the fifth true leaf, but they were rescued by grafting and produced S2 seeds. The rescued S1 plants were partially fertile due to the existence of univalents at Metaphase I of meiosis, leading to the formation of unbalanced, nonviable gametes lacking complete sets of chromosomes. The S2 plants grew well and no flavescence was observed, implying that interspecific incompatibility, to some extent, had been alleviated in the S2 generation. The synthetic allotetraploid will be quite useful for polyploidy evolutionary studies and as a bridge for transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton through hybridization.

  1. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  2. The induction of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 and NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductases by long-term salt treatment of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankova, Liliana; Ivanov, Sergei; Alexieva, Vera

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effect of salinity on the activity of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, EC 1.6.2.4) and NADH:ferricytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (B5R, EC 1.6.2.2) in two dicotyledonous plant species differing in their sensitivity to salt, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Ogosta) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Dobrujanski 7). A significant inhibition of fresh weight of salt-treated bean plants was observed, while cotton was affected to a much lesser degree. NaCl application resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both reductases, but was more pronounced in salt-tolerant cotton. We suppose that alterations in B5R and CPR activities may be targeted to the maintenance of membrane lipids. Most probably, plants use both enzymes (B5R and CPR) and their respective electron donors (NADH and NADPH) to reduce cytochrome b(5), which can donate reducing equivalents to a series of lipid-modification reactions such as desaturation and hydroxylation.

  3. BAC-end sequence-based SNP mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) utilizing re-sequencing data, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequences for Gossypium hirsutum L. have recently been developed. Here we report on genomic-based genome-wide SNP mining utilizing re-sequencing data with a BAC-end sequence reference for twelve G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. li...

  4. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  5. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  6. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  7. Comparative Genetics of Floral Morphology in Diploid and Allotetraploid Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEE Peng W

    2008-01-01

    @@ The cultivated Gossypium A genome diploid species G.arboreum and G.herbaceum and the allotetraploid species G.hirsutum and G.barbadense share common morphology for various floral traits,which offers an ideal system in which to investigate genetic mechanisms that differentiate diploid and tetraploid genomes.For example,knowing how a single phenotype behaves in the diploids,and comparing the same trait with different dosage effects in the tetraploids,may provide a means to study inter- and intra-genomic interactions in the polyploid genome.

  8. Physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Harish Ratnayaka; William T. Molin; Tracy M. Sterling

    2003-01-01

    ... (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Delta Pine 5415, and Gossypium barbadense L. cv. Pima S-7) and spurred anoda (Anoda cristata L. Schlecht.) of the Malvaceae. Without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis...

  9. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  10. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed composition constituents (protein, oil, and minerals) determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed constituents is critical. Ph...

  11. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  12. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  13. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (+)-delta-cadinene synthase: a catalyst for cotton phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Y; Chen, Y; Heinstein, P; Davisson, V J

    1995-12-20

    In cotton, sesquiterpene phytoalexins are elicited in response to bacterial or fungal infection. A Gossypium arboreum cell suspension culture which produces the sesquiterpene phytoalexin gossypol showed a time-dependent 10-fold increase in a 1.9-kb mRNA in response to a challenge by a preparation from Verticillium dahliae. The mRNA prepared from these elicited cultures was used to isolated two cDNA clones that contain open frames coding for proteins of 554 amino acids with M(r) 64,096 and 64,118. The encoded protein shows a significant degree of sequence identity with the other known plant terpene cyclases. Western blot analyses with a cross-reactive monoclonal antibody from a related sesquiterpene synthase in Nicotiana tabacum showed a time-dependent increase of a 65-kDa protein which reached a maximal level 24 h post elicitor treatment. The encoded protein from the pXC1 cDNA was produced in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity column chromatography. The enzymatic properties of this protein were identified by a radiochemical assay for cyclization of farnesyldiphosphate and a product structure was assigned by GC-MS, chiral phase GC, and NMR analyses as (+)-delta-cadinene. The fungal-elicited production of a (+)-delta-cadinene synthase is consistent with a role for this enzyme as the first committed step in the pathways leading to the related phytoalexins gossypol and lacinilene C in cotton.

  14. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y

    2004-04-01

    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB.

  15. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Robert; AMANTURDIEV Alisher; MEJLUMYAN Larisa; BABAYEV Yashen; KIM Michael

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality.Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  16. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; Robert; AMANTURDIEV; Alisher; MEJLUMYAN; Larisa; BABAYEV; Yashen; KIM; Michael

    2008-01-01

    Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality. Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  17. Hydrological responses of land use change from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to cellulosic bioenergy crops in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yong; Ale, Srinivasulu; Rajan, Nithya; Morgan, Cristine L. S; Park, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    The Southern High Plains ( SHP ) region of Texas in the United States, where cotton is grown in a vast acreage, has the potential to grow cellulosic bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor...

  18. Cloning and Function Characteristic of GhDWF4,an Ortholog of Arabidopsis DWF4 from Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the longest cells characterized in plant kingdom,cotton fibers were regarded as an ideal material for studying plant cell growth and development.In recent years,several reports revealed that

  19. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiong; STELLY David; SONG Guo-li; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong; LIU San-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium mustelinum [-(AD)4"] is one of five tetraploid species in Gossypium.Three pairs of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in (AD)4 were detected by FISH with 45S rDNA as a probe,they also were observed with genomic DNA (gDNA) from Gossypium D genome species as probes.Of the three NORs or GISH-NORs,one was super-major and other two were minor,which was distinctly different from other tetraploid cottons.

  20. Lipid metabolites in seeds of diverse Gossypium accessions: Molecular identification of a high oleic mutant allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestication and breeding of cotton for elite, high-fiber cultivars has led to reduced genetic variation of seed constituents within currently cultivated upland Cotton genotypes. However, a recent screen of the genetically diverse U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection identified Gossypium ...

  1. CORRELACIONES Y ANÁLISIS DE SENDERO EN ALGODÓN (Gossypium hirsutum L. EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO CORRELATIONS AND PATH ANALYSIS IN COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum L. IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del algodón es la principal actividad agrícola en la economía del Caribe colombiano en el segundo semestre del año y el principal abastecedor de fibra a la industria nacional desde hace aproximadamente 60 años. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales, entre 11 caracteres agronómicos y realizar un análisis de sendero para rendimiento de fibra. Se utilizaron los datos de la evaluación agronómica de 10 genotipos de algodón en ocho ambientes del Caribe colombiano. En cada ambiente se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los resultados indicaron que las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y ambientales. El rendimiento de fibra (REF presentó las mayores correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y fenotipicas parciales con el porcentaje de fibra (PFI, el rendimiento de algodón - semilla (RAS y el peso de mota (PMO, con valores de r > 0,43 (PThe cotton crop is the main agricultural activity in the economy of the colombian Caribbean in the second semester of the year and the main supplier of fibre to national industry for about 60 years. The objective of this work was to estimate the phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations, between 11 agronomic characters and to make a path analysis for fibre yield. Data of agronomic evaluation of 10 genotypes of cotton in eight environments of the colombian Caribbean were used. In each environment experimental design at random complete blocks with four repetitions were used. The results indicated that genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental correlations. Fibre yield (FIY presented the highest phenotypic, genetic and partial phenotypic correlations with ginning percentage (GP, seed-cotton yield (SCY and boll weight (BOW with values of r > 0,43 (P<0,01. The FIP (0,810 was the cause variable that showed the greatest direct effect on

  2. Effect of Age of Explant on Transgenic Cotton (Gossypium Plant Due to Expression of Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene from Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynelle van Emmenes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important textile plant in the world and is one of the most important crops for the production of oilseed. Because of its worldwide economic importance, new cultivars are constantly being released in the world. Although great improvements have been achieved through traditional breeding methods, cotton breeders are facing many problems, i.e., narrow genetic base, inability to use alien genes and difficulty in breaking gene linkages. Genetic transformations analyses are main tools used by breeders to overcome these problems. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to determine the effect of age of explant on regeneration response of apical shoot for tissue culture and gene transfer systems of cotton. This enabled us evaluate it effects on cotton transformation. The age of explants was observed to have significant effect on shoot tip elongation. The elongation rates of the three varieties studied were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.1573 and was observed to be affected by the size of isolated tips. It was observed that if the starting size of the apex was less than 1 mm, the tips would not grow at all. Insecticidal lectin gene from Allium sativum was transferred into the transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using shoot apices as explants. Putative transgenic plants were confirmed by leaf GUS assay, kanamycin leaf test and molecular analysis of plantlet.

  3. Morphogenesis Model-Based Virtual Growth System of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)%基于形态模型的棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)虚拟生长系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 周治国; 陈兵林; 孟亚利

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Modeling dynamics of each organ size in cotton growth process, then a virtual growth system for cotton was implemented to provide a technical basis for research of virtual farming. [Method] Based on the potted plant research of cotton variety, sowing date, nitrogen, water and DPC in a summer seasons of 2005 and 2006, with the systematic analysis principle and mathematical modeling technique applied to cotton morphogenesis, a morphological model, which includes several sub-models of leaf, stem, boll, and so on, was developed by the quantitative analyses of experimental data. And a virtual growth system for cotton was implemented with usage of OpenGL for 3D graphic and MFC for graphical user interface. [Result] The results showed that the dynamic change of each organ size could be characterized by logistic equation in relation to GDD, nitrogen, water and DPC. The model was validated by the data from 2006, and the mean RMSEs were 0.85, 0.82, 0.87, 0.57, 0.086, 0.65, 0.74, 0.8, 0.73, 0. 016, 0.36 and 0.4 cm for main stem leaf length and width, main stem leaf stalk length, main stem internode length and diameter, fruiting branch leaf length and width, fruiting branch leaf stalk length, fruiting node length and diameter, and boll length and width, respectively. Then NURBS was applied to simulate the shape of cotton leaf and boll, internode and petiole were treated as cylinder. Finally, a cotton growth system which comprises of models, database and interface was implemented with OpenGL on the platform of Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. [Conclusion] The system can be used to simulate the real growth process of each organ, individual and group with some inputs.%[目的]基于棉花形态器官形成过程的定量描述,模拟棉花三维生长过程,为虚拟棉作研究提供技术基础.[方法]基于2005-2006年棉花品种、播期、氮素、水分和DPC化控试验,将系统分析方法和数学建模技术应用于棉花植株的形态建成,通过对棉花

  4. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  5. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  6. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ryan J; Coneva, Viktoriya; Frank, Margaret H; Tuttle, John R; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Han, Sang-Won; Kaur, Baljinder; Zhu, Linglong; Fang, Hui; Bowman, Daryl T; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Haigler, Candace H; Jones, Don C; Holland, James B; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kuraparthy, Vasu

    2017-01-03

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D1), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D1 locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D1 locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.

  7. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  8. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  9. The immature fiber mutant phenotype of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is linked to a 22-bp frame-shift deletion in a mitochondria targeted pentatricopeptide repeat gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton seed trichomes are the globally most important source of natural fibers. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im) gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process...

  10. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  11. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on Phytoalexins Biosynthesis and Induced Disease Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Kouakou François Konan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA sprayed on cotton healthy leaves was evaluated in terms of inherent bioactive chemicals induction. The total phenolic content significantly increased after MeJA 5.0 mM treatments compared to the other tested concentrations (0; 2.5; 10; 15; 20 mM. Among the eleven phenolic compounds which were found except for ferulic acid, gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and piceatannol were identified as major phenolic constituents of cotton. Their content also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, gossypol increased 64 times compared to the control, in the 5.0 mM MeJA treatment. Furthermore, cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene are synthesized de novo in leaves of MeJA-treated plant. Treatment of cotton leaves with MeJA 5.0 mM followed 72 h of incubation hampered the expression of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV. MeJA efficiency was concentration and incubation time dependent. Disease severity on MeJA-treated leaves was significantly lower as compared to the control. Therefore, the high content of gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, ferulic acid, and piceatannol and the presence of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene in plants treated with MeJA, contrary to the control, are essential to equip the cotton compounds with defences or phytoalexins against FOV.

  12. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY-1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photo-assimilate in crop plants and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders ha...

  13. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  14. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes

  15. Cloning, Expression, and Functional Analysis of GhMYB0 Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsumtum L.)%棉花GhMYB0基因的克隆、表达分析及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诺菡; 喻树迅; 于霁雯; 吴嫚; 马启峰; 李兴丽; 裴文锋; 李海晶; 黄双领; 张金发

    2014-01-01

    MYB类转录因子是植物转录因子最大的家族之一,参与控制植物腺毛细胞的模式和形态建成。本研究利用雷蒙德氏棉(Gossypium raimondii) D5基因组数据库以 AtMYB0(GL1, NM_113708)蛋白为参比序列获得同源基因GrMYB0,从徐州142中克隆了陆地棉的GhMYB0,其开放阅读框长度为843 bp,编码280个氨基酸。经过保守结构域分析和亚细胞定位确定GhMYB0为R2R3-MYB转录因子。qRT-PCR的结果表明, GhMYB0在徐州142开花当天开始高调表达,开花后20 d表达量达高峰;在所有的组织器官中,花中表达量最高,其次为胚珠。转基因功能分析结果表明,在野生型拟南芥(Columbia)中过表达 GhMYB0,使其叶片表皮毛与野生型相比明显减少;该基因在拟南芥突变体 gl-1中过表达,能恢复表皮毛缺失型突变体的表型,说明该基因可能对拟南芥表皮毛的形态建成发挥一定作用,本试验为研究R2R3-MYB转录因子在棉纤维起始和伸长过程中的调控作用提供有力证据。%MYB transcription factor, one of the most important protein families in plants, is involved in the regulation of secon-dary metabolism, morphogenesis of plant, responding to environment stress and plant hormone. In this study, we used D5 genomic bank of Gossypium raimondii as the reference to AtMYB0 (GL1, NM_113708) protein, and cloned the full-length cDNA of a new MYB transcription factor gene GhMYB0 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The open reading frame of GhMYB0 is 843 bp in length, which encodes 280 amino acid residues. GhMYB0 was confirmed as R2R3-MYB transcription factor via conserved struc-ture analysis and subcellular localization. The qRT-PCR result indicated that GhMYB0 was highly expressed at the blossom day, its expresssion amount reached the peak after 20 days, with the most amount in flower, then in ovules. Transgenic funtion analysis indicated that GhMYB0 over-expressed in Arabidopsis lines, showing fewer trichomes in leaf

  16. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Stetina, Salliana R; Turley, Rickie B

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals) determines the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait) effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a 2-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes) in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines). Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source) to seed (sink). This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for food and feed.

  17. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  18. High Expression of Cry1Ac Protein in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum by Combining Independent Transgenic Events that Target the Protein to Cytoplasm and Plastids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton was developed using two constructs containing a truncated and codon-modified cry1Ac gene (1,848 bp, which was originally characterized from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain HD73 that encodes a toxin highly effective against many lepidopteran pests. In Construct I, the cry1Ac gene was cloned under FMVde, a strong constitutively expressing promoter, to express the encoded protein in the cytoplasm. In Construct II, the encoded protein was directed to the plastids using a transit peptide taken from the cotton rbcSIb gene. Genetic transformation experiments with Construct I resulted in a single copy insertion event in which the Cry1Ac protein expression level was 2-2.5 times greater than in the Bacillus thuringiensis cotton event Mon 531, which is currently used in varieties and hybrids grown extensively in India and elsewhere. Another high expression event was selected from transgenics developed with Construct II. The Cry protein expression resulting from this event was observed only in the green plant parts. No transgenic protein expression was observed in the non-green parts, including roots, seeds and non-green floral tissues. Thus, leucoplasts may lack the mechanism to allow entry of a protein tagged with the transit peptide from a protein that is only synthesized in tissues containing mature plastids. Combining the two events through sexual crossing led to near additive levels of the toxin at 4-5 times the level currently used in the field. The two high expression events and their combination will allow for effective resistance management against lepidopteran insect pests, particularly Helicoverpa armigera, using a high dosage strategy.

  19. Combining Ability and Heterosis Between High Strength Lines and Transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bollworm-Resistant Lines in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng; LI Xian-bi; XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; LIU Da-jun; HUANG Shun-li; ZHANG Feng-xin

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the combining ability and heterosis between high-strength lines and transgenic Btbollworm-resistant lines in upland cotton, 5 high-strength lines were crossed as female lines with 12 transgenicBt bollworm-resistant lines according to NCII design. It was demonstrated that the compositions of variance invarious traits were quite different. For seed cotton yield, lint yield, boll numbers per plant and boll weight,the dominant (special combining ability) effects were the major effects, accounting for 87.38, 84.40, 80.04and 64.46 % of the total phenotypic variances, respectively, while for fibre strength and micronaire value, theadditive (general combining ability) effects had the major effects, with a ratio of additive variance to pheno-typic variance of 78.85 and 43.80 %. As for lint percent and 2. 5 % span length, the dominant and additivevariances had similar effects, in phenotypic variances (54.94 and 40. 11% for lint percent, 45.76and42.49% for 2.5% span length, respectively). The mid-parent heterosis (Hpm), surpassing parent heterosis(Hpb) and competitive heterosis (Hck) for seed cotton yield and lint yield were both extremely significant.For fibre properties, the Hck and Hpm of 2.5 % fibre span length were extremely significant, the Hck of fibrestrength was significant, and the favorable negative Hck of micronaire was also extremely significant. The in-crements of hybrid over common variety were 17 % for lint yield and fibre strength, 7 % for fibre span length,and 4% for fineness.

  20. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GhDREB, confers enhanced tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Qing; Chen, Ming; Xia, Lian-Qin; Xiu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Li, Lian-Cheng; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Ma, You-Zhi

    2009-02-01

    A cotton (G. hirsutum L.) dehydration responsive element binding protein gene, GhDREB, which encodes a 153 amino acid protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated from the cDNA library of cotton cv. Simian 3 by a yeast one-hybrid system. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhDREB gene was induced in cotton seedlings by drought, high salt and cold stresses. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that the GhDREB protein bound specifically to the DRE core element (A/GCCGAC) in vitro. Two expression vectors containing the GhDREB gene with either of the Ubiqutin or rd29A promoters were constructed and transferred into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by bombardment. Fifty-eight Ubi::GhDREB and 17 rd29A::GhDREB T(0) plants of Yangmai (36 plants) and Lumai (39 plants) were identified by PCR analysis, respectively. Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that two or three copies of the GhDREB were integrated into the Yangmai 10 genome and were expressed at the transcriptional level, and three or four copies were integrated into the Lumai 23 genome. Functional analysis indicated that the transgenic plants had improved tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses through accumulating higher levels of soluble sugar and chlorophyll in leaves after stress treatments. No phenotype differences were observed between transgenic plants and their non-transgenic controls. These results indicated that GhDREB might be useful in improving wheat stress tolerance through genetic engineering.

  1. Expression of baculovirus anti-apoptotic genes p35 and op-iap in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. enhances tolerance to verticillium wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T(3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T(1-T(3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants.

  2. Rapid recovery of photosynthetic rate following soil water deficit and re-watering in cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum L.) is related to the stability of the photosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, He-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Hai; Gou, Ling; Chow, Wah Soon; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The responses of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the anti-oxidative system of cotton leaves were studied during water deficit and recovery. The results show that water deficit led to a reversible reduction in the photosynthetic rate. This reduction was mainly accompanied by stomatal limitation. The activity of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) was relatively stable during water deficit and recovery. Water deficit caused an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation. Proline accumulation and the anti-oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD), along with the antioxidant ascorbate (AsA), increased during water deficit. On re-watering, the ROS generation rate, anti-oxidative enzymes activities and the extent of the lipid peroxidation returned to near control values. Overall, rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate is related to the stability of the photosystems which appears to be a critical mechanism allowing cotton plants to withstand and survive drought environments.

