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Sample records for cotton genes preferentially

  1. Genetic mapping and characteristics of genes specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber development in cotton.

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    Ximei Li

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC(1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs, the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum and 3-79 (G. barbadense. Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a β-Galactosidase Gene Expressed Preferentially in Cotton Fibers

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    Heng-Mu ZHANG; Jin-Yuan LIU

    2005-01-01

    β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of enzymes in plants that is thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. We reported herein the isolation of a fulllength cDNA encoding a typical β-galactosidase protein, designated GhGal1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.galactosidase), of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of nearly 94.8 kDa. In addition to a glycosyl hydrolase family 35 domain and a putative signal peptide, an unusual characteristic of GhGal 1 is that, at the C-terminus of the enzyme, a domain was found that is structurally related to a sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL-lectin) with D-galactose- and L-rhamnose-binding domains. Based on results from Southern blot, we estimated that there would be two copies of the GhGal1 gene per haploid genome of G. hirsutum.The transcripts of GhGal1 were regulated spatially and temporally and were present in very high abundance at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. The expression pattern suggests that the GhGal1 gene could be involved in metabolism of the primary cell wall.

  3. GhHyPRP4, a cotton gene encoding putative hybrid proline-rich protein, is preferentially expressed in leaves and involved in plant response to cold stress

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    Gengqing Huang; Siying Gong; Wenliang Xu; Peng Li; Dejing Zhang; Lixia Qin; Wen Li; Xuebao Li

    2011-01-01

    Plant hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) usually consist of an N-terminal signal peptide, a central prolinerich domain, and a conserved eight-cysteine motif C-terminal domain. In this study, one gene (designated as GhHyPRP4) encoding putative HyPRP was isolated from cotton cDNA library. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that GhHyPRP4 was preferentially expressed in leaves. Under cold stress, GhHyPRP4 expression was significantly up-regulated in leaves of cotton seedlings.Using the genome walking approach, a promoter fragment of GhHyPRP4 gene was isolated from cotton genome.GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene driven by GhHyPRP4 promoter was specifically expressed in leaves and cotyledons of the transgenic 4rabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore,GUS expression in leaves was remarkably induced by cold stress. Overexpression of GhHyPRP4 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly enhanced the cell survival rate upon treatment under -20℃ for 60 h.These data suggested that GhHyPRP4 may be involved in plant response to cold stress during seedling development of cotton.

  4. Preferential Expression of a Beta-tubulin Gene in Developing Cotton Fibers%棉花发育纤维中一个优势表达的β-Tubulin基因

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    Yuan-li LI; Jie SUN; Chun-hong LI; Yong-qing ZHU; Gui-xian XIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The developing cotton fiber is considered as a model system for studying the function of microtubules in plant cell elongation and cell wall biosynthesis. It has been shown that microtubules undergo active dynamic changes during fiber development. At the molecular level, Dixon et al demonstrated that two alphatubulin and two beta-tubulin isoforms accumulated preferentially in fibers, and Whittaker and Triplett showed that the accumulation of alpha-tubulin transcripts changed in a gene-specific manner in the developing cotton fibers.

  5. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

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    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  6. Cotton GhACT1 Gene Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber and Required for Fiber Elongation%棉纤维发育优势表达及伸长必需的基因GhACT1

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    Xue-bao LI; Lin CAI; Xiao-ping FAN; Ning-hui CHEN; Jian-wei LIU; Wei-cai YANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 ~3.0 cm from ovule surface within about 16days after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but it is unknown how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development.

  7. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

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    YE Wu-wei; YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on the cotton production.The salinityresisted genes and their differential expression were studied under the stress of NaCI on cotton.There were found,under the NaCI stress,1644 genes differentially expressed from the salinity-sensitive cotton and only 817 genes differentially expressed from the salinityresisted cotton.

  8. Expression of a cotton profilin gene GhPFN1 is associated with fiber cell elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Profilin is an important actin-binding protein involved in regulating the organization of actin filaments. A cotton profilin gene (GhPFN1) that shares 71% identity to profilin1 of Arabidopsis in its amino acid sequence was isolated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that GhPFN1 was expressed preferentially in the developing cotton fibers and reached the highest level at the fast elongation stage. The function of GhPFN1 in vivo was analyzed using the S. pombe system, and results suggested that GhPFN1 plays a role in fiber cell elongation.

  9. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  10. Candidate Gene Identification of Flowering Time Genes in Cotton

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    Corrinne E. Grover

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time control is critically important to all sexually reproducing angiosperms in both natural ecological and agronomic settings. Accordingly, there is much interest in defining the genes involved in the complex flowering-time network and how these respond to natural and artificial selection, the latter often entailing transitions in day-length responses. Here we describe a candidate gene analysis in the cotton genus , which uses homologs from the well-described flowering network to bioinformatically and phylogenetically identify orthologs in the published genome sequence from Ulbr., one of the two model diploid progenitors of the commercially important allopolyploid cottons, L. and L. Presence and patterns of expression were evaluated from 13 aboveground tissues related to flowering for each of the candidate genes using allopolyploid as a model. Furthermore, we use a comparative context to determine copy number variability of each key gene family across 10 published angiosperm genomes. Data suggest a pattern of repeated loss of duplicates following ancient whole-genome doubling events in diverse lineages. The data presented here provide a foundation for understanding both the parallel evolution of day-length neutrality in domesticated cottons and the flowering-time network, in general, in this important crop plant.

  11. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on

  12. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

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    VIDYASAGAR; Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The cry1Ac gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene

  13. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

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    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  14. Cotton Genome Manipulations:Exploring Smart Tools,Novel Germplasm,and Elite Genes for Super Cotton Design

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    ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plant regeneration is the first step to cotton biotechnology.We screened over 100 genotypes and found two genotypes,YZ-1 and Y668,which are very easy to regenerate.It takes about 5 to 6 months for the two genotypes from explant inoculation to plant regeneration.Meanwhile,we investigated the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in cotton.The results suggested that a complicated and concerted mechanism involving multiple pathways is responsible for cotton SE.We constructed a network to show the relationship between genes during SE.

  15. Transgenic Cotton and Disease Resistance Genes

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    RAJASEKARAN; Kanniah

    2008-01-01

    Success in conventional breeding for resistance to mycotoxin-producing or other phytopathogenic fungi is dependent on the availability of resistance gene(s) in the germplasm.Even when it is available,breeding for disease-resistant crops is very time consuming,especially in perennial crops such as

  16. Transgenic Cotton and Disease Resistance Genes

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    RAJASEKARAN Kanniah

    2008-01-01

    @@ Success in conventional breeding for resistance to mycotoxin-producing or other phytopathogenic fungi is dependent on the availability of resistance gene(s) in the germplasm.Even when it is available,breeding for disease-resistant crops is very time consuming,especially in perennial crops such as tree nut crops,and does not lend itself ready to combat the evolution of new virulent fungal races.

  17. The gsdf gene locus harbors evolutionary conserved and clustered genes preferentially expressed in fish previtellogenic oocytes.

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    Gautier, Aude; Le Gac, Florence; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    The gonadal soma-derived factor (GSDF) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is conserved in teleostean fish species. Gsdf is specifically expressed in the gonads, and gene expression is restricted to the granulosa and Sertoli cells in trout and medaka. The gsdf gene expression is correlated to early testis differentiation in medaka and was shown to stimulate primordial germ cell and spermatogonia proliferation in trout. In the present study, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment conserved among vertebrates although no gsdf-related gene is detected on the corresponding genomic region in tetrapods. We demonstrate using quantitative RT-PCR that most of the genes localized in the synteny are specifically expressed in medaka gonads. Gsdf is the only gene of the synteny with a much higher expression in the testis compared to the ovary. In contrast, gene expression pattern analysis of the gsdf surrounding genes (nup54, aff1, klhl8, sdad1, and ptpn13) indicates that these genes are preferentially expressed in the female gonads. The tissue distribution of these genes is highly similar in medaka and zebrafish, two teleostean species that have diverged more than 110 million years ago. The cellular localization of these genes was determined in medaka gonads using the whole-mount in situ hybridization technique. We confirm that gsdf gene expression is restricted to Sertoli and granulosa cells in contact with the premeiotic and meiotic cells. The nup54 gene is expressed in spermatocytes and previtellogenic oocytes. Transcripts corresponding to the ovary-specific genes (aff1, klhl8, and sdad1) are detected only in previtellogenic oocytes. No expression was detected in the gonocytes in 10 dpf embryos. In conclusion, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment harboring evolutionary conserved genes in vertebrates. These genes are preferentially expressed in previtelloogenic oocytes, and thus, they

  18. Gene cloning and molecular breeding to improve fiber qualities in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Cotton fiber is one of known natural resources comprising the highest purity cellulose. It plays an important role worldwide in the textile industry. With the acceleration of spinning speeds and the improvement of the people's living level, the demand of improving cotton fiber qualities is getting stronger and stronger. So, making clear the developmental model of fiber cell and elucidating systematically the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber development and regulation will produce a great significance to make full use of cotton gene resources, raise cotton yield and improve fiber quality, and even develop man-made fiber. In the paper, the status of the gene cloning and the molecular breeding to improve cotton fiber quality were reviewed, the importance and potential of gene cloning related with cotton fiber quality were put forward and the proposal and prospect on fiber quality improvement were made. Using national resources available and through the creative exploration in corresponding research, some international leading patents in genes or markers linked with cotton fiber development having Chinese own intellectual property should be licensed quickly. And they can be used to improve cotton fiber quality in cotton breeding practice.

  19. Characterization of a chicken polyubiquitin gene preferentially expressed during spermatogenesis.

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    Mezquita, J; Mezquita, C

    1991-02-11

    We have previously reported that a chicken polyubiquitin gene (Ub II) not expressed under normal or heat shock conditions in chick fibroblasts is transcribed during spermatogenesis [(1987) Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 9604]. The level of Ub II mRNA is several-fold higher in testis cells than in somatic tissues. The gene Ub II possesses characteristic features not seen in the polyubiquitin gene expressed in heat shock conditions (Ub I). The 5' noncoding region of Ub II shows the consensus cAMP regulatory element (CRE) followed immediately downstream by a CA dinucleotide. It has been proposed that this extended CRE may be involved in the coordinate expression of various genes during spermatogenesis.

  20. Preferential gene expression in quiescent human lung fibroblasts.

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    Coppock, D L; Kopman, C; Scandalis, S; Gilleran, S

    1993-06-01

    The exit from the proliferative cell cycle into a reversible quiescence (G0) is an active process that is not yet well understood at the molecular level. Investigation of G0-specific gene expression is an important step in studying the mechanism regulating the entrance to quiescence. Using the human embryo lung fibroblast (WI38) as a model system, we have isolated complementary DNA clones that are expressed at a higher level in quiescent cells than in logarithmically growing cells. We have identified complementary DNAs from eight genes including collagen alpha 1(VI), collagen alpha 1(III), decorin, complement C1r, collagen alpha 1(I), collagen alpha 2(I), and two novel genes, Q6 and Q10. We have named this class of quiescence-inducible genes quiescins. Expression of these genes was induced just as proliferation slowed, as indicated by the level of histone H2B mRNA, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and cell number. The level of expression of the novel genes, Q6 and Q10, increased at the same time as the other genes. Q6 has two mRNAs of 3 and 4 kb, whereas Q10 mRNA is about 1.0 kb. The expression of the quiescins was not induced by blocking the cell cycle in S phase with aphidicolin or in G1 with lovastatin. However, the genes were highly induced by trypsinization or scraping of the cells during logarithmic growth. This induction was not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. The expression of decorin and Q6 was very low in SV40-transformed cells (VA13) either in logarithmic growth or at high density, whereas the gene Q10 was expressed more highly in VA13 than in WI38 cells. The finding that expression of some components of the extracellular matrix is induced as cells enter G0 suggests that they may have a role in both the induction and the maintenance of the quiescent state. The quiescins will serve as molecular markers for the investigation of mechanisms that regulate the onset of quiescence.

  1. Genetics and Expression of the Brown Lint Gene in Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The major cotton grown commercially in the world is white lint,but recently many people prefer to have garments made by natural colored cotton.This can be used directly in textile industries,avoiding the complicated and unsafe processes of bleaching and dying,and thus it is eco-friendly.However,little is known about the heredity of the colored lint gene in colored cotton.In the present study,

  2. Selection of Homozygous Cotton Lines Transformed with Two Insect-Resistant Genes

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    WU Jia-he; TIAN Ying-chuan; LUO Xiao-li; GUO Hong-nian; SHI Yue-jin; CHEN Xiao-ying; JIA Yan-tao; XIAO Juan-li; ZHANG Xian-long

    2003-01-01

    A plant expression vector containing a chimeric Bt29K gene coding for the activated Cry1Ac protein and the arrowhead proteinase inhibitior gene API-B were introduced into the cotton cultivar Jihe321 mediated by Agrobactertium tumefaciens. Based on the results of kanamycin resistant testing, PCR detection for both foreign genes and insect bioassay using Heliethis armigera, nine transgenic homozygous cotton lines with insect-resistance of more than 90% and better agronomic traits were bred through six generations from the original transgenic plants. Results from insect bioassay and sequence analysis of the PCR products of plants from some homozygous lines indicated that the chimeric Bt29K gene was stably inherited in these transgenic cotton lines. The main agronomic characters of these homozygous cotton lines, such as boll productivity and fibre strength, were better than that of the original cotton cv. Jihe321.

  3. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

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    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  4. Preferential associations between co-regulated genes reveal a transcriptional interactome in erythroid cells.

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    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Sexton, Tom; Chakalova, Lyubomira; Cope, Nathan F; Horton, Alice; Andrews, Simon; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Umlauf, David; Dimitrova, Daniela S; Eskiw, Christopher H; Luo, Yanquan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Ruan, Yijun; Bieker, James J; Fraser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of interchromosomal interactions in higher eukaryotes points to a functional interplay between genome architecture and gene expression, challenging the view of transcription as a one-dimensional process. However, the extent of interchromosomal interactions and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we present the first genome-wide analysis of transcriptional interactions using the mouse globin genes in erythroid tissues. Our results show that the active globin genes associate with hundreds of other transcribed genes, revealing extensive and preferential intra- and interchromosomal transcription interactomes. We show that the transcription factor Klf1 mediates preferential co-associations of Klf1-regulated genes at a limited number of specialized transcription factories. Our results establish a new gene expression paradigm, implying that active co-regulated genes and their regulatory factors cooperate to create specialized nuclear hot spots optimized for efficient and coordinated transcriptional control.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cotton glucuronosyltranferase gene.

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    Wu, Yao-Ting; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    A glucuronosyltranferase gene has been isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA, designated GhGlcAT1, is 1400 bp in length (AY346330) and contains an open reading frame of 1107 bp encoding a protein of 368 amino acids. Alignment of the GhGlcAT1 predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have high sequence similarity with animal glucuronosyltranferases. A phylogenic tree generated by the PHYLIP program package showed that GhGlcAT1 is clustered into the plant glucuronosyltranferase proteins and is distinct from those of other species. Homology modeling of the GhGlcAT1 structure using Homo sapiens native glucuronosyltranferase (1 kws and 1 fgg) structure as a template strongly suggests that the main-chain conformation and the folding patterns were similar to structural features characteristic of animal glucuronosyltranferases. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of GhGlcAT1 were abundant in fiber cells, moderate in stem, but not detected in ovule, flower, seed, root and leaf. Transcripts were most abundant at 15dpa fiber. The transcription occurred at both the primary wall elongation stage and former stage of secondary cell thickening, suggesting that GhGLcAT1 may be involved in non-cellulose polysacchrides biosynthesis of the cotton cell wall.

  6. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.

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    Abdukarimov Abdusattor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp., including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2 in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA, before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for

  7. Characterization of an Organ Specific and Pathogen Responsive CC-NBS-LRR Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

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    ZHANG Bao-long; NI Wan-chao; YANG Yu-wen; SHEN Xin-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton diseases represent a major challenge to cotton growth.Cloning of a cotton pathogen response gene and promoter is of great importance to improve disease resistance.In this study,a full length CC-NBS-LRR gene (GHNBS) and its 5L flanking sequence have been cloned by race and tail PCR and further studied.

  8. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

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    VIDYASAGAR Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    @@ Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The crylAc gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene technology to Indian farming systems should be superimposed on hybrid technology,fiber quality,and superior agronomic adaptation.Protection offered by this alien Bt-gene against major serious pest Helicoverpa armigera,by preventing annual losses ranging from 15~35 percent,automaticaly contributed to higher yield.

  9. Identification of genes associated with cotyledon senescence in upland cotton

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    SHEN Fafu; YU Shuxun; XIE Qingen; HAN Xiulan; FAN Shuli

    2006-01-01

    In order to unravel the biochemical pathways and understand the molecular mechanisms involved in leaf senescence, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to generate a cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially expressed in developmental senescence cotyledons of upland cotton. After differential screening by membranebased hybridization and subsequent confirmation by reverse Northern blot analysis, selected 678 clones were sequenced and analyzed. Sequencing of these cDNA fragments reveals that 216 of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented unique genes. Of these 216 cDNAs, 151 clones (69.9%) show significant homologies to previously known genes, while the remaining 65 do not match any known sequences.151 unique ESTs are assigned to twelve different categories based on their putative functions generated by BLAST analysis. These SAG-encoded proteins are likely to participate in macromolecule degradation, nutrient recycling, detoxification of oxidative metabolites, and signaling and regulatory events.The expression pattern of selection of genes was confirmed using northern hybridization. Northern hybridization confirmed several distinct patterns,from expression at a very early stage to the terminal phase of the senescence syndrome. Clones encoding proteases and proteins involved in macromolecule degradation and gluconeogenesis, as well as stress-related genes, are up regulated in senescence cotyledons.

  10. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

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    Chen Aiqun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7 identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum. Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

  11. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

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    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  12. Amplicon based RNA interference targeting V2 gene of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain can provide resistance in transgenic cotton plants

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    An RNAi based gene construct designated “C2” was used to target the V2 region of the cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) genome which is responsible for virus movement. The construct was transformed into two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289. A shoot apex method of plant transformation using Agr...

  13. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

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    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  14. Integration and inheritance stability of foreign Bt toxin gene in the bivalent insectresistant transgenic cotton plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and expressional stability of Bt toxin gene is crucial for the breeding of insect-resistant transgenic cotton varieties and their commercialization. Genomic Southern blot analysis of R3, R4 and R5 generations of bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants was done in order to determine the integration, the copy number and the inheritance stability of Bt toxin gene in the transgenic cotton plants. The results indicated that there was a 4.7 kb positive band in the Southern blot when the genomic DNA of the bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants and the positive control (the plasmid) were digested with HindⅢ respectively. This result proved that the Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton in full length.There is only one Xho I restriction site in the Bt toxin gene.Southern blot analysis indicated that many copies of Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton when the genomic DNA of transgenic plants was digested with Xho I. Among them, there were four copies (about 17.7, 8,5.5 and 4.7 kb in size) existing in all the tested plants of R3,R4 and R5 generations. The preliminary conclusion was that there were more than four copies of Bt toxin gene integrated into the genome of the cotton, among them, more than one copy can express and inherit steadily. This result provides a scientific basis for the breeding of the bivalent insect-resistant transgenic cotton plants and its commercialization.``

  15. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-06-29

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae.

  16. Water-deficit inducible expression of a cytokinin biosynthetic gene IPT improves drought tolerance in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Kuppu

    Full Text Available Water-deficit stress is a major environmental factor that limits agricultural productivity worldwide. Recent episodes of extreme drought have severely affected cotton production in the Southwestern USA. There is a pressing need to develop cotton varieties with improved tolerance to water-deficit stress for sustainable production in water-limited regions. One approach to engineer drought tolerance is by delaying drought-induced senescence via up-regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis. The isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT that encodes a rate limiting enzyme in cytokinin biosynthesis, under the control of a water-deficit responsive and maturation specific promoter P(SARK was introduced into cotton and the performance of the P(SARK::IPT transgenic cotton plants was analyzed in the greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. The data indicate that P(SARK::IPT-transgenic cotton plants displayed delayed senescence under water deficit conditions in the greenhouse. These plants produced more root and shoot biomass, dropped fewer flowers, maintained higher chlorophyll content, and higher photosynthetic rates under reduced irrigation conditions in comparison to wild-type and segregated non-transgenic lines. Furthermore, P(SARK::IPT-transgenic cotton plants grown in growth chamber condition also displayed greater drought tolerance. These results indicate that water-deficit induced expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene in cotton could significantly improve drought tolerance.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sus Gene Family in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsong Zou; Cairui Lu; Haihong Shang; Xinrui Jing; Hailiang Cheng; Youping Zhang; Guoli Song

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism.In cotton,Sus (EC 2.4.1.13) is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat.This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L.,G.raimondii Ulbr.,and G.hirsutum L.,contained 8,8,and 15 Sus genes,respectively.Their structural organizations,phylogenetic relationships,and expression profiles were characterized.Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns,the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species.Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species,suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G.hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors.One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution.Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells.Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species.These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family,and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development.

  18. Genes Expressing Differences in Upland Cotton Fiber Development Between 12 DPA and 16 DPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cai-rui; YU Shu-xun; WANG Wu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the major dominant natural fiber crop on the earth.Although some current cotton genetics and breeding programs had made great progresses in cotton lint yield increases and disease resistance (tolerance),fiber quality has little improvement.Global understanding genes expression will benefit to the fiber quality genetic improvement in the future.There are total 929 genes that were differently expressed between 12 DPA and 16 DPA based on the12 K cotton cDNA arrays (CapitalBio Corporation) analysis.There were 357 (38%) up-regulated,and 572 (62%) down-regulated.This work was supported by grants from the China National Basic Research Program (2004CB117306)

  19. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  20. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Familiesin Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-XunFENG; Sheng-JianJI; Yong-HuiSHI; YuXU; GangWEI; Yu-XianZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50 fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  1. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Families in Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun FENG; Sheng-Jian JI; Yong-Hui SHI; Yu XU; Gang WEI; Yu-Xian ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50-fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  2. Dominant Gene cplsr1 Corresponding to Premature Leaf Senescence Resistance in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqing Zhao; Tengfei Jiang; Zhi Liu; Wenwei Zhang; Guiliang Jian; Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) premature leaf senescence-resistant inbred XLZ33 and senescencesusceptible inbred lines XLZ13 were selected and crossed to produce F1,F1-reciprocal,F2 and BC1 generations for evaluation of leaf senescence process and inheritance.The results showed that leaf senescence processes for XLZ13 and XLZ33 were obviously different and leaf senescence traits could be distinguished between the two parents at particular periods of cotton growth.Inheritance anlysis for the cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait further showed that the segregation in the F2 fit a 3:1 ratio inheritance pattern,with resistance being dominant.The backcross of F1 to the susceptible parent produced a 1:1 ratio,confirming that cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait was from a single gene.The single dominant gene controlling cotton premature leaf senescence resistance in XLZ33 was named as cotton premature leaf senescence resistance 1,with the symbol cplsr1.

  3. Cell suspension culture-mediated incorporation of the rice bel gene into transgenic cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ke

    Full Text Available Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel. In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L and bentazon (4.2 µmol. A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon tolerance of up to 1250 mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

  4. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton

  5. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M

    2013-01-16

    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  6. Preferential duplication of intermodular hub genes: an evolutionary signature in eukaryotes genome networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M Ferreira

    Full Text Available Whole genome protein-protein association networks are not random and their topological properties stem from genome evolution mechanisms. In fact, more connected, but less clustered proteins are related to genes that, in general, present more paralogs as compared to other genes, indicating frequent previous gene duplication episodes. On the other hand, genes related to conserved biological functions present few or no paralogs and yield proteins that are highly connected and clustered. These general network characteristics must have an evolutionary explanation. Considering data from STRING database, we present here experimental evidence that, more than not being scale free, protein degree distributions of organisms present an increased probability for high degree nodes. Furthermore, based on this experimental evidence, we propose a simulation model for genome evolution, where genes in a network are either acquired de novo using a preferential attachment rule, or duplicated with a probability that linearly grows with gene degree and decreases with its clustering coefficient. For the first time a model yields results that simultaneously describe different topological distributions. Also, this model correctly predicts that, to produce protein-protein association networks with number of links and number of nodes in the observed range for Eukaryotes, it is necessary 90% of gene duplication and 10% of de novo gene acquisition. This scenario implies a universal mechanism for genome evolution.

  7. Global gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Kong, Xiangqiang; Dai, Jianlong; Luo, Zhen; Li, Zhenhuai; Lu, Hequan; Xu, Shizhen; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Weijiang; Xin, Chengsong; Dong, Hezhong

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Seven hundred and ninety four genes were up-regulated and 1018 genes were down-regulated in waterlogged cotton leaves compared with non-waterlogged control. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis and plant hormone signal transduction. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis indicated that most genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis as well as circadian rhythm pathways were differently expressed. Waterlogging increased the expression of anaerobic fermentation related genes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), but decreased the leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis by down-regulating the expression of photosynthesis related genes. Many genes related to plant hormones and transcription factors were differently expressed under waterlogging stress. Most of the ethylene related genes and ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factors were up-regulated under water-logging stress, suggesting that ethylene may play key roles in the survival of cotton under waterlogging stress.

  8. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    welcome

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... sp is not susceptible to Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac toxin so, there is ... encodes an insecticidal protein Cry1EC, (ii) 35S promoter from cauliflower ... the embryogenic calli were treated with the bacterial suspension by shaking ...

  9. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  10. Host-preferential Fusarium graminearum gene expression during infection of wheat, barley, and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda J; Balcerzak, Margaret; Johnston, Anne; Schneiderman, Danielle; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a broad host pathogen threatening cereal crops in temperate regions around the world. To better understand how F. graminearum adapts to different hosts, we have performed a comparison of the transcriptome of a single strain of F. graminearum during early infection (up to 4 d post-inoculation) of barley, maize, and wheat using custom oligomer microarrays. Our results showed high similarity between F. graminearum transcriptomes in infected wheat and barley spike tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the gene expression profiles of 24 genes. Host-specific expression of genes was observed in each of the three hosts. This included expression of distinct sets of genes associated with transport and secondary metabolism in each of the three crops, as well as host-specific patterns for particular gene categories such as sugar transporters, integral membrane protein PTH11-like proteins, and chitinases. This study identified 69 F. graminearum genes as preferentially expressed in developing maize kernels relative to wheat and barley spikes. These host-specific differences showcase the genomic flexibility of F. graminearum to adapt to a range of hosts. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Major Gene Identiifcation and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Yield-Related Traits in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhe; ZHANG Xin; LIU Yang-yang; JIA Zi-fang; ZHAO Hai-hong; LI Cheng-qi; WANG Qing-lian

    2014-01-01

    Segregation analysis of the mixed genetic model of major gene plus polygene was used to identify the major genesfor cotton yield-related traits using six generations P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2 generated from the cross of Baimian 1×TM-1. In addition to boll size and seed index, the major genes for the other ifve traits were detected:one each for seed yield, lint percentage, boll number, lint index; and two for lint yield. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) mapping was performed in the F2 and F2:3 populations of above cross through molecular marker technology, and a total of 50 QTL (26 suggestive and 24 signiifcant) for yield-related traits were detected. Four common QTL were discovered: qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3)andqLP-19b (F2)/qLP-19(F2:3) for lint percentage, qBN-17(F2)/qBN-17(F2:3)for boll number, and qBS-26b(F2)/qBS-26(F2:3) for boll size. Especially, qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3), not only had LOD scores>3 but also exceeded the permutation threshold (5.13 and 5.29, respectively), correspondingly explaining 23.47 and 29.55% of phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in marker assisted selection (MAS). Segregation analysis and QTL mapping could mutually complement and verify, which provides a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of cotton yield-related traits by using major genes (QTL).

  12. Cloning and characterization of cotton heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heteromeric acetyl-coanzyme A(CoA)carboxylese(ACCase)catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA.It plays an essential role in fatty acid synthesis in prokaryotes and most of plants.The heteromeric ACCase is composed of four subunits:biotin carboxylase (BC),biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP),and α-and β-subunits of carboxyltransferese(α-andβ-CT).In this study,we cloned five novel genes encoding the subunits of heteromeric ACCese(one BC,BCCP and β-CT,and two α-CTs) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv.zhongmian 35)by RACE-PCR.The deduced amino acid sequence of these cDNAs shares high similarity with other reported heteromeric ACCese subunits.The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the different subunits of heteromeric ACCase were grouped in a similar pattern.Southern blot analysis revealed the milti-copy patterns of these heteromeric ACCase genes in cotton genome.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that heteromeric ACCese genes were constitutively expressed in all of the cotton tissues,but the transcripts accumulated at a relatively low level in roots.To our knowledge,this is the first report about characterization of the heteromeric ACCase genes in cotton.

  13. Rapid diversification of the cotton genus (Gossypium: Malvaceae) revealed by analysis of sixteen nuclear and chloroplast genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Tamara Hanselkorn; Jonathan F. Wendel

    2002-01-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have failed to resolve the branching order among the major cotton (Gossypium) lineages, and it has been unclear whether this reflects actual history (rapid radiation) or sampling properties of the genes evaluated. In this paper, we reconsider the phylogenetic relationships of diploid cotton genome groups using DNA sequences from...

  14. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  15. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  16. Gene expression preferentially regulated by tamoxifen in breast cancer cells and correlations with clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasor, Jonna; Chang, Edmund C; Komm, Barry; Lin, Chin-Yo; Vega, Vinsensius B; Liu, Edison T; Miller, Lance D; Smeds, Johanna; Bergh, Jonas; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S

    2006-07-15

    The beneficial effect of the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator tamoxifen in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer is assumed to be through its ability to antagonize the stimulatory actions of estrogen, although tamoxifen can also have some estrogen-like agonist effects. Here, we report that, in addition to these mixed agonist/antagonist actions, tamoxifen can also selectively regulate a unique set of >60 genes, which are minimally regulated by estradiol (E2) or raloxifene in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. This gene regulation by tamoxifen is mediated by ERalpha and reversed by E2 or ICI 182,780. Introduction of ERbeta into MCF-7 cells reverses tamoxifen action on approximately 75% of these genes. To examine whether these genes might serve as markers of tamoxifen sensitivity and/or the development of resistance, their expression level was examined in breast cancers of women who had received adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen. High expression of two of the tamoxifen-stimulated genes, YWHAZ/14-3-3z and LOC441453, was found to correlate significantly with disease recurrence following tamoxifen treatment in women with ER-positive cancers and hence seem to be markers of a poor prognosis. Our data indicate a new dimension in tamoxifen action, involving gene expression regulation that is tamoxifen preferential, and identify genes that might serve as markers of tumor responsiveness or resistance to tamoxifen therapy. This may have a potential effect on the choice of tamoxifen versus aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant endocrine therapy.

  17. Evolutionary Conservation and Divergence of Gene Coexpression Networks in Gossypium (Cotton) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Hovav, Ran; Grover, Corrinne E; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Kadmon, Noa; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2016-12-01

    The cotton genus (Gossypium) provides a superior system for the study of diversification, genome evolution, polyploidization, and human-mediated selection. To gain insight into phenotypic diversification in cotton seeds, we conducted coexpression network analysis of developing seeds from diploid and allopolyploid cotton species and explored network properties. Key network modules and functional associations were identified related to seed oil content and seed weight. We compared species-specific networks to reveal topological changes, including rewired edges and differentially coexpressed genes, associated with speciation, polyploidy, and cotton domestication. Network comparisons among species indicate that topologies are altered in addition to gene expression profiles, indicating that changes in transcriptomic coexpression relationships play a role in the developmental architecture of cotton seed development. The global network topology of allopolyploids, especially for domesticated G. hirsutum, resembles the network of the A-genome diploid more than that of the D-genome parent, despite its D-like phenotype in oil content. Expression modifications associated with allopolyploidy include coexpression level dominance and transgressive expression, suggesting that the transcriptomic architecture in polyploids is to some extent a modular combination of that of its progenitor genomes. Among allopolyploids, intermodular relationships are more preserved between two different wild allopolyploid species than they are between wild and domesticated forms of a cultivated cotton, and regulatory connections of oil synthesis-related pathways are denser and more closely clustered in domesticated vs. wild G. hirsutum. These results demonstrate substantial modification of genic coexpression under domestication. Our work demonstrates how network inference informs our understanding of the transcriptomic architecture of phenotypic variation associated with temporal scales ranging from

  18. Specific expression of a β-tubulin gene (GhTub1) in developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yuanli; (李园莉); SUN; Jie; (孙杰); LI; Chunhong; (李春红); ZHU; Yongqing; (朱勇清); XIA; Guixian; (夏桂先)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -1-15 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a β-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis using 3′-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the developing fibers. The results showed that GhTub1 gene was specifically expressed in cotton fiber cells. During fiber development, GhTub1 transcripts accumulated highlyat the stage of cell rapid elongation with the highest expression appearing at the time when fiber expansion reaches the peak rate. To probe the in vivo function of GhTub1, its cDNA was cloned in the yeast expression vector pREP1 and transformed into the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overexpression of GhTub1 in yeast cells caused severe changes in the cell morphology. These results suggest that GhTub1 may play a role in the polar elongation of cotton fibers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fiber-specific transcript accumulation of a cotton β-tubulin gene.

  19. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-ying; SHANGGUAN Xiao-xia; WANG Shui; WANG Ling-jian; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2 (GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have analyzed several cotton homeodomain-containing proteins that belong to the class IV HD-ZIP family.One of them,GaHOX1,shows a high sequence identity to Arabidopsis GL2 (95% in the homeodomain and 64% overall).

  20. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Associated with Fiber Strength in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-man; ZHU You-min; TONG Xiang-chao; HU Wen-jing; CAI Cai-ping; GUO Wang-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is one of the most important enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). AOC catalyzes the conversion of allene oxide into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of JA. Using 28K cotton genome array hybridization, an expressed sequence tag (EST;GenBank accession no. ES792958) was investigated that exhibited signiifcant expression differences between lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM isogenic lines during ifber initiation stages. The EST was used to search the Gossypium EST database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) for corresponding cDNA sequences encoding full-length open reading frames (ORFs). Identiifed ORFs were conifrmed using transcriptional and genomic data. As a result, a novel gene encoding AOC in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum AOC;GenBank accession no. KF383427) was cloned and characterized. The 741-bp GhAOC gene comprises three exons and two introns and encodes a polypeptide of 246 amino acids. Two homologous copies were identiifed in the tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and one copy in the diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii. qRT-PCR showed that the GhAOC transcript was abundant in cotton ifber tissues from 8 to 23 days post anthesis (DPA), and the expression proifles were similar in the two cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, with a higher level of transcription in the former. One copy of GhAOC in tetraploid cotton was localized to chromosome 24 (Chr. D8) using the subgenome-speciifc single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker analysis, which co-localized GhAOC to within 10 cM of a ifber strength quantitative trait locus (QTL) reported previously. GhAOC was highly correlated with ifber quality and strength (P=0.014) in an association analysis, suggesting a possible role in cotton ifber development, especially in secondary cell wall thickening.

  2. Preferential repair of DNA double-strand break at the active gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyasri; Sen, Rwik; Pandita, Tej K; Bhaumik, Sukesh R

    2012-10-19

    Previous studies have demonstrated transcription-coupled nucleotide/base excision repair. We report here for the first time that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is also coupled to transcription. We generated a yeast strain by introducing a homing (Ho) endonuclease cut site followed by a nucleotide sequence for multiple Myc epitopes at the 3' end of the coding sequence of a highly active gene, ADH1. This yeast strain also contains the Ho cut site at the nearly silent or poorly active mating type α (MATα) locus and expresses Ho endonuclease under the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. Using this strain, DSBs were generated at the ADH1 and MATα loci in galactose-containing growth medium that induced HO expression. Subsequently, yeast cells were transferred to dextrose-containing growth medium to stop HO expression, and the DSB repair was monitored at the ADH1 and MATα loci by PCR, using the primer pairs flanking the Ho cut sites. Our results revealed a faster DSB repair at the highly active ADH1 than that at the nearly silent MATα locus, hence implicating a transcription-coupled DSB repair at the active gene in vivo. Subsequently, we extended this study to another gene, PHO5 (carrying the Ho cut site at its coding sequence), under transcriptionally active and inactive growth conditions. We found a fast DSB repair at the active PHO5 gene in comparison to its inactive state. Collectively, our results demonstrate a preferential DSB repair at the active gene, thus supporting transcription-coupled DSB repair in living cells.

  3. Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Genes Encoding Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhi-yong; LI Bo; Neumann MPeter; L Meng; FAN Ling

    2014-01-01

    Two genes (GhC4H1 and GhC4H2) that encode putative cotton cinnamate 4-hydroxylases that catalyze the second step in the phenylpropanoid pathway were isolated from developing cotton ifbers. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 each contain open reading frames of 1 518 base pairs (bp) in length and both encode proteins consisting of 505 amino acid residues. They are 90.89%identical to each other at the amino acid sequence level and belong to class I of plant C4Hs. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 genomic DNA are 2 247 and 2 161 bp long, respectively, and contain two introns located at conserved positions relative to the coding sequence. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters were isolated and found to contain many cis-elements (boxes P, L and AC-I element) previously identiifed in the promoters of other phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Histochemical staining showed GUS expression driven by the GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters in ovules and ifbers tissues. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 were also widely expressed in other cotton tissues. GhC4H2 expression reached its highest level during the elongation stage of ifber development, whereas GhC4H1 expression increased during the secondary wall development period in cotton ifbers. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the biochemical role of GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 in cotton ifber development.

  4. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was c...

  5. Suppression of the homeobox gene HDTF1 enhances resistance to Verticillium dahliae and Botrytis cinerea in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Lu Long; Li Xu; Keith Lindsey; Xianlong Zhang; Longfu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Development of pathogen-resistant crops, such as fungus-resistant cotton, has significantly reduced chemical application and improved crop yield and quality. However, the mechanism of resistance to cotton pathogens such as Verticillium dahliae is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a cotton gene (HDTF1) that was isolated following transcriptome profiling during the resistance response of cotton to V. dahliae. HDTF1 putatively encodes a homeodomain transcription factor, and its expression was found to be down-regulated in cotton upon inoculation with V. dahliae and Botrytis cinerea. To characterise the involvement of HDTF1 in the response to these pathogens, we used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate HDTF1-silenced cotton. VIGS reduction in HDTF1 expression significantly enhanced cotton plant resistance to both pathogens. HDTF1 silencing resulted in activation of jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling and JA accumulation. However, the silenced plants were not altered in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) or the expression of marker genes associated with SA signaling. These results suggest that HDTF1 is a negative regulator of the JA pathway, and resistance to V. dahliae and B. cinerea can be engineered by activation of JA signaling.

  6. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Fiber-related Gene Expression in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Z Jeffrey; LEE Jinsuk J; HAN Zhi-guo; HA Misook; AGARWAL Vikram

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fiber cell initiation is a complex process involving many pathways,including phytohormones and components for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.Here we report expression analyses of fiber-related genes and small RNAs during fiber development.Using laser-dissected tissues and oligonucleotide microarrays corresponding to 23000 unigenes,we compared transcriptome profiles between the cells in epidermal layers,fibers,and inner integuments of cotton ovules.

  7. Novel middle-type Kenyon cells in the honeybee brain revealed by area-preferential gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kumi; Ikeda, Tsubomi; Nagai, Mirai; Hori, Sayaka; Umatani, Chie; Tadano, Hiroto; Ugajin, Atsushi; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Paul, Rajib Kumar; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (a higher center) of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) brain were considered to comprise three types of intrinsic neurons, including large- and small-type Kenyon cells that have distinct gene expression profiles. Although previous neural activity mapping using the immediate early gene kakusei suggested that small-type Kenyon cells are mainly active in forager brains, the precise Kenyon cell types that are active in the forager brain remain to be elucidated. We searched for novel gene(s) that are expressed in an area-preferential manner in the honeybee brain. By identifying and analyzing expression of a gene that we termed mKast (middle-type Kenyon cell-preferential arrestin-related protein), we discovered novel 'middle-type Kenyon cells' that are sandwiched between large- and small-type Kenyon cells and have a gene expression profile almost complementary to those of large- and small-type Kenyon cells. Expression analysis of kakusei revealed that both small-type Kenyon cells and some middle-type Kenyon cells are active in the forager brains, suggesting their possible involvement in information processing during the foraging flight. mKast expression began after the differentiation of small- and large-type Kenyon cells during metamorphosis, suggesting that middle-type Kenyon cells differentiate by modifying some characteristics of large- and/or small-type Kenyon cells. Interestingly, CaMKII and mKast, marker genes for large- and middle-type Kenyon cells, respectively, were preferentially expressed in a distinct set of optic lobe (a visual center) neurons. Our findings suggested that it is not simply the Kenyon cell-preferential gene expression profiles, rather, a 'clustering' of neurons with similar gene expression profiles as particular Kenyon cell types that characterize the honeybee mushroom body structure.

  8. Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI FeiFei; WU ShenJie; L(U) FenNi; CHEN TianZi; JU Ming; WANG HaiHai; JIANG YanJie; ZHANG Jie; GUO WangZhen; ZHANG TianZhen

    2009-01-01

    A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptll and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous lines in T3 were obtained. Southern blot and Northern bolt demonstrated that the fibroin gene was inserted into the genome of these 6 lines, stably inherited and expressed. Compared to the control, the surface structure of mature fiber in the 6 lines was significantly distorted and an increased number of convolution was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fiber quality traits analysis indicated that fiber elongation of the 6 homozygous lines was all increased and fiber strength of 3 lines was enhanced. These results indicated that fibroin expression influenced cotton fiber structure and quality, suggesting that fibroin has great potential for improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering.

  9. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu; Van Der Werf, Wopke; Ma, Yan; Xia, Jingyuan

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic cotton (Cossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects, the CrylAc gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was compared with Bt cotton and to a conventional nontransgenic variety. Larval survival was lower on both types of transgenic variety, compared with the conventional cotton. Survival of first-, second-, and third-stage larvae was lower on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Plant structures differed in level of resistance, and these differences were similar on Bt and Bt + CpTI cotton. Likewise, seasonal trends in level of resistance in different plant structures were similar in Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. Both types of transgenic cotton interfered with development of sixth-stage larvae to adults, and no offspring was produced by H. armigera that fed on Bt or Bt+CpTI cotton from the sixth stage onward. First-, second-, and third-stage larvae spent significantly less time feeding on transgenic cotton than on conventional cotton, and the reduction in feeding time was significantly greater on Bt+CpTI cotton than on Bt cotton. Food conversion efficiency was lower on transgenic varieties than on conventional cotton, but there was no significant difference between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton. In 3-yr field experimentation, bollworm densities were greatly suppressed on transgenic as compared with conventional cotton, but no significant differences between Bt and Bt+CpTI cotton were found. Overall, the results from laboratory work indicate that introduction of the CpTI gene in Bt cotton raises some components of resistance in cotton against H. armigera, but enhanced control of H. armigera under field

  10. Cloning and expression of two sterol C-24 methyltransferase genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Luo; Kunling Tan; Zhongyi Xiao; Mingyu Hu; Peng Liao; Kuijun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important class of plant steroidal hormones that are essential in a wide variety of physiological processes. Two kinds of intermediates, sitosterol and campesterol, play a crucial role in cell elongation, cellulose biosynthesis, and accumulation. To illuminate the effects of sitosterol and campesterol on the development of cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) fibers through screening cotton fiber EST database and contigging the candidate ESTs, two key genes GhSMT2-1 and GhSMT2-2 controlling the sitosterol biosynthesis were cloned from developing fibers of upland cotton cv. Xuzhou 142. The full length of GhSMT2-1 was 1, 151bp, including an 8bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1, 086bp open reading frame (ORF), and a 57bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-1 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The full length of GhSMT2-2 was 1, 166bp, including an 18bp 5'-UTR, a 1, 086bp ORF, and a 62bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The two deduced amino acid sequences had high homology with the SMT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Furthermore, the typical conserved structures characterized by the sterol C-24 methyltransferase, such as region I (LDVGCGVGGPIVIRAI), region Ⅱ (IEATCHAP), and region Ⅲ (YEWGWGQSFHF), were present in both deduced proteins. Southern blotting analysis indicated that GhSMT2-1 or GhSMT2-2 was a single copy in upland cotton genome. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression levels of both genes were detected in 10 DPA (day post anthesis) fibers, while the lowest levels were observed in cotyledon and leaves. The expression level of GhSMT2-1 was 10 times higher than that of GhSMT2-2 in all the organs and tissues detected. These results indicate that the homologue of sterol C-24 methyltransferase gene was cloned from upland cotton and both GhSMT2 genes play a crucial

  11. Island cotton Gbve1 gene encoding a receptor-like protein confers resistance to both defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolong Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.

  12. Expression profiling identifies genes expressed early during lint fibre initiation in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingru; Machado, Adriane C; White, Rosemary G; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2006-01-01

    Cotton fibres are a subset of single epidermal cells that elongate from the seed coat to produce the long cellulose strands or lint used for spinning into yarn. To identify genes that might regulate lint fibre initiation, expression profiles of 0 days post-anthesis (dpa) whole ovules from six reduced fibre or fibreless mutants were compared with wild-type linted cotton using cDNA microarrays. Numerous clones were differentially expressed, but when only those genes that are normally expressed in the ovule outer integument (where fibres develop) were considered, just 13 different cDNA clones were down-regulated in some or all of the mutants. These included: a Myb transcription factor (GhMyb25) similar to the Antirrhinum Myb AmMIXTA, a putative homeodomain protein (related to Arabidopsis ATML1), a cyclin D gene, some previously identified fibre-expressed structural and metabolic genes, such as lipid transfer protein, alpha-expansin and sucrose synthase, as well as some unknown genes. Laser capture microdissection and reverse transcription-PCR were used to show that both the GhMyb25 and the homeodomain gene were predominantly ovule specific and were up-regulated on the day of anthesis in fibre initials relative to adjacent non-fibre ovule epidermal cells. Their spatial and temporal expression pattern therefore coincided with the time and location of fibre initiation. Constitutive overexpression of GhMyb25 in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase in branched long-stalked leaf trichomes. The involvement of cell cycle genes prompted DNA content measurements that indicated that fibre initials, like leaf trichomes, undergo DNA endoreduplication. Cotton fibre initiation therefore has some parallels with leaf trichome development, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are clearly different.

  13. Isolation and characterization of resistance and defense gene analogs in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yulong; GUO; Wangzhen; WANG; Lei

    2006-01-01

    Plant disease resistance gene (R gene) and defense response gene encode some conserved motifs. In the present work, a PCR strategy was used to clone resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and defense gene analogs (DGAs) from Sea-island cotton variety Hai7124 using oligonucleotide primers based on the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and serine/threonine kinase (STK) in the R-gene and pathogenesis-related proteins of class 2 (PR2) of defense response gene. 79 NBS sequences, 21 STK sequences and 11 DGAs were cloned from disease-resistance cotton. Phylogenic analysis of 79 NBS-RGAs and NBS-RGAs nucleotide sequences of cotton already deposited in GenBank identified one new sub-cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of NBS-RGAs and STK-RGAs were divided into two distinct groups respectively: Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) group and non-TIR group, A group and B group. The expression of RGAs and DGAs having consecutive open reading frame (ORF) was also investigated and it was found that 6 NBS-RGAs and 1 STK-RGA were induced, and 1 DGA was up-regulated by infection of Verticillium dahliae strain VD8. 4 TIR-NBS-RGAs and 4 non-TIR- NBS-RGAs were arbitrarily used as probes for Southern-blotting. There existed 2-10 blotted bands. In addition, since three non-TIR-NBS-RGAs have the same hybridization pattern, we conjecture that these three RGAs form a cluster distribution in the genome.

  14. Gene expression profiles deciphering leaf senescence variation between early- and late-senescence cotton lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqiang Kong

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence varies greatly among genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutium L, possibly due to the different expression of senescence-related genes. To determine genes involved in leaf senescence, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the main-stem leaves of an early- (K1 and a late-senescence (K2 cotton line at 110 day after planting (DAP using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis indicated that 1132 genes were up-regulated and 455 genes down-regulated in K1 compared with K2 at 110 DAP. The Solexa data were highly consistent with, and thus were validated by those from real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR. Most of the genes related to photosynthesis, anabolism of carbohydrates and other biomolecules were down-regulated, but those for catabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and nutrient recycling were mostly up-regulated in K1 compared with K2. Fifty-one differently expressed hormone-related genes were identified, of which 5 ethylene, 3 brassinosteroid (BR, 5 JA, 18 auxin, 8 GA and 1 ABA related genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, indicating that these hormone-related genes might play crucial roles in early senescence of K1 leaves. Many differently expressed transcription factor (TF genes were identified and 11 NAC and 8 WRKY TF genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, suggesting that TF genes, especially NAC and WRKY genes were involved in early senescence of K1 leaves. Genotypic variation in leaf senescence was attributed to differently expressed genes, particularly hormone-related and TF genes.

  15. Cloning and characterization of two putative seven-transmembrane receptor genes from cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Gao; Piming Zhao; Juan Wang; Haiyun Wang; Guiling Wang; Guixian Xia

    2008-01-01

    Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR,two full-length cDNAs encoding putative seven-transmembrane receptors (designated Gh7TMpR1 and Gh7TMpR2) were cloned from cotton plants.Southern blot and an ApaLl restriction site polymorphism analyses revealed that GhTTMpR1 was derived from the ancestral A diploid genome,while Gh7TMpR2 was from the D subgenome.Northern blot hybridization indicated that both Gh7TMpR1 and Gh7TMpR2 were expressed preferentially in the elongation phase of fiber development.Majority of the Gh7TMpR1 proteins were located within the membrane structure and displayed a punctuate pattern of distribution.Overexpression of Gh7TMpR1 in fission yeast disrupted the polar growth and caused the formation of rounded cells.These results suggest that GhT7MpRI may play a critical role in cotton fiber development,perhaps as a signaling receptor that is involved in controlling fiber elongation.

  16. 陆地棉体细胞胚胎发生过程中基因差异表达%Differential Expression of Genes during Somatic Embryogenesis in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-ying LI; Xian-long ZHANG; Yi-chun NIE

    2002-01-01

    @@ Somatic embryogenesis in upland cotton is strongly genotype-dependent, which is a trouble in cotton genetic engineering. Cloning genes related to somatic embryogenesis and then introducing the gene into mainly cultivated varieties would be greatly helpful for cotton improvement by gene transfer. To study the gene expression during somatic embryogenesis will lay a good basis for the cloning of the genes.