  3. Molecular confirmation of Gossypium hirsutum chromosome substitution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary gene pool for tetraploid cotton species includes G. hirsutum L., as well as the other four 2n=52 species of Gossypium (G. barbadense, G. mustellinum, G. tomentosum and G. darwinii). To help overcome barriers to effective introgression, we have developed a number of alien chromosome subst...

  4. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  5. Antennal electrophysiological responses of three parasitic wasps to caterpillar-induced volatiles from maize (Zea mays mays), cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouinguené, Sandrine; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J; Birkett, Michael A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2005-05-01

    Many parasitic wasps are attracted to volatiles that are released by plants when attacked by potential hosts. The attractiveness of these semiochemicals from damaged plants has been demonstrated in many tritrophic systems, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the insect responses are poorly understood. We recorded the antennal perception by three parasitoids (Cotesia marginiventris, Microplitis rufiventris, and Campoletis sonorensis) to volatiles emitted by maize, cowpea, and cotton plants after attack by the common caterpillar pest Spodoptera littoralis. Gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) recordings showed that wasps responded to many, but not all, of the compounds present at the physiologically relevant levels tested. Interestingly, some minor compounds, still unidentified, elicited strong responses from the wasps. These results indicate that wasps are able to detect many odorant compounds released by the plants. It remains to be determined how this information is processed and leads to the specific behavior of the parasitoids.

  6. Determinação do poder germinativo de sementes de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Studies on germination of cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zink

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados das determinações do poder germinativo de sementes de sete variedades paulistas de algodoeiro, provenientes de ensaios de competição de variedades instalados nos Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, no ano agrícola de 1966/67. Os testes de germinação foram efetuados simultaneamente no Laboratório de Sementes, do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, e no Laboratório Central, da Divisão de Sementes e Mudas, da Secretaria da Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo. Com referência a plântulas normais e plântulas anormais B (infetadas verificaram-se, conforme o caso, diferenças significativas entre localidades, entre variedades, entre laboratórios e entre substratos, bem como diversas interações envolvendo as variáveis mencionadas.Seeds of seven varieties of cotton produced at different regions of the States of São Paulo and Paraná (Brazil were submitted to germination tests at two laboratories: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC at 20 - 30°C and Divisão de Sementes e Mudas (DSM at 30°C. The substrata used for the tests were cotton towels desinfected differently at each laboratory. The statistical analysis for numbers of normal and abnormal plants (infected showed significant differences between regions, varieties, laboratories and substrata. Several significant interactions including these variables were also detected.

  7. Maize (Zea mays L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Straw Decomposition in Soil: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral Nitrogen and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the present understanding that decomposing straw may not only affect soil properties, but pos-sibly greenhouse gas emissions as well, focus among environmental researchers has gradually expanded toinclude understanding of decomposition rate and stability of straw of different plants in different soils underdifferent management conditions. Against such a background, a short-term (60 days) greenhouse simulationexperiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, external mineral N source and tillageon straw decomposition of maize and cotton in two contrasting soils, a red soil (Ferrasol) and a black soil(Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition only (T1); straw addition + mineral N (T2); and strawaddition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was doneevery 15 days. Placement, addition of external mineral N sources (urea, 46% N), straw type, soil type andexposure duration (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) affected straw decomposition. Decomposition was more in buriedstraw than in surface-placed straw at all sampling dates in red soil. The addition of an external N sourcesignificantly increased decomposition. The study could not, however, fully account for the effect of tillageon straw decomposition because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier tomechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags.

  8. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  9. Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using four sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs. Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N. The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (NF in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (FN or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds. Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines that in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher

  10. Resistances Level of Indian Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Cultivarsagainst Plant Selection Marker Kanamycin and Direct Shoot Organogenesis from Shoot Tip Culture%印度棉花二倍体和四倍体品种对卡那霉素的抗性水平及茎尖培养直接器官发生法诱导成苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. BALASUBRMANI; J. Amudha, C. D. MAYEE

    2002-01-01

    @@ Selection of transformed tissues in the antibiotic medium is an important step for developing transgenic plants. The toxic level of G.arboreum and G. hirsutum cotton cuhivars of Indian origin were tested against kanamycin using different concentrations.

  11. Genomic Differentiation Between Gossypium barbadense and G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) has superior fiber quality properties,while Uplandcotton (G.hirsutum L.) is characterized by its high yield.Although these two species are easilycrossed,it is difficult to integrate their superior genes.It will be very helpful to molecular breedingand evolution study in Gossypium to reveal genomic differentiation between G.barbadense and G.hir-suture.An enhanced genetic map consisting of 2247 loci and covering 3514.6 cM,with an average in-ter-marker distance of 1.5 cM has been developed.

  12. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  13. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  14. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  15. Main: WBOXGACAD1A [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available WBOXGACAD1A S000448 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi W-box found in the promoter region of the CAD...GAC), S000142 (TTGACC); W-box; TGAC; CAD; WRKY; Gossypium arboreum (cotton) AGTCAAAATTGACC ...

  16. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  17. Submission to NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA): Raw read files from manuscript “RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) root tissue under water deficit stress” NCBI SRA Accession No. PRJNA210770

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar Siokra L-23 was grown under rainfed and irrigated treatments in a field with very sandy soil. Root samples were collected for each treatment during the reproductive growth period. The RNA of all root tissues was used in an RNA-seq transcriptome profiling study with an ...

  18. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  19. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasis Panda; Indranil Kirtania

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pol...

  20. Resistência de espécies e cultivares de algodão (Gossypium spp. ao herbicida diuron Resistance of cotton species and cultivars to the herbicide diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. de M. Beltrão

    1983-06-01

    algodão, deve-se levar em consideração, além dos demais fatores já sabidos, o cultivar a ser plantado.To determine the resistance of cotton species and cultivars to the herbicide diuron, a green house test was conducted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Genotypes of the species Gossypium: hirsutum latifolium Hutch. ( cv IAC 17 and BR 1 , G. hirsutum marie galante Hutch. (cv Veludo C 17 , and G. barbadense brasiliense Hutch. (cv rim-de-boi were studied . A split plot in a randomized complete block design was utilized in this experiment. The main plots were the herbicid e dosage (0,0 0, 0,0 48, 0,0 96, 0, 35 7, 0, 71 4 an d 1, 42 8 kg a. i. /h a applied to the sand subs trat when the plants had one or two true leaves, and the subplot were the genotypes. Each plot was represented by a wood bos (3 7 x 47 x 11/cm filled with washed sand. The seeds were acid deslinted before planting. To measure the resistance several parameters were observed such as: Phitotoxicity level 15 days after application, plant height, fresh and dry weight of plants, rate of stem elongation and rate of relative growth of aerial part. The results showed that cv IAC 17 and BR -1 were the most resistant to the chemical stress of the herbicide, the cv Veludo C 71 had in termediate resistance being the cv Rim de Boi the kg a . i . /ha was ha rmful to the plants of this cultivar. The results indicates that one should consider the specie and cultivar, before recommend ingthe application of diuron to a cotton field.

  1. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  2. Comparative analysis of genome-wide divergence, domestication footprints and genome-wide association study of root traits for Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using genome-wide distributed SNPs, we examined ...

  3. Genome-wide divergence, haplotype distribution and population demographic histories for Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense as revealed by genome-anchored SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using the SNPs distributed genome-wide, we exami...

  4. Constructing a high-density linkage map for Gossypium hirsutum ? Gossypium barbadense and identifying QTLs for lint percentage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Shi; Haihong Shang; Juwu Gong; Wankui Gong; Zemao Yang; Feiy Tang; Zhi Liu; Weiping Zhu; Jianxiong Jiang; Xiaonan Yu; Tao Wang; Wentan Li; Wei Wang; Tingting Chen; Kunbo Wang; Zhengsheng Zhang; Youlu Yuan; Aiguo Li; Ruihua Ge; Baocai Zhang; Junzhi Li; Guangping Liu; Junwen Li; Aiying Liu

    2015-01-01

    To introgress the good fiber quality and yield from Gossypium barbadense into a commercial Upland cotton variety, a high‐density simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map was developed from a BC1F1 population of Gossypium hirsutum ? Gossypium barbadense. The map com-prised 2,292 loci and covered 5115.16 centiMorgan (cM) of the cotton AD genome, with an average marker interval of 2.23 cM. Of the marker order for 1,577 common loci on this new map, 90.36% agrees well with the marker order on the D genome sequence genetic map. Compared with five pub-lished high‐density SSR genetic maps, 53.14% of marker loci were newly discovered in this map. Twenty‐six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lint percentage (LP) were identified on nine chromosomes. Nine stable or common QTLs could be used for marker‐assisted selection. Fifty percent of the QTLs were from G. barbadense and increased LP by 1.07%–2.41%. These results indicated that the map could be used for screening chromosome substitution segments from G. barbadense in the Upland cotton background, identifying QTLs or genes from G. barbadense, and further developing the gene pyramiding effect for improving fiber yield and quality.

  5. An integrative analysis of four CESA isoforms specific for fiber cellulose production between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Xia, Tao; Xu, Wen; Chen, Tingting; Li, Xianliang; Fan, Jian; Wang, Ruyi; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai

    2013-06-01

    Cotton fiber is an excellent model system of cellulose biosynthesis; however, it has not been widely studied due to the lack of information about the cellulose synthase (CESA) family of genes in cotton. In this study, we initially identified six full-length CESA genes designated as GhCESA5-GhCESA10. Phylogenetic analysis and gene co-expression profiling revealed that CESA1, CESA2, CESA7, and CESA8 were the major isoforms for secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas CESA3, CESA5, CESA6, CESA9, and CESA10 should involve in primary cell wall formation for cotton fiber initiation and elongation. Using integrative analysis of gene expression patterns, CESA protein levels, and cellulose biosynthesis in vivo, we detected that CESA8 could play an enhancing role for rapid and massive cellulose accumulation in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. We found that CESA2 displayed a major expression in non-fiber tissues and that CESA1, a housekeeping gene like, was predominantly expressed in all tissues. Further, a dynamic alteration was observed in cell wall composition and a significant discrepancy was observed between the cotton species during fiber elongation, suggesting that pectin accumulation and xyloglucan reduction might contribute to cell wall transition. In addition, we discussed that callose synthesis might be regulated in vivo for massive cellulose production during active secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers.

  6. 棉花nodulin-like基因及其启动子的结构特征和遗传表达%Structural Characteristic and Genetic Expression of nodulin-like Gene and Its Promoter in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任茂智; 陈全家; 张锐; 郭三堆

    2004-01-01

    Full-length DNA, cDNA and promoter sequences of nodulin-like gene have been isolated and characterized by isocaudarner inverse PCR (-PCR) and rapid isolating cDNA 5' unknown sequence and promoter (RICUP) methods from cotton. Sequence analysis indicated that nodulin-like gene was 2 353 bp in size, including five introns and six exons. Its full-length cDNA was 1 480 bp, containing an 1 125-bp ORF structure, which encoded a 40.23-kD polypeptide with predicted isoelectric point of 8.433. A check against nr database in GenBank indicated that no DNA sequence was found to share homology with it. Searched in EST database, a 733-bp EST sequence of Gossypium arboreum L. (GenBank asscession number BF271235)was found to share 92% homology with it. Promoter of nodulin-like gene was 1 969 bp in length with several typical sequences, such as initiator, TATA box, CAAT-like box and AT-rich sequence. Southern blotting analysis suggested that one copy of nodulin-like gene was integrated into cotton genome. Northern blotting analysis showed that nodulin-like gene expressed preferentialy in fiber and reproductive organs of cotton, such as bud, flower and boll. Our work provides researchers with candidate genes to improve agronmic traits of cotton and also provide efficient expression elements for problem solving in transgenic Bt cotton, namely resistance to bollworm declining dramatically at late developmental stage of cotton.%用同尾酶反向PCR技术(Ⅱ-PCR)和快速分离目的基因cDNA 5'未知序列方法(RICUP)首次从陆地棉品种Y18(Gossypium arboreum L.Y18)中分离到nodulin-like基因的全长cDNA、DNA和启动子序列.结果表明,该基因全长为2 353 bp,具有5个内含子和6个外显子.cDNA全长1480 bp,含有一个1125 bp的ORF结构,编码375个氨基酸,在GenBank nr数据库中没有与之同源的基因序列,在EST数据库中仅有一条733 bp的亚洲棉纤维EST序列(GenBank登录号:BF271235)与之有92%的同源

  7. Interactions between a cotton phytopathogen and the host using a genomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an economic crop grown worldwide. Numerous G. hirsutum polyploids have been sequenced. Bacterial infections of cotton can cause major yield losses. Pantoea ananatis is a known bacterial pathogen of both cotton buds and bolls. Thus, we conducted a whole genome an...

  8. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  9. Imazamox Tolerance in Mutation Derived Lines of Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of genes conferring herbicide resistance by mutagenesis could facilitate use of imidazolinone herbicides in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 1997 and 1998, seeds of eight High Plains cotton cultivars were treated with 2.45% v/v EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate). The resulting M3 and M...

  10. Phenotypic and molecular evaluation of cotton hairy roots as a model system for studying nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cellular mechanisms that mediate resistance of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium spp.) to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) are poorly understood. Here, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots were investigated as a possible research...

  11. Genomic insights into divergence and dual domestication of cultivated allotetraploid cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton domestication was achieved by converting perennial trees into annual crops. After ploidization, two allotetraploid species, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, were domesticated and are cultivated worldwide. However, the overall genetic diversity between and within the cultivated species is...

  12. Spectral discrimination of two pigweeds from cotton with different leaf colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To implement strategies to control Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) infestations in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, managers need effective techniques to identify the weeds. Leaf light reflectance measurements have shown...

  13. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae: insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Panda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pollen morphology of Ericaceae including Rhododendron, but they did not study different subspecies of R. arboreum. No detailed investigation on leaf anatomy was also reported. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of leaf anatomy and pollen morphology along with herbarium and field based exomorphological data to delimit infraspecific variations in R. arboreum complex.

  14. Inheritance of the delayed gland morphogenesis trait in Australian wild species of Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five Australian wild cotton species with the delayed gland morphogenesis trait, as well as G. arboreum, G. davidsonii and four different gland genotypes of G. hirsutum, Gl2Gl2Gl3Gl3, Gl2Gl2gl3gl3, gl2gl2Gl3Gl3, and gl2gl2gl3gl3, were used in this experiment and 10 interspecific hybrids were obtained by the crossing among them. According to the gland expression on the seeds and plants of the interspecific hybrids, the inheritance of the delayed gland morphogenesis trait of Australian wild cotton species was opened out as follows: (ⅰ) the inheritance of the delayed gland morpho-genesis trait was almost the same among the 5 Australian wild cotton species, and the gene or genes which controlled this trait may be located in the same loci. (ⅱ) The glandless seed trait of the Australian wild cotton species was dominant over the glanded seed trait of G. arboreum, a genome A spe-cies, and the seeds of interspecific hybrid F1 between them were glandless. However, it was recessive over the glanded character of genome D species, G.davidsonii, and their F1 was a typical glanded one. (ⅲ) The glandless seed trait of the Australian wild cotton species was recessive or incomplete dominant over the glanded cotton but dominant over the glandless cotton of G. hirsutum, and the glandless genes (gl2gl2gl3gl3) of upland cotton had great weakening effect on the glanded plant trait of the Australian wild cotton species on the other hand. For the two main glanded genes of upland cotton, the delayed gland morphogenesis trait of the Austra-lian wild cotton species was dominant epistatic over glandless genes, gl2gl2gl3gl3, and one of the glanded genes, Gl2Gl2, but was recessive epistatic over the other glanded gene, Gl3Gl3. Therefore, it is much convenient to use Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as the upland cotton parent in the interspecific hybridization and backcrossing afterward, in order to produce the upland cotton germplasm with glandless seeds and glanded plant trait.

  15. Trivial Sources of Heterosis in Cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAMPBELL B T; BOWMAN D T; WEAVER D B

    2008-01-01

    @@ Historically,re-selection,pedigree,and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).Due to the predominance of these breeding methods,we hypothesize that modern cultivars,as opposed to obsolete cultivars,have accumulated additive genetic effects over time.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  19. Meloidogyne incognita emigration from cotton roots may be induced by the resistance QTL qMi-C11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most widely grown crops in the southern US, and Meloidogyne incognita is the most significant pathogen of cotton in the US. Two QTLs, qMi-C11 and qMi-C14, conferring resistance to M. incognita have been identified in cotton. Previous research docume...

  20. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  1. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  2. Analysis of Complete Nucleotide Sequences of 12 Gossypium Chloroplast Genomes: Origin and Evolution of Allotetraploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Xiong, Guanjun; Li, Pengbo; He, Fei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Kunbo; Li, Zhaohu; Hua, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a model system for the analysis of polyploidization. Although ascertaining the donor species of allotetraploid cotton has been intensively studied, sequence comparison of Gossypium chloroplast genomes is still of interest to understand the mechanisms underlining the evolution of Gossypium allotetraploids, while it is generally accepted that the parents were A- and D-genome containing species. Here we performed a comparative analysis of 13 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, twelve of which are presented here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings The size of 12 chloroplast genomes under study varied from 159,959 bp to 160,433 bp. The chromosomes were highly similar having >98% sequence identity. They encoded the same set of 112 unique genes which occurred in a uniform order with only slightly different boundary junctions. Divergence due to indels as well as substitutions was examined separately for genome, coding and noncoding sequences. The genome divergence was estimated as 0.374% to 0.583% between allotetraploid species and A-genome, and 0.159% to 0.454% within allotetraploids. Forty protein-coding genes were completely identical at the protein level, and 20 intergenic sequences were completely conserved. The 9 allotetraploids shared 5 insertions and 9 deletions in whole genome, and 7-bp substitutions in protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree confirmed a close relationship between allotetraploids and the ancestor of A-genome, and the allotetraploids were divided into four separate groups. Progenitor allotetraploid cotton originated 0.43–0.68 million years ago (MYA). Conclusion Despite high degree of conservation between the Gossypium chloroplast genomes, sequence variations among species could still be detected. Gossypium chloroplast genomes preferred for 5-bp indels and 1–3-bp indels are mainly attributed to the SSR polymorphisms. This study supports that the common ancestor of diploid A-genome species in

  3. 图位克隆法分离陆地棉Velvet绒毛基因%Isolate a Gene for Velvet Hairiness in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) by Map-based Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehboob-ur-RAHMAN; M. A. I. ALI; S. A. RANDNAWA; T. A. MALIK; K. A. MALIK; Y. ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton crop is prone to many insect pests.Finely dense pubescence (pilose/velvet hairy),one of the important elements of defense umbrella confers in built resistance against several insect pests. The present research was conducted to isolate DNA markers for velvet hairiness, which would be useful to launch mapbasedcloning.

  4. Fine Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cotton (Gossypium spp. ) Using RAPD and SSR%棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的SSR及RAPD标记与定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-wang LIU; Wang-zhen GUO; Xie-fei ZHU; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ The heterosis in cotton is much significant,especially in increasing yield andfiber quality.Comparing with hand-emasculation and pollination, and genetic male sterile lines,utilization of CMS lines is much more effective and economical in producing commercial hybrid seeds. Since 1965 in the world, several CMS lines have been developed, such as CMS lines with G.

  5. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  6. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  7. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  8. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  9. GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM LINN: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khaleequr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum Linn is known as cotton plant, belongs to the family Malvaceae, and occupies an imperative place in traditional systems of medicine especially in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines. The plant is widely distributed throughout western India, Africa, Middle East countries, central Asia and graded availability is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Russian and Turkistan. The qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids. The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol, a phenolic compound. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil contains sitosterol, ergostoerol, lipids, gossypol, oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids. The herb has been used traditionally from antiquity, in the treatment of inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, otalgia, sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin diseases. It chiefly possesses antifertlility, galactagogue, antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antibacterial activity. This work is an endeavor to explore and assemble the various pharmacological action and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant G. herbaceum reported till date.