  17. Differential Cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2010-12-01

    A Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV)-based gene silencing vector containing a fragment of the Gossypium hirsutum Magnesium chelatase subunit I was used to establish endogenous gene silencing in cotton of varied genetic backgrounds. Biolistic inoculation resulted in systemic and persistent photo-bleaching of the leaves and bolls of the seven cultivars tested, however, the intensity of silencing was variable. CLCrV-VIGS-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein was used to monitor the in planta distribution of the vector, indicating successful phloem invasion in all cultivars tested. Acala SJ-1, one of the cotton cultivars, was identified as a particularly optimal candidate for CLCrV-VIGS-based cotton reverse-genetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.

  19. Epidermal cell differentiation in cotton mediated by the homeodomain leucine zipper gene, GhHD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Sally-Ann; Wu, Yingru; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) fibres are specialized trichomes a few centimetres in length that grow from the seed coat. Few genes directly involved in the differentiation of these epidermal cells have been identified. These include GhMYB25-like and GhMYB25, two related MYB transcription factors that regulate fibre cell initiation and expansion. We have also identified a putative homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor, GhHD-1, expressed in trichomes and early fibres that might play a role in cotton fibre initiation. Here, we characterize GhHD-1 homoeologues from tetraploid G. hirsutum and show, using reporter constructs and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), that they are expressed predominantly in epidermal tissues during early fibre development, and in other tissues bearing epidermal trichomes. Silencing of GhHD-1 reduced trichome formation and delayed the timing of fibre initiation. Constitutive overexpression of GhHD-1 increased the number of fibres initiating on the seed, but did not affect leaf trichomes. Expression of GhHD-1 in cotton silenced for different fibre MYBs suggest that in ovules it acts downstream of GhMYB25-like, but is unaffected in GhMYB25- or GhMYB109-silenced plants. Microarray analysis of silencing and overexpression lines of GhHD-1 indicated that it potentially regulates the levels of ethylene and reactive oxidation species (ROS) through a WRKY transcription factor and calcium-signalling pathway genes to activate downstream genes necessary for cell expansion and elongation. © 2012 CSIRO. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Qayyum RAO; Muhammad IRFAN; Zafar SALEEM; Idrees Ahmad NASIR; Sheikh RIAZUDDIN; Tayyab HUSNAIN

    2011-01-01

    The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence.Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations,both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression ofArabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgeniccotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism,decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size.

  1. Analysis of genes differentially expressed during initial cellular dedifferentiation in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU HuaGuo; TU LiLi; JIN ShuangXia; XU Li; TAN JiaFu; DENG FengLin; ZHANG XianLong

    2008-01-01

    The early phase of phytohormone induction is a vital stage of somatic embryogenesis. This phase includes a key process for acquiring cellular totipotency through cellular dedifferentiation. To unravel the molecular mechanism of cellular dedifferentiation in cotton, we constructed a cDNA library using the suppression subtractive hybridization method. A total of 286 differential cDNA clones were sequenced and identified. Among these clones, 112 unique ESTs were significantly up-regulated during the early phase of phytohormone induction, and 40.2% of the ESTs were first identified. GST was highly expressed from 6 to 24 h after induction with phytohormone treatment. PRPs were predominantly expressed and exhibited distinct expression patterns in different treatments, suggesting that they are closely related to cellular dedifferentiation in cotton. Putative GhSAMS, GhSAMDC, GhSAHH and GhACO3 involvement in SAM metabolism was identified in this library. The analysis of qRT-PCR showed that two remarkable increased expressions of the four SAM-related genes happened during the early phase of phytohormone induction, and that a highly positive correlation existed between GhSAMS and GhSAHH. The highest expression level of GhSAMS might be associated with its reentry into the cell cycle. The histological observations further showed that some cells accomplished cellular dedifferentiation and division within 72 h in 2,4-D treatment, and that cellular dedifferentiation might be regulated through two alterations in SAM-dependent transmethylation activity in cotton. In addition, the expression patterns of differential genes in different treatments disclosed the complicated interaction between 2, 4-D and kinetin.

  2. Cloning and sequence analysis of a gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIP) play important roles in plant defense of pathogen, especially fungi. A pair of degenerated primers is designed based on the conserved sequence of 20 other known pgip genes and used to amplify Gossypium barbadense cultivation 7124 cDNA library by touch-down PCR. A 561 bp internal fragment of the pgip gene is obtained and used to design the primers for rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A composite pgip gene sequence is constructed from the products of 5′ and 3′ RACE, which are 666 bp and 906 bp respectively. Analysis of nucleic acid sequence shows 69.2% and 68.7% similarity to Citrus and Poncirus pgip genes, respectively. Its open reading frame of the gene encodes a polypeptide of 330 amino acids, in which 10 leucine-rich repeats arrange tandemly. A new set of primers is designed to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the gene, which allows amplification of the full-length gene from the cotton cDNA library. Genomic DNA analysis reveals that this gene has no intron.

  3. Development of Gene Expression and Gene Silencing Vectors Based onCotton Leaf Curl Virus for Functional Genomics in Cotton `%基于抗卷叶病毒棉花基因组研究的基因表达和基因沉默载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid MANSOOR; Muhammad SAQIB; Mazhar HUSSAIN; Rob BRIDDON; Kauser A. MALIK; Yusuf ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton leaf curl virus is the first example of a cotton-infecting virus where infectious clones are available. Plant viruses are valuable tools in understanding plant biology as they can be engineered for expression of foreign genes or silencing of genes homologous to cloned genes.

  4. Neuronal identity genes regulated by super-enhancers are preferentially down-regulated in the striatum of Huntington's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Mayada; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Keime, Céline; Parmentier, Frédéric; Lejeune, François-Xavier; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence; Néri, Christian; Davidson, Irwin; Merienne, Karine

    2015-06-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with extensive down-regulation of genes controlling neuronal function, particularly in the striatum. Whether altered epigenetic regulation underlies transcriptional defects in HD is unclear. Integrating RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), we show that down-regulated genes in HD mouse striatum associate with selective decrease in H3K27ac, a mark of active enhancers, and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII). In addition, we reveal that decreased genes in HD mouse striatum display a specific epigenetic signature, characterized by high levels and broad patterns of H3K27ac and RNAPII. Our results indicate that this signature is that of super-enhancers, a category of broad enhancers regulating genes defining tissue identity and function. Specifically, we reveal that striatal super-enhancers display extensive H3K27 acetylation within gene bodies, drive transcription characterized by low levels of paused RNAPII, regulate neuronal function genes and are enriched in binding motifs for Gata transcription factors, such as Gata2 regulating striatal identity genes. Together, our results provide evidence for preferential down-regulation of genes controlled by super-enhancers in HD striatum and indicate that enhancer topography is a major parameter determining the propensity of a gene to be deregulated in a neurodegenerative disease.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  6. Cloning and Expressing of a Gene Encoding Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Gen-hai; YU Shu-xun; FAN Shu-li; SONG Mei-zhen

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a gene encoding a superoxide dismutase (SOD) was cloned from senescent leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and its expressing profile was analyzed. The gene was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)method. Northern blotting was used to show the profile of the gene expression, and the enzyme activity was mensurated by NBT deoxidization method in different growth periods. The full length of a gene of cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) was isolated from cotton (GenBank Accession Number: DQ445093). The sequence of cDNA contained 682 bp, the opening reading frame 456 bp, and encoded polypeptide 152 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 15.03 kD and theoretical pI of 6.09. The amino acid sequence was similar with the other plants from 82 to 87%. Southern blotting showed that the gene had different number of copies in different cotton species. Northern blotting suggested that the gene had different expression in different tissues and development stages. The enzyme activity was the highest in peak flowering stage. The cotton cytosolic (Cu/Zn-SOD) had lower copies in the upland cotton. The copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mRNA expressing level showed regular changing in the whole development stages; it was lower in the former stages, higher in latter stages and the highest at the peak flowering stage. The curve of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mRNA expressing level was consistent with that of the Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity.The copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mRNA expressing levels of different organs showed that the gene was higher in the root, leaf, and lower in the flower.

  7. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  8. Deletions within the mouse beta-globin locus control region preferentially reduce beta(min) globin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, R; Bender, M A; Feng, Y Q; Fiering, S N; Hug, B A; Ley, T J; Groudine, M; Bouhassira, E E

    2000-02-01

    The mouse beta-globin gene cluster is regulated, at least in part, by a locus control region (LCR) composed of several developmentally stable DNase I hypersensitive sites located upstream of the genes. In this report, we examine the level of expression of the beta(min) and beta(maj) genes in adult mice in which HS2, HS3, or HS5,6 has been either deleted or replaced by a selectable marker via homologous recombination in ES cells. Primer extension analysis of RNA extracted from circulating reticulocytes and HPLC analysis of globin chains from peripheral red blood cells revealed that all mutations that reduce the overall output of the locus preferentially decrease beta(min) expression over beta(maj). The implications of these findings for the mechanism by which the LCR controls expression of the beta(maj) and beta(min) promoters are discussed.

  9. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture.

  10. Differential Gene Expression Between Hybrids and Their Parents During the Four Crucial Stages of Cotton Growth and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-lei; YU Shu-xun; XING Chao-zhu; FAN Shu-li; SONG Mei-zhen; YE Wu-wei

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to clarify the differential gene expression between cotton hybrids and their parents in order to better understand the molecular basis of cotton heterosis. The research focused on cotton heterotic and lower heterotic hybrids and their parents during the four crucial stages, which were analyzed using a differential display technique. The results indicated that there were both quantitative and qualitative differences in gene expression amongst them. The quantitative differences include over- and under-expression of parental genes and the dominant expression of highly-expressed parental genes in hybrids. In contrast, the qualitative differences are the following: (i) Bands were observed in both parents but not in the F1 hybrid (BPnF1); (ii) bands occurred in either of the parents but not in the F1 hybrid (UPnF1); (iii) bands presented only in the F1 hybrid but not in either of the parents (UF1nP); and (iv) bands were detected in either of the parents and the F1 hybrid (UPF1). Overall, the major differences of gene expression occurred in the qualitative level and four related differential patterns were observed. Furthermore, the amount of differential patterns during the flowering stage was relatively higher than those of other stages. At this juncture, both the amount of hybrid-specific expression patterns at flowering stage and the silenced expression patterns at boll-forming stage in highly heterotic hybrids were found higher than those in the lower heterotic ones. It was concluded that significant differences of gene expression in leaves were present between cotton hybrid and its parents during the whole growing stages. Hence, these differences might be responsible for the observed cotton heterosis.

  11. [Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in cotton bollworm, Helicoverna armigera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M; Kumar, N K K; Sita, T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique is being extensively employed in quantification of gene expression. However this requires normalization with suitable reference gene (RG) which is crucial in minimizing inter sample variations. Information regarding suitable RG is scarce in general and more so in insects, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, an economically important pest. In management of this pest RNA interference (RNAi), is perceived as a potential tool, which is achieved by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. These studies demand accurate quantification of gene silencing. In this study we assessed the suitability of five RGs viz. β-actin (ACTB), 18S rRNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-tubulin (TUB) and elongation fator-1-alfa (EF1-α) for gene expression studies in dsRNA treatment and across different developmental stages of H. armigera and ranked using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Data analysis revealed that best ranked RGs were varied in dsRNA treatment and in developmental stages. Under dsRNA treatment, 18S and GAPDH were more stable whereas, TUB and GAPDH were more stable across developmental stages. We also demonstrate that inappropriate selection of RG led to erroneous estimation of the target gene, chymotrypsin, expression. These results facilitate accurate quantification of gene expression in H. armigera.

  12. Introduction of rol Genes into Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome and Effects of Transgene Expression on the Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yan; YANG Ye-hua; WU Zheng-bin; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jin

    2004-01-01

    The rol genes cloned from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were transferred to the cotton genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses and developmental identification of the putative transgenic plants were carried out by means of PCR, Southern blotting and field characterization. The results showed that the expression of rol genes greatly increased the rooting ability of the transgenic plants, and changed the plant development. Highly male-sterile plants with strong apical dominance and fertile plants with short internodes, stunted growth and improved economic characteristics were segregated from the T1 transgenic lines of wild rol B gene and the rol B gene driven by 35S promoter. The transgenic lines of rol ABC construct usually had normal boll setting and slow growth. Therefore we concluded that the rol genes, modified in suitable ways,could be used to create new cotton varieties with some highly valuable characteristics.

  13. Cloning of Partial Sodium Channel Gene From Strains of Fenvalerate-Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Aphid(Aphis gossypii Glover)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-juan; GAO Xi-wu; ZHENG Bing-zong

    2003-01-01

    The strain of fenvalerate-resistant cotton aphids was selected using fenvalerate insecticide in the laboratory, the resistance factor of the strain was 199.54. Three degenerate primers were designed and used to perform PCR amplification. A cDNA encoding partial sodium channel gene was cloned from the fenvalerate-resistant and -susceptible strains. There were two nucleotide acid differences between fenvalerate-resistant strain and -susceptible strain, resulting in an amino acid mutation, Met→Leu. It is predicted that the mutation is related to the cotton aphid resistance to fenvalerate.

  14. Preferential codon usage and two types of repetitive motifs in the fibroin gene of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukuhiro, K; Kanda, T; Tamura, T

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we describe the peculiar structures and preferential codon usage found in wild silkworm fibroin genes. We determined a 1350 bp nucleotide sequence from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. The deduced amino acid sequence was partitioned into thirteen polyalanine-containing repetitive motifs, which was one of the characteristics of Antheraea fibroins. Eleven of these arrays can be classified into two types of motifs depending on difference in amino acid sequences following polyalanine. Repetitive motifs structurally similar to those of A. pernyi were detected in a homologue of the Japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai. The most remarkable feature of this study was preferential codon usage, especially seen in alanine synonymous codons within both homologues of Antheraea: isocodon GCA most frequently occurred in alanine isocodons. In contrast, GCU isocodon was the most abundant in Bombyx mori fibroin heavy chain that lacks polyalanine arrays. This result strongly suggests different modes of selective constraint between the two types of fibroin gene. The similar finding that GCA isocodon was most frequent in two dragline silk sequences of the spider, Nephila clavipes, is consistent with our results because of the repetitive polyalanine-containing arrays seen in spider dragline silk.

  15. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  16. Identification and characterization of paternal-preferentially expressed gene NF-YC8 in maize endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiupeng; Liu, Chaoxian; Yu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoli; Xu, De; Wang, Jiuguang; Wang, Guoqiang; Cai, Yilin

    2015-10-01

    Gene imprinting describes an epigenetic phenomenon, whereby genetically identical alleles are differentially expressed dependent on parent-of-origin. Some imprinted genes belonged to NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors, which were involved in many important metabolic processes in plant. The characterizations of imprinted genes are of great importance for their function exploration. In this paper, 15 non-redundant NF-YC genes were identified in the maize genome and the paternally expressed gene NF-YC8 was further analyzed. NF-YC8 primarily expressed in maize immature ear and tassel and phylogenetic analysis showed that NF-YC8 was highly homologous with Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YC2 genes which function in regulation of the flowering processes, ER stress response. Furthermore, NF-YC8 was a differential, gene-specific imprinted gene at 14 DAP and persistently imprinted throughout later endosperm development in the B73/Mo17 genetic background. Bisulfite sequencing for NF-YC8 in maize endosperm showed that the paternal alleles were higher methylated (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) than maternal alleles in the 5' upstream region, and the coding region was highly methylated in CG context. Additionally, TE (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) and repetitive region (CG and CHG contexts) were all highly methylated. These results are the first description of evolution and molecular characterization of maize NF-YC8 and will provide new references for maize NF-YC genetic analysis.

  17. Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the TIFY gene family in response to drought in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ge; Song, Yun; Wang, Caixiang; Butt, Hamama Islam; Wang, Qianhua; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Liu, Zhao; Chen, Eryong; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates control many aspects of plant biological processes. They are important for regulating plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought, which is one of the most serious threats to sustainable agricultural production. However, little is known regarding how jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins mediate jasmonic acid signals to improve stress tolerance in cotton. This represents the first comprehensive comparative study of TIFY transcription factors in both diploid A, D and tetraploid AD cotton species. In this study, we identified 21 TIFY family members in the genome of Gossypium arboretum, 28 members from Gossypium raimondii and 50 TIFY genes in Gossypium hirsutum. The phylogenetic analyses indicated the TIFY gene family could be divided into the following four subfamilies: TIFY, PPD, ZML, and JAZ subfamilies. The cotton TIFY genes have expanded through tandem duplications and segmental duplications compared with other plant species. Gene expression profile revealed temporal and tissue specificities for TIFY genes under simulated drought conditions in Gossypium arboretum. The JAZ subfamily members were the most highly expressed genes, suggesting that they have a vital role in responses to drought stress. Over-expression of GaJAZ5 gene decreased water loss, stomatal openings, and the accumulation of H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Additionally, the results of drought tolerance assays suggested that this subfamily might be involved in increasing drought tolerance. Our study provides new data regarding the genome-wide analysis of TIFY gene families and their important roles in drought tolerance in cotton species. These data may form the basis of future studies regarding the relationship between drought and jasmonic acid.

  18. ACQUIREMENT OF TRANSGENIC COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. RESISTANT TO HERBICIDE AND INSECT USING GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT aroAM12 GENE AS A SELECTABLE MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Longxu

    2005-08-01

    , was used as a dominant selectable marker for cotton plant transformation. The genes were introduced into commercial cultivar Zhongmian12 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were directly selected on medium supplemented with 80μmol/L glyphosate. In this research, 40 regenerative cotton plantlets were obtained through screening. Integration of aroAM12 and Bts1m genes was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot, the results indicated that all the 40 plants possessed the aroAM12 gene, 28 of which possessed both the aroAM12 and BtS1m genes. Expression of both the genes was established by Western blots. Insect bioassay and glyphosate resistance assay indicated that the transgenic cotton plants obtained were highly resistant to glyphosate and insect. The results of glyphosate resistance and insect bioassay of T1 generation showed that the numbers of resistance and sensitive phenotypes showed Mendelian segregation ratio.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with semigamy in Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. through comparative microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart J McD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semigamy in cotton is a type of facultative apomixis controlled by an incompletely dominant autosomal gene (Se. During semigamy, the sperm and egg cells undergo cellular fusion, but the sperm and egg nucleus fail to fuse in the embryo sac, giving rise to diploid, haploid, or chimeric embryos composed of sectors of paternal and maternal origin. In this study we sought to identify differentially expressed genes related to the semigamy genotype by implementing a comparative microarray analysis of anthers and ovules between a non-semigametic Pima S-1 cotton and its doubled haploid natural isogenic mutant semigametic 57-4. Selected differentially expressed genes identified by the microarray results were then confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Results The comparative analysis between isogenic 57-4 and Pima S-1 identified 284 genes in anthers and 1,864 genes in ovules as being differentially expressed in the semigametic genotype 57-4. Based on gene functions, 127 differentially expressed genes were common to both semigametic anthers and ovules, with 115 being consistently differentially expressed in both tissues. Nine of those genes were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, seven of which were confirmed. Furthermore, several well characterized metabolic pathways including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of and response to plant hormones were shown to be affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic tissues. Conclusion As the first report using microarray analysis, several important metabolic pathways affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic cotton genotype have been identified and described in detail. While these genes are unlikely to be the semigamy gene itself, the effects associated with expression changes in those genes do mimic phenotypic traits observed in semigametic plants

  20. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by highly virulent piscine Streptococcus agalactiae upon interaction with macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ming Guo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. In this study, we used a mouse model and in vitro cell infection to evaluate the pathogenetic characteristics of S. agalactiae GD201008-001, isolated from tilapia in China. This bacterium was found to be highly virulent and capable of inducing brain damage by migrating into the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The phagocytosis assays indicated that this bacterium could be internalized by murine macrophages and survive intracellularly for more than 24 h, inducing injury to macrophages. Further, selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS was used to investigate microbial gene expression associated with intracellular survival. This positive cDNA selection technique identified 60 distinct genes that could be characterized into 6 functional categories. More than 50% of the differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic adaptation. Some genes have previously been described as associated with virulence in other bacteria, and four showed no significant similarities to any other previously described genes. This study constitutes the first step in further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by S. agalactiae to survive in macrophages and to cross the BBB.

  1. Cloning GhSCFP Gene and Its Function in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; YANG Xia; LIU Hao; LI Jia-bao; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a major raw material for the textile industry and the most important fiber crop in the world,cotton is of great significance in Chinese economy.The development of cotton fiber can be divided into initiation,elongation,secondary wall synthesis,and maturation stages.The initiation and elongation stages of fiber,which determine the number of fibers on each seed and the final length of fiber,directly affect the yield and quality of cotton fiber.

  2. Aberrant Expression of Critical Genes during Secondary Cell Wall Biogenesis in a Cotton Mutant, Ligon Lintless-1 (Li-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bolton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over ninety percent of the value of cotton comes from its fiber; however, the genetic mechanisms governing fiber development are poorly understood. Due to their biochemical and morphological diversity in fiber cells cotton fiber mutants have been useful in examining fiber development; therefore, using the Ligon Lintless (Li-1 mutant, a monogenic dominant cotton mutant with very short fibers, we employed the high throughput approaches of microarray technology and real time PCR to gain insights into what genes were critical during the secondary cell wall synthesis stage. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the normal TM-1 genotype and the near isogenic Li-1 revealed that over 100 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold during secondary wall biogenesis, although the genetic profile of the expansion phase showed no significant differences in the isolines. Of particular note, we identified three candidate gene families-expansin, sucrose synthase, and tubulin—whose expression in Li-1 deviates from normal expression patterns of its parent, TM-1. These genes may contribute to retarded growth of fibers in Li-1 since they are fiber-expressed structural and metabolic genes. This work provides more details into the mechanisms of fiber development, and suggests the Li gene is active during the later stages of fiber development.

  3. Genetic engineering of cotton with a novel cry2AX1 gene to impart insect resistance against Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamurthy Dhivya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic calli of cotton (Coker310 were cocultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the codon-optimised, chimeric cry2AX1 gene consisting of sequences from cry2Aa and cry2Ac genes isolated from Indian strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty-eight putative transgenic plants were regenerated, and PCR analysis of these plants revealed the presence of the cry2AX1 gene in 40 plants. Southern blot hybridisation analysis of selected transgenic plants confirmed stable T-DNA integration in the genome of transformed plants. The level of Cry2AX1 protein expression in PCR positive plants ranged from 4.9 to 187.5 ng g-1 of fresh tissue. A transgenic cotton event, TP31, expressing the cry2AX1 gene showed insecticidal activity of 56.66 per cent mortality against Helicoverpa armigera in detached leaf disc bioassay. These results indicate that the chimeric cry2AX1 gene expressed in transgenic cotton has insecticidal activity against H. armigera.

  4. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y

    2004-04-01

    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB.

  5. Study on Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton Harbouring Double-gene and Its Resistance to Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; CUI Jin-jie; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; LI Feng-lian; ZHOU Yong; LI Xiu-lan; GUO San-dui; CUI Hong-zhi

    2001-01-01

    By using the method of pollen tube pathway, the synthesized GFM CryIA gene and modified CpTI gene were transfered into the elite cotton( Gossypium hirsutun L. ) varieties(lines). Through the field and lab identifications, the insect-resistant transgenic plants were obtained. PCR analysis indicated that both the synthesized GFM CryIA gene and modified CpTI gene presented positive reaction. In R1 the boliworm resistance of each transformant was different, and the insect-resistance of R3 of ZGK9708 was stable.

  6. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  7. The Woody-Preferential Gene EgMYB88 Regulates the Biosynthesis of Phenylpropanoid-Derived Compounds in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marçal; Plasencia, Anna; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Camargo, Eduardo L. O.; Dupas, Annabelle; Ladouce, Nathalie; Pesquet, Edouard; Mounet, Fabien; Larbat, Romain; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family revealed that five subgroups were preferentially found in woody species and were totally absent from Brassicaceae and monocots (Soler et al., 2015). Here, we analyzed one of these subgroups (WPS-I) for which no gene had been yet characterized. Most Eucalyptus members of WPS-I are preferentially expressed in the vascular cambium, the secondary meristem responsible for tree radial growth. We focused on EgMYB88, which is the most specifically and highly expressed in vascular tissues, and showed that it behaves as a transcriptional activator in yeast. Then, we functionally characterized EgMYB88 in both transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar plants overexpressing either the native or the dominant repression form (fused to the Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression motif, EAR). The transgenic Arabidopsis lines had no phenotype whereas the poplar lines overexpressing EgMYB88 exhibited a substantial increase in the levels of the flavonoid catechin and of some salicinoid phenolic glycosides (salicortin, salireposide, and tremulacin), in agreement with the increase of the transcript levels of landmark biosynthetic genes. A change in the lignin structure (increase in the syringyl vs. guaiacyl, S/G ratio) was also observed. Poplar lines overexpressing the EgMYB88 dominant repression form did not show a strict opposite phenotype. The level of catechin was reduced, but the levels of the salicinoid phenolic glycosides and the S/G ratio remained unchanged. In addition, they showed a reduction in soluble oligolignols containing sinapyl p-hydroxybenzoate accompanied by a mild reduction of the insoluble lignin content. Altogether, these results suggest that EgMYB88, and more largely members of the WPS-I group, could control in cambium and in the first layers of differentiating xylem the biosynthesis of some phenylpropanoid-derived secondary metabolites including lignin. PMID

  8. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  9. Alternative Splicing Profile and Sex-Preferential Gene Expression in the Female and Male Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-01-01

    In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934

  10. Genetics and Expression of the Brown Lint Gene in Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yin-hua; SUN Jun-ling; ZHOU Zhong-li; PAN Zao-e; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ The major cotton grown commercially in the world is white lint,but recently many people prefer to have garments made by natural colored cotton.This can be used directly in textile industries,avoiding the complicated and unsafe processes of bleaching and dying,and thus it is eco-friendly.

  11. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in confe

  12. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in

  13. Preferential Nucleosome Assembly at DNA Triplet Repeats from the Myotonic Dystrophy Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuh-Hwa; Amirhaeri, Sorour; Kang, Seongman; Wells, Robert D.; Griffith, Jack D.

    1994-07-01

    The expansion of CTG repeats in DNA occurs in or near genes involved in several human diseases, including myotonic dystrophy and Huntington's disease. Nucleosomes, the basic structural element of chromosomes, consist of 146 base pairs of DNA coiled about an octamer of histone proteins and mediate general transcriptional repression. Electron microscopy was used to examine in vitro the nucleosome assembly of DNA containing repeating CTG triplets. The efficiency of nucleosome formation increased with expanded triplet blocks, suggesting that such blocks may repress transcription through the creation of stable nucleosomes.

  14. Activity of the truncated promoter of pollen-specific G9 gene of cotton and the transgenic recessive nuclei-sterile tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 557 bp fragment from the translation initiation site of the G9 gene expressed in maturing pollens of cotton was isolated from genomic DNA of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv. “Zhongkang 17”, and two expression vectors for plant transformation were constructed via fusing this fragment with β-glucuronidase gene (Gus) and cytotoxin gene Barnase. The promoter activity of this fragment was demonstrated via transient expression of Gus gene in cotton and by the integrated expression of Barnase gene in tobacco. This promoter can initiate the expression of exogenous gene specifically and efficiently in plant pollen. The transgenic tobacco plant containing G9-Barnase fusion gene showed the characteristics of recessive nuclei-sterility.

  15. Fine mapping of the red plant gene R1 in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; CAI CaiPing; ZHANG TianZhen; GUO WangZhen

    2009-01-01

    Sub 16 is a substitution line with G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 genetic background except that the 16th chro-mosome (Chr. 16) is replaced by the corresponding homozygous chromosome of G. barbadense cv. 3-79, and T586 is a G. hirsutum multiple gene marker line with 8 dominant mutation genes. The R1 gene for anthocyanin pigmentation was tagged in Chr. 16 in T586. The objective of this research was to screen SSR markers tightly linked with R1 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants derived from the cross of Sub 16 and T586 and the backbone genetic linkage map from G. hir-sutumxG, barbadense BC1 newly updated by our laboratory. Genetic analysis suggested that the se-gregation ratio of red plants in the F2 population fit Mendelian 1:2:1 inheritance, confirming that the red plant trait was controlled by an incomplete dominance gene. Preliminary mapping of R1 was conducted using 237 randomLy selected F2 individuals and JoinMap v3.0 software. Then, a fine map of R1 was constructed using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants, and R1 was located between NAU4956 and NAU6752, with only 0.49 cM to the nearest maker loci (NAU6752). These results pro-vided a foundation for map-based cloning of R1 and further development of cotton cultivars with red fibers by transgenic technology.

  16. Live Borrelia burgdorferi preferentially activate interleukin-1 beta gene expression and protein synthesis over the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L C; Isa, S; Vannier, E; Georgilis, K; Steere, A C; Dinarello, C A

    1992-01-01

    Lyme arthritis is one of the few forms of chronic arthritis in which the cause is known with certainty. Because cytokines are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic arthritis, we investigated the effect of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, on the gene expression and synthesis of IL-1 beta and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Live B. burgdorferi induced fivefold more IL-1 beta than IL-1 alpha and sevenfold more IL-1 beta than IL-1ra; LPS or sonicated B. burgdorferi induced similar amounts of all three cytokines. This preferential induction of IL-1 beta was most dramatic in response to a low passage, virulent preparation of B. burgdorferi vs. three high passage avirulent strains. No difference in induction of IL-1ra was seen between these strains. The marked induction of IL-1 beta was partially diminished by heat-treatment and abrogated by sonication; IL-1ra was not affected. This suggested that a membrane component(s) accounted for the preferential induction of IL-1 beta. However, recombinant outer surface protein beta induced little IL-1 beta. By 4 h after stimulation, B. burgdorferi induced sixfold more IL-1 beta protein than LPS. In contrast to LPS-induced IL-1 beta mRNA which reached maximal accumulation after 3 h, B. burgdorferi-induced IL-1 beta mRNA showed biphasic elevations at 3 and 18 h. B. burgdorferi-induced IL-1ra mRNA peaked at 12 h, whereas LPS-induced IL-1ra mRNA peaked at 9 h. IL-1 beta synthesis increased in response to increasing numbers of spirochetes, whereas IL-1ra synthesis did not. The preferential induction by B. burgdorferi of IL-1 beta over IL-1ra is an example of excess agonist over antagonist synthesis induced by a microbial pathogen, and may contribute to the destructive lesion of Lyme arthritis. Images PMID:1387885

  17. Suitable internal control genes for qRT-PCR normalization in cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis have been explored systematically with microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization. Real-time RT-PCR provides the simultaneous measurement of gene expression in many different samples, with which the data from microarray or others can be confirmed in detail. To achieve accurate and reliable gene expression results, normalization of real-time PCR data against one or several internal control genes is required, which should not fluctuate in different tissues during various stages of development. We assessed the gene expression of 7 frequently used housekeeping genes, including 18S rRNA, Histone3, UBQ7, Actin, Cyclophilin, Gbpolyubiquitin-1 and Gbpolyubiquitin-2, in a diverse set of 21 cotton samples. For fiber developmental series the expression of all housekeeping genes had the same down tendency after 17 DPA. But the expression of the AGP gene (arabinogalactan protein) that has high expression level at the later fiber development stage was up-regulated from 15 to 27 DPA. So the relative absolute quantification should be an efficient and convenient method for the fiber developmental series. The expression of nonfiber tissues series varied not so much against the fiber developmental series. And three best control genes Histone3, UBQ7 and Gbpolyubiquitin-1 have to be used in a combinated way to get better normalization.

  18. A novel gene cluster allows preferential utilization of fucosylated milk oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum SC596

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Kirmiz, Nina; Davis, Jasmine C.; Totten, Sarah M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; Ugalde, Juan A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO. B. longum SC596 grew vigorously on HMO, and glycoprofiling revealed a preference for consumption of fucosylated HMO. Transcriptomes of SC596 during early-stage growth on HMO were more similar to growth on fucosyllactose, transiting later to a pattern similar to growth on neutral HMO. B. longum SC596 contains a novel gene cluster devoted to the utilization of fucosylated HMO, including genes for import of fucosylated molecules, fucose metabolism and two α-fucosidases. This cluster showed a modular induction during early growth on HMO and fucosyllactose. This work clarifies the genomic and physiological variation of infant-borne B. longum to HMO consumption, which resembles B. infantis. The capability to preferentially consume fucosylated HMO suggests a competitive advantage for these unique B. longum strains in the breast-fed infant gut. PMID:27756904

  19. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  20. Overexpression of a Potato Sucrose Synthase Gene in Cotton Accelerates Leaf Expansion,Reduces Seed Abortion, and Enhances Fiber Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Xu; Elizabeth Brill; Danny J.Llewellyn; Robert T.Furbank; Yong-Ling Ruan

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength,especially in crop species,based on mutational and gene suppression studies.It remains elusive,however,whether,or to what extent,increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development.We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development.Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development,which reduced seed abortion,hence enhanced seed set,and (3) promoted fiber elongation.In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines,fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas,in elongating fibers,both fructose and glucose levels were increased.Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves,in contrast to developing fibers,it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation,probably through sugar signaling.The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%.However,further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight,indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect.Finally,based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number,a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole,rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  1. MicroRNA genes preferentially expressed in dendritic cells contain sites for conserved transcription factor binding motifs in their promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynen Martijn A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression by translational repression or target mRNA degradation. Regulatory elements in miRNA promoters are less well studied, but may reveal a link between their expression and a specific cell type. Results To explore this link in myeloid cells, miRNA expression profiles were generated from monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs. Differences in miRNA expression among monocytes, DCs and their stimulated progeny were observed. Furthermore, putative promoter regions of miRNAs that are significantly up-regulated in DCs were screened for Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs based on TFBS motif matching score, the degree to which those TFBSs are over-represented in the promoters of the up-regulated miRNAs, and the extent of conservation of the TFBSs in mammals. Conclusions Analysis of evolutionarily conserved TFBSs in DC promoters revealed preferential clustering of sites within 500 bp upstream of the precursor miRNAs and that many mRNAs of cognate TFs of the conserved TFBSs were indeed expressed in the DCs. Taken together, our data provide evidence that selected miRNAs expressed in DCs have evolutionarily conserved TFBSs relevant to DC biology in their promoters.

  2. Gossypol-enhanced P450 gene pool contributes to cotton bollworm tolerance to a pyrethroid insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Yuan; Xue, Xue-Yi; Huang, Yong-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Mao, Ying-Bo

    2012-09-01

    Cotton plants accumulate phytotoxins, including gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, to resist insect herbivores and pathogens. To counteract these defensive plant secondary metabolites, cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera) elevate their production of detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Besides their tolerance to phytotoxin, cotton bollworms have quickly developed resistance to deltamethrin, a widely used pyrethroid insecticide in cotton field. However, the relationship between host plant secondary metabolites and bollworm insecticide resistance is poorly understood. Here, we show that exogenously expressed CYP6AE14, a gossypol-inducible P450 of cotton bollworm, has epoxidation activity towards aldrin, an organochlorine insecticide, indicating that gossypol-induced P450s participate in insecticide metabolism. Gossypol-ingested cotton bollworm larvae showed higher midgut P450 enzyme activities and exhibited enhanced tolerance to deltamethrin. The midgut transcripts of bollworm larvae administrated with different phytochemicals and deltamethrin were then compared by microarray analysis, which showed that gossypol and deltamethrin induced the most similar P450 expression profiles. Gossypol-induced P450s exhibited high divergence and at least five of them (CYP321A1, CYP9A12, CYP9A14, CYP6AE11 and CYP6B7) contributed to cotton bollworm tolerance to deltamethrin. Knocking down one of them, CYP9A14, by plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) rendered the larvae more sensitive to the insecticide. These data demonstrate that generalist insects can take advantage of secondary metabolites from their major host plants to elaborate defence systems against other toxic chemicals, and impairing this defence pathway by RNAi holds a potential for reducing the required dosages of agrochemicals in pest control.

  3. Fine mapping of the dominant glandless Gene Gle2 in Sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gle2 is a mutant gene that controls glandless trait in cotton plants and seeds. It is an important gene resource to gossypol-free cottonseed breeding. The objective of this research was to develop SSR markers tightly linked with Gle2 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1599 plants derived from the cross of G. hirsutum genetic standard line TM-1 and G. barbadense glandless mutant line Hai-1. Genetic analysis suggested that the Gle2 was an incomplete dominant gene. Based on the backbone of genetic linkage map from G. hirsutum × G. barbadense BC1 published by our laboratory, Gle2 was located between CIR362 and NAU2251b, NAU3860b, STV033, with a genetic distance 9.27 and 0.96 cM, respectively. This result is useful for cloning Gle2 gene by map-based cloning method.

  4. Structure of Exogenous Gene Integration and Event-Specific Detection in the Glyphosate-Tolerant Transgenic Cotton Line BG2-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xujing; Wang, Zhixing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the flanking sequence of an inserted fragment conferring glyphosate tolerance on transgenic cotton line BG2-7 was analyzed by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction (TAIL-PCR) and standard PCR. The results showed apparent insertion of the exogenous gene into chromosome D10 of the Gossypium hirsutum L. genome, as the left and right borders of the inserted fragment are nucleotides 61,962,952 and 61,962,921 of chromosome D10, respectively. In addition, a 31-bp cotton microsatellite sequence was noted between the genome sequence and the 5' end of the exogenous gene. In total, 84 and 298 bp were deleted from the left and right borders of the exogenous gene, respectively, with 30 bp deleted from the cotton chromosome at the insertion site. According to the flanking sequence obtained, several pairs of event-specific detection primers were designed to amplify sequence between the 5' end of the exogenous gene and the cotton genome junction region as well as between the 3' end and the cotton genome junction region. Based on screening tests, the 5'-end primers GTCATAACGTGACTCCCTTAATTCTCC/CCTATTACACGGCTATGC and 3'-end primers TCCTTTCGCTTTCTTCCCTT/ACACTTACATGGCGTCTTCT were used to detect the respective BG2-7 event-specific primers. The limit of detection of the former primers reached 44 copies, and that of the latter primers reached 88 copies. The results of this study provide useful data for assessment of BG2-7 safety and for accelerating its industrialization. PMID:27379683

  5. Effect of Age of Explant on Transgenic Cotton (Gossypium Plant Due to Expression of Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene from Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynelle van Emmenes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important textile plant in the world and is one of the most important crops for the production of oilseed. Because of its worldwide economic importance, new cultivars are constantly being released in the world. Although great improvements have been achieved through traditional breeding methods, cotton breeders are facing many problems, i.e., narrow genetic base, inability to use alien genes and difficulty in breaking gene linkages. Genetic transformations analyses are main tools used by breeders to overcome these problems. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to determine the effect of age of explant on regeneration response of apical shoot for tissue culture and gene transfer systems of cotton. This enabled us evaluate it effects on cotton transformation. The age of explants was observed to have significant effect on shoot tip elongation. The elongation rates of the three varieties studied were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.1573 and was observed to be affected by the size of isolated tips. It was observed that if the starting size of the apex was less than 1 mm, the tips would not grow at all. Insecticidal lectin gene from Allium sativum was transferred into the transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using shoot apices as explants. Putative transgenic plants were confirmed by leaf GUS assay, kanamycin leaf test and molecular analysis of plantlet.

  6. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  7. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  8. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  9. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ryan J; Coneva, Viktoriya; Frank, Margaret H; Tuttle, John R; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Han, Sang-Won; Kaur, Baljinder; Zhu, Linglong; Fang, Hui; Bowman, Daryl T; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Haigler, Candace H; Jones, Don C; Holland, James B; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kuraparthy, Vasu

    2017-01-03

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D1), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D1 locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D1 locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.

  10. [Glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Transformed with aroAM12 gene via Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long-Xu; Li, Yun-Feng; Xu, Pei-Lin

    2004-04-01

    A mutant, aroAM12, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate produced in a previous study using the staggered extension process with aroA genes from Salmonella typhimurium and Eschrichia coli. In this paper, we constructed a vector pGRA1300 carrying aroAM12 gene, comprising transit peptide of Arabidopsis EPSPS, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter and used as selectable marker for cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) transformation. Transgenic cottons with increased resistance to glyphosate were obtained by cotransformtion of hypocotyl segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and selected directly on medium containing glyphosate. Regeneration of glyphosate-resistant calli was carried out on a MS basic medium containing 2,4-D 0.1 mg/L, KT 0.1 mg/L, cefotaxime 500 mg/L and glyphosate 60 micromol/L. Globular embryos were induced and then developed by culturing on MSB (MS salts+B(5) vitamins) medium supplemented with asparagine 1 g/L and glutamine 2 g/L, but not containing hormone, for 40 d. The developed plantlets were then removed and cultured on an MS medium. After about 20 d, the deeply-rooted shoots were in soil. PCR analysis showed that the aroAM12 gene was present in all T(0) transgenic plants. The integration of the aroAM12 gene in the genomic DNA of cotton was further confirmed by Southern blot, which showed that the transgenic plants carried one or two copies of the aroAM12 genes. Western blot analysis showed that a 48-kD band of was detected in all T(0) transgenic plants. There was no apparent corelation between copy numbers and the expression level of the aroAM12 gene. Greenhouse screening for glyphosate resistance was performed to test 65 independent T(0) plants by spraying (three times) with an aqueous suspension at a dose corresponding to 9.317 kg/ha of Roundup (once every 5 d). After 15 d, phenotype examination was carried out of the plants in comparison with untransformed control plants. Under these conditions, it was observed that the plants transformed

  11. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein gene in upland cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Wen; Ni, Wan-Chao; Zhang, Bao-Long; Shen, Xin-Lian; Zhang, Xiang-Gui; Xu, Ying-Jun; Yao, Shu

    2006-04-01

    The zinc finger proteins belong to the largest family of regulatory transcription factors, which play an important role in growth and development in animal and plant systems. SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein gene has only one "finger like" motif. A pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions, and 3 kinds of EST of this family were isolated from cotton through RT-PCR. The full length of one SUPERMAN-like zinc finger protein also has been acquired. The entire coding region is 744 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 248 amino acids with 40% homology to RBE protein of Arabidopsis deposited in the GenBank. This gene was designated as GZFP. It has the conserved zinc finger domain and the leucine rich region at the carboxyl terminus but no intron in the coding region. GZFP also has the plant nuclear localization signal. GZFP shows a more expression pattern in floral buds, ovaries, petals and roots than in phloem, xylem, fibers, leaves and seeds of cotton by RT-PCR, although it has a very low detection level and there is not any homologous ESTs found in the GenBank. Analysis of the 5' flanking sequence shows there are several regulatory elements responsible for pollen and root expression, four core sites required for binding of Dof proteins and four light-regulated elements.

  12. Cloning and expression analysis of GhDET3, a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit C gene, from cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyi Xiao; Kunling Tan; Mingyu Hu; Peng Liao; Kuijun Chen; Ming Luo

    2008-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPase was regarded as a key enzyme promoting the fiber cell elongation in cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) through regulating turgot-driven pressure involved in polarity expansion of single cell fiber. The DET3, a V-ATPase subunit C, plays an impor-tant role in assembling subunits and regulating the enzyme activity, and is involved in Brassinosteroid-induced cell elongation. To ana-lyze the function of GhDET3 on the elongation of cotton fibers, seven candidates of ESTs were screened and contigged for a 5'-upstream sequence, and the 3'-RACE technique was used to clone the 3'-downstream sequence for the full length of GhDET3 gene. The full length of the target clone was 1,340 bp, including a 10 bp 5'-UTR, an ORF of 1,134 bp, and a 196 bp 3'-UTR. This cDNA sequence encoded a polypepide of 377 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 43 kDa and a basic isoelectric point of 5.58. Furthermore, a length of 3,410 bp sequence from genomic DNA of GhDET3 was also cloned by PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high ho-mology with DET3 from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the GhDET3 expres-sion pattern was ubiquitous in all the tissues and organs detected. The result also revealed that the accumulation of GhDET3 mRNA reached the highest profile at the fiber elongation stage in 12 DPA (days post anthesis) fibers, compared with the lowest level at the fiber initiation stage in 0 DPA ovules (with fibers). The transcript accumulation in fibers and ovules shared the similar variation tendency. In addition, in vitro ovule culture experiment demonstrated that exogenous 24-EBL treatment to 4 DPA ovules (with fibers) was capable of increasing the expression level of GhDET3, and the mRNA accumulation of GhDET3 increased in transgenic FBP7::GhDET2 cotton fibers in vivo. These results indicate that GhDET3 gene plays a crucial role in cotton fiber elongation.

  13. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was δ-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. δ-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from δ-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, δ-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens.

  14. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittler Ron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers" of cotton (Gossypium, using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

  15. Cloning of Two Genes Related to Plant Defense Response of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. )%两个与海岛棉防卫反应相关基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daolong DOU; Bingshan WANG; Yixiong TANG; Zhixing WANG; Jingsan SUN; Shirong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium wilt, caused by V. dahaliae, is a serious fungus disease of cotton in China.Nearly all cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties are sensitive to it. Some species of island cotton ( G. barbadense ),however, have a natural resistance to this pathogen. To investigate the mechanism of SAR signal transduction and response to pathogen,two genes, which play important roles in the development of SAR, are cloned by degenerated PCR.

  16. Salt Stress Effects on Secondary Metabolites of Cotton in Relation to Gene Expression Responsible for Aphid Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Many secondary metabolites have insecticidal efficacy against pests and may be affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known of how plants may respond to such stress as pertains the growth and development of pests. The objective of this study was to determine if and how salt stress on cotton plants affects the population dynamics of aphids. The NaCl treatment (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM increased contents of gossypol in cotton by 26.8-51.4%, flavonoids by 22.5-37.6% and tannic by 15.1-24.3% at 7-28 d after salt stress. Compared with non-stressed plants, the population of aphids on 150 and 200 mM NaCl stressed plants was reduced by 46.4 and 65.4% at 7d and by 97.3 and 100% at 14 days after infestation. Reductions in aphid population were possibly attributed to the elevated secondary metabolism under salt stress. A total of 796 clones for aphids transcriptome, 412 clones in the positive- library (TEST and 384 clones in the reverse-library (Ck, were obtained from subtracted cDNA libraries and sequenced. Gene ontology (GO functional classification and KEGG pathway analysis showed more genes related to fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis, and fewer genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility pathways in TEST than in Ck library, which might be the reason of aphids population reduction. A comparative analysis with qRT-PCR indicated high expression of transcripts CYP6A14, CYP6A13, CYP303A1, NADH dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase in the TEST group. However, CYP307A1 and two ecdysone-induced protein genes were down regulated. The results indicate that genes of aphids related to growth and development can express at a higher level in reaction to the enhanced secondary metabolism in cotton under salinity stress. The expression of CYP307A1 was positively correlated with the population dynamics of aphids since it was involved in ecdysone synthesis.

  17. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  18. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Thyssen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  19. MHC class I genes in a New World primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), have evolved by an active process of loci turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, L F; Mejía, B E; Watkins, D I

    1999-03-01

    Lymphocytes of a New World primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), express classical G-related major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules with unusually limited polymorphism and variability. Three G-related loci, an F locus, an E locus, and two pseudogenes (So-N1 and So-N3) have been identified by cDNA library screening and extensive PCR analysis of both cDNA and genomic DNA from the cotton-top tamarin. Furthermore, each genus of the subfamily Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets) appears to express its own unique set of MHC class I genes, likely due to a rapid turnover of loci. The rapid emergence of unique MHC class I genes in the Callitrichinae genera, resulting from an active process of duplication and inactivation of loci, may account for the limited diversity of the MHC class I genes in the cotton-top tamarin. To determine the nature of the entire complement of MHC class I genes in the cotton-top tamarin, we synthesized a genomic DNA library and screened it with MHC class I-specific probes. We isolated nine new MHC class I pseudogenes from this library. These newly isolated tamarin G-related MHC class I pseudogenes are not closely related to any of their functional counterparts in the tamarin, suggesting that they do not share a recent common ancestral gene with the tamarin's currently expressed MHC class I loci. In addition, these tamarin sequences display a high rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in their putative peptide binding region. This indicates that the genes from which they have derived were likely subject to positive selection and, therefore, were once functional. Our data support the notion that an extremely high rate of loci turnover is largely responsible for the limited diversity of the MHC class I genes in the cotton-top tamarin.

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing synthetic Cry1Ac and Cry1le genes are more toxic to cotton bollworm than those containing one gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Yun; JIA ZhiWei; HE KangLai; LIU YunJun; SONG FuPing; WANG BaoMin; WANG GuoYing

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1Ac, Crylle or both genes were obtained. In the leaves of transgenic plants carrying both genes, the contents of CrylAc and Cry1le proteins were 0.173% and 0.131% of the total proteins, respectively, Cry1Ac protein content was 0.182 % and Cry1le protein con-tent was 0.124% of the total proteins in the leaves of transgenic plants containing only one Bt gone. Fresh leaves of transgenic tobacco and wild-type plants were used for the insect bioassay against wild-type and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The bioassay results showed that transgenic plants carrying both genes were significantly more toxic to wild-type and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm than those carrying Cry1Ac or Cry1le alone. This study indicates that the higher toxicity of transgenic tobacco plants carrying both genes is caused by the cooperative function of both Bt proteins, thus providing a potential way to delay the development of insect resis-tance to transgenic crops.

  1. Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Genes in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Wang; Zhong-Xu Lin; Xian-Long Zhang; Wei Chen; Xiao-Ping Guo; Yi-Chun Nie; Yun-Hai Li

    2008-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is one of the most serious constraints to cotton production in almost all of the cotton-growing countries. In this study, "XinLuZao1" (XLZ1), a susceptible cultivar Gossypium hirsutum L. and "Hai7124" (H7124), a resistant line G. barbadense, and their F2:3 families were used to map and study the disease Index induced by verticillium wilt. A total of 430 SSR loci were mapped into 41 linkage groups; the map spanned 3 745.9 cM and the average distance between adjacent loci was 8.71 cM. Four and five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the disease index investigated on July 22 and August 24 in 2004, respectively. These nine QTLs explained 10.63-28.83% of the phenotypic variance, six of them were located on the D sub-genome. Two QTLs located In the same marker intervals may partly explain the significant correlation of the two traits. QTLs explaining large phenotypic variation were identified in this study, which may be quite useful in cotton anti-disease breeding.

  2. Silk gland gene expression during larval-pupal transitionin the cotton leaf roller Sylepta derogate (Lepidoptera: pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used t...

  3. The immature fiber mutant phenotype of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is linked to a 22-bp frame-shift deletion in a mitochondria targeted pentatricopeptide repeat gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton seed trichomes are the globally most important source of natural fibers. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im) gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process...

  4. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  5. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown colour and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-coloured brown cotton fibres from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fibre loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have yet to be identified, and the mechan...

  6. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown color and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-colored brown cotton fibers from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fiber loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the me...