  10. Hybridization between Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium stochsii through embryo rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GILLMANJEETS; YPSBAJAJ

    1996-01-01

    Nutrient media and culture conditions have been defined for ovules 3 and 5 d after pollination and embryos of Gossypium herbaceum respectively.The technique was then used to produce interspecific hybrids between a cultivated Gossypium herbaceum and a wild species,G.stocksii.The hybrid plants were transferred to field and they exhibited most of the characters of the pollen parent i.e.G.stocksii.

  11. Antifungal activity of bioactive constituents and bark extracts of Rhododendron arboreum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Nisar; Sajid Ali; Muhammad Qaisar; Syed Naeemuddin Gilani; Muhammad Raza Shah; Inamullah Khan; Gowhar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum various fractions of bark as well as the isolated compounds were investigated against pathogenic fungi to provide evidence for the folkloric uses reported in the traditional system...

  12. Comparative Transmission Genetics of Introgressed Chromatin in Gossypium Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAGHMARE Vijay N; RONG Jun-kang; ROGERS Carl J; BOWERS John E; PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ Wild relatives and un-adapted germplasm of crop species harbors several adaptive traits.Introgression of genes for economic and adaptive traits brings in novel genetic variation into the gene pools of many crops including cotton.We compared patterns of introgression into polyploid Gossypium hirsuture from its sister G.tomentosum,and from G.barbadense representing a different clade tracing to the same polyploidization.Advanced-generation populations,resulting from recurrent backcrossing to G.hirsutum,show a paucity of G.tomentosum alleles and severe deficiencies of homozygotes.

  13. Hydrolysis of methyl benzoate from Piper arboreum by Naupactus bipes beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Clecio S.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    A new natural product was isolated from Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) leaves, the methyl 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1). The metabolism of P. arboreum leaves by Naupactus bipes beetle (Germar, 1824 - Coleoptera: Curculionidae) led to the hydrolysis of 1 to 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). The structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analysis ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, MS, and IR). (author)

  14. Fingerprinting Analysis of the Introgressed lines from Gossypium hirsutum L.× G.barbadense L.based on AFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-hui; ZHANG Yong; DONG Shun-wen; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ The main cultivated varieties in the world belong to the species of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.),and their genetic background is very narrow.However,the wild species and races in the genus of Gossypium have abundant genetic diversity and possess lots of excellent genes with potential high yield,fine and strong fiber,disease and insect resistance,drought and coldness resistance,male sterility,and so on.

  15. Global Annotation of Small RNA and MicroRNA Mature Sequences from Developing Ovules of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDURAKHMONOV Ibrokhim Y; DEVOR Eric J; HUANG Ling-yan; BURIEV Zabardast T; MAKAMOV Abdusalom; SHERMATOV Shukhrat E; ABDUKARIMOV Abdusattor

    2008-01-01

    @@ The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored.The objective of this work was to directly clone,annotate,and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA/microRNAs (siRNAs/miRNAs) involved in cotton ovule and fiber development.We cloned small RNA sequences from 0~10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing ovules of Gossypium hirsutum var.

  16. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.

  17. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an economically significant disease of cultivated cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense). Fov race 4 has spread among soils planted to cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California and has caused serious losses. Because ...

  18. Microscopic Methods to Evaluate Gland Initiation and Development in Cotton Ovules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands that helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. Cotton seed use is mainly limited to cattle feed, because gossypol is toxic to most animals, except ruminants. Lowering the gossypol content in the seed would increa...

  19. Impact of conservation systems on net returns to cotton production in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    With lower commodity prices and higher production expenses, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers are concerned with maximizing yields, while minimizing production expenses. The adoption of a conservation system, including a winter cover crop, may be a viable option for cotton producers in Alabam...

  20. Effects of Foliar Fertilizer and Mepiquat Penteborate on Early Planted Cotton Growth and Lint Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple growth regulators and foliar fertilizers are currently marketed for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with varying effectiveness in promoting yield improvement. This research addressed the effectiveness of these products in a cotton early planting production system with its higher yiel...

  1. Effects of 1,1-Dimethylpiperidinium Chloride on the Pests and Allelochemicals of Cotton and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. A. Hedin; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; J. E. Mulrooney; W. L. Parrott; A. Borazjani; C. H. Graves; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    The growth regulator, PIX (mepiquat chloride - 1,1-dimethyl-piperdinium chloride), when applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Koch), caused internode shortening. PIX did not elicit an increase in resistance in cotton to the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (Fab.)], or in pecan...

  2. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased

  3. Cotton flowers: Pollen and petal humidity sensitivities determine reproductive competitiveness in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] pollen and identified genetic variability among the six cotton lines studied. Genetic diversity in pollen viability was observed following a 6.5 h exposure to 25% relative humidity (RH). NM67, DP565, and...

  4. Interactions among irrigation and nitrogen fertility regimes on Mid-South cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing costs for irrigation and nitrogen fertilization has led to the desire from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers to make the most efficient use of these inputs. Objectives for this research were to determine how cotton responded to varying levels of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizati...

  5. Re-evaluating the phylogeny of allopolyploid Gossypium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Corrinne E; Gallagher, Joseph P; Jareczek, Josef J; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Gore, Michael A; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2015-11-01

    The formation of allopolyploid cotton precipitated a rapid diversification and colonization of dry coastal American tropical and subtropical regions. Previous phylogenetic analyses, combined with molecular divergence analyses, have offered a temporal framework for this radiation, but provide only weak support for some of the resolved branches. Moreover, these earlier analyses did not include the recently recognized sixth polyploid species, G. ekmanianum Wittmack. Here we use targeted sequence capture of multiple loci in conjunction with both concatenated and Bayesian concordance analyses to reevaluate the phylogeny of allopolyploid cotton species. Although phylogenetic resolution afforded by individual genes is often low, sufficient signal was attained both through the concatenated and concordance analyses to provide robust support for the Gossypium polyploid clade, which is reported here.

  6. 棉属的种质资源%Gossypium Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. G. PERCY

    2002-01-01

    @@ The genetic variability residing in diploid and tetraploid species of the Gossypium genus represents a large, under-utilized resource in current cotton improvement efforts. Genetic diversity in elite germplasm is reported to be narrow. Actual diversity on the land is narrower, due to preferential mass planting of successful cultivars and breeding techniques that tend to promote an over-reliance on a few genotypes.

  7. Physiological Response of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Seedling to Exog-enous Salicylic Acid under Low Temperature Stress%低温胁迫下棉花幼苗对外源水杨酸的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛慧慧; 李防洲; 侯振安; 冶军; 康文晶; 罗建

    2014-01-01

    Alleviating effect of exogenous salicylic acid on the cotton seedling under low temperature stress was elucidated by foliar-sprayed with different concentrations of salicylic acid. The results showed that 0.6-0.8 mmol·L-1 salicylic acid pretreatment could signiifcantly reduce the accumulation of the relative conductivity (REC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the cotton seedling, which alleviated the oxidative damage of low temperature on plasma membrane. And the salicylic acid pretreatment could improve the activities of su-peroxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the contents of soluble sugar, soluble pro-tein, proline to adapt to low temperature environment.%以棉花幼苗为试材,通过叶面喷施不同浓度水杨酸的处理方法,研究外源水杨酸对低温胁迫下棉花幼苗的缓解效应。结果表明,0.6~0.8 mmol·L-1水杨酸预处理可以显著降低棉花幼苗叶片相对电导率(REC)和丙二醛(MDA)的积累量,从而缓解低温对质膜的过氧化伤害,并通过提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性和可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、脯氨酸等渗透调节物质的含量来适应低温环境。

  8. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  9. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  10. Application of Gibberellic Acid on Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJAFARI-MOFIDABADI; A; RANJBERAN; F; SOLTANLOO; H

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellic acid growth regulator was used to develop interspecific hybrids between tetraploid and diploid species to increase the genetic variability in cotton.In order to retain bolls and seed set in triploid hybrids,emasculated flowers of two Gossypium hirsutum commercial varieties(Sahel and Sephid)

  11. Nitrogen fertilizer response of cotton in rotation with summer legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of using summer legumes as N sources in corn and vegetable rotations has recently been documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using summer legumes [Crotolaria juncea and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)] as an N source for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pro...

  12. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Jie; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased the production costs.So the breeding for dwarf plant is the best way to solve this problem.In the past,some dwarf mutants of cotton with recessive gene controlled were reported.

  13. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  14. SENSIBILIDADE DE Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, A FUNGICIDAS “IN VITRO” E EM PLÂNTULAS DE ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L., EM CONDIÇÕES DE CASA DE VEGETAÇÃO SENSIBILITY OF Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn TO FUNGICIDES “IN VITRO” AND IN COTTON PLANTULES (Gossypium hirsutum L AT GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram instalados nas dependências do Departamento Fitossanitário da Escola de Agronomia - UFG, ensaio “in vitro”, em BDA2 e a nível de Casa de Vegetação, objetivando testar a eficiência de diferentes dosagens de Iprodione + Thiran (Rovrin em comparação com PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR, TMTD (Rhodiauran 70 e Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, na cultura do algodoeiro, através do tratamento de sementes. Os resultados obtidos, nas condições de realização dos ensaios, permitem concluir que os fungicidas Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes mostraram-se eficientes e não diferiram estatisticamente entre si no controle de R. solani, enquanto que o produto TMTD (Rhodiauran 70 na dosagem de 280 g.i.a./100 litros de água ou 100 kg de sementes de algodoeiro não se mostrou eficiente no controle deste agente causal.

    Aiming to test the efficiency of different dosages of Iprodione + Thiram (Rovrin in comparison with PCNB (Brassicol 75 BR, TMTD (Rhodiauran 70 and Captan + Pencycuron (Monceren for controlling Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, in cotton plantation, through seeds treatment, was mounted essays “in vitro” at greenhouse level and BDA, in the Phytosanitary Department annexes of School of Agronomy-UFG. The results obtained, at essays conditions, permit to conclude that fungicides Rovrin - 320 g.i.a., Monceren - 210 g.i.a., Rovrin - 240 g.i.a., Rovrin - 200 g.i.a., PCNB - 450 g.i.a./l00 liters of water or 100kg of seeds, were efficient and statistically had no variation among them, in controlling R. solani, while chemical product TMTD (Rhodiauran 70, at dosage of 280 g.i.a./100 liters of water or 100 kg of cotton seeds, was not efficient in controlling this causal

  15. FISHy Analysis of Tetraploid Cotton Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STELLY; David

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH) is an important technique in plant genome research,because it provides integrated information about DNA,chromosomes and genomes.Genomic in situ hybridization(GISH) is a modification of FISH that can be used to rapidly compare genome content,relatedness,organization and/or behavior.GISH results often provide insight into genome evolution and species relationships.The cotton genus Gossypium consists of about 50 species,including 5 AADD

  16. RAPD and SCAR Markers for Dominant Glandless Gene in Gossypium hirsutum L.%陆地棉显性无腺体基因的RAPD和SCAR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan JIANG; Kun-bo WANG; Guo-li SONG; Wen-sheng ZHANG; Rong-xia CUI

    2002-01-01

    @@ Glandless or gossypol free cottons are of great value to develop the utilizations of cottonseeds and cotton scientists have been interested in developing more applicable glandless cultivars.Common glandless cotton are generated by recessive genes, such as gl2 and gl3. A dominant glandless mutant has been discovered in Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. )The gene was transformed into G. hirsutum and was proved as dominant single gene Gl2e( Xian-he Zhan, 1987 ), being attractive for many genetists and breeders to pay more attention to study on it including its genetic markers.

  17. A strategy for designing multi-taxa specific reference gene systems. example of application--ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) used for the detection and quantification of three taxa: maize (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Giancola, Sandra; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2007-10-03

    In the first part of the paper, we report the description of a new strategy for the development of a plant reference gene system that can be used for genetically modified organism (GMO) analysis. On the basis of in silico research for candidate genes, the design of degenerate primers allowed the obtention of genomic sequences of the selected gene ppi-phosphofructokinase ( ppi-PPF) for nine taxa in which GMOs have been developed. The comparison and the analysis of inter- and intraspecies sequence variability were performed using a large number of species and cultivars. As an example of application following the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, we designed specific conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection and quantification of three taxa, namely, maize, cotton, and rice. This system was highly specific and sensitive. The gene copy number conservation among different cultivars was analyzed and confirmed with a sequencing step. This reference gene system is adequate for use in routine assays for the quantification of GMOs. We then explain briefly the constraints faced and propose recommendations when designing a reference gene system depending on the species to be targeted.

  18. Identification and Cloning of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) Encoding NBS-LRR Proteins from Gossypium arboreum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen; BASHIR Afiab; BRIDDON Rob W; MANSOOR Shahid

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plants have developed a complicated defense mechanism during evolution to resist the harmful pathogens they encountered.The mechanism involves the interaction of the plant resistance (R) gene product with the component from the pathogen.This interaction further activates the signal transdue tion pathway,thus leading to defense responses.These defense responses include a hypersensitive response that results in localized cell death,and other general responses such as strengthening of the cell wall,formation of phytoalexins,etc.

  19. Xyloglucan breakdown during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-11-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fibers elongated almost linearly up to about 20 days post anthesis. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in fiber cell walls decreased gradually during the elongation stage. When enzymatically active (native) cell wall preparations of fibers were autolyzed, the molecular mass of xyloglucans decreased. The decrease was most prominent in wall preparations obtained from the rapidly elongating fibers. The xyloglucan-degrading activity was recovered from the fiber cell walls with 3 mol/L NaCl, and the activity was high at the stages in which fibers elongated vigorously. These results suggest the possible involvement of xyloglucan metabolism in the regulation of cotton fiber elongation.

  20. Cover crop management practices-implications for early season weed control in conservation tillage corn cotton rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the winter cover crops is an integral component of the conservation systems in corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). A field experiment was initiated in 2004 to evaluate weed suppression provided by winter cover crops in a conservation tillage corn and cotton rotation. Rotati...

  1. Chromosome Substitution Lines in Cotton Improvement%用于棉花改良的染色体置换系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukumar SAHA; Dwaine A. RASKA; Osman A. GUTIéRREZ; Johnie N. JENKINS; Jack C. McCARTY, Jr.; Roy G. CANTRELL; Richard G. PERCY; David M. STELLY

    2002-01-01

    @@ Presently cotton breeders are confronting serious challenges due to the extensive use of narrow genetic base in Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. Unique germplasm that incorporates new alleles must be developed to provide improved genetic potential for yield, pest and disease resistance.

  2. Assessing the Economic Impact of inversion tillage, cover crops, and herbicide regimes in palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) infested cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers in Alabama and across the Cotton Belt are faced with a rapidly expanding problem that decreases yields and increases production costs: herbicide-resistant weeds. Producers are increasingly relying on production methods that raise production costs, such as add...

  3. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  4. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  5. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aimondii_NL.png Gossypium_raimondii_S.png Gossypium_raimondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=NS ...

  7. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  8. CRITICAL COMPETITION PERIOD BETWEEN COTTON AND (Gossypium hirsutum L. HARMFUL WEED COMMUNITIES IN THE GOIÁS STATE PERÍODO CRÍTICO DE COMPETIÇÃO ENTRE COMUNIDADES DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E O ALGODOEIRO (Gossypium hirsutum L. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando M. Macêdo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to study the critical time that weeds compete with the cotton plant, five trial experiments were conducted from 1978-1981. Two of the trials were carried out in a dark red latosoil with 4.70% organic matter and 10.73% clay, at the Rio Verde Agricultural School in the state of Goiás, during the 1978—79 and 1979—80 planting seasons. The other three were carried out in dark red latosoil, with a loam clay texture, moderate acidity and a low proportion of organic matter, at the Experimental station in Goiânia, Goiás during the 1978—79, 1979—80 and 1980—81 planting seasons. The treatments designed were: weeding up to 2, 4, 6, 8 first weeks, and weeding during the whole cycle ,and weeding after the 2, 4, 6, 8 first weeks and no weeding at all during the cycle. The results showed that weed competition , when not controlled, determined a yield loss of 88.75% in Goiânia and 90.65% in Rio Verde. Regarding the group control, which was maintained without weed competition, the best yield was obtained when the cotton was maintained without competition during eight weeks after the emergence in Rio Verde and during 4, 6, 8 weeks in Goiânia. The critical competition period occurred between the fourth and sixth weeks after the emergence in Rio Verde and in the fourth week after the emergence in Goiânia.

    Com a finalidade de estudar as épocas críticas de competição de plantas daninhas com o algodoeiro (Gossipium hirsutum L. , foram instalados cinco ensaios em área do Colégio Agrícola de Rio Verde — Goiás, no período de 1978 a 1981, sendo dois ensaios nos anos agrícolas de 1978/79 e 1979/80 em latossolo vermelho—escuro com 4,71% de matéria orgânica e 10,73% de argila. Os outros três ensaios foram instalados nos anos agrícolas 1978/79, 1979/80 e 1980/81, em área da Estação Experimental de

  9. System Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Cotton(Gossypium Hirsutum L.) in Xinjiang%农杆菌介导转化新疆棉花体系的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 聂祥祥; 李冠

    2013-01-01

    以新疆主栽棉花品种新陆早19号和新陆早23号下胚轴为外植体,以GUS基因为报告基因,通过检测GUS基因在转化后的棉花下胚轴中瞬时表达情况,分析了菌液浓度、浸染时间、乙酰丁香酮浓度、超声波辅助处理、共培养温度和共培养时间等因素对GUS瞬时表达的影响.实验结果表明:菌液浓度OD600=0.5,浸染时间15 min,乙酰丁香酮浓度100μmol/L,24°C共培养72 h的转化条件下GUS基因瞬时表达率最高.%The hypocotyls of Xinluzao19 and Xinluzao23 were used for the experiments.GUS gene as the report gene,the transient expression of GUS gene in the transformed hypocotyls of cotton were examined to analyze the influences of Agrobacterium density,infection time,acetosyringone (AS) concentration,sonication treatment,co-cultivation temperature and co-cultivation time on the expression of GUS gene.As the results,the optimal infection combination was Agrobacterium density at OD600=0.5 with 15 min infection.The perfect acetosyringone concentration was 100 μmol/L,the appropriate co-cultivation temperature and time were incubated at 24°C for 72 h.

  10. 棉花种仁含油量与主要经济性状相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Seed Kernel Oil Content and Major Economic Traits in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝生; 刘素恩; 王凯辉; 耿香利; 张香云; 耿军义; 赵存鹏

    2013-01-01

    高油分棉花品种选育成为棉花育种一个新的研究方向,明确陆地棉棉子油分含量与其他主要经济性状的关系对高油品种选育具有重要指导意义.本研究利用DPS V3.01数据处理软件分析了108份不同种质的种仁油分含量与粗蛋白含量、皮棉产量、衣分、铃重、单株结铃数、纤维长度、比强度及马克隆值和枯萎病病情指数、黄萎病病情指数等主要农艺性状的相关性.研究发现棉花种仁油分含量与棉花的皮棉产量、单株成铃、铃重和衣分主要产量构成性状不存在显著相关;棉花种仁油分与纤维整齐度指数、伸长率呈显著正相关;与纤维上半部平均长度有一定的正相关,但是没有达到统计学意义上的显著水平;与纤维比强度和纤维细度间无相关性;棉花种仁油分与枯萎病抗性有微弱的负相关,与黄萎病抗性不存在相关性.但是棉花种仁蛋白含量与油分含量存在显著负相关.本研究表明育种中提高陆地棉油分含量不会影响其皮棉产量,对抗病性的影响也很微弱,并且对纤维品质的提高有一定的促进作用.因此,在保证棉花枯萎病和黄萎病抗性、皮棉产量和纤维品质的基础上,选育高油分含量的棉花新品种是切实可行的,但选育种仁油分和蛋白质含量均高的品种难度较大.%One of the new directions in cotton breeding is to develop varieties with high oil content.In this study,we analyzed the relationships between the oil content of cottonseed kemels and other selected major economic traits of cotton.We used the DPS V3.01 data processing system to calculate linear correlation coefficients using experimental data for cottonseed oil content and other agronomic characteristics obtained from 108 cotton lines.There were no significant correlations between oil content and lint yield,boll numbers per plant,boll weight,and lint percentage.There were significant positive

  11. Protoplast culture and protoplast symmetric fusion in cotton%棉花原生质体培养和原生质体对称融合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉强

    2011-01-01

    morphologically intermediated fusion parents,apt to wild cotton parent. Cytological examinations and flow cytometric analysis showed that all of the tested plants were hexaploids with chromosomes (2n=2x=78),or aneuploids nearing 78 chromosomes,the sum of that of parents,and were somatic hybrids. Analysis of RAPD and other molecular markers demonstrated that the majority of regenerated plants had its parents' specific bands. Somatic hybrid plants of Coker 201+G. Klotzschianum,Coker 201+G. Davidsonii flowered and set bolls in green house, but difficultly flowered outside in the field. Somatic hybrid plants of Coker 201+G. Bickii,Coker 201+G. Stockii flowered and set bolls at fall in the field and at winter in the green house. The fertility of four somatic hybrids was comparatively high, perhaps related with photoperiod response. Somatic hybrid callus was obtained from G. Arboreum + G. Stockii,but this callus differentiated very difficultly. It is the first report on production of somatic hybrid plants between cultivars and wild species via protoplast fusion in cotton.4. In this research, we studied various factors in efforts to improve somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in wild cottons through 3 aspects of somatic cell culture, protoplast culture in wild cotton species and regeneration of somatic hybrids between wild speciesand cultivars,in order to improve the efficiency of regeneration in wild cotton species and broarden the range of wild species in which plant regenerated via somatic embryogenesis.%根据增加棉花基因库多样性的迫切需要,棉花改良计划正在转向于多种分子育种技术的应用和资源的利用.丰富的棉花野生种(Gossypium spp.)是栽培棉遗传改良重要的种质资源和更新资源,并成为宝贵的遗传资源库,野生棉研究利用对栽培棉的遗传改良有着重大的现实和理论意义及潜在的应用价值.由于野生种和栽培种亲缘关系较远,杂交往往很难成功,或者F1代没有育性,或者育性很低.

  12. Chromosome Substitution Lines:Useful Genomic Resources in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genus Gossypium is a very diverse one with about 50 species.However,a very narrow germplasm base is presently being used for genetic improvement of Upland cotton.The wild tetraploid cotton species are reservoirs of important genes for pest and disease resistance,and for improved agronomic and fiber traits.Two of the most important forces impeding Upland cotton improvement are" 1)the paucity of information about genes that control important traits,and 2) the need for extensive usage of diverse germplasm.

  13. Cytogenetics and the Utilization of Gossypium Germplasm%棉属种质资源的细胞遗传学研究和利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David STELLY

    2002-01-01

    @@ Interspecific introgression contributes significantly to genetic improvement of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ). Cytogenetics has figured prominently in the creation of interspecific hybrids, synthetic polyploids,backcrosses, and other stocks essential to earlyand mid-stage manipulation of germplasm at genome-wide and chromosome-specific levels.

  14. Comparative genomics of Gossypium and Arabidopsis: Unraveling the consequences of both ancient and recent polyploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Junkang; Bowers, John E.; Schulze, Stefan R.; Waghmare, Vijay N.; Rogers, Carl J.; Pierce, Gary J.; Zhang, Hua; Estill, James C.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Both ancient and recent polyploidy, together with post-polyploidization loss of many duplicated gene copies, complicates angiosperm comparative genomics. To explore an approach by which these challenges might be mitigated, genetic maps of extant diploid and tetraploid cottons (Gossypium spp.) were used to infer the approximate order of 3016 loci along the chromosomes of their hypothetical common ancestor. The inferred Gossypium gene order corresponded more closely than the original maps did to a similarly inferred ancestral gene order predating an independent paleopolyploidization (α) in Arabidopsis. At least 59% of the cotton map and 53% of the Arabidopsis transcriptome showed correspondence in multilocus gene arrangements based on one or both of two software packages (CrimeStatII, FISH). Genomic regions in which chromosome structural rearrangement has been rapid (obscuring gene order correspondence) have also been subject to greater divergence of individual gene sequences. About 26%-44% of corresponding regions involved multiple Arabidopsis or cotton chromosomes, in some cases consistent with known, more ancient, duplications. The genomic distributions of multiple-locus probes provided early insight into the consequences for chromosome structure of an ancient large-scale duplication in cotton. Inferences that mitigate the consequences of ancient duplications improve leveraging of genomic information for model organisms in the study of more complex genomes. PMID:16109973

  15. Physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayaka, H Harish; Molin, William T; Sterling, Tracy M

    2003-10-01

    The influence of plant interference and a mild drought on gas exchange and oxidative stress was investigated using potted plants of two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Delta Pine 5415, and Gossypium barbadense L. cv. Pima S-7) and spurred anoda (Anoda cristata L. Schlecht.) of the Malvaceae. Without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis (Pnet) but different pigment profiles. Stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were greater in spurred anoda than cotton. Net photosynthesis and biomass in cotton were reduced more by spurred anoda interference than by intraspecific interference. With interference, the xanthophyll cycle conversion state and alpha-tocopherol levels increased in cotton, but remained unchanged in spurred anoda. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were not influenced by plant interference. Without interference, spurred anoda had lower APX, and similar catalase and GR activities compared with cotton. Mild drought increased APX activity more than 40% in cotton, and 26% in spurred anoda. Upon drought recovery, drought-induced APX activity was still higher in cotton, and GR activity was higher in previously drought-stressed cotton and spurred anoda plants compared with well-watered plants. The greater impact of spurred anoda interference than intraspecific interference on cotton biomass is due mainly to reduced carbon gain in cotton.

  16. Molecular evolution of the clustered MIC-3 multigene family of Gossypium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Stelly, David M; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2011-12-01

    The Gossypium MIC-3 (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton-3) gene family is of great interest for molecular evolutionary studies because of its uniqueness to Gossypium species, multi-gene content, clustered localization, and root-knot nematode resistance-associated features. Molecular evolution of the MIC-3 gene family was studied in 15 tetraploid and diploid Gossypium genotypes that collectively represent seven phylogenetically distinct genomes. Synonymous (d(S)) and non-synonymous (d(N)) nucleotide substitution rates suggest that the second of the two exons of the MIC-3 genes has been under strong positive selection pressure, while the first exon has been under strong purifying selection to preserve function. Based on nucleotide substitution rates, we conclude that MIC-3 genes are evolving by a birth-and-death process and that a 'gene amplification' mechanism has helped to retain all duplicate copies, which best fits with the "bait and switch" model of R-gene evolution. The data indicate MIC-3 gene duplication events occurred at various rates, once per 1 million years (MY) in the allotetraploids, once per ~2 MY in the A/F genome clade, and once per ~8 MY in the D-genome clade. Variations in the MIC-3 gene family seem to reflect evolutionary selection for increased functional stability, while also expanding the capacity to develop novel "switch" pockets for responding to diverse pests and pathogens. Such evolutionary roles are congruent with the hypothesis that members of this unique resistance gene family provide fitness advantages in Gossypium.

  17. Uma nova espécie para o gênero Gossypium L. A new tetraploid species of the genus Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condorcet Aranha

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie é descrita, pertencente ao gênero Gossypium L. O material procede da Serra da Formiga, município de Caicó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, onde foi colhido em meio da vegetação natural pela equipe da Seção de Algodão, do Instituto Agronômico, em setembro de 1963 ². Foi denominado Gossypium caicoense, Condorcet, Hermógenes et Imre. Possui 52 cromossomos, como as espécies tetraplóides do gênero. Seu estudo posterior em casa de vegetação permitiu diferenciá-lo das demais espécies tetraplóides e das descrições existentes de algodoeiros indígenas do Brasil. Os dados de um estudo comparativo são discutidos a fim de apontar as diferenças dessa espécie para com as espécies G. hirsutum L. e G. barbadense L. var. brasiliense.A new species of tetraploid cotton, Gossypium caicoense, Condorcet, Hermógenes et Imre, is described. It was collected as a wild component of the natural vegetation in the "Serra da Formiga", near Caicó, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, by research workers of the Cotton Section of the "Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo", in September of 1963. Its chromosome number is 2n = 52. It was cultivated and studied in greenhouse conditions at the referred Institute and showed significant morphological differences when compared to the known tetraploid species of the Genus as well as to existing descriptions of Brazilian native types of cotton. A discussion of the data obtained by a comparative study establishes the main morphological differences between G. caicoense and the cultivated species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense var. brasiliense.

  18. The cotton centromere contains a Ty3-gypsy-like LTR retroelement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Luo

    Full Text Available The centromere is a repeat-rich structure essential for chromosome segregation; with the long-term aim of understanding centromere structure and function, we set out to identify cotton centromere sequences. To isolate centromere-associated sequences from cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum we surveyed tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA in the genus. Centromere-associated elements in other plants include tandem repeats and, in some cases, centromere-specific retroelements. Examination of cotton genomic survey sequences for tandem repeats yielded sequences that did not localize to the centromere. However, among the repetitive sequences we also identified a gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon (Centromere Retroelement Gossypium, CRG that localizes to the centromere region of all chromosomes in domestic upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, the major commercially grown cotton. The location of the functional centromere was confirmed by immunostaining with antiserum to the centromere-specific histone CENH3, which co-localizes with CRG hybridization on metaphase mitotic chromosomes. G. hirsutum is an allotetraploid composed of A and D genomes and CRG is also present in the centromere regions of other AD cotton species. Furthermore, FISH and genomic dot blot hybridization revealed that CRG is found in D-genome diploid cotton species, but not in A-genome diploid species, indicating that this retroelement may have invaded the A-genome centromeres during allopolyploid formation and amplified during evolutionary history. CRG is also found in other diploid Gossypium species, including B and E2 genome species, but not in the C, E1, F, and G genome species tested. Isolation of this centromere-specific retrotransposon from Gossypium provides a probe for further understanding of centromere structure, and a tool for future engineering of centromere mini-chromosomes in this important crop species.

  19. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a focus for discovery of resistance (R) or pathoge...

  20. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira; Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto; Hudson Fernando Moura; Leonardo Lima Pepino de Macedo; Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes; Wagner Alexandre Lucena; Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessuti; Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa; Maria Cristina Mattar Silva; Maria Fátima eGrossi de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  1. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Verma; Amresh, G; PK Sahu; Rao, Ch. V.; Anil Pratap Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore and identify the most potent antihyperglycemic fraction from the ethanol extract of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) flowers. Methods: Normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with all four fractions of R. arboreum flowers for short term and with fraction 3 for long term study. On completion of the treatment, a range of indicators were tested including fasting blood glucose, plasma protein, haemoglobin A1C, insulin secretion, body weight, blood ...

  2. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  3. Meiosis in a triploid hybrid of Gossypium: high frequency of secondary bipolar spindles at metaphase II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mosareza Vafaie-Tabar; Shanti Chandrashekaran

    2007-01-01

    Studies on meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of a triploid interspecific hybrid ($3x = 39$ chromosomes, AAD) between tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum ($4n = 2x = 52$,AADD) and diploid G. arboreum ($2n = 2x = 26$,AA) are reported. During meiotic metaphase I, 13 AA bivalents and 13 D univalents are expected in the hybrid. However, only 28% of the PMCs had this expected configuration. The rest of the PMCs had between 8 and 12 bivalents and between 12 and 17 univalents. Univalents lagged at anaphase I, and at metaphase II one or a group of univalents remained scattered in the cytoplasm and failed to assemble at a single metaphase plate. Primary bipolar spindles organized around the bivalents and multivalents. In addition to the primary spindle, several secondary and smaller bipolar spindles organized themselves around individual univalents and groups of univalents. Almost all (97%) of the PMCs showed secondary spindles. Each spindle functioned independently and despite their multiple numbers in a cell, meiosis I proceeded normally, with polyad formation. These observations strongly support the view that in plant meiocytes bilateral kinetochore symmetry is not required for establishing a bipolar spindle and that single unpaired chromosomes can initiate and stabilize the formation of a functional bipolar spindle.

  4. GraP: platform for functional genomics analysis of Gossypium raimondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Guo, Jinyan; You, Qi; Yi, Xin; Ling, Yi; Xu, Wenying; Hua, Jinping; Su, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most important natural fiber and oil crops worldwide. Improvement of fiber yield and quality under changing environments attract much attention from cotton researchers; however, a functional analysis platform integrating omics data is still missing. The success of cotton genome sequencing and large amount of available transcriptome data allows the opportunity to establish a comprehensive analysis platform for integrating these data and related information. A comprehensive database, Platform of Functional Genomics Analysis in Gossypium raimondii (GraP), was constructed to provide multi-dimensional analysis, integration and visualization tools. GraP includes updated functional annotation, gene family classifications, protein-protein interaction networks, co-expression networks and microRNA-target pairs. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis and cis-element significance analysis tools are also provided for gene batch analysis of high-throughput data sets. Based on these effective services, GraP may offer further information for subsequent studies of functional genes and in-depth analysis of high-throughput data. GraP is publically accessible at http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/GraP/, with all data available for downloading. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P; Gupta, Amresh; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V

    2011-11-01

    To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (Parboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products.

  6. Development of New lnterspecific Monosomic F1 Substitution Stocks for Investigations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANAMYAN M F; PETLYAKOVA J E; SHARIPOVA E A; RAKHMATULLINA E M

    2008-01-01

    @@ As it is known a complete coverage of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome with hypoaneuploids is not still realized.Therefore the detection of new types of aneuploids especially in different cytogenetic collections is very useful.In Uzbekistan,long-term investigations towards development of cytogenetic stocks that use different types of irradiation as a source of aberrations are carried out.As a result,many translocation lines and primary monosomics in cotton G.hirsutum were isolated.

  7. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  8. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Verma; Singh, Anil P; Amresh Gupta; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling...

  9. Isolation, Characterization and Activity of the Flowers of Rhododendron arboreum (Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar Sonar; Ranjit Singh; Shagufta Khan; Saraf, Shailendra K.

    2012-01-01

    The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid) was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC,...

  10. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari A; Bhatt J; Mittal A

    2016-01-01

    Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ) in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, fl...

  11. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    OpenAIRE

    Rajal Debnath; Archana Yadav; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Bhim Pratap Singh; Pratap Jyoti Handique; Ratul Saikia

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences i...

  12. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. .... All cultures were maintained at 28 ± 2°C under a light intensity of approximately 2000 ..... artificial seeds in forage legumes. Seed Sci.

  13. Genetic divergence among African and American cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... through random amplified polymorphism (RAPD) molecular markers among the ... more precise and detailed information regarding to poly- .... Primer Total of band Polymorphic band Monomorphic band Polymorphism (%).

  14. Captures of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to trap distance from cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Once populations of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) are suppressed, eradication programs rely on pheromone trap-based monitoring for timely detection of weevil populations in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Delayed detection may increase the costs of remedial treatments, and permit rep...

  15. Genetic diversity, virulence, and Meloidogyne incognita interactions of Fusarium oxysporum isolates causing cotton wilt in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally severe outbreaks of Fusarium wilt of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in South Georgia raised concerns about the genotypes of the causal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Vegetative complementation tests and DNA sequence analysis were used to determine genetic diversity among 492 F. ox...

  16. Cotton Flowers: Pollen and Petal Humidity Sensitivities Determine Reproductive Competitiveness in Diverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity in reproductive abiotic stress tolerance has been reported for cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] based upon the percentage of anther dehiscence of mature pollen in adverse environments. This study investigated the abiotic stress tolerance of mature pollen and identified genetic vari...

  17. Nitrogen fertilizer sources and tillage effects on cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) as a N fertilizer is increasing due, in part, to increased restriction on ammonium nitrate. This has resulted in UAS being marketed as an alternative fertilizer source; however, UAS has not been widely tested. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field study was c...

  18. The Utilization of HB-red Flower in Hybrid Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liu-ming; WANG Jia-bao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The HB-red flower trait came from the filial generation of the interspecific cross of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and G.bickii.It exhibits pink petals and filaments,with a large purplish red spot in the petal base,and it showed single dominant gene inheritance.Backcrossing since 2000 was used to produce HB near-isogenic lines.

  19. Development of New Interspecific Monosomic F_1 Substitution Stocks for Investigations in Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANAMYAN; M; F; PETLYAKOVA; J; E; SHARIPOVA; E; A; RAKHMATULLINA; E; M

    2008-01-01

    As it is known a complete coverage of cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome with hypoaneuploids is not still realized.Therefore the detection of new types of aneuploids especially in different cytogenetic collections is very useful.In Uzbekistan,long-term investigations towards development of

  20. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US. Problems with these systems arise when nutrients are transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of tillage...

  1. Employing broadband spectra and cluster analysis to assess thermal defoliation of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growers and field scouts need assistance in surveying cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields subjected to thermal defoliation to reap the benefits provided by this nonchemical defoliation method. A study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectral data and unsupervised classification as tools for s...

  2. Evaluation of Variable Rate Application of Nematicides in Cotton According to Nematode Risk Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield losses by southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] (RKN) have increased during the last 20 years. Site-specific management (SSM) of nematicides is a promising method to reduce yield losses, increase profitability and reduce adverse environmental i...

  3. Cotton Yield Response to Variable Rate Nematicides According to Risk Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield losses by southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita] (RKN) have increased during the last 20 years. Site-specific management (SSM) of nematicides is a promising method to reduce yield losses, increase profitability and reduce adverse environmental i...

  4. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was c...

  5. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.

  6. Development of Isogenic Restorer Line in Extra Long Staple Cotton Variety Suvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manickam, K. N. Gururajan and N. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important commercial crop of India and heterosis in cotton is well documented with 7 to 50per cent heterosis in interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense hybrids, 10 to 138 per cent in intra-hirsutum hybrids andupto 220 per cent in desi (G. herbaceum x G. arboreum hybrids. Currently hybrid cotton, especially Bt cotton hybrids,occupies more than 80 per cent of cultivated area under cotton in India. Male sterility system offers tremendousadvantage to produce quality hybrid seeds at affordable price so that even marginal farmers can take up hybridcultivation. In cotton both GMS and CGMS systems are available. In cotton, two types of male sterility viz., Genic(GMS and Cytoplasmic-Genic (CGMS systems have been identified. Both the systems have been utilized for thecommercial hybrid seed production in India and other countries. In CGMS system, the male parent of the hybrid needsto be converted into Restorer line. In cotton, Suvin is the only extra long staple G. barbadense variety available which iscapable of spinning to 120s count yarn. This variety has been successfully converted into Restorer line through backcross breeding utilizing Pima Restorer as the donor parent. Suvin Restorer is found to stably restore fertility in differentCMS lines of G. hirsutum. The interspecific hybrids developed using Suvin Restorer was found to combine both highyield and superior fibre quality capable of spinning upto 80s count and are comparable with conventional check hybrids.

  7. 棉花纤维和衣分等基因系的收集和遗传学研究%Genetics and the Genetic Collection of Isogenic Lines of Seed Lint Type and Fiber Output in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. A. MUSAEV; M. F. ABZALOV; A. S. ALMATOV; T. TURABEKOV; S. T. MUSAEVA; G. N. FATKHULLAEVA; N. G. GUBANOVA; Kh. A. AKHMEDOV

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a result of long standing investigation on urgent problems of amphidiploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum genetics, for the first time genetic determination of the most important traits has been established, and the unique genetic collection of homozygous isogenic lines has been developed. A scientifically wellfounded theory about combined types of polygene interaction in genetic determination of tracts in cotton, has been developed.