  7. Improvements of Fiber Yield and Fiber Fineness by Expressing the iaaM Gene in Cotton Seed Coat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yan; ZHENG Xue-lian; ZHANG Mi; ZENG Qi-wei; HOU Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton,the most important natural fiber crop in the world,is a mainstay in China's economy.However,for over two decades,cotton yields both in China and U.S.have been at a plateau.One reason for this plateau is the limitation of current cotton germplasm.Cotton fibers are single cells resulting from elongated cells of the ovule epidermis.IAA regulates both plant growth and differentiation,and it has important roles in cotton fiber development.

  8. Agrobacterium-meditated Genetic Transformation of an Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 310) Using a Novel Bt Gene Cry 2Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THIRUVENGADAM V; RASHMI J A; UDYASURIAN V; BALASUBRAMANIAN P; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ The development of transgenic cotton varieties resistant to bollworms has been a major success of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture,evidenced by phenomenal increase in the cultivable area under (B.thuringiensis) Bt cotton in recent years worldwide.Of late,there are reports of insects developing resistance against the most commonly used Bt toxin CrylAc.Hence,there is an urgent need to broaden the source of resistance by employing new genes in order to reduce the chances of insects developing Bt resistance.Keeping this objective in view,cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn cv Coker 310) plants expressing a novel insecticidal crystal protein Cry2Ac were developed in the present study.

  9. 转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜个体生长发育和繁殖能力的影响%Effects of Transgenic Bt gene Cotton on the Development and Reproduction of Individuals Cotton Aphids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海强; 王冬梅; 徐遥; 张永军; 丁瑞丰; 李号宾; 汪飞; 阿克旦·吾外士; 刘建

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜的个体生长发育及繁殖能力的影响.[方法]在室内研究转Bt基因棉(处理)和常规棉(对照)对棉蚜个体生长发育及繁殖能力的影响.[结果]转Bt基因抗棉铃虫棉对棉蚜发育速度、成蚜寿命、4龄若蚜体重、成蚜繁殖力无明显影响.[结论]取食转Bt基因棉花对棉蚜个体生长发育没有负面影响,转Bt基因棉花对棉蚜生长发育和繁殖是安全的.为转Bt基因抗虫棉对棉蚜的生态安全性评价提供相关依据.%[Objective] The purpose of this study was to discuss effects of transgenic Bt gene cotton on the development and reproduction of individuals cotton Aphuids. [Method] The preliminary effects of transgenic cotton on Aphis were measured in laboratory with the method of life - table. [Result]The result showed that the effect on the development speed , adult life - span. 4 duration avoirdupois, and adult reproduction of Aphids were not significant. [ Conclusion] The correlative evidence had been built on transgenic Bt gene cotton ecoloey safety evaluation .

  10. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Sariful; Thyssen, Gregory N; Jenkins, Johnie N; Zeng, Linghe; Delhom, Christopher D; McCarty, Jack C; Deng, Dewayne D; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Jones, Don C; Fang, David D

    2016-11-09

    Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders' ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed through random-mating of multiple diverse parents has the ability to break this negative correlation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a method that can rapidly identify and genotype a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping a MAGIC population using GBS technologies will enable us to identify marker-trait associations with high resolution. An Upland cotton MAGIC population was developed through random-mating of 11 diverse cultivars for five generations. In this study, fiber quality data obtained from four environments and 6071 SNP markers generated via GBS and 223 microsatellite markers of 547 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the MAGIC population were used to conduct a genome wide association study (GWAS). By employing a mixed linear model, GWAS enabled us to identify markers significantly associated with fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL). We identified and validated one QTL cluster associated with four fiber quality traits [short fiber content (SFC), strength (STR), length (UHM) and uniformity (UI)] on chromosome A07. We further identified candidate genes related to fiber quality attributes in this region. Gene expression and amino acid substitution analysis suggested that a regeneration of bulb biogenesis 1 (GhRBB1_A07) gene is a candidate for superior fiber quality in Upland cotton. The DNA marker CFBid0004 designed from an 18 bp deletion in the coding sequence of GhRBB1_A07 in Acala Ultima is associated with the improved fiber quality in the MAGIC RILs and 105 additional commercial Upland cotton cultivars. Using GBS and a MAGIC population enabled more precise fiber QTL mapping in Upland cotton. The fiber QTL and associated markers identified in

  11. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M

    2010-02-01

    MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. Here, we cloned and sequenced MIC-3 genes from selected diploid and tetraploid cotton species to reveal sequence differences at the molecular level and identify chromosomal locations of MIC-3 genes in Gossypium species. Detailed sequence analysis and phylogenetic clustering of MIC-3 genes indicated the presence of multiple MIC-3 gene members in Gossypium species. Haplotypes of a MIC-3 gene family member were discovered by comparative analysis among consensus sequences across genotypes within an individual clade in the phylogram to overcome the problem of duplicated loci in the tetraploid cotton. Deficiency tests of the SNPs delimited six A(t)-genome members of the MIC-3 family clustered to chromosome arm 4sh, and one D(t)-genome member to chromosome 19. Clustering was confirmed by long-PCR amplification of the intergenic regions using A(t)-genome-specific MIC-3 primer pairs. The clustered distribution may have been favored by selection for responsiveness to evolving disease and/or pest pressures, because large variants of the MIC-3 gene family may have been recovered from small physical areas by recombination. This could give a buffer against selection pressure from a broad range of pest and pathogens in the future. To our knowledge, these are the first results on the evolution of clustering and genome-specific haplotype members of a unique cotton gene family associated with resistant response against a major pathogen.

  12. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  13. The repertoire of λ light chains causing predominant amyloid heart involvement and identification of a preferentially involved germline gene, IGLV1-44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Vittorio; Palladini, Giovanni; Casarini, Simona; Navazza, Valentina; Rognoni, Paola; Obici, Laura; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Perlini, Stefano; Klersy, Catherine; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-05

    Monoclonal Ig light chains (LC) can be responsible for pathologic conditions in humans, as in systemic amyloid light amyloidosis. Protean clinical manifestations characterize this disorder with the most varied combination of symptoms generated by different degrees of diverse organ involvement. Kidney and heart are most frequently interested, with major heart involvement as the most relevant prognostic factor. The identification of the underlying mechanism involved in organ targeting is of major relevance for the pathobiology of this disorder. To this aim, we characterized the repertoire of variable region germline genes of λ LC preferentially targeting the heart and compared it with the repertoire of LC that do not in a case-control study. We found that the repertoires were highly restricted, showing preferential use of the same few germline genes but with a different frequency pattern. A single gene, IGVL1-44, was found associated with a 5-fold increase in the odds of dominant heart involvement (after adjusting for confounders in a multivariable logistic model). These results support an involvement of LC genetics in the determination of organ targeting. Study of the characteristics of IGVL1-44-LC with, and of the minority without, heart involvement might lead to identification of LC/tissue interactions.

  14. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  15. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  16. Constitutive expression of the tzs gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens virG mutant strains is responsible for improved transgenic plant regeneration in cotton meristem transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xudong; Chen, Yurong; Wan, Yuechun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Ruebelt, Martin C; Gilbertson, Larry A

    2016-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : virG mutant strains of a nopaline type of Agrobacterium tumefaciens increase the transformation frequency in cotton meristem transformation. Constitutive cytokinin expression from the tzs gene in the virG mutant strains is responsible for the improvement. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens were tested for their ability to improve cotton meristem transformation frequency. Two disarmed A. tumefaciens nopaline strains with either a virGN54D constitutively active mutation or virGI77V hypersensitive induction mutation significantly increased the transformation frequency in a cotton meristem transformation system. The virG mutant strains resulted in greener explants after three days of co-culture in the presence of light, which could be attributed to a cytokinin effect of the mutants. A tzs knockout strain of virGI77V mutant showed more elongated, less green explants and decreased cotton transformation frequency, as compared to a wild type parental strain, suggesting that expression of the tzs gene is required for transformation frequency improvement in cotton meristem transformation. In vitro cytokinin levels in culture media were tenfold higher in the virGN54D strain, and approximately 30-fold higher in the virGI77V strain, in the absence of acetosyringone induction, compared to the wild type strain. The cytokinin level in the virGN54D strain is further increased upon acetosyringone induction, while the cytokinin level in the virGI77V mutant is decreased by induction, suggesting that different tzs gene expression regulation mechanisms are present in the two virG mutant strains. Based on these data, we suggest that the increased cytokinin levels play a major role in increasing Agrobacterium attachment and stimulating localized division of the attached plant cells.

  17. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  18. Novel cotton homeobox gene and its expression profiling in root development and in response to stresses and phytohormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Ni; Xiulan Wang; Dengdi Li; Yajie Wu; Wenliang Xu; Xuebao Li

    2008-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcriptional factors involved in plant development.In this study,one cDNA clone (Gossypium hirsutum homeobox1,designated GhHB1) encoding HD-Zip protein was isolated from a cotton root cDNA library.The GhHB1 cDNA is 1132 bp in length,including an 828 bp open reading frame that encodes a peptide with 275 amino acids,and 5'-/3'- untranslated regions.The predicted GhHB1 protein containing a homeodomain and a leucine-rich zipper motif shares relatively high identity with other plant HD-Zip proteins.Analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR indicated that the GhHB1 gene is predominantly expressed in roots and hypocotyls.Furthermore,GhHB1 transcripts were largely accumulated in early root development,and significantly reduced to very low levels as roots further developed,suggesting that the gene might function in the early development of roots.Under treatment with 1% NaCl,the expression level of the GhHB1 gene was dramatically increased in roots.Likewise,GhHB1 activity in roots was up-regulated by abscisic acid.These results imply that GhHB1 might play an important role in response to salt stress and to abscisic acid signaling.

  19. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Li, Xianchun; Oppert, Brenda; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2014-11-27

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we examined the mechanism of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the laboratory-selected LF5 strain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. This strain had 110-fold resistance to Cry1Ac protoxin and 39-fold resistance to Cry1Ac activated toxin. Evaluation of five trypsin genes revealed 99% reduced transcription of one trypsin gene (HaTryR) was associated with resistance. Silencing of this gene with RNA interference in susceptible larvae increased their survival on diets containing Cry1Ac. Bioassays of progeny from crosses revealed that resistance to Cry1Ac was genetically linked with HaTryR. We identified mutations in the promoter region of HaTryR in the resistant strain. In transfected insect cell lines, transcription was lower when driven by the resistant promoter compared with the susceptible promoter, implicating cis-mediated down-regulation of HaTryR transcription as a mechanism of resistance. The results suggest that H. armigera can adapt to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by decreased expression of trypsin. Because trypsin activation of protoxin is a critical step in toxicity, transgenic plants with activated toxins rather than protoxins might increase the durability of Bt crops.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes. We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboreum, and G. raimondii. These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G. raimondii with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups, with 20 members in group I, 88 in group II, and 12 in group III. The 88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups, groups IIa–e, containing 7, 16, 37, 15, and 13 members, respectively. We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins. The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response. Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiping; Cai; Erli; Niu; Hao; Du; Liang; Zhao; Yue; Feng; Wangzhen; Guo

    2014-01-01

    WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes.We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species,Gossypium hirsutum,Gossypium barbadense,Gossypium arboreum,and G.raimondii.These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G.raimondii with uneven distribution.Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups,with 20 members in group I,88 in group II,and 12 in group III.The88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups,groups IIa–e,containing 7,16,37,15,and 13 members,respectively.We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins.The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response.Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  2. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  3. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed between Pima and Upland Cotton Fibers%比马棉和陆地棉纤维差异表达基因的分离、鉴定及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-dao WU; Khairy M. SOLIMAN; Allan ZIPF; Sukumar SAHA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased because of the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited due to the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes related to cotton fiber quality.

  4. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against different pathogens through a priming mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Congfeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Results Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34 with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. Conclusions Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the

  5. A New Strategy of Insect Pest Control:Down-regulating Cotton Boliworm Gene Expression by Engineering Plant Double Stranded RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ying-bo; XUE Xue-yi; WANG Ling-jiang; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) is an important agricultural pest that causes severeyield loss to crops,particularly to cotton.Transgenic Bt crops have been successful in protectingplants,however,Bt proteins are toxic to all lepidopteran insects but have little effects to sucking pests,such as aphids.Furthermore,the continuous use of Bt crops increases insect resistance.

  6. RNAi construct of a P450 gene blocks an early step in Hemigossypolone and Gossypol synthesis in transgenic cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton such as gossypol, hemigossypolone, and heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominately found in the glands. Differential screening identified a P450 cDNA clone (GHC28) that on...

  7. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes

  8. Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Genes Preferentially Expressed During Infection Using In Vivo-Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yangyi; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Ma, Xiaoping; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Sanjie

    2015-10-01

    Porcine pleuropneumonia is an infectious disease caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The identification of A. pleuropneumoniae genes, specially expressed in vivo, is a useful tool to reveal the mechanism of infection. IVIAT was used in this work to identify antigens expressed in vivo during A. pleuropneumoniae infection, using sera from individuals with chronic porcine pleuropneumonia. Sequencing of DNA inserts from positive clones showed 11 open reading frames with high homology to A. pleuropneumoniae genes. Based on sequence analysis, proteins encoded by these genes were involved in metabolism, replication, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. Moreover, three function-unknown proteins were also indentified in this work. Expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that most of the genes tested were up-regulated in vivo relative to their expression levels in vitro. IVI (in vivoinduced) genes that were amplified by PCR in different A. pleuropneumoniae strains showed that these genes could be detected in almost all of the strains. It is demonstrated that the identified IVI antigen may have important roles in the infection of A. pleuropneumoniae.

  9. Effects of Transgenic Cry 1 Ac plus CpTI Cotton on the Bioecology of Main Parasitoids in Laboratory Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jin-jie; VANDER Weft Wopke; MA Yah; LUO Jun-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Effects of transgenic CrylAc plus CpTI cotton (double genes cotton) on development of main parasitoids were studied in the laboratory.Compared with the traditional cotton,the differences of the moulting rate and adult weight of cotton aphid-Aphydius from double gene cotton field were not obvious.

  10. Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila Genes Preferentially Expressed after Phagocytosis by Tetrahymena and Involvement of Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Maoda; Lin, Xiaoqin; Liu, Jin; Guo, Changming; Gao, Shanshan; Du, Hechao; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Free-living protozoa affect the survival and virulence evolution of pathogens in the environment. In this study, we explored the fate of Aeromonas hydrophila when co-cultured with the bacteriovorous ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and investigated bacterial gene expression associated with the co-culture. Virulent A. hydrophila strains were found to have ability to evade digestion in the vacuoles of this protozoan. In A. hydrophila, a total of 116 genes were identified as up-regulated following co-culture with T. thermophila by selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) and comparative dot-blot analysis. A large proportion of these genes (42/116) play a role in metabolism, and some of the genes have previously been characterized as required for bacterial survival and replication within macrophages. Then, we inactivated the genes encoding methionine sulfoxide reductases, msrA, and msrB, in A. hydrophila. Compared to the wild-type, the mutants ΔmsrA and ΔmsrAB displayed significantly reduced resistance to predation by T. thermophila, and 50% lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that both mutants were highly attenuated. This study forms a solid foundation for the study of mechanisms and implications of bacterial defenses. PMID:28083518

  11. Simultaneous Overexpression of the HhERF2 and PeDREB2a Genes Enhanced Tolerances to Salt and Drought in Transgenic Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Bo; Ni Dong, Xue; Lei, Zhi; Liang Li, Yong; Yang Yang, Pei; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Liang; Li, Shi-Gang; Du, Lin Feng; Shao, Ji Rong; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    A desert-grown Halimodendron halodendron ethylene-responsive element binding factor gene (HhERF2), which encodes a 245 amino acids protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated through the rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) method. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HhERF2 was classified into the B-2 group of ERF subfamily. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that HhERF2 was greatly induced by treatments with high-salt, drought and low temperature in H. halodendron seedlings. The expression vector containing HhERF2 and Populus euphratica dehydration- responsive element binding protein (PeDREB2a) genes driven by rd29A promoter was constructed and transferred into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by non-tissue culture Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system. The transformation and expression of HhERF2 and PeDREB2a were identified by PCR and RT-PCR. Analyses of physiological function indicated that transgenic cottons had improved seeds germination, tolerance to drought and highsalt stresses. Agronomic evaluation in the field exhibited that transgenic lines presented a dwarf phenotype and improved further in the yield and characters. These results demonstrated that overexpressed both HhERF2 and PeDREB2a transcription factor genes in cotton induced elevated tolerance to drought and high-salt stresses.

  12. Isolation of the promoter of a cotton β-galactosidase gene (GhGal1) and its expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Aimin; LIU; Jinyuan

    2006-01-01

    β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of glycosyl hydrolases in plants and are thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. A cDNA of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) β-galactosidase gene, designated GhGal1, has previously been identified and its transcripts are highly abundant at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. To examine the temporal and spatial control of GhGal1 expression, a transcriptional fusion of the GhGal1 promoter region (1770 bp) with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was introduced into tobacco plants by the Agrobacterium infection method. The resulting transgenic plants showed higher GUS activity of fruit in the transgenic plants than that in the negative and positive controls. Histochemical localization of GUS activity demonstrated that the expression of the GUS gene could be found in the meristem zones of roots, cotyledons, vascular tissues, fruit and trichomes in transgenic tobacco plants. Additionally, sequence analysis of the regulatory region also revealed several conserved motifs among which some were shared with previously reported fruit/seed-specific elements and the others were related with trichome expression. These results indicated the temporal and spatial expression characterization of the GhGal1 promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and provided an important insight into the roles of GhGal1 in cotton fiber development.

  13. Molecular and functional analysis of Popeye genes: A novel family of transmembrane proteins preferentially expressed in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Birgit; Fleige, Anne; Hillemann, Tina; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Kessler-Icekson, Gania; Brand, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Popeye (Pop) genes encode novel transmembrane proteins, of which three family members are present in vertebrates, while in Drosophila a single gene is found. By northern blot analysis a restricted expression pattern is observed; Pop genes are predominantly expressed in the heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. Using homologous recombination, a null mutation was generated in the case of Pop1. The homozygous mutants are viable and do not display any obvious phenotype. They display an impaired ability to regenerate skeletal muscle while the hypertropic response of the heart after isoproterenol infusion revealed no difference between genotypes. Recently a function for Pop1 as a prototype of a novel class of cell adhesion molecules was proposed. Further work is required to substantiate these findings and to extend it to other members of the family.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm-infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-06-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome-wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Comparative analyses have revealed that 39% of the transcriptome and 35% of the proteome were differentially regulated during bollworm infestation. Around 36% of significantly regulated transcripts and 45% of differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in signalling followed by redox regulation. Further analysis showed that defence-related stress hormones and their lipid precursors, transcription factors, signalling molecules, etc. were stimulated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed during bollworm infestation. Around 26% of the significantly up-regulated proteins were defence molecules, while >50% of the significantly down-regulated were related to photosynthesis and growth. Interestingly, the biosynthesis genes for synergistically regulated jasmonate, ethylene and suppressors of the antagonistic factor salicylate were found to be up-regulated, suggesting a choice among stress-responsive phytohormone regulation. Manual curation of the enzymes and TFs highlighted the components of retrograde signalling pathways. Our data suggest that a selective regulatory mechanism directs the reallocation of metabolic resources favouring defence over growth under bollworm infestation and these insights could be exploited to develop bollworm-resistant cotton varieties.

  15. MATCHING COTTON GROWERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE VALUE OF INGARD™ COTTON WITH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BASED ON SAME FARM PAIRED COMPARISONS OF PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Wayne M.; Harrison, Jennifer L.; O'Brian, Dennis T.

    1999-01-01

    The genetically modified INGARD™ cotton seed was released in Australia in 1996 and was greeted with high expectations and enthusiasm within the cotton industry. INGARD™ cotton seed contains the Cry1A(c) gene from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki for the biological control of Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera moth larvae in cotton. These are the most serious insect pests of cotton and account for the majority of insecticides applied to cotton in Australia. Significant...

  16. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of cotton under drought stress reveal significant down-regulation of genes and pathways involved in fibre elongation and up-regulation of defense responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Kumar, Saravanan; Dass, Abhishek; Patil, Deepak Prabhakar; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Kumar, Krishan; Pathak, Ranjana; Rawat, Bhupendra; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Jain, Neha; Powar, Kasu N; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Reddy, Malireddy K; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda

    2012-02-01

    Cotton is an important source of natural fibre used in the textile industry and the productivity of the crop is adversely affected by drought stress. High throughput transcriptomic analyses were used to identify genes involved in fibre development. However, not much information is available on cotton genome response in developing fibres under drought stress. In the present study a genome wide transcriptome analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes at various stages of fibre growth under drought stress. Our study identified a number of genes differentially expressed during fibre elongation as compared to other stages. High level up-regulation of genes encoding for enzymes involved in pectin modification and cytoskeleton proteins was observed at fibre initiation stage. While a large number of genes encoding transcription factors (AP2-EREBP, WRKY, NAC and C2H2), osmoprotectants, ion transporters and heat shock proteins and pathways involved in hormone (ABA, ethylene and JA) biosynthesis and signal transduction were up-regulated and genes involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways were down-regulated during fibre elongation. This study showed that drought has relatively less impact on fibre initiation but has profound effect on fibre elongation by down-regulating important genes involved in cell wall loosening and expansion process. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis under drought stress has provided valuable information on differentially expressed genes and pathways during fibre development that will be useful in developing drought tolerant cotton cultivars without compromising fibre quality.

  17. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase2 (OsUgp2),a pollen-preferential gene in rice, plays a critical role in starch accumulation during pollen maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Hong; KE JianHao; LIU Wei; ZHUANG ChuXiong; YIP WingKin

    2009-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is predominantly present and plays significant role in car-bohydrate metabolism in plants. Two homologous UGPase genes, OsUgp1 and OsUgp2, exist in rice genome. OsUgp1 has recently been reported to be essential for callose deposition during pollen mother cell and meiosis stages as well as for seed carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, a full-length cDNA of OsUgp2 was isolated from rice anther. Northern blot and RNA in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of OsUgp2 was preferentially in pollen and developmentally regulated. No tran-scripts were found in leaf, stem, lemma/palea, ripening grain and florets before the uninucleate micro-spore developmental stage, but a large quantity of OsUgp2 mRNA was found in pollen at the binucleate and mature stages. The immunolocalizaUon of OsUgp2 showed a similar expression pattern to that by RNA in situ hybridization. The function of OsUgp2 was investigated by dsRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing. The pollen fertility of 16 independent transgenic rice plants was found between 25%and 90%, which was correlated with the amount of OsUgp2 mRNA. The results of morphological changes and starch variation during pollen development in transgenic rice showed that the abnormal feature of pollen development appeared after the uninucleate microspore stage. Starch failed to accu-mulate in pollen and thus led to sterile pollens. These results demonstrated that OsUgp2 is a pol-len-preferential "late gone" and plays a key role during pollen maturation, especially for starch accu-mulation. OsUgp2 complements OsUgpl to fulfill the UGPase's functions necessary for the full processof pollen development.

  18. Data Mining Strategy for "Gene Prediction" with Special Reference to Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KSHIRSAGAR Manali; BALASUBRAMANI G; SINGH Col Gurmit

    2008-01-01

    @@ This paper presents an integrated approach towards solving the problem of "Gene Prediction".The "Gene Prediction" problem solving undergoes well defined stages starting with a DNA sequence as input and lab treatment and computational analysis go hands in hands throughout the process.Many bioinformatics tools are available for analysis at different stages of "Gene Prediction",but a simplified and integrated approach is needed to support and speed up the task of a life scientist.

  19. Overlapping protein-binding sites within a negative regulatory element modulate the brain-preferential expression of the human HPRT gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon-Limas, D.E.; Amaya-Manzanares, E.; Nino-Rosales, M.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene, whose deficiency in humans causes the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, is constitutively expressed at low levels in all tissues but at higher levels in the brain, the significance and mechanism of which is unknown. Towards dissecting this molecular mechanism, we have previously identified a 182 bp element (hHPRT-NE) within the 5{prime}-flanking region of the human HPRT gene which is involved not only in conferring neuronal specificity but also in repressing gene expression in non-neuronal tissues. Here we report that this element interacts with different nuclear proteins, some of which are present specifically in neuronal cells (complex I) and others of which are present in cells showing constitutive expression of the gene (complex II). In addition, we found that complex I factors are expressed in human NT2/D1 cells following induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. This finding correlates with an increase of HPRT gene transcription following neuronal differentiation, as demonstrated by RT-PCR and RNAase protection assays. We also mapped the binding sites for both complexes to a 60 bp region which, when tested by transient transfections in cultured fibroblasts, functioned as a repressor element. Methylation interference footprinting revealed a minimal unique DNA motif as the binding site for nuclear proteins from both neuronal and non-neuronal sources. Moreover, UV-crosslinking experiments showed that both complexes are formed by the association of several distinct proteins. Strikingly, site-directed mutagenesis of the footprinted region indicated that different nucleotides are essential for the association of these two complexes. These data suggest that differential formation of DNA-protein complexes at this regulatory domain could be a major determinant in the brain-preferential expression of the human HPRT gene.