  8. Chado use case: storing genomic, genetic and breeding data of Rosaceae and Gossypium crops in Chado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Ficklin, Stephen; Yu, Jing; Cheng, Chun-Huai; Main, Dorrie

    2016-01-01

    The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) and CottonGen are comprehensive online data repositories that provide access to integrated genomic, genetic and breeding data through search, visualization and analysis tools for Rosaceae crops and Gossypium (cotton). These online databases use Chado, an open-source, generic and ontology-driven database schema for biological data, as the primary data storage platform. Chado is highly normalized and uses ontologies to indicate the 'types' of data. Therefore, Chado is flexible such that it has been used to house genomic, genetic and breeding data for GDR and CottonGen. These data include whole genome sequence and annotation, transcripts, molecular markers, genetic maps, Quantitative Trait Loci, Mendelian Trait Loci, traits, germplasm, pedigrees, large scale phenotypic and genotypic data, ontologies and publications. We provide information about how to store these types of data in Chado using GDR and CottonGen as examples sites that were converted from an older legacy infrastructure. Database URL: GDR (www.rosaceae.org), CottonGen (www.cottongen.org).

  9. Structural analysis of Gossypium hirsutum fibers grown under greenhouse and hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Friedrich, Norman; Köck, Margret; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Paris, Oskar; Paschke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    Cotton is the one of the world's most important crops. Like any other crop, cotton growth/development and fiber quality is highly dependent on environmental factors. Increasing global weather instability has been negatively impacting its economy. Cotton is a crop that exerts an intensive pressure over natural resources (land and water) and demands an overuse of pesticides. Thus, the search for alternative cotton culture methods that are pesticide-free (biocotton) and enable customized standard fiber quality should be encouraged. Here we describe a culture of Gossypium hirsutum ("Upland" Cotton) utilizing a greenhouse and hydroponics in which the fibers are morphological similar to conventional cultures and structurally fit into the classical two-phase cellulose I model with 4.19nm crystalline domains surrounded by amorphous regions. These fibers exhibit a single crystalline form of cellulose I-Iß, monoclinic unit cell. Fiber quality bulk analysis shows an improved length, strength, whiteness when compared with soil-based cultures. Finally, we show that our fibers can be spun, used for production of non-woven fabrics and indigo-vat stained demonstrating its potential in industrial and commercial applications.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Actin-depolymerizing Factor Gene in Gossypium barbadense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi-ying; CHI Ji-na; WANG Xing fen; ZHOU Hong-mei; ZHANG Gui-yin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) has been highly valued in Verticillium wilt resistance and many fiber qualities including fiber length,strength,and fineness.To identify whether it had some special genes in fiber development in comparison with the upland cotton (G.hirsutum L.),an actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) gene was cloned and characterized in this research.A 420 bp open reading frame of the cloned gene,termed GbADF1,encoded a protein of 139 amino acids,which included39.57% nonpolar amino acids,17.27% acidic amino acids,15.83% basic amino acids,and 31.92% hydrophobic amino aids.

  11. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism (96.6% between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the (G. anomalum × G. hirsutum2 hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  12. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; Zhang; Caijiao; Zhai; Linchi; He; Qi; Guo; Xianggui; Zhang; Peng; Xu; Hongmei; Su; Yuanyong; Gong; Wanchao; Ni; Xinlian; Shen

    2014-01-01

    Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G.anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism(96.6%) between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the(G. anomalum × G. hirsutum)2hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  13. Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of a new pentacyclic triterpene from Rhododendron arboreum stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Qaisar, Muhammad; Khan, Aslam; Khan, Abid Ali

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Ericaceae) is a very important medicinal plant having oxytocic, estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hepatoprotective activities; it also inhibits the prostaglandin synthetase. This study determines the cytotoxic potential of 15-oxoursolic acid isolated from R. arboreum against selected human cancer cell lines. Extraction from stem bark (5 kg) of R. arboreum was performed with methanol, which was successively partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The new antitumor agent [15-oxoursolic acid (1)] was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction through column chromatography. Structure elucidation of new compound was performed through extensive spectroscopy i.e., IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR. Cytotoxicity of isolated compound was determined at doses 5-100 μM for a period of 72 h on specified human cancer cell lines [renal cell carcinoma (A498), non-small cell lung (NCI-H226), squamous cell carcinoma (H157) and human ovarian carcinoma (MDR-2780AD)]. Structure of isolated compound was characterized as 15-oxoursolic acid on the basis of various extensive spectroscopic techniques. 15-Oxoursolic acid revealed considerable anticancer activity with IC50 values of 2.3 ± 0.1 μM, 4.9 ± 0.2 μM, 9.2 ± 0.2 μM and 10.3 ± 0.1 μM against MDR 2780AD, Hep G2, H157 and NCI-H226, respectively, while in the case of A498, the activity was good (IC50 32.8 ± 1.2 μM). This study highlighted the potential of 15-oxoursolic acid to be further explored as a new lead compound for cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Wu; Fang Liu; Shaohui Li; Guoli Song; Chunying Wang; Xiangdi Zhang; Yuhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Gossypium mustelinum ((AD)4) is one of five disomic species in Gossypium.Three 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci were detected in (AD)4 with 45S rDNA as probe,and three pairs of brighter signals were detected with genomic DNA (gDNA) of Gossypium D genome species as probes.The size and the location of these brighter signals were the same as those detected with 45S rDNA as probe,and were named GISH-NOR.One of them was super-major,which accounted for the fact that about one-half of its chromosome at metaphase was located at chromosome 3,and other two were minor and located at chromosomes 5 and 9,respectively.All GISH-NORs were located in A sub-genome chromosomes,separate from the other four allopolypioid cotton species.GISH-NOR were detected with D genome species as probe,but not A.The greatly abnormal sizes and sites of (AD)4 NORs or GISH-NORs indicate a possible mechanism for 45S rDNA diversification following (AD)4 speciation.Comparisons of GISH intensities and GISH-NOR production with gDNA probes between A and D genomes show that the better relationship of (AD)4 is with A genome.The shortest two chromosomes of A sub-genome of G.mustelinum were shorter than the longest chromosome of D sub-genome chromosomes.Therefore,the longest 13 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton being classified as A sub-genome,while the shorter 13 chromosomes being classified as D sub-genome in traditional cytogenetic and karyotype analyses may not be entirely correct.

  15. 异源四倍体棉花栽培品种分子连锁遗传图谱的构建%Construction of Molecular Linkage Map of Cultivated Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.×G. Barbadense L. )with SSR and RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun ZHANG; Wang-zhen GUO; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

      A permanent doubled haploid population from the crossing of G. hirsutum × G. barbadense were developed by means of Vsg, virescently marked semigamy line in sea island cotton,which was characterized by a cytological mechanism for developing haploids with certain convenience, and thus constructed an allotetraploid cotton molecular genetic linkage map with the high level polymorphic SSR and RAPD markers.……

  16. Precision mapping and identification of candidate genes for a QTL affecting Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resistant line Auburn 623RNR and a number of elite breeding lines derived from it remain the most important source of root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance because they exhibit the highest level of resistance to RKN known to date in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Prior genetic mapping analy...

  17. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar secre

  18. The effect of phytohormones on the dynamics of protein biosynthesis and enzyme activity in linted and naked cotton seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid, a-naphthylene-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the enzymatic activity of glucansynthase, peroxidase and cellulase in ovule development of naked L-70 and linted AN-Bayaut-2 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We isolated a prote...

  19. Water use, canopy temperature, lint yield, and fiber quality response of six upland cotton cultivars to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining saturated thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer combined with the unpredictability of precipitation during the growing season in the Southern High Plains has resulted in elevated production risks associated with short-term crop water deficits. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars that can use...

  20. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar s

  1. Development of EST-based SNP and InDel markers and their utilization in tetraploid cotton genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed in silico in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in cotton. A total of 1349 EST-based SNP and InDel markers were developed by comparing ESTs between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, m...

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neeraj; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V; Singh, Anil Pratap

    2012-09-01

    To explore and identify the most potent antihyperglycemic fraction from the ethanol extract of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) flowers. Normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with all four fractions of R. arboreum flowers for short term and with fraction 3 for long term study. On completion of the treatment, a range of indicators were tested including fasting blood glucose, plasma protein, haemoglobin A1C, insulin secretion, body weight, blood lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver. In short term study, the fraction 3 (Active fraction) produced a significant (Parboreum flowers decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by promoting insulin secretion and glycolysis and by decreasing gluconeogenesis.

  3. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45S and 5S rDNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  4. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  5. A melting pot of Old World begomoviruses and their satellites infecting a collection of Gossypium species in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman

    Full Text Available CLCuD in southern Asia is caused by a complex of multiple begomoviruses (whitefly transmitted, single-stranded [ss]DNA viruses in association with a specific ssDNA satellite; Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB. A further single ssDNA molecule, for which the collective name alphasatellites has been proposed, is also frequently associated with begomovirus-betasatellite complexes. Multan is in the center of the cotton growing area of Pakistan and has seen some of the worst problems caused by CLCuD. An exhaustive analysis of the diversity of begomoviruses and their satellites occurring in 15 Gossypium species (including G. hirsutum, the mainstay of Pakistan's cotton production that are maintained in an orchard in the vicinity of Multan has been conducted using φ29 DNA polymerase-mediated rolling-circle amplification, cloning and sequence analysis. The non-cultivated Gossypium species, including non-symptomatic plants, were found to harbor a much greater diversity of begomoviruses and satellites than found in the cultivated G. hirsutum. Furthermore an African cassava mosaic virus (a virus previously only identified in Africa DNA-A component and a Jatropha curcas mosaic virus (a virus occurring only in southern India DNA-B component were identified. Consistent with earlier studies of cotton in southern Asia, only a single species of betasatellite, CLCuMuB, was identified. The diversity of alphasatellites was much greater, with many previously unknown species, in the non-cultivated cotton species than in G. hirsutum. Inoculation of newly identified components showed them to be competent for symptomatic infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The significance of the findings with respect to our understanding of the role of host selection in virus diversity in crops and the geographical spread of viruses by human activity are discussed.

  6. A melting pot of Old World begomoviruses and their satellites infecting a collection of Gossypium species in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Briddon, Rob W; Fauquet, Claude M

    2012-01-01

    CLCuD in southern Asia is caused by a complex of multiple begomoviruses (whitefly transmitted, single-stranded [ss]DNA viruses) in association with a specific ssDNA satellite; Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB). A further single ssDNA molecule, for which the collective name alphasatellites has been proposed, is also frequently associated with begomovirus-betasatellite complexes. Multan is in the center of the cotton growing area of Pakistan and has seen some of the worst problems caused by CLCuD. An exhaustive analysis of the diversity of begomoviruses and their satellites occurring in 15 Gossypium species (including G. hirsutum, the mainstay of Pakistan's cotton production) that are maintained in an orchard in the vicinity of Multan has been conducted using φ29 DNA polymerase-mediated rolling-circle amplification, cloning and sequence analysis. The non-cultivated Gossypium species, including non-symptomatic plants, were found to harbor a much greater diversity of begomoviruses and satellites than found in the cultivated G. hirsutum. Furthermore an African cassava mosaic virus (a virus previously only identified in Africa) DNA-A component and a Jatropha curcas mosaic virus (a virus occurring only in southern India) DNA-B component were identified. Consistent with earlier studies of cotton in southern Asia, only a single species of betasatellite, CLCuMuB, was identified. The diversity of alphasatellites was much greater, with many previously unknown species, in the non-cultivated cotton species than in G. hirsutum. Inoculation of newly identified components showed them to be competent for symptomatic infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The significance of the findings with respect to our understanding of the role of host selection in virus diversity in crops and the geographical spread of viruses by human activity are discussed.

  7. Incipient Genome Differentiation in Gossypium. III. Comparison of Chromosomes of G. HIRSUTUM and Asiatic Diploids Using Heterozygous Translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, M Y; Hasenkampf, C A; Stewart, J M

    1982-01-01

    Hybrids between upland cotton (G. hirsutum, genome constitution 2A(h)D(h)) and either A-genome or D-genome diploid species exhibit 26 paired and 13 unpaired chromosomes at metaphase I. The A(h) and D(h) genomes are therefore considered homoeologous with those of the respective diploids. Previous studies, nevertheless, revealed a low level of ("incipient") differentiation between D(h) and various diploid D genomes. The diploid A genomes have been regarded as more closely homologous to A(h) on the basis of low preferential pairing and autotetraploid segregation ratios in allohexaploids.-The present study addressed the following questions: Are the diploid A genomes differentiated from A(h) in meiotic homology? If so, is the differentiation manifested equally by all 13 chromosomes or is it localized in certain chromosomes?-Three diploid A-genome lines representing G. herbaceum and G. arboreum were hybridized by in ovulo culture of embryos (1) with a standard line of G. hirsutum, which differs from G. herbaceum by two and from G. arboreum by three naturally occurring reciprocal translocations involving chromosomes 1-5, and (2) with six lines homozygous for experimental translocations involving chromosomes 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13. Chiasma frequencies in hybrids were compared with those in appropriate G. hirsutum controls. In every comparison overall chiasma frequencies were slightly lower in the hybrids. Therefore A(h) appears to be differentiated from the diploid A genomes. No localized differentiation was detected in chromosomes marked by experimental translocations. The differentiation may be localized mainly in chromosomes 4 and 5.

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Gossypium thurberi in Response to Verticillium dahliae Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt is threatening cotton productivity globally. This disease is caused by soil-borne Verticillium dahliae which directly infects cotton roots, and exclusively colonizes and occludes xylem vessels, finally resulting in necrosis, defoliation, and most severely, plant death. For the first time, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification was applied to screen the differentially expressed proteins of Gossypium thurberi inoculated with V. dahliae. A total of 6533 proteins were identified from the roots of G. thurberi after inoculation with V. dahliae, and 396 showed up- and 279 down-regulated in comparison to a mock-inoculated roots. Of these identified proteins, the main functional groups were those involved in cell wall organization and reinforcement, disease-resistant chemicals of secondary metabolism, phytohormone signaling, pathogenesis-related proteins, and disease-resistant proteins. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that peroxidase activity, which promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of lignin, was induced early in the hypocotyl after inoculation with V. dahliae. Similarly, salicylic acid also accumulated significantly in hypocotyl of the seedlings after inoculation. These findings provide an important knowledge of the molecular events and regulatory networks occurring during G. thurberi-V. dahliae interaction, which may provide a foundation for breeding disease-resistance in cotton.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicases, which help to unwind stable RNA duplexes, and have important roles in RNA metabolism, belong to a class of motor proteins that play important roles in plant development and responses to stress. Although this family of genes has been the subject of systematic investigation in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato, it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 161 putative RNA helicase genes in the genome of the diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. We classified these genes into three subfamilies, based on the presence of either a DEAD-box (51 genes, DEAH-box (52 genes, or DExD/H-box (58 genes in their coding regions. Chromosome location analysis showed that the genes that encode RNA helicases are distributed across all 13 chromosomes of G. raimondii. Syntenic analysis revealed that 62 of the 161 G. raimondii helicase genes (38.5% are within the identified syntenic blocks. Sixty-six (40.99% helicase genes from G. raimondii have one or several putative orthologs in tomato. Additionally, GrDEADs have more conserved gene structures and more simple domains than GrDEAHs and GrDExD/Hs. Transcriptome sequencing data demonstrated that many of these helicases, especially GrDEADs, are highly expressed at the fiber initiation stage and in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in cotton.

  10. Identification of a novel drought tolerance gene in Gossypium hirsutum L. cv KC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh N. Selvam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of drought resistant cotton cultivars has long been a major breeding objective, since water stress limits fiber production and productivity. Recent advances in functional genomics can increase the efficiency of conventional breeding for genetic improvement of crop plants for improved abiotic stress resistance. To this end, a novel drought resistance gene was identified by comparing the gene expression profile of Gossypium hirsutum cv KC3 and MCU12 by employing a cDNA-RAPD approach. Physiological and biochemical studies showed that KC3 has relatively better drought tolerance than MCU12. Among 25 random primers, OPA15 has identified differentially expressed cDNA in KC3. Results of BLASTP algorithm have shown that this cDNA has significant homology with P-Glycoprotein, ACC oxidase2 and ABC transporter which are involved either directly, or indirectly, in stress tolerance in animals and plants. Hence, the cDNA sequence identified in this study may be a novel gene that confers drought resistance in cotton as KC3 is well adapted and is widely cultivated in rain-fed tracts of Tamil Nadu, India. Further characterization of this gene may show it has potential application for development of cotton with improved drought resistance, through genetic engineering and/or marker aided selection (MAS

  11. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in confe

  12. Increased Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larval feeding on a RNAi construct CYP82D109 that blocks gossypol-related terpenoid synthesis in cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandled cotton plants, Gossypium hirsutum L., have long been known to be more resistant to insect pests compared to their glandless counterparts. This resistance has been mainly attributed to the presence of terpenoid aldehydes such as gossypol, hemigossypolone, and heliocides in the glands. We p...

  13. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in

  14. Interspecific Associations between Cycloneda sanguinea and Two Aphid Species (Aphis gossypii and Hyadaphis foeniculi) in Sole-Crop and Fennel-Cotton Intercropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco S Fernandes; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Malaquias,José B.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.; Santos, Bárbara Davis B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids cause significant damage to crop plants. Studies regarding predator-prey relationships in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crops are important for understanding essential ecological interactions in the context of intercropping and for establishing pest management programs for aphids. This study evaluated the association among Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Cycloneda sanguinea (...

  15. Construction of BAC Library for Egyptian Cotton Varieties%埃及棉花品种的BAC文库构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama MOMTAZ; Abeer IBRAHIM

    2002-01-01

    @@ BAC library for the Egyptian cotton Gossypium barbadense Giza 70, Giza 86, and Giza 75varieties have been constructed and characterized. The isolation and purification of high molecular weight DNA from nuclei embedded in agarose microbeads was an essential part of this work.

  16. Genetic Resources for Cotton Improvement and Application of Genomic Tools%棉花品种改良和基因组研究的遗传资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. L. MAY; A. H. PATERSON; P. W. CHEE

    2002-01-01

    @@ Progress in cotton improvement slowed in the United States the past 20 years, possibly reflecting genetic stagnation. The pedigrees of popular cultivars contain many of the same parents, evidence of a narrow genetic base. The Gossypium genetic base is wide, but only a fraction of the available genetic variation is used in breeding cultivars.

  17. Field-based high-throughput plant phenotyping reveals the temporal patterns of quantitative trait loci associated with stress-responsive traits in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    To dissect the genetic basis of dynamic adaptive traits under relevant growing conditions, we employed a field-based, high-throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) system that deployed four sets of sensors to simultaneously measure canopy temperature, reflectance, and height on a cotton (Gossypium hirsut...

  18. 亚洲棉5号染色体RGAs克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of RGAs from 5th Chromosome in Gossypiumn arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁海; 程华; 刘方; 王春英; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红; 王坤波

    2012-01-01

    棉花是最主要的天然纤维作物,深入进行棉花基因组研究具有重要意义.采用酶解、前后低渗和轻压相结合的方法制备亚洲棉染色体中期膜载片,激光法分离亚洲棉第5号单染色体,建单染色体扩增池后克隆其抗病基因同源序列(RGAs),获得P7、P12、P19和P23等4个序列.序列比对和聚类分析表明,这4条序列均为NBS-LRR类RGAs,P7、P12、P19聚成一类,它们之间的同源性很高,P23聚成另一类,与黑松的RPS2和油菜的RGA30同源性较高.为该染色体分子标记开发、基因克隆乃至全序列测定奠定基础.%Cotton is one of the main natural fiber crops. it is important to accumulate basic data in cotton genome research. The high quality metaphase chromosome membrane preparations of G. arboreum were obtained integrated with method of pre-hypotonicity, enzymolysis, post- hypotonicity and squashed with cover slide. A 5th chromosome was microdissected. Amplified production was obtained after the sequential procedures of protein-removing, enzymolysis and linker adaptor PCR (LA-PCR). A verified system was constructed after integrated the method of Southern blotting, SSR primer amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four nucleotide sequence P7, P12, P19 and P23 were obtained. The blast results showed that they are NBS-LRR-type resistant gene analog (RGA). Clustering analysis indicated that the sequences of P7, P12, P19 were high homologous and in the same cluster, the P23 was in other cluster and homologous with RPS2 gene of B. nigra and RGA30 gene of B. napus.

  19. Distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum Linn. during the annual growth cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant K. Badola; Ganesh S. Paliwal

    2014-01-01

    Starch grains occur all over the dormant shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum except in the bud scales. They are abundant in the peripheral, rib and pith meristem cells. as well as in the youngest leaf primordia. Tannin is present in the entire dormant bud hut for the cells of the apical meristem and leaf primordia. Gradually, tannin degradation into numerous globules occurs. This is concomitant with the disappearance of starch grains and indicates the earliest structural manifestation of spri...

  20. Effects of Vegetated Field Borders on Arthropods in Cotton Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Outward, Randy; Sorenson, Clyde E.; Bradley, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The influence, if any, of 5m wide, feral, herbaceous field borders on pest and beneficial arthropods in commercial cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), fields was measured through a variety of sampling techniques over three years. In each year, 5 fields with managed, feral vegetation borders and five fields without such borders were examined. Sampling was stratified from the field border or edge in each field in an attempt to elucidate any edge effects that might have occurr...

  1. Major Results and Research Challenges in Cotton Molecular Genetics at CIRAD (France)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE Jean-marc; CLAVERIE M; DESSAUW D; GIBAND M; VIOT C

    2008-01-01

    @@ CIRAD (Montpellier,France) develops research activities centered on tropical and sub-tropical agricultural systems.Among others crops,cotton is the focus of a series of research programs in different disciplines from economics to breeding.Major areas in genetics and breeding relate to (1) genetic diversity,(2) eultivar development through classical and molecular breeding,and (3) applied genomics.An important but under-exploited reservoir of genetic diversity exists within the genus Gossypium.

  2. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  3. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  4. Using Genome-Referenced Expressed Sequence Tag Assembly to Analyze the Origin and Expression Patterns of Gossypium hirsutum Transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jin; Qin Li; Guanghui Xiao; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We assembled a total of 297,239 Gossypium hirsutum (Gh,a tetraploid cotton,AADD) expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences that were available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database,with reference to the recently published G.raimondii (Gr,a diploid cotton,DD) genome,and obtained 49,125 UniGenes.The average lengths of the UniGenes were increased from 804 and 791 bp in two previous EST assemblies to 1,019 bp in the current analysis.The number of putative cotton UniGenes with lengths of 3 kb or more increased from 25 or 34 to 1,223.As a result,thousands of originally independent G.hirsutum ESTs were aligned to produce large contigs encoding transcripts with very long open reading frames,indicating that the G.raimondii genome sequence provided remarkable advantages to assemble the tetraploid cotton transcriptome.Significant different distribution patterns within several GO terms,including transcription factor activity,were observed between D-and A-derived assemblies.Transcriptome analysis showed that,in a tetraploid cotton cell,29,547 UniGenes were possibly derived from the D subgenome while another 19,578 may come from the A subgenome.Finally,some of the in silico data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments to show the changes in transcript levels for several gene families known to play key role in cotton fiber development.We believe that our work provides a useful platform for functional and evolutionary genomic studies in cotton.

  5. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  6. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  7. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Gossypium hirsutum and Evolutionary Analysis of Higher Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E.; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. Conclusion The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species. PMID:23940520

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gossypium hirsutum and evolutionary analysis of higher plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. CONCLUSION: The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species.

  9. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  11. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  12. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  13. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  14. Elargissement de la base génétique de la principale espèce de cotonnier cultivé Gossypium hirsutum L. par la création et l'exploitation de lignées monosomiques d'addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarr D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic broadening of the main cultivated cotton species Gossypium hirsutum L. by creation and exploitation of monosomic alien addition lines. The genus Gossypium is composed of about forty wild diploïd species that constitute an important reservoir of interesting genes for the genetic improvement of Gossypium hirsutum L., the main cultivated cotton species. Creation of monosomic alien addition lines (MAAL, made up of plants having in addition to the chromosome set of the cultivated species one wild species' supernumerary chromosome, is an interesting way to exploit this diversity. Numerous constraints limit the creation of MAAL, among them the most important is doubtless the production of first generation derivatives from pentaploids obtained by backcrossing G. hirsutum with bispecific hexaploid hybrids made of the cultivated species tetraploid genome and the genome of a donor diploid species. Raising this impediment by appropriate techniques allows to develop MAAL offering the possibility to introgress finely traits of interest from diploid species and to better understand genomic relationships between species in the genus Gossypium. Identification and exploitation of these MAAL have been for a long time based on not very reliable morphological characteristics and on the use of classical cytogenetic techniques, very heavy to implement. Nowadays, the exploitation of MAAL benefits from the great advances registered in molecular biology through the development of DNA markers and molecular cytogenetics. These progresses make of MAAL a promising way for the genetic improvement of the main cultivated cotton species.

  15. Steam explosion distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification of cotton stalks by largely reducing cellulose polymerization degree in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shiguang; Liu, Mingyong; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ao; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Xuewen; Tai, Hongzhong; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In this study, steam explosion pretreatment was performed in cotton stalks, leading to 5-6 folds enhancements on biomass enzymatic saccharification distinctive in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum species. Sequential 1% H2SO4 pretreatment could further increase biomass digestibility of the steam-exploded stalks, and also cause the highest sugar-ethanol conversion rates probably by releasing less inhibitor to yeast fermentation. By comparison, extremely high concentration alkali (16% NaOH) pretreatment with raw stalks resulted in the highest hexoses yields, but it had the lowest sugar-ethanol conversion rates. Characterization of wall polymer features indicated that biomass saccharification was enhanced with steam explosion by largely reducing cellulose DP and extracting hemicelluloses. It also showed that cellulose crystallinity and arabinose substitution degree of xylans were the major factors on biomass digestibility in cotton stalks. Hence, this study has provided the insights into cell wall modification and biomass process technology in cotton stalks and beyond.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: upland cotton [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gossypium_hirsutum_S.png Gossypium_hirsutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypi...um+hirsutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=NS ...

  17. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  18. Antifungal activity of bioactive constituents and bark extracts of Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nisar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron arboreum various fractions of bark as well as the isolated compounds were investigated against pathogenic fungi to provide evidence for the folkloric uses reported in the traditional system. Various solvent fractions and compounds were tested using agar well diffusion method at concentrations of 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL, the maximum inhibition recorded against fungi 17-32, 15-27 and 10-24 mm for methanol extract, 16-28, 14-26 and 10-22 mm to ethyl acetate extract, 17-21, 8-18 and 10-16 to chloroform extract and 8-15 and 8-12 mm to n-hexane extract respectively. Maximum inhibition at 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/mL of isolated triterpenoids was recorded against such as fungi 28-44, 25-42 and 20-40mm for 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28- olide, 23-44, 20-42 and 15-40 mm for betulin and 17-40, 15-37 and 13-34 for lupeol respectively. It is concluded from the present study that the antifungal activity of the extracts may be due to the presence of 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28 - olide, betulin, lupeol and taraxerol.

  19. Isolation, Characterization and Activity of the Flowers of Rhododendron arboreum (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Sonar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC, paper chromatography (with authentic marker and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extract and isolated quercetin were investigated against five bacterial and two fungal strains by agar well-diffusion method. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. Ethanolic extract was found to be more active in comparison to the aqueous extract. Hence, isolation was done with ethanolic extract. The lowest effective concentration of quercetin was found to be 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Both extracts and isolated quercetin were found ineffective against fungal strains. Quercetin may be one of the components responsible for the observed anti-microbial activity of the plant.

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of TCP transcription factors in Gossypium raimondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Qinglian; Sun, Runrun; Xie, Fuliang; Jones, Don C; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-10-16

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no systematical study has been performed in cotton. In this study, we performed for the first time the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the TCP transcription factor family in Gossypium raimondii. A total of 38 non-redundant cotton TCP encoding genes were identified. The TCP transcription factors were divided into eleven subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. Most TCP genes within the same subfamily demonstrated similar exon and intron organization and the motif structures were highly conserved among the subfamilies. Additionally, the chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that TCP genes were unevenly distributed across 11 out of the 13 chromosomes; segmental duplication is a predominant duplication event for TCP genes and the major contributor to the expansion of TCP gene family in G. raimondii. Moreover, the expression profiles of TCP genes shed light on their functional divergence.

  1. Association of AFLP and SSR markers with agronomic and fibre quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arunita Rakshit; S. Rakshit; J. Singh; S. K. Chopra; H. S. Balyan; P. K. Gupta; Shripad R. Bhat

    2010-08-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTL contributing to agronomic and fibre quality traits would be useful for cotton improvement. We have attempted to tag yield and fibre quality traits with AFLP and SSR markers using F2 and F3 populations of a cross between two Gossypium hirsutum varieties, PS56-4 and RS2013. Out of 50 AFLP primer combinations and 177 SSR primer pairs tested, 32 AFLP and four SSR primers were chosen for genotyping F2 individuals.Marker-trait associations were studied for eight agronomic and five fibre quality traits through simple and multiple regression analysis (MRA) using a set of 92 AFLP polymorphic loci and four SSR markers. Simple linear regression analysis (SLRA) identified 23 markers for eight different traits whereas multiple regression analysis identified 30 markers for at least one of the 13 traits. SSR marker BNL 3502 was consistently identified to be associated with fibre strength. While all the markers identified in SLRA were also detected in MRA, as many as 16 of the 30 markers were identified to be associated with respective traits in both F2 and F3 generations. The markers explained up to 41 per cent of phenotypic variation for individual traits. A number of markers were found to be associated with multiple traits suggesting clustering of QTLs for fibre quality traits in cotton.

  2. The cytogenetics and fiber properties of an allohexaploid between Gossypium hirsutum and G. somalense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetics and fiber properties were studied on the Gossypium hirsutum×G. somalense F2 hybrid and later generations. The cytological analyses of pollen mother cells (PMCs) were made at meiotic metaphase Ⅰ. The results indicated that the hybrid was a new allohexaploid, its chro-mosome number determined as 2n=6x=78, and genome group as 2[(AD)1E2]. Chromosomal configurations of the hexaploid averaged 0.15Ⅰ+ 38.72Ⅱ+ 0.11Ⅲ + 0.02Ⅳ per cell, 85.09% PMCs having 39 bivalents, and only 11.84% PMCs having 1 to 2 multivalents, indicating that heteroge-netic recombinations of chromosomes occurs between (AD)1 and E2, nevertheless, the frequency is lower. The hexaploids are self-fertile and the progenies remain the hexaploids, whose fibers are light brown and have higher strength by measurement of HVI 900 system. The fiber strength in-creases 42% than that of upland cotton variety. Therefore, it is possible for the hexaploid to be an important germplasm resource to improve fiber strength of cotton.

  3. A Gly65Val substitution in an actin, GhACT_LI1, disrupts cell polarity and membrane anchoring of F-actin resulting in dwarf, lintless Li1 cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Actin polymerizes to form the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hi...

  4. Cotton GhACT1 Gene Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber and Required for Fiber Elongation%棉纤维发育优势表达及伸长必需的基因GhACT1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-bao LI; Lin CAI; Xiao-ping FAN; Ning-hui CHEN; Jian-wei LIU; Wei-cai YANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 ~3.0 cm from ovule surface within about 16days after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but it is unknown how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development.

  5. 陆地棉农杆菌介导茎尖的遗传转化的直接器官再生%Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation and Regeneration by Direct Shoot Organogenesis in Cotton (G. hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. BALASUBRAMANI; J. AMUDHA; P. A. KUMAR; A. B.DONGRE; C. D. MAYEE

    2002-01-01

    @@ Genotype independent transformation and regeneration of Indian cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) cultivar was standardized with BtCry 1A (b ) gene by Agrobacterium-mediation.Apical meristem of elite G. hirsutum cultivar LRK-516 and LRA 5166 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 carrying synthetic BtCry 1A (b) +npt-II genes.

  6. Molecular evolution of the plastid genome during diversification of the cotton genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Grover, Corrinne E; Li, Pengbo; Wang, Yumei; Nie, Hushuai; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Meiyan; Liu, Fang; Zhou, Zhongli; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Kunbo; Wendel, Jonathan F; Hua, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here. In combination with the 26 previously released cpDNA sequences, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses of 34 Gossypium chloroplast genomes that collectively represent most of the diversity in the genus. Gossypium chloroplasts span a small range in size that is mostly attributable to indels that occur in the large single copy (LSC) region of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis using a concatenation of all genes provides robust support for six major Gossypium clades, largely supporting earlier inferences but also revealing new information on intrageneric relationships. Using Theobroma cacao as an outgroup, diversification of the genus was dated, yielding results that are in accord with previous estimates of divergence times, but also offering new perspectives on the basal, early radiation of all major clades within the genus as well as gaps in the record indicative of extinctions. Like most higher-plant chloroplast genomes, all cotton species exhibit a conserved quadripartite structure, i.e., two large inverted repeats (IR) containing most of the ribosomal RNA genes, and two unique regions, LSC (large single sequence) and SSC (small single sequence). Within Gossypium, the IR-single copy region junctions are both variable and homoplasious among species. Two genes, accD and psaJ, exhibited greater rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions than did other genes. Most genes exhibited Ka/Ks ratios suggestive of neutral evolution, with 8

  7. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Raza; Zaitoon Ilyas; Sajid Ali; Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad Younas Khokhar; Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all com...

  8. Contribuição ao estudo fitoquímico da espécie Piper arboreum aublet (piperaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Jacqueline Iris de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    A família Piperaceae compreende cerca de 14 gêneros e 1950 espécies, amplamente distribuídas nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do globo e muito comum nas formações florestais brasileiras, principalmente na Mata Atlântica. Piper arboreum, popularmente conhecida como fruto de morcego, alecrim-de-Angola, pau-de-Angola ou beto-preto, é utilizada na medicina popular, na forma de decocto para o tratamento de reumatismo, bronquite, gripe e resfriado, além de também ser empregada contra doenças ve...

  9. Application of bacteria from non-cultivated plants to promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, I; White, J F

    2017-04-01

    Cotton seeds are frequently treated with acid to remove fibres and reduce seed-transmitted diseases. This process also eliminates beneficial bacteria on the seed surface. The goal of this research was to seek and apply beneficial bacteria to acid delinted cotton seeds to evaluate their growth-promoting and salt stress alleviating effects in seedlings. Bacteria were isolated from non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae. Seeds were collected from Portia tree (Thespesia populnea) and wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) from coastal and arid areas of Puerto Rico. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans were inoculated onto acid delinted cotton seeds. Bacteria increased cotton seed germination and length of emerging seedling radicles. Cotton seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens to evaluate growth and root architecture of non-stressed and salt stressed seedlings. Inoculating cotton seeds with B. amyloliquefaciens led to a greater percentage of seedlings with expanded cotyledons after 8 days, enhanced primary and lateral root growth, and altered root architecture. Similar results were obtained when okra seeds were inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens. The data supported the hypothesis that non-cultivated plants in the Malvaceae growing in stressful environments possess bacteria that promote growth, alter root architecture and alleviate salt stress of cotton and okra seedlings. This study demonstrated the effects of applying beneficial bacteria on acid delinted cotton seeds. Inoculating seeds with salt stress alleviating bacteria could improve the growth of crop seedlings that are vulnerable to soil salinization. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the TIFY gene family in response to drought in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ge; Song, Yun; Wang, Caixiang; Butt, Hamama Islam; Wang, Qianhua; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Liu, Zhao; Chen, Eryong; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates control many aspects of plant biological processes. They are important for regulating plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, which is one of the most serious threats to sustainable agricultural production. However, little is known regarding how jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins mediate jasmonic acid signals to improve stress tolerance in cotton. This represents the first comprehensive comparative study of TIFY transcription factors in both diploid A, D and tetraploid AD cotton species. In this study, we identified 21 TIFY family members in the genome of Gossypium arboretum, 28 members from Gossypium raimondii and 50 TIFY genes in Gossypium hirsutum. The phylogenetic analyses indicated the TIFY gene family could be divided into the following four subfamilies: TIFY, PPD, ZML, and JAZ subfamilies. The cotton TIFY genes have expanded through tandem duplications and segmental duplications compared with other plant species. Gene expression profile revealed temporal and tissue specificities for TIFY genes under simulated drought conditions in Gossypium arboretum. The JAZ subfamily members were the most highly expressed genes, suggesting that they have a vital role in responses to drought stress. Over-expression of GaJAZ5 gene decreased water loss, stomatal openings, and the accumulation of H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Additionally, the results of drought tolerance assays suggested that this subfamily might be involved in increasing drought tolerance. Our study provides new data regarding the genome-wide analysis of TIFY gene families and their important roles in drought tolerance in cotton species. These data may form the basis of future studies regarding the relationship between drought and jasmonic acid.

  11. Breeding and Identification of Herbicide-resistant Genic Male-sterile Line Yu98-8A1 of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)%新型抗除草剂棉花不育系Yu98-8A1的培育及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 谢德意; 赵元明; 李武; 赵付安; 段铮铮; 祝水金; 房卫平

    2013-01-01

    通过连续回交,将抗除草剂基因EPSPS-G6转育花粉败育彻底(无微量花粉,不育度达100%)的棉花单基因隐性控制的核不育系Yu98-8A,进而培育成抗除草剂核不育系Yu98-8A1.对该转育不育系花冠表型测量观察表明,与同质系正常可育株比较,不育株花冠较小,不育株子房直径略大于可育株,花柱长和花柱外露长度均明显高于同质系正常可育株,花柱头外露为其最显著的表型特征;显微观察显示,不育系Yu98-8A1小孢子败育主要是在四分体形成后的小孢子发育期.小孢子败育特征表现为花粉粒无内含物、无刺突产生,最后解体、退化.PCR分子鉴定表明,抗除草剂基因EPSPS-G6转育入Yu98-8A,除草剂抗性试验表明,该转育不育系可抗质量百分比浓度达0.3%的草甘膦.该抗除草剂核不育系的培育在棉花杂种优势利用方面有重大利用价值.%Yu98-8A1,a herbicide-resistant cotton genic male-sterile line,was developed from a genic malesterile line Yu98-8A by successive backcrossing cotton line EHC09-002 which possessed the herbicide-resistant gene EPSPS-G6.Compared with homogeneity normal fertile plants,its significant characteristics included smaller corolla,bigger Ovary diameter,style length,and exposed stigmas by corolla phenotype observation.Among theses characteristics,exposed stigmas was the most significant one.Cytological observation showed that the anther abortion of Yu98-8A1 occurred during the stage of microspore development,which displayed without inclusion in pollen grain and spinescent protuberance on the pollen wall,and the microspore appeared abnormal and break down gradually.PCR identification and glyphosate resistance test indicated that herbicide-resistant gene EPSPS-G6 had been successfully aggregated into Yu98-8A,and the anti-herbicide concentration reached up to 0.3%.The cultivation of herbicide-resistant sterile line made Yu98-8A1 have significant value in the utilization of

  12. Cloning and Expression of the Chloroplast Copper/Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase Gene in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)%陆地棉叶绿体铜锌超氧化物歧化酶基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡根海; 喻树迅; 范术丽; 宋美珍

    2007-01-01

    A full-length 1043-base-pair cDNA clone encoding a chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) of upland cotton was first isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) from the leaves of Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone revealed that it contained the complete coding sequence of the mature SOD isozyme subunit, along with a 60-amino acid transit peptide at N-terminal. The amino acid sequence predicted from the full-length clone showed 66%-74% homology with the amino acid sequences of Cu/Zn-SOD from several other plants. This gene was found to be expressed in the leaves and stems, but not in roots, flowers,and hypocotyls, indicating that the gene was expressed only in green tissues. Also, its expression was found to be most active at seedling stage and declined gradually in later development stages. Expression of this cotton Cu/Zn-SOD gene by using the pET-21a (+) expression vector in E. coli BL21 (DE3) led to the production of a novel 29 kD polypeptide with SOD enzyme activity, confirming that the cloned cotton Cu/Zn-SOD cDNA was indeed encoding a functioning SOD enzyme.%以陆地棉'CRI36'的叶片为材料,使用RACE技术克隆到了棉花叶绿体Cu/Zn-SOD酶基因.基因序列全长共1 043 bp,含有完整的开放阅读框.推导的氨基酸序列分析显示含有叶绿体信号肽,和已知植物的叶绿体Cu/Zn-SOD酶蛋白的氨基酸残基的同源性在66%~74%之间.基因的表达谱分析显示:棉花叶绿体Cu/Zn-SOD酶基因主要在叶片、茎中表达,根、花和下胚轴中没有检测到信号,即基因的表达主要在棉花的绿色组织.不同生育期的表达谱结果证实:该基因主要在苗期表达,以后表达逐渐减少.用pET-21a(+)构建了原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)的表达结果显示:表达后得到一个29.0 kD的新蛋白,其分子量与预期目标一致.对SOD酶活性的分析证实,重组菌的酶活性显著增加,证明克隆的基因具有活性.