  20. The preferential codon usages in variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are quite distinct from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, T; Hayashida, H; Yasunaga, T; Hasegawa, M

    1979-12-20

    The pattern of codon utilization in the variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are compared. It is shown that, in these regions, codon utilizations are quite distinct from one another: For most degenerate codons, there is a selective bias that prefers C and/or G ending codons to U and/or A ending codons in the constant region compared with the bias in the variable region. This would strongly suggest that, in immunoglobulin genes, the bias in code word usage is determined by other factors than those concerning with the translational mechanism such as tRNA availability and codon-anticodon interaction. A possibility is also suggested that this differance of code word usage between them is due to the existence of secondary structure in the constant region but not in the variable region.

  1. Gene-rich chromosomal regions are preferentially localized in the lamin B deficient nuclear blebs of atypical progeria cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercht Pfleghaar, Katrin; Taimen, Pekka; Butin-Israeli, Veronika; Shimi, Takeshi; Langer-Freitag, Sabine; Markaki, Yolanda; Goldman, Anne E; Wehnert, Manfred; Goldman, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 mutations in the gene encoding A-type lamins (LMNA) cause progeria, a rare premature aging disorder. The major pathognomonic hallmarks of progeria cells are seen as nuclear deformations or blebs that are related to the redistribution of A- and B-type lamins within the nuclear lamina. However, the functional significance of these progeria-associated blebs remains unknown. We have carried out an analysis of the structural and functional consequences of progeria-associated nuclear blebs in dermal fibroblasts from a progeria patient carrying a rare point mutation p.S143F (C428T) in lamin A/C. These blebs form microdomains that are devoid of major structural components of the nuclear envelope (NE)/lamina including B-type lamins and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and are enriched in A-type lamins. Using laser capture microdissection and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses, we show that, while these domains are devoid of centromeric heterochromatin and gene-poor regions of chromosomes, they are enriched in gene-rich chromosomal regions. The active form of RNA polymerase II is also greatly enriched in blebs as well as nascent RNA but the nuclear co-activator SKIP is significantly reduced in blebs compared to other transcription factors. Our results suggest that the p.S143F progeria mutation has a severe impact not only on the structure of the lamina but also on the organization of interphase chromatin domains and transcription. These structural defects are likely to contribute to gene expression changes reported in progeria and other types of laminopathies.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Cys2/His2 Type Zinc Finger Protein Gene in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The zinc finger proteins belong to the largest family of transcription factors.But there is little research of Cys2/His2 type zinc finger proteins in cotton,and there is no submission of correlating ESTs

  3. Isolation and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Associated Gene of Cotton (Gossypium harknessii)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-yong; GONG Yang-chang; XING Chao-zhu; GUO Li-ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait that results in the failure to produce functional pollen.It was identified in many plants,and it is widely used to exploit heterosis.Now,there are some genes associated with the CMS phenomena that have been identified in the mitochondrial genome.For example,specific genes implicated in CMS have been reported in maize,petunia,bean,Brassica,radish,sunflower,rice,carrot,sorghum,pepper,and many others.

  4. De novo LINE-1 retrotransposition in HepG2 cells preferentially targets gene poor regions of chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojang, Pasano; Anderton, Mark J; Roberts, Ruth A; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2014-08-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements (Line-1 or L1s) account for ~17% of the human genome. While the majority of human L1s are inactive, ~80-100 elements remain retrotransposition competent and mobilize through RNA intermediates to different locations within the genome. De novo insertions of L1s account for polymorphic variation of the human genome and disruption of target loci at their new location. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing were used to characterize retrotransposition profiles of L1(RP) in cultured human HepG2 cells. While expression of synthetic L1(RP) was associated with full-length and truncated insertions throughout the entire genome, a strong preference for gene-poor regions, such as those found in chromosome 13 was observed for full-length insertions. These findings shed light into L1 targeting mechanisms within the human genome and question the putative randomness of L1 retrotransposition.

  5. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuange Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6 is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5 were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  6. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene,GhA OC1, in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange; Wang; Huaihua; Liu; Qingguo; Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase(AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid(JA)biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes(Gh AOC1–Gh AOC5) were cloned from upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.),sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of Gh AOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate(Me JA) and Cu Cl2 stresses. To investigate the role of Gh AOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton Gh AOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S(Ca MV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, Gh AOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress.This study provides the first evidence that Gh AOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  7. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange Wang; Huaihua Liu; Qingguo Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5) were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  8. The Use of Green Fluorescent Protein Gene in Cotton Transformation%GFP基因在棉花转化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国存; 朱生伟; 孙敬三; 张寒霜; 高鹏; 李俊兰

    2001-01-01

    With the Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) as a reporter gene, the transgenic embryos, seedlings and calli of cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) were obtained by the method of pollen tube pathway and Agrobacterium-mediated techniques separately. The GFP gene under the control of the 35s Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter produced bright–green fluorescence easily detectable and screenable in cotton tissue by fluorescence microscopy and a hand-held ultraviolet lamp. The screenable marker aided and facilated the rapid segregation of individual transformation events, drastically reduced the quantity of tissue to be handled. The GFP can be screened in vivo without destroying the materials, so it is more practical and useful than GUS. The use of GFP could advance the development of cotton gene engineering.%以绿色荧光蛋白GFP基因为报道基因,用花粉管通道和农杆菌介导的转化方法将外源基因导入棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.),分别获得转化幼胚、幼苗和转化愈伤组织。用手持紫外灯结合显微镜检术能够快速地对转化子进行活体筛选鉴定,比用GUS检测方法有明显的优越性。本研究不但为花粉管通道转化法的可行性提供了新的证据,同时也建立了GFP用于棉花基因工程研究的检测技术体系。

  9. Genetic mapping and comparative expression analysis of transcription factors in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Xin; Li, Ximei; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The study of the structure and function of TFs represents a research frontier in plant molecular biology. The findings of these studies will provide significant information regarding genetic improvement traits in crops. Currently, a large number of TFs have been cloned, and their function has been verified. However, relatively few studies that genetically map TFs in cotton are available. To genetically map TFs in cotton in this study, specific primers were designed for TF genes that were published in the Plant Transcription Factor Database. A total of 977 TF primers were obtained, and 31 TF polymorphic loci were mapped on 15 cotton chromosomes. These polymorphic loci were clearly preferentially distributed on chromosomes 5, 11, 19 and 20; and TFs from the same family mapped to homologous cotton chromosomes. In-silico mapping verified that many mapped TFs were mapped on their corresponding chromosomes or their homologous chromosomes' corresponding chromosomes in the diploid genomes. QTL mapping for fiber quality revealed that TF-Ghi005602-2 mapped on Chr19 was associated with fiber length. Eighty-five TF genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, and 4 TFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different stages of fiber development between the mapping parents. Our data offer an overview of the chromosomal distribution of TFs in cotton, and the comparative expression analysis between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense provides a rough understanding of the regulation of TFs during cotton fiber development.

  10. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GhDREB, confers enhanced tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Qing; Chen, Ming; Xia, Lian-Qin; Xiu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Li, Lian-Cheng; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Ma, You-Zhi

    2009-02-01

    A cotton (G. hirsutum L.) dehydration responsive element binding protein gene, GhDREB, which encodes a 153 amino acid protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated from the cDNA library of cotton cv. Simian 3 by a yeast one-hybrid system. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhDREB gene was induced in cotton seedlings by drought, high salt and cold stresses. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that the GhDREB protein bound specifically to the DRE core element (A/GCCGAC) in vitro. Two expression vectors containing the GhDREB gene with either of the Ubiqutin or rd29A promoters were constructed and transferred into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by bombardment. Fifty-eight Ubi::GhDREB and 17 rd29A::GhDREB T(0) plants of Yangmai (36 plants) and Lumai (39 plants) were identified by PCR analysis, respectively. Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that two or three copies of the GhDREB were integrated into the Yangmai 10 genome and were expressed at the transcriptional level, and three or four copies were integrated into the Lumai 23 genome. Functional analysis indicated that the transgenic plants had improved tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses through accumulating higher levels of soluble sugar and chlorophyll in leaves after stress treatments. No phenotype differences were observed between transgenic plants and their non-transgenic controls. These results indicated that GhDREB might be useful in improving wheat stress tolerance through genetic engineering.

  11. Analysis of the Differentiation of Kenyon Cell Subtypes Using Three Mushroom Body-Preferential Genes during Metamorphosis in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okude, Genta; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain. Among the 18 genes identified, we further analyzed three genes whose expression was enriched in the MBs: phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), synaptotagmin 14 (Syt14), and discs large homolog 5 (dlg5). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that expression of PLCe, Syt14, and dlg5 was more enriched in the MBs than in the other brain regions by approximately 31-, 6.8-, and 5.6-fold, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 was enriched in the lKCs but not in the mKCs and sKCs, whereas expression of PLCe was similar in all KC subtypes (the entire MBs) in the honeybee brain, suggesting that Syt14 and dlg5, and PLCe are available as marker genes for the lKCs, and all KC subtypes, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of PLCe is already detectable in the class-II KCs at the larval fifth instar feeding stage, indicating that PLCe expression is a characteristic common to the larval and adult MBs. In contrast, expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 became detectable at the day three pupa, indicating that Syt14 and dlg5 expressions are characteristic to the late pupal and adult MBs and the lKC specific molecular characteristics are established during the late pupal stages. PMID:27351839

  12. Analysis of the Differentiation of Kenyon Cell Subtypes Using Three Mushroom Body-Preferential Genes during Metamorphosis in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Suenami

    Full Text Available The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L. mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively, and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain. Among the 18 genes identified, we further analyzed three genes whose expression was enriched in the MBs: phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe, synaptotagmin 14 (Syt14, and discs large homolog 5 (dlg5. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that expression of PLCe, Syt14, and dlg5 was more enriched in the MBs than in the other brain regions by approximately 31-, 6.8-, and 5.6-fold, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 was enriched in the lKCs but not in the mKCs and sKCs, whereas expression of PLCe was similar in all KC subtypes (the entire MBs in the honeybee brain, suggesting that Syt14 and dlg5, and PLCe are available as marker genes for the lKCs, and all KC subtypes, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that expression of PLCe is already detectable in the class-II KCs at the larval fifth instar feeding stage, indicating that PLCe expression is a characteristic common to the larval and adult MBs. In contrast, expression of both Syt14 and dlg5 became detectable at the day three pupa, indicating that Syt14 and dlg5 expressions are characteristic to the late pupal and adult MBs and the lKC specific molecular characteristics are established during the late pupal stages.

  13. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC

  14. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  15. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  16. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  17. Further EST analysis of endocrine genes that are preferentially expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis: receptor and enzyme genes associated with endocrine system in the neural complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2007-01-15

    Identification of orthologs of vertebrate neuropeptides and hypothalamic hormones in the neural complex of ascidians suggests integral roles of the ascidian neural complex in the endocrine system. In the present study, we investigated endocrine-related genes expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis. Comprehensive analyses of 3'-end sequences of the neural complex cDNAs placed 10,029 clones into 4051 independent clusters or genes, 1524 of them being expressed preferentially in this organ. Comparison of the 1524 genes with the human proteome databank demonstrated that 476 matched previously identified human proteins with distinct functions. Further analyses of sequence similarity of the 476 genes demonstrated that 21 genes are candidates for those involved in the endocrine system. Although we cannot detect hormone or peptide candidates, we found 21 genes such as receptors for peptide ligands, receptor-modulating proteins, and processing enzymes. We then characterized the Ciona prohormone convertase 2 (Ci-PC2) and carboxypeptidase E (Ci-CPE), which are associated with endoproteolytic processing of peptide hormone precursors. Furthermore, genes encoding these transcripts are expressed specifically in the neural complex of young adult ascidians. These data provide the molecular basis for further functional studies of the endocrine role of the neural complex of ascidians.

  18. HLA-DQ2.5 genes associated with celiac disease risk are preferentially expressed with respect to non-predisposing HLA genes: Implication for anti-gluten T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, Laura; Camarca, Alessandra; Picascia, Stefania; Bassi, Virginia; Barba, Pasquale; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    HLA genes represent the main risk factor in autoimmune disorders. In celiac disease (CD), the great majority of patients carry the HLA DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 alleles, both of which encode the DQ2.5 molecule. The formation of complexes between DQ2.5 and gluten peptides on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is necessary to activate pathogenic CD4(+) T lymphocytes. It is widely accepted that the DQ2.5 genes establish the different intensities of anti-gluten immunity, depending whether they are in a homozygous or a heterozygous configuration. Here, we demonstrated that HLA DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 gene expression is much higher than expression of non-CD-associated genes. This influences the protein levels and causes a comparable cell surface exposure of DQ2.5 heterodimers between DQ2.5 homozygous and heterozygous celiac patients. As a consequence, the magnitude of the anti-gluten CD4(+) T cell response is strictly dependent on the antigen dose and not on the DQ2.5 gene configuration of APCs. Furthermore, our findings support the concept that the expression of DQ2.5 genes is an important risk factor in celiac disease. The preferential expression of DQ2.5 alleles provides a new functional explanation of why these genes are so frequently associated with celiac disease and with other autoimmune disorders.

  19. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  20. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  1. Expression of baculovirus anti-apoptotic genes p35 and op-iap in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. enhances tolerance to verticillium wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T(3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T(1-T(3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants.

  2. Precision mapping and identification of candidate genes for a QTL affecting Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resistant line Auburn 623RNR and a number of elite breeding lines derived from it remain the most important source of root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance because they exhibit the highest level of resistance to RKN known to date in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Prior genetic mapping analy...

  3. 棉花功能基因组研究用的突变体库构建%Establishment of Mutated Gene Bank for Cotton Functional Genomic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-hua YANG; Xue-kui WANG; Zhen-bin WU; Hai-yan LIU

    2002-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton is one of the important cultivated allotetraploid species. From the point of functional genomic research, it is hard to obtain homozygous recessive mutants by applying of traditional mutagensis methods in this crop as its many traits are controlled by more than two pairs of alleles. Adopting of specific transposon tagging strategy which is widely used to induce and isolate mutated genes in various plant species can avoid isolating recessive mutants and is easy to find and characterize the mutated genes in the tetraploid cotton species.

  4. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  5. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-07-16

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition.

  6. GhMPK16, a novel stress-responsive group D MAPK gene from cotton, is involved in disease resistance and drought sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Changai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades play pivotal roles in mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four major groups (A-D according to their sequence homology and conserved phosphorylation motifs. Members of group A and B have been extensively characterized, but little information on the group D MAPKs has been reported. Results In this study, we isolated and characterised GhMPK16, the first group D MAPK gene found in cotton. Southern blot analysis suggests GhMPK16 is single copy in the cotton genome, and RNA blot analysis indicates that GhMPK16 transcripts accumulate following pathogen infection and treatment with multiple defense-related signal molecules. The analysis of the promoter region of GhMPK16 revealed a group of putative cis-acting elements related to stress responses. Subcellular localization analysis suggests that GhMPK16 acts in the nucleus. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GhMPK16 displayed significant resistance to fungi (Colletotrichum nicotianae and Alternaria alternata and bacteria (Pseudomonas solanacearum pathogen, and the transcripts of pathogen-related (PR genes were more rapidly and strongly induced in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis showed reduced drought tolerance and rapid H2O2 accumulation. Conclusion These results suggest that GhMPK16 might be involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, including biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways.

  7. Genome‐wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm‐infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S.; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome‐wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi‐quantitative real‐time PCR. Comparative ana...

  8. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Cys2/His2 Type Zinc Finger Protein Gene in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-wen; NI Wan-chao; ZHANG Bao-long; SHEN Xin-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The zinc finger proteins belong to the largest family of transcription factors.But there is little research of Cys2/His2 type zinc finger proteins in cotton,and there is no submission of correlating ESTs to GenBank.In this study,a full length of one Cys2/His2 type zinc finger protein (GZFP) and its 5 flanking sequence were obtained by RT-PCR and tail PCR.

  9. 棉花基因敲除群体的创建%Creation of a Gene Knockout Population of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norma L. TROLINDER; Thea A. WILKINS

    2002-01-01

    @@ To date about 145 spontaneous or selected mutant phenotypic markers have been described in allotetraploid upland cotton. Most have been placed on linkage groups covering about one-half of the 26 haploid chromosomes. To increase the number of mutant phenotypic markers, reverse genetic strategies in cotton were implemented by the National Science Foundation funded Cotton Genomics Research Team.

  10. Functional Analysis, Grouping and Expression Pattern Study of the Cotton Fiber Development-related Genes%棉纤维发育基因的功能分析、分类和表达形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-jian JI; Yong-hui SHI; Xiu-juan LIANG; Qiang FU; Yu-xian ZHU

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber growth consists of four overlapping developmental stages: fiber initiation, cell elongation, secondary wall deposition and maturation. To date, great progresses have been made on cellulose synthesis and deposition. The iniation and elongation requires rapid cell division, differentiation, growth and elongation,which undoubtedly includes expression of large amounts of genes.

  11. [High efficiency genome walking method for flanking sequences of cotton mitochondrial double-copy atpA gene based on optimized inverse PCR and TAIL-PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Guoqing; Shi, Ji; Meng, Zhigang; Zhou, Tao; Hou, Siyu; Liang, Chengzhen; Yu, Yuanhua; Guo, Sandui

    2012-01-01

    Cloning of flanking sequences of double-copy gene is a challenge in molecular biology. We developed a method to solve this problem by combining an optimized inverse PCR (iPCR) with TAIL-PCR. First, Southern blotting analysis was used to determine a proper restriction enzyme that could obtain proper-length restriction fragments that contained the target gene. Then optimized iPCR was performed to amplify the restriction fragments that contained the separated copies of the gene. Based on the obtained sequences, TAIL-PCR was performed to amplify further flanking regions of the gene. With this method, we obtained all of the EcoR I restriction fragments (2.2-5.1 kb) and Hind III restriction fragments (8.5-11.7 kb) of mitochondrial atpA gene in cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line and maintainer line of Upland cotton. The results showed that this method was an efficient approach to clone flanking sequences of double-copy gene.

  12. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  13. GhCAX3 gene, a novel Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger from cotton, confers regulation of cold response and ABA induced signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Xu

    Full Text Available As a second messenger, Ca(2+ plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca(2+]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca(2+/H(+ exchangers play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. 'YZ-1' was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton's response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca(2+, NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca(2+ transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor, indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling's developmental stages.

  14. Against Preferential Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekes, John

    1997-01-01

    Argues that preferential treatment of women and minorities in the selection of college faculty elevates a form of corruption to standard administrative practice by including people in academic life on the basis of characteristics irrelevant to teaching and research; and previous unjust treatment is inadequate justification for preferential…

  15. New Preferential Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At the closing ceremony of the Boao Cross-Strait Agricultural Cooperation Forum on October 17, Chen Yunlin, Director of the Taiwan Work Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, stated the preferential package which consists 20 detailed measures to promote cross-strait agricultural cooperation with the goal of benefiting Taiwan farmers. The policies are divided into the following four major parts: The mainland welcomes Taiwan investors, farmers and agricultural

  16. Comparative De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Fertilized Ovules in Xanthoceras sorbifolium Uncovered a Pool of Genes Expressed Specifically or Preferentially in the Selfed Ovule That Are Potentially Involved in Late-Acting Self-Incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Xanthoceras sorbifolium, a tree species endemic to northern China, has high oil content in its seeds and is recognized as an important biodiesel crop. The plant is characterized by late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI. LSI was found to occur in many angiosperm species and plays an important role in reducing inbreeding and its harmful effects, as do gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI and sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI. Molecular mechanisms of conventional GSI and SSI have been well characterized in several families, but no effort has been made to identify the genes involved in the LSI process. The present studies indicated that there were no significant differences in structural and histological features between the self- and cross-pollinated ovules during the early stages of ovule development until 5 days after pollination (DAP. This suggests that 5 DAP is likely to be a turning point for the development of the selfed ovules. Comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of the selfed and crossed ovules at 5 DAP identified 274 genes expressed specifically or preferentially in the selfed ovules. These genes contained a significant proportion of genes predicted to function in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, consistent with our histological observations in the fertilized ovules. The genes encoding signal transduction-related components, such as protein kinases and protein phosphatases, are overrepresented in the selfed ovules. X. sorbifolium selfed ovules also specifically or preferentially express many unique transcription factor (TF genes that could potentially be involved in the novel mechanisms of LSI. We also identified 42 genes significantly up-regulated in the crossed ovules compared to the selfed ovules. The expression of all 16 genes selected from the RNA-seq data was validated using PCR in the selfed and crossed ovules. This study represents the first genome-wide identification of genes expressed in the fertilized

  17. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  18. GhMPK7, a novel multiple stress-responsive cotton group C MAPK gene, has a role in broad spectrum disease resistance and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; An, Hai-Long; Zhang, Liang; Gao, Zheng; Guo, Xing-Qi

    2010-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a pivotal role in environmental responses and developmental processes in plants. Previous researches mainly focus on the MAPKs in groups A and B, and little is known on group C. In this study, we isolated and characterized GhMPK7, which is a novel gene from cotton belonging to the group C MAPK. RNA blot analysis indicated that GhMPK7 transcript was induced by pathogen infection and multiple defense-related signal molecules. Transgenic Nicotina benthamiana overexpressing GhMPK7 displayed significant resistance to fungus Colletotrichum nicotianae and virus PVY, and the transcript levels of SA pathway genes were more rapidly and strongly induced. Furthermore, the transgenic N. benthamiana showed reduced ROS-mediated injuries by upregulating expression of oxidative stress-related genes. Interestingly, the transgenic plants germinated earlier and grew faster in comparison to wild-type plants. beta-glucuronidase activity driven by the GhMPK7 promoter was detected in the apical meristem at the vegetative stage, and it was enhanced by treatments with signal molecules and phytohormones. These results suggest that GhMPK7 might play an important role in SA-regulated broad-spectrum resistance to pathogen infection, and that it is also involved in regulation of plant growth and development.

  19. Seed-Specific Expression of a Lysine-Rich Protein Gene, GhLRP, from Cotton Significantly Increases the Lysine Content in Maize Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yue

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  20. Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-03-27

    Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  1. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  2. A large scale gene-centric association study of lung function in newly-hired female cotton textile workers with endotoxin exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to endotoxin is associated with decrements in pulmonary function, but how much variation in this association is explained by genetic variants is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 decline by a large scale genetic association study in newly-hired healthy young female cotton textile workers. METHODS: DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human CVD BeadChip. Change rate in FEV1 was modeled as a function of each SNP genotype in linear regression model with covariate adjustment. We controlled the type 1 error in study-wide level by permutation method. The false discovery rate (FDR and the family-wise error rate (FWER were set to be 0.10 and 0.15 respectively. RESULTS: Two SNPs were found to be significant (P<6.29×10(-5, including rs1910047 (P = 3.07×10(-5, FDR = 0.0778 and rs9469089 (P = 6.19×10(-5, FDR = 0.0967, as well as other eight suggestive (P<5×10(-4 associated SNPs. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were also observed, such as rs1910047 and rs1049970 (P = 0.0418, FDR = 0.0895; rs9469089 and age (P = 0.0161, FDR = 0.0264. Genetic risk score analysis showed that the more risk loci the subjects carried, the larger the rate of FEV1 decline occurred (P trend = 3.01×10(-18. However, the association was different among age subgroups (P = 7.11×10(-6 and endotoxin subgroups (P = 1.08×10(-2. Functional network analysis illustrates potential biological connections of all interacted genes. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants together with environmental factors interact to affect the rate of FEV1 decline in cotton textile workers.

  3. Preferential role restrictions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available is a generalisation of classical coherence as defined by Schlo¨bach, et al. [21]. 6 Britz, Casini, Meyer, Varzinczak time. Furthermore, it can be verified that T preferentially entails the statement CommunityLawyer v ∃hasClient.PayingClient. Informally.... Lehmann, D., Magidor, M.: What does a conditional knowledge base entail? Arti- ficial Intelligence 55, 1–60 (1992) 20. Quantz, J.: A preference semantics for defaults in terminological logics. In: Proc. KR. pp. 294–305 (1992) 21. Schlo¨bach, S., Cornet, R...