  13. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  14. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  15. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Debnath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on rhizosphere micobiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant R. arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang-Thang (PTSO, Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border (in triplicates each along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912m to Bum La (4509 m, revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN, organic matter (OM significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02. Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%, Acidobacteria (24.02%, Proteobacteria (16.00%, AD3 (9.23%, WPS-2 (5.1% and Chloroflexi (1.48% dominated the core microbiome.

  16. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.; Handique, Pratap J.; Saikia, Ratul

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs. rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912 m) to Bum La (4509 m), revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM) significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02). Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%), Acidobacteria (24.02%), Proteobacteria (16.00%), AD3 (9.23%), WPS-2 (5.1%), and Chloroflexi (1.48%) dominated the core microbiome. PMID:27642287

  17. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P; Handique, Pratap J; Saikia, Ratul

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs. rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912 m) to Bum La (4509 m), revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM) significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02). Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%), Acidobacteria (24.02%), Proteobacteria (16.00%), AD3 (9.23%), WPS-2 (5.1%), and Chloroflexi (1.48%) dominated the core microbiome.

  18. Resistance allele frequency to bt cotton in field populations of helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Zhiping; Chang, Juhua; Chen, Jin; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-06-01

    Resistance evolution in target insects to Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a main threat to Bt cotton technology. An increasing trend of population density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been observed since 2001 in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), where Bt cotton has been planted dominantly since 1998. This region was selected in 2006 and 2007 for estimating frequency of gene alleles conferring resistance to Bt cotton by screening the F1 progeny from single-pair cross between field-collected male and laboratory female of the Bt-resistant strain of H. armigera (F1 screen). F1 offspring from each single-pair line were screened for resistance alleles based on larval growth, development, and survival on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d. Two-year results indicated that approximately equal to 20% of field-collected males carried resistance alleles. The conservative estimate of the resistance allele frequency was 0.094 (95% CI, 0.044-0.145) for 2006 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.055-0.159) for 2007. This is the first report of resistance allele frequency increase to such a high level in the field in China. Long-term adoption of Bt sprays, dominant planting of single-toxin-producing Bt cotton, and lack of conventional cotton refuge system might accelerate the resistance evolution in the region.

  19. Breeding, introgression and inheritance of delayed gland morphogenesis trait from Gosspium bickii into upland cotton germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shuijin; JIANG Yurong; Reddy Naganagouda; JI Daofan

    2004-01-01

    A tri-specific hybrid with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis was obtained by crossing the amphidiploid of (G. arboreum×G. bickii) F1 and an upland cotton germplasm with pigment gland genotype of Gl2Gl2gl3gl3. The tri-specific hybrid was a typical interspecific hybrid with high sterile, and the chromosome configuration at meiosis MI of PMC was 2n = 52 = 41.04Ⅰ+ 4.54Ⅱ + 0.57Ⅲ + 0.04. The crossover value of bivalent was 1.19. Two fertile plants with objective character were obtained in BC8 population by continuously backcrossing with Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as recurrent parent to the tri-specific hybrid, and a new upland cotton germplasm, named ABH-0318, with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait was developed through selfing and screening. The pigment gland trait of ABH-0318 was stable, and there were almost no pigment glands observed in the dormant seeds, although there were a few pigment glands confined to cotyledon edges, and the gossypol content in the dormant seeds was 0.017% only, being a typical low gossypol cotton type. However, a large quantity of pigment glands emerged in cotyledons and other main organs of plant after seed germination, and the gossypol contents in the upper parts of the plant were similar to that of ordinary glanded cotton types. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait of this germplasm was controlled by the interaction of the genes located in two pigment gland loci, Gl2 and Gl3. Among them, the gene located in locus of Gl2, derived from G.bickii, was dominance to upland cotton pigment gland alleles, Gl2 and gl2 , but was recessive epistatic to another glanded gene Gl3, which was named Gl2b temporarily. While the gene located in the locus of Gl3 was a recessive gene come from upland cotton.

  20. Arabidopsis EDT1/HDG11 improves drought and salt tolerance in cotton and poplar and increases cotton yield in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Shen-Jie; Peng, Yi-Shu; Liu, Rui-Na; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Jian-Bo; Jiao, Gai-Li; Pei, Yan; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two major environmental factors limiting crop production worldwide. Improvement of drought and salt tolerance of crops with transgenic approach is an effective strategy to meet the demand of the ever-growing world population. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a homeodomain-START transcription factor, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tall fescue and rice. Here we report that AtHDG11 also confers drought and salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and woody plant poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.). Our results showed that both the transgenic cotton and poplar exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress with well-developed root system. In the leaves of the transgenic cotton plants, proline content, soluble sugar content and activities of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes were significantly increased after drought and salt stress compared with wild type. Leaf stomatal density was significantly reduced, whereas stomatal and leaf epidermal cell size were significantly increased in both the transgenic cotton and poplar plants. More importantly, the transgenic cotton showed significantly improved drought tolerance and better agronomic performance with higher cotton yield in the field both under normal and drought conditions. These results demonstrate that AtHDG11 is not only a promising candidate for crops improvement but also for woody plants.

  1. Chromosomal Locations of 5S and 45S rDNA in Gossypium Genus and Its Phylogenetic Implications Revealed by FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yimei; Liu, Fang; Chen, Dan; Wu, Qiong; Qin, Qin; Wang, Chunying; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Xiangdi; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Kunbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the locations of 5S and 45S rDNA in Gossypium diploid A, B, D, E, F, G genomes and tetraploid genome (AD) using multi-probe fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for evolution analysis in Gossypium genus. The rDNA numbers and sizes, and synteny relationships between 5S and 45S were revealed using 5S and 45S as double-probe for all species, and the rDNA-bearing chromosomes were identified for A, D and AD genomes with one more probe that is single-chromosome-specific BAC clone from G. hirsutum (A1D1). Two to four 45S and one 5S loci were found in diploid-species except two 5S loci in G. incanum (E4), the same as that in tetraploid species. The 45S on the 7th and 9th chromosomes and the 5S on the 9th chromosomes seemed to be conserved in A, D and AD genomes. In the species of B, E, F and G genomes, the rDNA numbers, sizes, and synteny relationships were first reported in this paper. The rDNA pattern agrees with previously reported phylogenetic history with some disagreements. Combined with the whole-genome sequencing data from G. raimondii (D5) and the conserved cotton karyotype, it is suggested that the expansion, decrease and transposition of rDNA other than chromosome rearrangements might occur during the Gossypium evolution.

  2. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Gossypium aridum under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Liu, Zhangwei; Fan, Xinqi; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Xianggui; Shen, Xinlian

    2013-08-01

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors that impede the growth and development of various crops. Wild Gossypium species, which are remarkably tolerant to salt water immersion, are valuable resources for understanding salt tolerance mechanisms of Gossypium and improving salinity resistance in upland cotton. To generate a broad survey of genes with altered expression during various stages of salt stress, a mixed RNA sample was prepared from the roots and leaves of Gossypium aridum plants subjected to salt stress. The transcripts were sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform. After cleaning and quality checks, approximately 41.5 million clean reads were obtained. Finally, these reads were eventually assembled into 98,989 unigenes with a mean size of 452 bp. All unigenes were compared to known cluster of orthologous groups (COG) sequences to predict and classify the possible functions of these genes, which were classified into at least 25 molecular families. Variations in gene expression were then examined after exposing the plants to 200 mM NaCl for 3, 12, 72 or 144 h. Sequencing depths of approximately six million raw tags were achieved for each of the five stages of salt stress. There were 2634 (1513 up-regulated/1121 down-regulated), 2449 (1586 up-regulated/863 down-regulated), 2271 (946 up-regulated/1325 down-regulated) and 3352 (933 up-regulated/2419 down-regulated) genes that were differentially expressed after exposure to NaCl for 3, 12, 72 and 144 h, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis indicated that pathways involved in "transport", "response to hormone stimulus" and "signaling" play important roles during salt stress, while genes involved in "protein kinase activity" and "transporter activity" undergo major changes in expression during early and later stages of salt stress, respectively.

  3. [Homologous simple sequence repeats (SSRs) analysis in tetraploid (AD1) and diploid (A₂, D₅) genomes of Gossypium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaofei, Sun; Shoupu, He; Zhaoe, Pan; Xiongming, Du

    2015-02-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs)are a class of repetitive DNA sequences, which are commonly used for genome analysis. Comparison of the homologous SSRs among different genomes is helpful to understand the evolutionary process in relative species. In this study, SSR scanning was performed to investigate their distribution and length variation among the genomes of G. raimondii (D₅), G. arboretum (A₂) and G. hirsutum (AD₁). The results demonstrated that the distribution of SSRs in A genome was very similar with that in D genome, while the length variation of homologous SSRs between A and AD genome was more conserved than that between D and AD genome. Compared with SSRs in AD genome, the number of SSRs with longer motif length in A genome was about five times of those with shorter motif length, while it was about three times in D genome. This implied that the length variation rates of homologous SSRs between diploid cotton and tetraploid cotton were different during the parallel evolution due to the subgenome fusion, and the motif length of most SSRs in tetraoploid genome tended to become shorter than homologous SSRs in diploid genome during the process of evolution. This study comprehensively compared the SSRs in three cotton genomes and revealed the significant difference among them, providing a foundation for further evolutionary study of Gossypium genome.

  4. Overexpression of GhDof1 improved salt and cold tolerance and seed oil content in Gossypium hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Liang, Wei; Liu, Zhengjie; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Yanpeng; Ijaz, Babar; Hua, Jinping

    2017-07-28

    A homologous GhDof1, which belongs to a large family of plant-specific transcription factor DOF, was isolated from Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). GhDof1 protein was located in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, the core domain of transcriptional activity existed in the C-terminal, and the activity elements of GhDof1 promoter existed in the regions of -645∼ -469bp and -286∼ -132bp of transcriptional start codon. GhDof1 constitutively expressed in leaves, roots and stems, accumulated highest in leaves. The salinity and cold treatments induced GhDof1 transcript accumulation. The GhDof1-overexpressed cotton showed significantly higher salt and cold tolerance over the wild-type plants. Under salt stress, the root growth of overexpressed GhDof1 lines was promoted. The expression levels of stress-responsive genes, GhP5CS, GhSOD and GhMYB, were differently up-regulated in transgenic lines. Oil contents increased in some transgenic plants, and protein contents reduced compared with transformed receptor. These results suggested that GhDof1 was a functional transcription factor for improving the abiotic tolerance and seed oil content in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. GhCPS and GhKS Encoding Gibberellin Biosynthesis Enzymes Involve in Inhibition of Leaf Growth by Mepiquat Chloride in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)%赤霉素生物合成酶基因GhCPS和GhKS参与甲哌鎓对棉花幼苗叶片生长的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 张明才; 杜明伟; 田晓莉; 李召虎

    2014-01-01

    室内盆栽欣抗4,在棉花幼苗第3片真叶完全展平时(第4叶未展开)鎓叶面喷施甲哌(DPC),研究DPC对棉花幼苗叶片生长的控制与赤霉素(GA)合成早期关键酶柯巴基焦磷酸合酶(CPS)和内根-贝壳杉烯合酶(KS)基因表达的关系。结果表明, DPC处理显著减小棉花幼苗第3和第4叶的叶面积,第4叶叶面积受控制程度较第3叶大;80 mg L-1 DPC处理的棉花幼苗第3和第4叶中GA4含量分别于处理后4 d和4~6 d显著低于对照;与对照相比,80 mg L-1 DPC处理的棉花幼苗第3叶中GhCPS和GhKS表达在处理后1~4 d显著降低,而第4叶中GhCPS和GhKS的表达在处理后1~6 d显著降低。由此可见, DPC通过影响GhCPS和GhKS的表达,降低内源活性GA4的含量,控制棉花幼苗叶片生长,且较幼嫩叶片对DPC较敏感。%Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) are the key enzymes involved in the early steps of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. This paper aimed at elucidating whether the action of mepiquat chloride (DPC) on leaf growth was related to the expression levels of GhCPS and GhKS in cotton seedlings. DPC was foliar applied to seedlings at the 3rd leaf expanded stage of cotton cultivar Xinkang 4 by pot culture. The results showed that DPC significantly decreased the leaf area, and the area of the 4th leaf was decreased more than that of the 3rd leaf. DPC at 80 mg L-1 markedly reduced GA4 content in the 3rd leaf at four days after treatment and in the 4th leaf from four to six days after treatment. The expression levels of GhCPS and GhKS in the 3rd leaf were decreased by DPC from one to four days after treatment, and similar trends were observed in the 4th leaf from one to six days after treatment. All the results suggested that DPC could reduce endogenous GA4 content by downregu-lating GhCPS and GhKS expressions, leading to a smaller leaf size. Otherwise, the younger leaf was more sensitive to DPC.

  6. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  7. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STELLY; David

    2008-01-01

    Gossypium mustelinum [(AD)4] is one of five tetraploid species in Gossypium.Three pairs of nucleolar organizer regions(NOR) in(AD)4 were detected by FISH with 45S rDNA as a probe,they also were observed with genomic DNA(gDNA) from Gossypium D genome species as probes.Of the

  8. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  9. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  10. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  11. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of the MIKC-Type MADS-Box Gene Family in Gossypium hirsutum L. Unravels Their Roles in Flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongying; Yu, Daoqian; Yang, Zhaoen; Li, Changfeng; Qanmber, Ghulam; Li, Yi; Li, Jie; Liu, Zhao; Lu, Lili; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Quanjia; Li, Fuguang; Yang, Zuoren

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is one of the major world oil crops. Cottonseed oil meets the increasing demand of fried food, ruminant feed, and renewable bio-fuels. MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in various plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, this gene family has not been characterized, nor its functions investigated, in cotton. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of MIKC-type MADS genes in the tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L., which is the most widely cultivated cotton species. In total, 110 GhMIKC genes were identified and phylogenetically classified into 13 subfamilies. The Flowering locus C (FLC) subfamily was absent in the Gossypium hirsutum L. genome but is found in Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera L. Among the genes, 108 were distributed across the 13 A and 12 of the D genome's chromosomes, while two were located in scaffolds. GhMIKCs within subfamilies displayed similar exon/intron characteristics and conserved motif compositions. According to RNA-sequencing, most MIKC genes exhibited high flowering-associated expression profiles. A quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that some crucial MIKC genes determined the identities of the five flower organs. Furthermore, the overexpression of GhAGL17.9 in Arabidopsis caused an early flowering phenotype. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO), LEAFY (LFY) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) were significantly increased in these lines. These results provide useful information for future studies of GhMIKCs' regulation of cotton flowering. PMID:28382045

  13. Effects of Early Fruiting Branch Removal on Growth, Development and Senescence Processes in Transgenic Bt Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)%去早果枝对转基因抗虫棉生长发育与衰老进程的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟立超; 张永江; 刘连涛; 孙红春; 朱秀金; 李存东

    2012-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton plants with two different sowing dates were treated normally (CK), or by removing one(Rl), two (R2) or three basal fruiting branches(R3) to study the effects of early fruiting branch removal on growth, development and senescence processes in a two-year experiment. The results showed that the removal of early fruiting branches delayed the process of growth and development there was no difference between R1 and CK in the total number of fruiting branches, but R2 and R3 were significantly lower than CK), but had no obvious effects on the total fruiting nodes. Early fruiting branch removal significantly increased the LAI and dry matter accumulation in plants of the first sowing date over two years(R1, R2 and R3 increased the dry matter weight on average by 13.5%, 17.5% and 19.0%, respectively, compared with CK), but there was no significant difference in plants of the second sowing date. For plants of the first sowing date, early fruiting branch removal significantly decreased the abscission and rotten boll rates and promoted seed yield over the two year period. Rl, R2 and R3 decreased the abscission rate by 5.9%, 6.4% and 9.5%, respectively, and rotten boll rate by 3.8%, 3.1% and 4.3%, and the Rl and R2 treatments enhanced the seed cotton yield by 9.6% and 8.1%, respectively. There was no significant yield increase in plants of the second sowing date; there was even a decrease for some treatments.%以转基因抗虫棉品种为材料,设置了2个播期和4种去早果枝方式(去基部1个、2个、3个果枝及不去果枝的对照)处理,研究去除早期果枝对棉花生长发育及衰老进程的影响.2年结果表明,去早果枝推迟了棉花的生育进程;去掉1个早果枝处理总果枝数与对照无差异,但去掉2个、3个果枝后明显低于对照,总果节数差异不显著;去早果枝显著提高了第1播期棉花叶面积指数和干物质积累量,去1个、2个和3个果枝处理的干物质积累量在2

  14. Comportamento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum latifolium Hutch. e controle de plantas daninhas com o uso dos herbicidas diuron e sethoxydim The behavior of upland-type cotton (G. hirsutum latifolium Hutch. and the control of weeds after the use of diuron and sethoxydim herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. de M. Beltrão

    1983-06-01

    agressividade.To verify the behavior of the c. IAC -17, as well as, the control of weeds and competitive aspects of the infesting floristic complexes over the cotton culture under the presence of the herbicides, diuron and sethoxydium, atrial was contucted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The soil at the experimental site, Podzolic Red-yellow, had a clay texture wi th 1,38% of organic carbon an low natural fertility. Diuron was applied at pre -emergence time at the rates of 0, 0; 0, 8; 1,6 and 2,4 kg a.i. /ha and sethoxyd im at post-emergence at the rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g a.i./ha. The trial was setup in a randomized blocks design with 2 1 treament sunder a factorial scheme (x 5 + 1 . Out of them, 20 composed all the combinations with different dosis of the two herbicides under study plus a relative control weeded with the aind of a mattock. Several traits concerning growth and plant development were evaluated, such as leaf area, leaf area in dex, seed -cotton yield, plant height, stem diameter. By means of syn ecological methods, th e population density, hydrated epigeous phytomase of dominant weed species, and the total of all species were evaluated. Diuron exerted a high control overlati foliates such as Galinsoga parviflora Cav . and Bidens pilosa L., at the rates of 1, 6 an d 2,4 kg a. i. /ha, seth oxydim, even using the lowvest tested rate (150 g. a. i. /h a fully controled Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch. None of th e herbicides was able to control Emilia sonchifolia DC. Th is species although being considered an important weed did not affect the normal crop development because of its low competition ability. The weeds showing highes trates of competition were G. parviflora (due to high population density an d B. plantaginea, because of its greater aggresivity.