  4. Genome-wide Analysis of the EPSPS Genes in Upland Cotton%陆地棉 EPSPS 基因全基因组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩元勇; 徐珍珍; 郭书巧; 束红梅; 蒋璐; 倪万潮

    2016-01-01

    当前在 NCBI 中提交的来源于陆地棉的 EPSPS 基因有2个,随着陆地棉基因组测序结果的公布,为在陆地棉基因组中全面鉴定 EPSPS 基因的存在提供了便利条件。从陆地棉异源四倍体标准系 TM-1基因组数据库中共搜寻获得4个 EPSPS 同源基因,这4个基因分别分布在 A07、A12、D07和 D12亚基因组。从这4个基因的核苷酸序列、氨基酸序列和基因结构的比对,构建进化树的系统发育分析以及基因的转录情况研究来看,定位在 A07和 D07亚基因组的2个基因属于共线性高度同源基因,定位在 A12和 D12亚基因组的2个基因也是相同的情况。序列比对结果表明,已经在 NCBI 中提交的2个 EPSPS 基因分别是定位在 A12和 D12亚基因组上的基因,研究结果为定位在 A07和D07亚基因组上 EPSPS 基因的克隆和功能研究提供了基础理论依据。%Currently,two EPSPS genes from Gossypium hirsutum have been submitted to NCBI.It is more con-vinent to identify EPSPS genes in genome level of upland cotton comprehensively following the publication of Gos-sypium hirsutum genomic sequence.Four EPSPS homologous genes were identified from the genome sequence data-base of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.acc.TM-1),and they were found to be distributed on subge-nomes of A07,A12,D07 and D12.Under the comperation of nucleotide sequences,amino acid sequences and gene structures,phylogenetic analysis of constructing phylogenetic tree and the study of transcription situation of these four genes,it was more clearly that the two genes located on A07 and D07 subgenomes belong to highly homologous co-linear gene,and the two genes located on A12 and D12 subgenomes as well.Sequence alignment results showed that the two EPSPS genes submitted to NCBI were the two genes located on A12 and D12 subgenomes respectively. The study results of this paper would provide an theoretical basis on cloning and functional

  5. Characterization of a pollen-preferential gene OSIAGP from rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies indica) coding for an arabinogalactan protein homologue, and analysis of its promoter activity during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Saurabh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2010-06-01

    During differential screening of inflorescence-specific cDNA libraries from Oryza sativa indica, an arabinogalactan protein (OSIAGP) cDNA (586 bp) expressing preferentially in the inflorescence has been isolated. It encodes an arabinogalactan protein of 59 amino acids (6.4 kDa) with a transmembrane domain and a secretory domain at the N terminus. The protein shows homology with AGP23 from Arabidopsis, and its homologue in japonica rice is located on chromosome 6. OSIAGP transcripts also accumulate in shoots and roots of rice seedling grown in the dark, but light represses expression of the gene. Analysis of a genomic clone of OSIAGP revealed that its promoter contains several pollen-specificity and light-regulatory elements. The promoter confers pollen-preferential activity on gus, starting from the release of microspores to anther dehiscence in transgenic tobacco, and is also active during pollen tube growth. Analysis of pollen preferential activity of the promoter in the transgenic rice system revealed that even the approximately 300 bp fragment has activity in pollen and the anther wall and further deletion down to approximately 100 bp completely abolishes this activity, which is consistent with in-silico analysis of the promoter. Arabinogalactan proteins have been shown to be involved in the cell elongation process. The homology of OSIAGP with AGP23 and the fact that seedling growth in the dark and pollen tube growth are events based on cell elongation strengthen the possibility of OSIAGP performing a similar function.

  6. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  7. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  8. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  9. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  10. A new synthetic allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2 between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: bridging for simultaneously transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum, a cultivated diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, A1A1, has favorable traits such as excellent drought tolerance and resistance to sucking insects and leaf curl virus. G. australe, a wild diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, G2G2, possesses numerous economically valuable characteristics such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis (which is conducive to the production of seeds with very low levels of gossypol as a potential food source for humans and animals and resistance to insects, wilt diseases and abiotic stress. Creating synthetic allotetraploid cotton from these two species would lay the foundation for simultaneously transferring favorable genes into cultivated tetraploid cotton. Here, we crossed G. herbaceum (as the maternal parent with G. australe to produce an F1 interspecific hybrid and doubled its chromosome complement with colchicine, successfully generating a synthetic tetraploid. The obtained tetraploid was confirmed by morphology, cytology and molecular markers and then self-pollinated. The S1 seedlings derived from this tetraploid gradually became flavescent after emergence of the fifth true leaf, but they were rescued by grafting and produced S2 seeds. The rescued S1 plants were partially fertile due to the existence of univalents at Metaphase I of meiosis, leading to the formation of unbalanced, nonviable gametes lacking complete sets of chromosomes. The S2 plants grew well and no flavescence was observed, implying that interspecific incompatibility, to some extent, had been alleviated in the S2 generation. The synthetic allotetraploid will be quite useful for polyploidy evolutionary studies and as a bridge for transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton through hybridization.

  11. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  12. RNAi construct of a P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominately found in the glands. Differential screening identified a P450 cDNA cl...

  13. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  14. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  15. 棉花与拟南芥纤维素合成酶基因家族的生物信息学比较%Bioinformatic Comparison of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Family of Cotton and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟成生; 王志伟; 张俊红; 韩改英

    2012-01-01

    为给克隆到的棉花纤维素合成酶CesA基因的功能分析提供参考,采用生物信息学、基因保守结构域搜索、聚类分析和电子拼接技术,分析了拟南芥和棉花纤维素合成酶在基因组上的分布,预测了从棉花中克隆到的纤维素合成酶CesA基因的功能.结果表明:棉花中克隆的纤维素合成酶基因与拟南芥纤维素合成酶基因参与纤维素、多糖生物合成的纤维素合成酶基因亲缘关系较近,推测克隆的基因可能参与纤维素合成或参与多糖的生物合成过程,该基因的具体功能有待进一步深入研究.%In order to provide a reference for functional analysis of CesA gene cloning from cotton, the cellulose synthase genomic distribution in A. thalianaand cotton was analyzed and CesA gene function cloning from cotton was forecasted by using bioinformatic, genetic conserved domain searching, cluster analysis and in silico cloning. The results showed that the phylogenetic relationship was close between cellulose synthase genes of cotton and A. thaliana. It was predicted that the cloned genes might participate in the cellulose combining and biosynthesis process of polysaccharide, the specific functions of which need to be studied in further.

  16. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  17. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite DNA as a Tool to Deliver and Express the Human B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Gene in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Sara; Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-05-01

    The betasatellite DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) contains a single complementary-sense ORF, βC1, which is a pathogenicity determinant. CLCuMB was able to replicate in plants in the presence of diverse helper geminiviruses, including Tomato leaf curl virus-Australia (TLCV-Au), Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]), and Beet curly top virus (BCTV-Svr), and can be used as a plant gene delivery vector. To test the hypothesis that CLCuMB has the potential to act as an animal gene delivery vector, a specific insertion construct was produced by the introduction of a human B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cDNA into a mutant DNA of CLCuMB in which the βC1 was deleted (β∆C1). The recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 construct was successfully replicated in tomato and tobacco plants in the presence of TLCV-Au, BCTV-Svr and TYLCV-[Ab]. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 DNA showed that Bcl-2 gene was expressed in an acceptable level in these plants, indicating that β∆C1 can be used as a tool to deliver and express animal genes in plants. This CLCuMB-based system, having its own promoter activity, offers the possibility of production of animal recombinant proteins in plants.

  18. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-12-14

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica.

  19. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  20. Identification and functional validation of a unique set of drought induced genes preferentially expressed in response to gradual water stress in peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Geetha; Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga ThammeGowda; ThammeGowda, Harshavardhan Vokkaliga; Patricia, Jayaker Kalaiarasi; Kalaiarasi, Patricia Jayaker; Dhanalakshmi, Ramachandra; Iyer, Dhanalakshmi Ramchandra; Senthil Kumar, Muthappa; Muthappa, Senthil Kumar; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Nese, Sreenivasulu; Udayakumar, Makarla; Makarla, Udaya Kumar

    2009-06-01

    Peanut, found to be relatively drought tolerant crop, has been the choice of study to characterize the genes expressed under gradual water deficit stress. Nearly 700 genes were identified to be enriched in subtractive cDNA library from gradual process of drought stress adaptation. Further, expression of the drought inducible genes related to various signaling components and gene sets involved in protecting cellular function has been described based on dot blot experiments. Fifty genes (25 regulators and 25 functional related genes) selected based on dot blot experiments were tested for their stress responsiveness using northern blot analysis and confirmed their nature of differential regulation under different field capacity of drought stress treatments. ESTs generated from this subtracted cDNA library offered a rich source of stress-related genes including signaling components. Additional 50% uncharacterized sequences are noteworthy. Insights gained from this study would provide the foundation for further studies to understand the question of how peanut plants are able to adapt to naturally occurring harsh drought conditions. At present functional validation cannot be deemed in peanut, hence as a proof of concept seven orthologues of drought induced genes of peanut have been silenced in heterologous N. benthamiana system, using virus induced gene silencing method. These results point out the functional importance for HSP70 gene and key regulators such as Jumonji in drought stress response.

  1. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  2. Study on the Handle of Keratin Transgenic Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋培清; 严文源; 严灏景

    2004-01-01

    Gene of animal keratin can be inoculated into cotton fiber and thus get the keratin transgenic cotton fiber through transgenic technology. Handle of two kinds of pure cotton poplin, one of which is made of the keratin transgenic cotton while the other is made of the ordinary cotton of the same breed as control group and both with absolutely identical spinning, weaving, and dyeing process, was objectively evaluated with KES system. The result of analysis indicates that the principal changes of keratin transgenic cotton fabric are that the bending and shearing property of the fabric are considerably enhanced, KOSHI (Stiffness) and HARI (Anti-drape stiffness) of the fabric are good, while SHINAYAKASA (Flexibility with soft feeling) and SHARI (Crispness) decline.

  3. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid CottonGenome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun; WANG Kun-bo; LI Fu-guang; KOHEL Russell J; PERCY Richard G; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's nationaleconomy.Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cottonproduction,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 MbDNA.

  4. Imazamox Tolerance in Mutation Derived Lines of Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of genes conferring herbicide resistance by mutagenesis could facilitate use of imidazolinone herbicides in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 1997 and 1998, seeds of eight High Plains cotton cultivars were treated with 2.45% v/v EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate). The resulting M3 and M...

  5. 一个新型的棉花几丁质酶基因%A Novel Cotton Gene Encoding a New Class of Chitinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 刘进元

    2003-01-01

    在对外源水杨酸处理的低酚品系棉花(Gossypium hirsutum cv.CRI13)(中棉13)幼苗进行RT-PCR差异分析并分离出一个cDNA片段的基础上,采用电子克隆和分子克隆相结合的方法克隆出该片段的全长序列,并对其cDNA和核DNA序列进行分析,结果显示该基因是一个新型的几丁质酶基因,命名为GhChia7.推测的GhChia7氨基酸序列与Ⅰ和Ⅱ型几丁质酶的相同性仅有30%,其结构特征也与已鉴定的Ⅰ~Ⅳ有差异,是一个新型的几丁质酶(Ⅶ型).Northern杂交结果显示,该基因在棉花幼苗的根中以及棉花纤维中信号较强,且在棉花子叶中受水杨酸诱导表达,用7.5 mmol/L水杨酸处理18 h后mRNA水平达到最大值.本研究的结果显示GhChia7可能会在棉花抗病防卫反应中发挥重要作用.%A novel chitinase gene (GhChia7) was isolated from salicylic acid (SA)-treated cottoncotyledons and characterized by DNA sequence analysis of its cDNA and genomic DNA clone. The deducedamino acid sequence, designated as class Ⅶ chitinase, shares about 30% identity to class Ⅰ or Ⅱ chitinases,and does not correspond to any of the previously characterized classes Ⅰ -Ⅵ chitinases. Northern blot-ting analysis showed that the transcripts of GhChia7were abundant both in cotton fibers and in the roots of theseedlings. The accumulation of GhChia7mRNA in SA-treated cotyledons reached maximum at 7.5 mmol/L concentration after 18 h. Results indicate that GhChia7might play an important role in cotton' s activedefense response.

  6. Cloning of human RTEF-1, a transcriptional enhancer factor-1-related gene preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle: evidence for an ancient multigene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A F; Richard, C W; Suzow, J; Stephan, D; Weremowicz, S; Morton, C C; Adra, C N

    1996-10-01

    Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 (TEF-1) is a transcription factor required for cardiac muscle gene activation. Since ablation of TEF-1 does not abolish cardiac gene expression, we sought to identify a human gene related to TEF-1 (RTEF-1) that might also participate in cardiac gene regulation. A human heart cDNA library was screened to obtain a full-length RTEF-1 cDNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assigned the RTEF-1 gene to chromosome 12p13.2-p13.3. In contrast, PCR screening of human/rodent cell hybrid panels identified TEF-1 on chromosome 11p15.2, between D11S1315 and D11S1334, extending a region of known synteny between human chromosomes 11 and 12 and arguing for an ancient divergence between these two closely related genes. Northern blot analysis revealed a striking similarity in the tissue distribution of RTEF-1 and TEF-1 mRNAs; skeletal muscle showed the highest abundance of both mRNAs, with lower levels detected in pancreas, placenta, and heart. Phylogenetic analysis of all known TEF-1-related proteins identified human RTEF-1 as one of four vertebrate members of this multigene family and further suggests that these genes diverged in the earliest metazoan ancestors.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria preferentially expresses PfEMP1 encoded by group A var genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Magistrado, Pamela; Sharp, Sarah;

    2004-01-01

    Parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSAs) like the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family are responsible for antigenic variation and infected red blood cell (RBC) cytoadhesion in P. falciparum malaria. Parasites causing severe malaria...... genes, such as PFD1235w/MAL7P1.1, appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of severe disease and are thus attractive candidates for a vaccine against life-threatening P. falciparum malaria....

  8. Functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs revealed in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fenni; Li, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Nina; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-04-01

    In GhCFE5 homoeologs, GhCFE5D interacted with more actin homologs and stronger interaction activity than GhCFE5A. GhCFE5D - but not GhCFE5A -overexpression severely disrupted actin cytoskeleton organization and significantly suppressed cell elongation. Homoeologous genes are common in polyploid plants; however, their functional divergence is poorly elucidated. Allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) is the most widely cultivated cotton; accounting for more than 90 % of the world's cotton production. Here, we characterized GhCFE5A and GhCFE5D homoeologs from G. hirsutum acc TM-1. GhCFE5 homoeologs are expressed preferentially in fiber cells; and a significantly greater accumulation of GhCFE5A mRNA than GhCFE5D mRNA was found in all tested tissues. Overexpression of GhCFE5D but not GhCFE5A seriously inhibits the Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root cell elongation. Yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed that compared with GhCFE5A, GhCFE5D interacts with more actin homologs and has a stronger interaction activity both from Arabidopsis and Upland cotton. Interestingly, subcellular localization showed that GhCFE5 resides on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and is colocalized with actin cables. The interaction activities between GhCFE5 homoeologs and actin differ in their effects on F-actin structure in transgenic Arabidopsis root cells. The F-actin changed direction from vertical to lateral, and the actin cytoskeleton organization was severely disrupted in GhCFE5D-overexpressing root cells. These data support the functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs in the actin cytoskeleton structure and cell elongation, implying an important role for GhCFE5 in the evolution and selection of cotton fiber.

  9. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Wang; Chengqi Li; Qinglian Wang

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5 /chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  10. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chengqi; Wang, Qinglian

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5/chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for markerassisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  11. 棉花LIM蛋白基因家族的进化及表达特征分析%Evolution and Expression Analysis of the LIM Protein Gene Family in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 李波; 胡文冉; 张经博; 范玲

    2015-01-01

    homology chromosomes were consistent, suggesting that the LIM gene may had duplicated since the ancestors of cacao and diploid cottons had diverged, and before the divergence of the D5 and A2 diploid cottons, and GhLIMs may not experienced a single duplicate or gene loss in G. hirsutum, except the chromosome redoubling. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that the angiosperm LIM proteins could clustered into four groups (subgroups are gathered within groups): αLIM1 (FLIM1, WLIM1, PLIM1), βLIM1, γLIM2 (WLIM2), δLIM2 (PLIM2-I, PLIM2-II); the duplicated homologs of GhLIM were clusted in WLIM2, PLIM2-I, PLIM2-II subgroups respectively. The GhLIM genes expressing profiling analysis showed that, there were 3 types of expressing patterns: GhLIM1/2 (FLIM), GhLIM3 (WLIM1), GhLIM13 (βLIM1) and GhLIM4/8/14 (WLIM2) were widely expressed in different tissues; GhLIM7/9 (PLIM2-I) and Gh- LIM5/6/10/11 (PLIM2-II) were preferentially expressed in the stamen; LIM12 (PLIM2-I) were strongly expressed in stamen and fiber. Quantitative PCR results of GhLIM exhibited different expression patterns during the process of fiber development, the expressing of GhLIM1 was up-regulated in elongation stage, and peaked in 15 DPA; GhLIM2 was redominant up-regulated at stage of secondary wall biosynthesis, and peaked in 28 DPA; and the expression level of GhLIM12 was constantly high during 10–23 DPA, and disappeared in 28 DPA, these result indicating different subfunctionalisations of GhLIM genes in different fiber development phases.

  12. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  13. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  14. Transduction of bone marrow cells by the AdZ.F(pK7) modified adenovirus demonstrates preferential gene transfer in myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R; Vereecque, R; Wickham, T J; Facon, T; Hetuin, D; Kovesdi, I; Bauters, F; Fenaux, P; Quesnel, B

    1999-11-01

    Adenoviral vectors can efficiently infect myeloma cell lines, but transduction of fresh myeloma cells performed at low multiplicity of infections (MOIs) showed only partial efficacy. The modified adenoviral vector AdZ.F(pK7), through binding of polylysines to heparan sulfate-containing receptors, could increase virus adsorption and gene transfer efficiency in myeloma cells, which express heparan sulfate-containing receptors. Thus, we investigated the ability of AdZ.F(pK7) vector to achieve efficient gene transfer in primary cultured fresh myeloma cells. Transduction of 16 primary cultured myeloma samples showed that gene transfer was much more efficient with AdZ.F(pK7) than with control AdZ.F. Both addition of soluble heparin and cell treatment with heparinase I dramatically inhibited gene transfer in myeloma cells by AdZ.F(pK7) but had no effect with AdZ.F, while addition of recombinant fiber protein inhibited AdZ.F but not AdZ.F(pK7), confirming that AdZ.F(pK7) gene transfer in myeloma cells is mediated by the targeting of heparan sulfates. AdZ.F(pK7) transduction of bone marrow cells showed that myeloma cells and hematopoietic progenitor AC133-, CD34-, and CD33-positive cells were efficiently transduced at an MOI of 100, but that only myeloma cells were significantly transduced at an MOI of 12. Thus, AdZ.F(pK7) vector seems to be well suited for immunological approaches of gene therapy or bone marrow-purging applications in multiple myeloma.

  15. 转 EPSPS 基因抗草甘膦棉花的遗传分析%Genetic Analysis of Transgenic Glyphosate-resistance Cotton with EPSPS Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕树锋; 祝水金; 刘海芳; 卢彩霞; 铁双贵

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analysis the genetic characters of transgenic glyphosate -resistance cotton with EPSPS gene,using the glyphosate-resistant cotton transformation events G 6-1-G6-26 as the materials, and their non-transgenic genetic background cultivar CCRI-49 as control .Field resistance test in T 1 plants showed that the 20 of 26 transformation events were consistent with the ratio of 3∶1 and the other transformation events were inconsistent with single-gene Mendelian inheritance according to χ2 test.Field resistance test in T 2 plants showed 152 homozygous resistance lines were obtained derived from 25 transformation events ,respectively .Fifty-seven lines derived from 15 transformation events were consistent with the ratio 3∶1 through the analysis of heterozygous resist-ance lines.Furthermore,every transformation event had lines which were inconsistent with the ratio of 3∶1,and 10 transformation events did not have lines which were consistent with the ratio of 3∶1 .These suggested the integration and genetic mode of exogenous gene transformed by the pollen tube pathway method were complex .%为分析转基因抗草甘膦棉花早代遗传情况,以花粉管通道法获得的26个转5-烯醇式丙酮酰莽草酸-3-磷酸合酶基因( EPSPS)抗草甘膦棉花转化事件为材料,以其背景亲本中棉所49为对照,喷施草甘膦后对转基因棉T1、T2分离比例进行考察。 T1田间抗性鉴定结果表明,经卡方检测20个转化事件T1分离符合3∶1的分离规律,即外源基因插入1个位点;6个转化事件不符合1对基因的分离规律,出现了偏分离。 T2田间抗性鉴定结果表明,通过花粉通管法共获得152个纯合株系,分别来源于25个转化事件;对T2不纯合株系继续进行分离比例的考察,发现来源于15个转化事件的57个株系符合3∶1的分离规律;此外卡方检测结果表明,每个转化事件都有不符合3∶1分

  16. Identification of gene expression changes associated with the initiation of diapause in the brain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, we investigated differentially expressed genes in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains at diapause initiation. Results We constructed two SSH libraries (forward, F and reverse, R to isolate genes that are up-regulated or down-regulated at diapause initiation. We obtained 194 unique sequences in the F library and 115 unique sequences in the R library. Further, genes expression at the mRNA and protein level in diapause- and nondiapause-destined pupal brains were confirmed by RT-PCR, Northern blot or Western blot analysis. Finally, we classified the genes and predicted their possible roles at diapause initiation. Conclusion Differentially expressed genes at pupal diapause initiation are possibly involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy, stress resistance, signaling pathways, cell cycle, transcription and translation.

  17. Preferential transcription of conserved rif genes in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasite lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Magistrado, Pamela A; Nielsen, Morten A

    2009-01-01

    transcript levels were determined in two different parasite lines, 3D7-Lib and NF54-VAR2CSA, expressing VSA associated with severe malaria in children and pregnant women, respectively. The 3D7-Lib showed high transcript levels of Group A var and neighbouring rif genes, whereas rifA2 was found highly...

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods and techniques that can be used to transfer foreign genes into cells. In plant biotechnology, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a widely used traditional method for inserting foreign genes into plant genome and obtaining transgenic plants, particularly for dicot plant species. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton involves several important and also critical steps, which includes coculture of cotton explants with Agrobacterium, induction and selection of stable transgenic cell lines, recovery of plants from transgenic cells majorly through somatic embryogenesis, and detection and expression analysis of transgenic plants. In this chapter, we describe a detailed step-by-step protocol for obtaining transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  19. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEIDY YANIRA RACHE CARDENAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el 2009 se plantaron 4088 hectáreas de algodón genéticamente modificado en el departamento de Tolima (Colombia, sin embargo, hay ciertas incertidumbres acerca de las medidas de contención necesarias para impedir el movimiento de polen y semillas desde los campos GM regulados, hacia los campos adyacentes de cultivos convencionales. En este estudio se evaluó el flujo de genes mediado por polen y semillas desde variedades GM hacia variedades convencionales o individuos ferales, en el cultivo del algodón. Para detectar el flujo de genes se utilizaron ImmunostripTM, PCR y ELISA. Cincuenta y seis refugios, 27 campos con algodón convencional y cuatro individuos ferales de la empresa “Remolinos S.A.” localizada en El Espinal (Tolima fueron analizados en el primer semestre de 2010. Los resultados indicaron presencia de plantas GM en 45 refugios (80,4 % y 26 campos de algodón convencional (96 %, además de un flujo génico mediado por polen en un campo de algodón convencional y nueve refugios. En todos los campos cultivados con algodón convencional se evidenció flujo de genes desde algodón GM. Solo en dos refugios y en dos individuos ferales no se evidenció flujo de genes desde algodón GM.

  20. Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma (PRAME and Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT 1 Genes Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Prognostic Role and Correlation with Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engy El Khateeb

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the expression of PRAME and WT1 genes are indicators of favorable prognosis and can be useful tools for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD in acute leukemia especially in patients without known genetic markers. Differential expression between acute leukemia patients and healthy volunteers suggests that the immunogenic antigens (PRAME and WT1 are potential candidates for immunotherapy in childhood acute leukemia.

  1. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  2. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton.

  3. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7, that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; CAO JiaShu; ZHANG YuChao; YE YiQun

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction, To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized.The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites,2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage,and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  4. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7,that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L.ssp. chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction. To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinen-sis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analy-sis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized. The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, 2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage, and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  5. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  6. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  7. 棉花nodulin-like基因及其启动子的结构特征和遗传表达%Structural Characteristic and Genetic Expression of nodulin-like Gene and Its Promoter in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任茂智; 陈全家; 张锐; 郭三堆

    2004-01-01

    Full-length DNA, cDNA and promoter sequences of nodulin-like gene have been isolated and characterized by isocaudarner inverse PCR (-PCR) and rapid isolating cDNA 5' unknown sequence and promoter (RICUP) methods from cotton. Sequence analysis indicated that nodulin-like gene was 2 353 bp in size, including five introns and six exons. Its full-length cDNA was 1 480 bp, containing an 1 125-bp ORF structure, which encoded a 40.23-kD polypeptide with predicted isoelectric point of 8.433. A check against nr database in GenBank indicated that no DNA sequence was found to share homology with it. Searched in EST database, a 733-bp EST sequence of Gossypium arboreum L. (GenBank asscession number BF271235)was found to share 92% homology with it. Promoter of nodulin-like gene was 1 969 bp in length with several typical sequences, such as initiator, TATA box, CAAT-like box and AT-rich sequence. Southern blotting analysis suggested that one copy of nodulin-like gene was integrated into cotton genome. Northern blotting analysis showed that nodulin-like gene expressed preferentialy in fiber and reproductive organs of cotton, such as bud, flower and boll. Our work provides researchers with candidate genes to improve agronmic traits of cotton and also provide efficient expression elements for problem solving in transgenic Bt cotton, namely resistance to bollworm declining dramatically at late developmental stage of cotton.%用同尾酶反向PCR技术(Ⅱ-PCR)和快速分离目的基因cDNA 5'未知序列方法(RICUP)首次从陆地棉品种Y18(Gossypium arboreum L.Y18)中分离到nodulin-like基因的全长cDNA、DNA和启动子序列.结果表明,该基因全长为2 353 bp,具有5个内含子和6个外显子.cDNA全长1480 bp,含有一个1125 bp的ORF结构,编码375个氨基酸,在GenBank nr数据库中没有与之同源的基因序列,在EST数据库中仅有一条733 bp的亚洲棉纤维EST序列(GenBank登录号:BF271235)与之有92%的同源

  8. Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins of 320 and 307 amino acid residues,respectively. Quantatitive RT-PCR analysis showed that both these genes were highly preferentially expressed during the cotton fiber elongation period with much lower levels recovered from roots, stems and leaves. GhKCR1 and 2 showed 30%-32% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr159p at the deduced amino acid level. These cotton cDNAs were cloned and expressed in yeast haploid ybr159w△ mutant that was deficient in 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity.Wild-type growth rate was restored in ybr159w△ cells that expressed either GhKCR1 or 2. Further analysis showed that GhKCR1 and 2 were co-sedimented within the membranous pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation, similar to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum marker ScKar2p. Both GhKCR(s) showed NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity in an in vitro assay system using palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates. Our results suggest that GhKCR1 and 2 are functional orthologues of ScYbr159p.