  15. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of nectarilessness and hairiness genes in Gossypium tomentosum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiying Hou; Caiping Cai; Shuwen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Tianzhen Zhang; Baoliang Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. To effectively transfer these genes into Gossypium hirsutum, an entire microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR)-based genetic map was constructed using the interspecific cross of G. hirsutum × G. tomentosum (HT). We detected 1800 loci from 1347 pairs of polymorphic primers. Of these, 1204 loci were grouped into 35 linkage groups at LOD ≥4. The map covers 3320.8 cM, with a mean density of 2.76 cM per locus. We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map). The linkage groups were assigned chromosome numbers based on location of common loci and the HB map as reference. A comparison of common markers revealed that no significant chromosomal rearrangement exist between G. tomentosum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, however, we detected numerous (33.7%) segregation loci deviating from 3:1 ratio ($P \\lt 0.05$) in HT, mostly clustering on eight chromosomes in the Dt subgenome, with some on three chromosomes in At. Two morphological traits, leaf hairiness and leaf nectarilessness were mapped on chromosomes 6 (A6) and 26 (D12), respectively. The SSR-based map constructed in this study will be useful for further genetic studies on cotton breeding, including mapping loci controlling quantitative traits associated with fiber quality, stress tolerance and developing chromosome segment specific introgression lines from G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using marker-assisted selection.

  16. Molecular cloning and function analysis of two SQUAMOSA-Like MADS-box genes from Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Fan, Shuli; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Ma, Jianhui; Song, Meizhen; Yu, Shuxun

    2013-07-01

    The MADS-box genes encode a large family of transcription factors having diverse roles in plant development. The SQUAMOSA (SQUA)/APETALA1 (AP1)/FRUITFULL (FUL) subfamily genes are essential regulators of floral transition and floral organ identity. Here we cloned two MADS-box genes, GhMADS22 and GhMADS23, belonging to the SQUA/AP1/FUL subgroup from Gossypium hirsutum L. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment showed that GhMADS22 and GhMADS23 belonged to the euFUL and euAP1 subclades, respectively. The two genes both had eight exons and seven introns from the start codon to the stop codon according to the alignment between the obtained cDNA sequence and the Gossypium raimondii L. genome sequence. Expression profile analysis showed that GhMADS22 and GhMADS23 were highly expressed in developing shoot apices, bracts, and sepals. Gibberellic acid promoted GhMADS22 and GhMADS23 expression in the shoot apex. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing 35S::GhMADS22 had abnormal flowers and bolted earlier than wild type under long-day conditions (16 h light/8 h dark). Moreover, GhMADS22 overexpression delayed floral organ senescence and abscission and it could also respond to abscisic acid. In summary, GhMADS22 may have functions in promoting flowering, improving resistance and delaying senescence for cotton and thus it may be a candidate target for promoting early-maturation in cotton breeding.

  17. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ke

    Full Text Available Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel. In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L and bentazon (4.2 µmol. A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  18. Current Status of Cotton Genome Resource in India and Initiative on Utilization of Gene Pool through Molecular Technologies%印度棉花遗传资源研究现状和利用分子技术加速基因库的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. D. MAYEE

    2002-01-01

    @@ The genus Gossypium is one of the largest having nearly 50 species of which two are tetraploid cultivars and two are diploid cultivars with 2n =52 and 26 chromosome respectively and the rest are wild to semi-wild at both these ploidy levels.The tetraploids (AD) are supposed to contain the Asiatic cotton (A) and American diploid (D)species genomes.

  19. Development of one set of chromosome-specific microsatellite-containing BACs and their physical mapping in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2007-09-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone as probe, is a reliable cytological technique for chromosome identification. It has been used in many plants, especially in those containing numerous small chromosomes. We previously developed eight chromosome-specific BAC clones from tetraploid cotton, which were used as excellent cytological markers for chromosomes identification. Here, we isolated the other chromosome-specific BAC clones to make a complete set for the identification of all 26 chromosome-pairs by this technology in tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This set of BAC markers was demonstrated to be useful to assign each chromosome to a genetic linkage group unambiguously. In addition, these BAC clones also served as convenient and reliable landmarks for establishing physical linkage with unknown targeted sequences. Moreover, one BAC containing an EST, with high sequence similarity to a G. hirsutum ethylene-responsive element-binding factor was located physically on the long arm of chromosome A7 with the help of a chromosome-A7-specific BAC FISH marker. Comparative analysis of physical marker positions in the chromosomes by BAC-FISH and genetic linkage maps demonstrated that most of the 26 BAC clones were localized close to or at the ends of their respective chromosomes, and indicated that the recombination active regions of cotton chromosomes are primarily located in the distal regions. This technology also enables us to make associations between chromosomes and their genetic linkage groups and re-assign each chromosome according to the corresponding genetic linkage group. This BAC clones and BAC-FISH technology will be useful for us to evaluate grossly the degree to which a linkage map provides adequate coverage for developing a saturated genetic map, and provides a powerful resource for cotton genomic researches.

  20. Transcriptome-wide identification of salt-responsive members of the WRKY gene family in Gossypium aridum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are plant-specific, zinc finger-type transcription factors. The WRKY superfamily is involved in abiotic stress responses in many crops including cotton, a major fiber crop that is widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Salinity is an important abiotic stress that results in considerable yield losses. In this study, we identified 109 WRKY genes (GarWRKYs in a salt-tolerant wild cotton species Gossypium aridum from transcriptome sequencing data to elucidate the roles of these factors in cotton salt tolerance. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into three groups (Groups I-III, as previously described for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, 28 salt-responsive GarWRKY genes were identified from digital gene expression data and subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The expression patterns of most GarWRKY genes revealed by this analysis are in good agreement with those revealed by RNA-Seq analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that 27 GarWRKY genes were expressed in roots and one was exclusively expressed in roots. Analysis of gene orthology and motif compositions indicated that WRKY members from Arabidopsis, rice and soybean generally shared the similar motifs within the same subgroup, suggesting they have the similar function. Overexpression-GarWRKY17 and -GarWRKY104 in Arabidopsis revealed that they could positively regulate salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis during different development stages. The comprehensive data generated in this study provide a platform for elucidating the functions of WRKY transcription factors in salt tolerance of G. aridum. In addition, GarWRKYs related to salt tolerance identified in this study will be potential candidates for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton salt stress tolerance.

  1. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all compounds were also very active antiglycation agents. The studied biological properties of these compounds suggest that they are therapeutically interesting and important tools for treatment of diabetes.

  2. Distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum Linn. during the annual growth cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Badola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains occur all over the dormant shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum except in the bud scales. They are abundant in the peripheral, rib and pith meristem cells. as well as in the youngest leaf primordia. Tannin is present in the entire dormant bud hut for the cells of the apical meristem and leaf primordia. Gradually, tannin degradation into numerous globules occurs. This is concomitant with the disappearance of starch grains and indicates the earliest structural manifestation of spring awakening by meristematic activity in the buds. The weak affinity of tannin globules to PAS is due to their hydrolysis which releases glucose for metabolic activities. Thus, a parallelism seems to exist between the metabolism of tannins and starch in relation to the various phases of bud development.

  3. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  4. Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding cysteine proteases from senescent leaves of Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Fafu; YU Shuxun; HAN Xiulan; FAN Shuli

    2004-01-01

    A gene encoding a cysteine proteinase was isolated from senescent leave of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv liaomian No. 9 by utilizing rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR), and a set of consensus oligonucleotide primers was designed to anneal the conserved sequences of plant cysteine protease genes. The cDNA, which designated Ghcysp gene, contained 1368 bp terminating in a poly(A)+ trail, and included a putative 5′(98 bp) and a 3′(235 bp) non-coding region. The opening reading frame (ORF) encodes polypeptide 344 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 37.88 kD and theoretical pI of 4.80. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the sequence in the GenBank database has shown considerable sequence similarity to a novel family of plant cysteine proteases. This putative cotton Ghcysp protein shows from 67% to 82% identity to the other plants. All of them share catalytic triad of residues, which are highly conserved in three regions. Hydropaths analysis of the amino acid sequence shows that the Ghcysp is a potential membrane protein and localizes to the vacuole, which has a transmembrane helix between resides 7-25. A characteristic feature of Ghcysp is the presence of a putative vacuole-targeting signal peptide of 19-amino acid residues at the N-terminal region. The expression of Ghcysp gene was determined using northern blot analysis. The Ghcysp mRNA levels are high in development senescent leaf but below the limit of detection in senescent root, hypocotyl, faded flower, 6 d post anthesis ovule, and young leaf.

  5. Efficacy of Fumigant Nematicides to Control Hoplolaimus columbus on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, J P

    1990-10-01

    Four rates of methyl bromide (Mbr) (16.8, 33.6, 67,2, and 134.4 kg a.i./ha) and one rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (28.1 liters a.i./ha) were evaluated over 2 years for control of Hoplolaimus columbus on cotton. All nematicide treatments were applied through a tarpless subsoiler-bedder prior to planting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum cv. Dehapine 90. Nematode population densities were monitored before and after treatment, at midseason, and at harvest, and yields were measured at maturity. Soil fertility variables (pH, P, K, Ca, Mg) were measured for each plot. Cotton yields were significantly increased by treatment with 1,3-D in 1988 and by all nematicidal treatments in 1989. Levels of nematode control varied from year to year among treatments. The responses of H. columbus numbers to rate of Mbr were best described by quadratic regression models. Levels of soil calcium and magnesium were significant factors in a multiple regression model relating a measure of control efficacy to rates of Mbr.

  6. Development of Transgenic Restorer of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-de; LI Yue-you

    2002-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase gene (gst) has been introduced into restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A transviable pollens of hybrid (sterile line×restorer) F1. The hybrid gave 3.6 more bolls per plant, 10.1% less aborted seeds and 10.6% more lint yield when ‘Zheda strong restorer’ was used as male parent than when ‘DES-HAF277’ was. Southern and Northern bloting analysis showed that the foreign gst gene was detectable and highly expressed in ‘Zheda strong restorer’.

  7. A comparative analysis of a fuzzless-lintless mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓红; 朱勇清; 卢山; 张天真; 陈晓亚; 许智宏

    2000-01-01

    A fuzzless-lintless (fl) seed mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142 was investigated to study cotton fiber development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fiber initials were virtually absent from fl ovules. RT-PCR analysis showed that the steady-state levels of transcripts of the fiber-specific E6 and Expansin genes were high in wild type (WT) ovules during the fiber initiation and elongation stages, and peaked around 15 days post anthesis (DPA), but only a trace amount of these transcripts was detectable in fl ovules of alt developmental stages investigated. CotmybA, a member of the Myb family, exhibited a clear expression in developing WT ovules, but the expression was abnormal in fl ovules. Application of GA3, or GA3 plus IAA, to the culture medium rescued in vitro fiber initiation and growth of fl ovules only partially. In addition, transcription of E6 and Expansin genes of in vitro cultured WT and fl ovules responded similarly to exogenous hormones. The hormones had less effect on Cot

  8. A comparative analysis of a fuzzless-lintless mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A fuzzless-lintless (fl) seed mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142 was investigated to study cotton fiber development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fiber initials were virtually absent from fl ovules. RT-PCR analysis showed that the steady-state levels of transcripts of the fiber-specific E6 and Expansin genes were high in wild type (WT) ovules during the fiber initiation and elongation stages, and peaked around 15 days post anthesis (DPA), but only a trace amount of these transcripts was detectable in fl ovules of all developmental stages investigated. CotmybA, a member of the Myb family, exhibited a clear expression in developing WT ovules, but the expression was abnormal in fl ovules. Application of GA3, or GA3 plus IAA, to the culture medium rescued in vitro fiber initiation and growth of fl ovules only partially. In addition, transcription of E6 and Expansin genes of in vitro cultured WT and fl ovules responded similarly to exogenous hormones. The hormones had less effect on CotmybA transcription in ovules cultured in vitro, and again the WT and fl ovules showed a similar expression. These results suggest that the abnormal or extremely low level of expression of E6, Expansin and CotmybA genes in developing fl seeds is related to the absence of seed-hairs, and the mechanism underlying needs further investigation.

  9. Microarray-based large scale detection of single feature polymorphism in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anukool Srivastava; Samir V. Sawant; Satya Narayan Jena

    2015-12-01

    Microarrays offer an opportunity to explore the functional sequence polymorphism among different cultivars of many crop plants. The Affymetrix microarray expression data of five genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L. at six different fibre developmental stages was used to identify single feature polymorphisms (SFPs). The background corrected and quantile-normalized log2 intensity values of all probes of triplicate data of each cotton variety were subjected to SFPs call by using SAM procedure in R language software. We detected a total of 37,473 SFPs among six pair genotype combinations of two superior (JKC777 and JKC725) and three inferior (JKC703, JKC737 and JKC783) using the expression data. The 224 SFPs covering 51 genes were randomly selected from the dataset of all six fibre developmental stages of JKC777 and JKC703 for validation by sequencing on a capillary sequencer. Of these 224 SFPs, 132 were found to be polymorphic and 92 monomorphic which indicate that the SFP prediction from the expression data in the present study confirmed a ∼ 58.92% of true SFPs. We further identified that most of the SFPs are associated with genes involved in fatty acid, flavonoid, auxin biosynthesis etc. indicating that these pathways significantly involved in fibre development.

  10. The promoter structure differentiation of a MYB transcription factor RLC1 causes red leaf coloration in Empire Red Leaf Cotton under light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenrui; Liu, Chuanliang; Zhang, Yanzhao; Li, Ying; Yi, Keke; Zhao, Xinhua; Cui, Min-Long

    2013-01-01

    The red leaf coloration of Empire Red Leaf Cotton (ERLC) (Gossypium hirsutum L.), resulted from anthocyanin accumulation in light, is a well known dominant agricultural trait. However, the underpin molecular mechanism remains elusive. To explore this, we compared the molecular biological basis of anthocyanin accumulation in both ERLC and the green leaf cotton variety CCRI 24 (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Introduction of R2R3-MYB transcription factor Rosea1, the master regulator anthocyanin biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus, into CCRI 24 induced anthocyanin accumulation, indicating structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis are not defected and the leaf coloration might be caused by variation of regulatory genes expression. Expression analysis found that a transcription factor RLC1 (Red Leaf Cotton 1) which encodes the ortholog of PAP1/Rosea1 was highly expressed in leaves of ERLC but barely expressed in CCRI 24 in light. Ectopic expression of RLC1 from ERLC and CCRI 24 in hairy roots of Antirrhinum majus and CCRI 24 significantly enhanced anthocyanin accumulation. Comparison of RLC1 promoter sequences between ERLC and CCRI 24 revealed two 228-bp tandem repeats presented in ERLC with only one repeat in CCRI 24. Transient assays in cotton leave tissue evidenced that the tandem repeats in ERLC is responsible for light-induced RLC1 expression and therefore anthocyanin accumulation. Taken together, our results in this article strongly support an important step toward understanding the role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the regulatory menchanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in red leaf cotton under light.

  11. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  12. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  13. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Shilajan; Gauri Swar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ur...

  14. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pravesh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated In-vitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract (70: 30 of Gossypium herbaceum Linn. to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining reducing power, total flavonoids and total phenolic contents using standard assay methods. The ability of the extract to scavenge 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was also assessed using spectroscopic method. Ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant and positive control. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was increased with the increasing concentration. The IC50 values for DPPH assay of Gossypium herbaceum and ascorbic acid were found to be 44.69µg/ml and 13.80µg/ml respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Total flavonoid content in the extract was found to be 410 ± 0.74 mg Quercetin equivalents/g of dry material. Total phenolic content in Gossypium herbaceum was found to be 5.86 ± 0.75 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material. The results obtained from this study indicate that Gossypium herbaceum is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical diseases.

  15. An optimized gossypol high-performance liquid chromatography assay and its application in evaluation of different gland genotypes of cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yingfan Cai; Hong Zhang; Yu Zeng; Jianchuan Mo; Jinku Bao; Chen Miao; Jie Bai; Fang Yan; Fang Chen

    2004-03-01

    A comparative study on gossypol content of various genetic types of pigment glands of cotton varieties was conducted through an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 m particle) with methanol–0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution, 90 : 10 (v/v), as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 254 nm. The method was shown to be highly reproducible, with precision [as relative standard deviation (RSD)] and accuracy [as relative mean error (RME)] < 10%, both intra-day and inter-day. Absolute recoveries were > 94%. The results revealed major differences among the different gland varieties or species of cotton, including the special and ordinary glandless and glanded Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, and displayed the precious resources of different glands of extraordinary cotton.

  16. Devil's-claw (Proboscidea louisianica), essential oil and its components : Potential allelochemical agents on cotton and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle, M S; Waller, G R; Murray, D S; Sgaramello, R P

    1990-06-01

    The potential allelopathic activity of devil's-claw [Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thellung] essential oil and a few of the compounds it contains on the elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) radicles was studied using a Petri dish bioassay. Essential oil was collected by steam distillation using an all-glass-Teflon assembly. Ether extracts of the steam distillates from fresh devil's-claw were inhibitory to cotton and wheat radicle elongation. The following six components of devil's-claw essential oil identified by CGC-MS-DS were inhibitory to cotton and/or wheat at a concentration of 1 mM: vanillin, piperitenone, δ-cadinene,p-cymen-9-ol, α-bisabolol, and phenethyl alcohol.

  17. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from Gossypium barbadense

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Ying Li; Jieting Xu; Lida Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2009-12-01

    An AGAMOUS (AG)-like gene, GbAGL2, was isolated from Gossypium barbadense and characterized. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that GbAGL2 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues including ovules and carpels, but barely expressed in vegetative tissues. In addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression patterns implied that GbAGL2 might participate in the development of the carpel and ovule. Furthermore, Arabidopsis transformation was performed and modifications occurred in flowers, and the silique length of transgenic plants also increased slightly, suggesting that the GbAGL2 gene may have a positive effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. Our findings suggest that GbAGL2 might not only specify the identity of floral organs but also play a potential key role in ovary or fibre development in cotton.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homolog GhFT1 from Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danli Guo; Chao Li; Rui Dong; Xiaobo Li; Xiangwen Xiao; Xianzhong Huang

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family that functions as the mobile floral signal, playing an important role in regulating the floral transition in angiosperms. We isolated an FT-homolog (GhFT1) from Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar, Xinluzao 33 GhFT1 was predominantly expressed in stamens and sepals, and had a relatively higher expression level during the initiation stage of fiber development. GhFT1 mRNA displayed diurnal oscillations in both long-day and short-day condition, suggesting that the expression of this gene may be under the control of the circadian clock. Subcel ular analysis revealed that GhFT1 protein located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Ectopic expression of GhFT1 in transgenic arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering compared with wild-type plants. In addition, ectopic expression of GhFT1 in arabidopsis ft-10 mutants partial y rescued the extremely late flowering phenotype. Finally, several flowering related genes functioning downstream of AtFT were highly upregulated in the 35S::GhFT1 transgenic arabidopsis plants. In summary, GhFT1 is an FT-homologous gene in cotton that regulates flower transition similar to its orthologs in other plant species and thus it may be a candidate target for promoting early maturation in cotton breeding.

  19. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.