  9. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  10. Chromosome Substitution Lines:Useful Genomic Resources in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genus Gossypium is a very diverse one with about 50 species.However,a very narrow germplasm base is presently being used for genetic improvement of Upland cotton.The wild tetraploid cotton species are reservoirs of important genes for pest and disease resistance,and for improved agronomic and fiber traits.Two of the most important forces impeding Upland cotton improvement are" 1)the paucity of information about genes that control important traits,and 2) the need for extensive usage of diverse germplasm.

  11. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a WRKY Gene GhWRKY25 in Upland Cotton%棉花WRKY基因GhWRKY25的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑巧; 王志安; 张安红; 许琦; 肖娟丽; 罗晓丽

    2014-01-01

    棉花是一种重要的经济作物,在国民生产中起着重要的作用。然而干旱盐碱等不良环境严重地制约着棉花的种植区域及其产量和品质。近年来,利用分子育种改良棉花对这些逆境的耐性的研究成为热点。本文从棉花中克隆了一个对干旱和盐碱具有应答的WRKY基因,定名为GhWRKY25。该基因编码的蛋白包含两个典型的WRKY结构域,每个WRKY结构域的 C端含有一个 C2H2类型的锌指蛋白结构,进化树分析表明其属于Ⅰ类 WRKY蛋白,与可可的WRKY3同源性最高。利用qPCR分析发现该基因在棉花里为组成型表达,但在花中表达量较高。 GhWRKY25在施用SA、JA、ABA、GA 中表达表现为上调。干旱和NaCl处理时发现GhWRKY25基因表达均显著上调。通过上述结果可以推测GhWRKY25在棉花对于逆境的适应中具有重要的作用,为该基因功能的进一步研究提供基础。%Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, which plays pivotal roles in industry and social life. However, many uncontrolled environmental factor, such as drought and saline, affect plant area, yield and quality of cotton. Currently, molecular breeding for improving the tolerance of cotton cultivars against various stresses has become the focus of research. In this study, a novel WRKY gene was cloned from cotton, designated as GhWRKY25. The GhWRKY25 protein contains two typical WRKY domain, in which a zinc finger motif is located in the C-terminal. Phytogenic analysis showed that GhWRKY25 belongs to the class Ⅰ WRKY protein, and has highest homology with TcWRKY3 in Theobroma cacao. The results of qPCR analysis showed that GhWRKY25 is constitutively expressed in various cotton organs with high mRNA level in flowers. The expression of GhWRKY25 was up-regulated in cotton plants under the external-applying SA, JA, ABA and GA3. When cotton plants were treated with drought and NaCl, the expression level of Gh

  12. Can other host species of cotton bollworm be non-Bt refuges to prolong the effectiveness of Bt-cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential ecological risks of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) insecticides and Bt-crops have caused increasing concern since their commercial release in the field,among which pests' resistance to Bt-crops is the major ecological risk. Refuge tactic, which can produce sensitive populations, has proved to be a key and sound resistance management strategy in USA and Australia; however, no tactics have been performed in China where Bt-cotton is mostly planted with other host crops of cotton bollworm.Genetic variation and gene flow among different host populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were analyzed using PCR fingerprinting method. The results show that maize and castor-oil plant, as well as cotton can take effect as refuges to prevent resistance of cotton bollworm to Bt-cotton, while peanut and sesame are not as suitable for planting with Bt-cotton as refuges in the field as low gene flow was detected among populations on peanut, sesame and Bt cotton.

  13. The Cotton WRKY Gene GhWRKY41 Positively Regulates Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Chu

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors constitute a very large family of proteins in plants and participate in modulating plant biological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses. However, the exact roles of WRKY proteins are unclear, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY41 (GhWRKY41 was isolated and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Our results showed that overexpression of GhWRKY41 enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerance of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. The transgenic plants exhibited lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated in transgenic plants exposed to osmotic stress. A β-glucuronidase (GUS staining assay showed that GhWRKY41 was highly expressed in the stomata when plants were exposed to osmotic stress, and plants overexpressing GhWRKY41 exhibited enhanced stomatal closure when they were exposed to osmotic stress. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GhWRKY41 may enhance plant tolerance to stress by functioning as a positive regulator of stoma closure and by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging and the expression of antioxidant genes.

  14. RNAi silencing of the HaHMG-CoA reductase gene inhibits oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests.

  15. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  16. Molecular Tagging and Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Lint Percentage and Morphological Marker Genes in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using 219 F2 individuals developed by crossing the genetic standard line TM-1 and the multiple dominant marker line T586 in Gossypium hirsutum L., a genetic linkage map with 19 linkage groups was constructed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Compared with our tetraploid backboned molecular genetic map from a (TM-1xHai 7124)xTM-1 BC1 population, 17 of the 19 linkage groups were combined and anchored to 12 chromosomes (sub-genomes). Of these groups, four morphological marker genes in T586 had been mapped into the molecular linkage map. Meanwhile, three quantitative trait loci for lint percentage were tagged and mapped separately on the A03 linkage group and chromosome 6.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium,BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

  18. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  19. Identification and chromosomal mapping of insect-resistant gene Bt in up-land cotton%陆地棉Bt抗虫基因类型鉴定与染色体定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安百伟; 赵亮; 狄佳春; 陈旭升

    2016-01-01

    In order to define the inheritance of insect⁃resistant traits, insect⁃resistant gene types and the position of the insect⁃resistant gene on chromosomes in a Bt transgenic cotton germplasm N099, the insect resistance and susceptibility was evaluated in a F2 population of non⁃resistant N099 and resistant Hai7124 ( Gossypium barbadense) . Results showed that the resistance was controlled by a single pair of dominant gene. N099 was identified by Bt protein strip and DNA⁃PCR to contain bivalent Bt insect⁃resistant gene, Cry1Ac+Cry2A. A pair of polymorphic primer NAU2912 two hundred and thirty⁃four pairs of primers covering 26 cotton chromosomes was found in a near⁃isogenic pool consisting of resistant&susceptible F2 cotton plants to be linked with the Bt gene Cry1Ac+Cry2A. Known the primer on cotton chromosome 26, then other prim⁃ers on the chromosome flanking 50 cM from the primer were screened, which received 16 pairs of primers linked with the Bt gene. It was located between SSR marker dc40260 and cgr6702, with genetic distance 1�8 cM and 2�9 cM respectively. Thus, the bivalent Bt gene is mapped on the cotton chromosome 26.%为明确Bt抗虫棉种质系N099的抗虫性状遗传方式、抗虫基因类型以及抗虫基因插入染色体的位置,用N099为父本与非抗虫海岛棉海7124杂交,分析了F2分离世代遗传方式,结果表明该抗虫棉的抗虫性状呈简单的1对显性基因控制的质量遗传方式。进一步在Bt毒蛋白和DNA 2个层面对该抗虫基因类型进行鉴定,结果显示N099所含抗虫基因为双价Bt基因Cry1Ac+Cry2A。而后利用234对核心引物对F2代抗、感株组成的近等基因混池进行多态性筛选,发现其中1对多态性引物NAU2912与该Bt基因连锁。已知引物NAU2912位于棉花第26染色体上,通过对该引物上、下50�0 cM之间的其他引物进行多态性筛选,共获得16对引物与双价Bt基因相连锁,目

  20. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders’ ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed t...

  1. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY-1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photo-assimilate in crop plants and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders ha...

  2. Preferential attachment in the evolution of metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elofsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological networks show some characteristics of scale-free networks. Scale-free networks can evolve through preferential attachment where new nodes are preferentially attached to well connected nodes. In networks which have evolved through preferential attachment older nodes should have a higher average connectivity than younger nodes. Here we have investigated preferential attachment in the context of metabolic networks. Results The connectivities of the enzymes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli were determined and representatives for these enzymes were located in 11 eukaryotes, 17 archaea and 46 bacteria. E. coli enzymes which have representatives in eukaryotes have a higher average connectivity while enzymes which are represented only in the prokaryotes, and especially the enzymes only present in βγ-proteobacteria, have lower connectivities than expected by chance. Interestingly, the enzymes which have been proposed as candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than the other enzymes. Furthermore, It was found that new edges are added to the highly connected enzymes at a faster rate than to enzymes with low connectivities which is consistent with preferential attachment. Conclusion Here, we have found indications of preferential attachment in the metabolic network of E. coli. A possible biological explanation for preferential attachment growth of metabolic networks is that novel enzymes created through gene duplication maintain some of the compounds involved in the original reaction, throughout its future evolution. In addition, we found that enzymes which are candidates for horizontal gene transfer have a higher average connectivity than other enzymes. This indicates that while new enzymes are attached preferentially to highly connected enzymes, these highly connected enzymes have sometimes been introduced into the E. coli genome by horizontal gene transfer. We speculate

  3. Oral delivery mediated RNA interference of a carboxylesterase gene results in reduced resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in the cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is an effective tool to examine the function of individual genes. Carboxylesterases (CarE, EC 3.1.1.1 are known to play significant roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in many insect species. Previous studies in our laboratory found that CarE expression was up-regulated in Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae adults of both omethoate and malathion resistant strains, indicating the potential involvement of CarE in organophosphorus (OP insecticide resistance. Functional analysis (RNAi is therefore warranted to investigate the role of CarE in A. gossypii to OPs resistance. RESULT: CarE expression in omethoate resistant individuals of Aphis gossypii was dramatically suppressed following ingestion of dsRNA-CarE. The highest knockdown efficiency (33% was observed at 72 h after feeding when dsRNA-CarE concentration was 100 ng/µL. The CarE activities from the CarE knockdown aphids were consistent with the correspondingly significant reduction in CarE expression. The CarE activity in the individuals of control aphids was concentrated in the range of 650-900 mOD/per/min, while in the individuals of dsRNA-CarE-fed aphids, the CarE activity was concentrated in the range of 500-800 mOD/per/min. In vitro inhibition experiments also demonstrated that total CarE activity in the CarE knockdown aphids decreased significantly as compared to control aphids. Bioassay results of aphids fed dsRNA-CarE indicated that suppression of CarE expression increased susceptibility to omethoate in individuals of the resistant aphid strains. CONCLUSION: The results of this study not only suggest that ingestion of dsRNA through artificial diet could be exploited for functional genomic studies in cotton aphids, but also indicate that CarE can be considered as a major target of organophosphorus insecticide (OPs resistance in A. gossypii. Further, our results suggest that the CarE would be a propitious target for OPs resistant

  4. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  5. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries...

  6. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries...

  7. Establishment and Optimisation of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in System Hydroponic Cotton%水培条件下病毒诱导棉花基因沉默体系的建立及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆春; 周琳; 李茂营; 杜明伟; 张明才; 田晓莉; 李召虎

    2016-01-01

    Using GhCLA1 as a marker gene and cotton variety Guoxinmian 3 plants as material, we aimed to explore effects of temperature, syringe-infiltrated concentrations and time, cultivation patterns, and cotton varieties on efficiency of tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing (VIGS) under hydroponic condition. The results showed that higher silencing efficiency was induced by syringe-infiltrated time at 3 to 5 days after emergence and optimum growth temperature at 24℃ under hydroponic condition, but syringe-infiltrated concentrations could not affect VIGS silence efficiency. Moreover, pTRV-GFP as null fragment could alleviate the adverse effect of inserted fragment for plant growth. Silencing phenotype could be visible earlier in hydropon-ics culture than in soil culture, and the experimental period was significantly shortened under hydroponic condition. In addition, GhCLA1 could be silenced in all tested varieties (lines) under hydroponic condition. Cotton plants with silenced GhCTR1 were severely dwarfed, which indicated TRV-VIGS system can be applied widely in hydroponic cotton.%以国欣棉3号为材料,以棉花GhCLA1为指示基因,探讨了生长温度、重悬液浓度、注射时间、品种等对水培棉花pTRV介导的VIGS沉默效率的影响。在24℃条件下,出苗后3~5 d内注射能得到较高沉默效率,重悬液浓度对沉默效率没有影响;同时以注射 pTRV-GFP 作为空白对照可以消除插入片段对植株生长的影响,减小对照误差;水培与土培方式相比能更快更早出现沉默表型,缩短试验周期,并能诱导不同品种棉花材料 GhCLA1基因沉默;利用水培棉花TRV-VIGS体系,成功抑制了棉花GhCTR1基因的表达,与对照株相比,抑制后的棉花植株出现矮化表型,说明水培棉花TRV-VIGS体系建立在棉花研究中的广谱利用性。

  8. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  9. Drought-Enduring Functional Analysis of a Natriuretic Peptide GeneGhPNP1 in Cotton%棉花钠尿肽基因GhPNP1的耐旱功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小双; 刘廷利; 袁洪波; 张保龙; 王荣富

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The objectives of this research are to analyze the structural features, patterns of expression and drought tolerance functions of natriuretic peptide geneGhPNP1 in cotton, and provide a theoretical basis for future deeper study of crop drought tolerance.[Method] The homolog protein sequences of plant natriuretic peptides in cotton were obtained by a BLASTP search inGossypium raimondiiprotein database using the query protein sequence ofVerticillium dahliae plant natriuretic peptides gene Ave1 acquired from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Homologous analysis and multiple alignments were performed with MEGA 5. Expasy online tools were used for protein sequence analysis. TheGhPNP1 was amplified inGossypium hirsutumAo3503 using the primers that were designed according to the nucleotide acid sequence of the homolog protein sequence. The isoelectric point, molecular weight, signal peptide and phylogenetic tree of the encoding protein were analyzed by related bioinformatics programs. The expression analysis ofGhPNP1 gene in different organs and by PEG simulating drought stress treatment was conducted by real-time PCR. The virus induced gene silence vector was constructed and theGhPNP1 silenced cotton plants were obtained. The cDNA sequences ofGhPNP1was add to CLCrV silencing vector to construct virus-induced gene silencing vector CLCrV: GhPNP1 of GhPNP1. At 2-leaf-stage, cotton plant was infected and leaf tissues were obtained from hormone treated plant. PEG simulating drought stress treatment was used to determine the drought tolerance ofGhPNP1silenced cotton plants and test the several physiological indexes related to stress tolerance, such as water loss rate, relative water content, MDA content, T-AOC level and electrolyte leakage inGhPNP1silenced cotton plants.[Result]GhPNP1 obtained inGossypium hirsutum Ao3503 has an ORF with 396 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 131 amino acids, its isoelectric point is 9.13, the predicted molecular weight is

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  11. Impact of Bt-cotton on soil microbiological and biochemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaullah Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt-cotton produces Bt-toxins (Cry proteins which may accumulate and persist in soil due to their binding ability on soil components. In the present study, the potential impacts of Bt- and non-Bt genotypes of cotton on soil microbial activity, substrate use efficiency, viable microbial population counts, and nutrient dynamics were studied. Two transgenic Bt-cotton genotypes (CIM-602 CIM-599 expressing cry1 Ac gene and two non-Bt cotton genotypes (CIM-573 and CIM-591 were used to evaluate their impact on biological and chemical properties of soil across the four locations in Punjab. Field trials were conducted at four locations (Central Cotton Research Institute-Multan, Naseer Pur, Kot Lal Shah, and Cotton Research Station-Bahawalpur of different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected by following standard procedure from these selected locations. Results reveled that Bt-cotton had no adverse effect on microbial population (viable counts and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil. Bacterial population was more in Bt-cotton rhizosphere than that of non-Bt cotton rhizosphere at all locations. Phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and oxidative metabolism of rhizosphere soil were more in Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. Cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable phosphorous, extractable potassium, active carbon, Fe and Zn contents were higher in rhizosphere of Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. It can be concluded from present study that the cultivation of Bt-cotton expressing cry1 Ac had apparently no negative effect on metabolic, microbiological activities, and nutrient dynamics of soils. Further work is needed to investigate the potential impacts of Bt-cotton on ecology of soil-dwelling insects and invertebrates before its recommendation for extensive cultivation.

  12. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  13. Expression of an engineered synthetic cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis in marker free transgenic tobacco facilitated full-protection from cotton leaf worm (S. littoralis) at very low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Srimonta; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of resistant insects limits the sustainability of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop plants for insect management. Beside this, the presence of unwanted marker gene(s) in the transgenic crops is also a major environmental and health concern. Thus, development of marker free transgenic crop plants expressing a new class of toxin having a different mortality mechanism is necessary for resistance management. In a previous study, we generated an engineered Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin which has a different mortality mechanism as compared to first generation Bt toxin Cry1A, and this engineered toxin was found to enhance 4.1-6.6-fold toxicity against major lepidopteran insect pests of crop plants. In the present study, we have tested the potency of this engineered synthetic Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin as a candidate in the development of insect resistant transgenic tobacco plants. Simultaneously, we have eliminated the selectable marker gene from the Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) expressing tobacco plants by exploiting the Cre/lox mediated recombination methodology, and successfully developed marker free T2 transgenic tobacco plants expressing the engineered Cry2Aa toxin. Realtime and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of engineered toxin gene in transgenic plants. Insect feeding assays revealed that the marker free T2 progeny of transgenic plants expressing Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin showed 82-92 and 52-61 % mortality to cotton leaf worm (CLW) and cotton bollworm (CBW) respectively. Thus, this engineered Cry2Aa toxin could be useful for the generation of insect resistant transgenic Bt lines which will protect the crop damages caused by different insect pests such as CLW and CBW.

  14. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  15. A strategy for designing multi-taxa specific reference gene systems. example of application--ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) used for the detection and quantification of three taxa: maize (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Giancola, Sandra; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2007-10-03

    In the first part of the paper, we report the description of a new strategy for the development of a plant reference gene system that can be used for genetically modified organism (GMO) analysis. On the basis of in silico research for candidate genes, the design of degenerate primers allowed the obtention of genomic sequences of the selected gene ppi-phosphofructokinase ( ppi-PPF) for nine taxa in which GMOs have been developed. The comparison and the analysis of inter- and intraspecies sequence variability were performed using a large number of species and cultivars. As an example of application following the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, we designed specific conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection and quantification of three taxa, namely, maize, cotton, and rice. This system was highly specific and sensitive. The gene copy number conservation among different cultivars was analyzed and confirmed with a sequencing step. This reference gene system is adequate for use in routine assays for the quantification of GMOs. We then explain briefly the constraints faced and propose recommendations when designing a reference gene system depending on the species to be targeted.

  16. Comparative evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jeong Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ~5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution.

  17. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  18. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  19. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Jie; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased the production costs.So the breeding for dwarf plant is the best way to solve this problem.In the past,some dwarf mutants of cotton with recessive gene controlled were reported.

  20. Targeted mutagenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiugui; Lu, Xuke; Shu, Na; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Delong; Guo, Lixue; Ye, Wuwei

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in various plants because of its simplicity, high efficiency and design flexibility. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in cotton. Here, we report the genome editing and targeted mutagenesis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., hereafter cotton) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We designed two guide RNAs to target distinct sites of the cotton Cloroplastos alterados 1 (GhCLA1) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (GhVP) genes. Mutations in these two genes were detected in cotton protoplasts. Most of the mutations were nucleotide substitutions, with one nucleotide insertion and one substitution found in GhCLA1 and one deletion found in GhVP in cotton protoplasts. Subsequently, the two vectors were transformed into cotton shoot apexes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in efficient target gene editing. Most of the mutations were nucleotide deletions, and the mutation efficiencies were 47.6–81.8% in transgenic cotton plants. Evaluation using restriction-enzyme-PCR assay and sequence analysis detected no off-target mutations. Our results indicated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was an efficient and specific tool for targeted mutagenesis of the cotton genome. PMID:28287154

  1. FROM Qutn TO Bt COTTON: DEVELOPMENT, ADOPTION AND PROSPECTS. A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies.

  2. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  3. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  4. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  5. Semantic foundation for preferential description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available that they refer to as concept models. They present representation results for the description logic ALC for both preferential and rational consequence relations. They argue that their semantics pave the way for extending preferential and rational consequence...

  6. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke-yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  7. Harmonious Unifying Hybrid Preferential Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    The basic concepts and methods for harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model(HUHPM)are based on random preferential attachment(RPA)mixed with deterministic preferential attachment(DPA),so there is only one unified hybrid ratio dr,which is defined as:

  8. Tissue engineering scaffolds electrospun from cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2015-01-22

    Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Genes EPSPS from the Upland Cotton and Its Expression in Different Cotton Tissues%陆地棉EPSPS 基因的克隆及其组织特异性表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童旭宏; 吴玉香; 祝水金

    2009-01-01

    5-烯醇式丙酮莽草酸-3-磷酸合成酶(EPSPS)是莽草酸途径中的一个重要酶,它是非选择性除草剂草甘膦的靶标酶,在高等植物中定位于叶绿体质膜上.根据EST拼接的序列设计引物,从陆地棉品种珂字棉312中获得了全长为1834 bp的cDNA序列,其最大可读框为1565 bp,编码521个氨基酸.陆地棉EPSPS 基因与其它植物中同类酶在氨基酸水平上有广泛的同源性.通过与已知的其它高等植物叶绿体转运肽剪切位点比对,推断棉花EPSPS 基因含有74个氨基酸叶绿体运输肽和447个氨基酸组成的熟蛋白.该酶具有保守的PEP结合位点及催化位点的特征序列.半定量分析表明,该基因产物广泛存在于棉花根、茎和叶等各组织中,在叶片中表达量较高.进一步扩增棉花核基因组获得了3344 bp的DNA序列,它包含8个内含子和7个外显子.棉花EPSPS 基因的克隆为抗草甘膦棉花种质资源的创制提供了理论基础.%5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme of the shikimate pathway.It is the target enzyme of nonselective herbicide glyphosate.This enzyme is located in the chloroplasts of the higher plants.Primers were designed according to the assembled ESTs of Gossypium hirsutum , and a 1834 bp cDNA fragment of G.hirsutum cv.Coker 312 was obtained in this experiment.The frafment contains an ORF comprising of 1565 nucleotides which encodes 521 amino acid.A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of cotton and other higher plants genes reveals highly homology over the length of the entire mature protein.The site of transit peptides cleavage is deduced from a comparison to the known cleavage site in other plants.The enzyme, including 74 amino acid chloroplast transit peptides and 447 amino acid mature proteins, comprises conserved region of PEP binding sites and the characteristic sequence of catalytic activity sites.Semi-quantitative analysis of EPSP synthase expression showed that

  10. Current Status and Progresses in Chinese Cotton Genomic Research%中国棉花基因组研究的现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xian ZHU; Sheng-jian JI; Ying-chun LU; Gang WEI; Jun LI

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber, a single-celled trichome, 30-40mm in length and 15m in cell-wall-thickness, is a differentiated epidermal cell originated from the outer integument of the ovule. There are several groups in China that work on cotton gene cloning or fiber improvement using biotechnological approaches. Dr. Xiaoya Chen's group from the Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Academia Sinica, obtained transgenic cottons that express a rabbit keratin gene, a silkworm fibroin gene, IAAM and PAT gene.

  11. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-10-01

    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  12. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  13. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  14. Analysis of ent-copalyl diphosphate aynthase and ent-kaurene synthase (CPS & KS) gene family in cotton genome databases%棉花基因组数据库中CPS & KS基因的查找与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 狄佳春; 陈旭升

    2016-01-01

    The study focused on the distribution of ent⁃copalyl diphosphate aynthase and ent⁃kaurene synthase (CPS&KS), the key enzymes for biosynthesis of GA, in cotton genome. The CPS&KS gene family has two conservative struc⁃ture domains, Terpene_synth and Terpene_synth_C, based on the analysis of their amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana, and the seed files in Pfam database are PF01397 and PF03936, respectively. By using Hmmsearch of HMMER, 72 sequences were harvested in the genome database from Gossypium raimondii. Five genes exhibiting homologies with 10 genes in subgenomes At and Dt of genome TM⁃1 of tetraploid cotton were identified. Based on the alignment of transcriptome database of an ultra⁃dwarf mutant with GA sensitivity before and after GA treatment, two KS genes were found up⁃regulated.%为了探究赤霉素合成关键酶CPS&KS类基因在棉花中的分布情况,分析了已发表的拟南芥CPS&KS基因编码的蛋白质氨基酸序列,发现该类基因存在2个保守结构域,Terpene_synth和Terpene_synth_C,其在Pfam数据库中的种子文件分别为PF01397和PF03936。利用软件HMMER中的Hmmsearch程序在雷蒙德氏棉蛋白质数据库中调取72条序列,通过与拟南芥中的CPS&KS基因序列进行比对,最终在雷蒙德氏棉基因组中筛选到5个CPS&KS候选基因,这5个基因与四倍体棉花TM⁃1基因组At和Dt亚组的10个基因具有同源关系。通过对赤霉素敏感的棉花超矮杆突变体赤霉素处理前后转录组数据库分析比对,最终确定2个KS候选基因在转录组中表现为上调作用。

  15. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential to address information overload problem, namely to help users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlook the significance of diversity and novelty which indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark datasets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  16. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  17. 国内抗草甘膦转基因棉花及相关抗性基因研究概述%Review for Glyphosate-resistant Transgenic Cotton and the Related Gene Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 马燕斌; 吴霞; 梁爱华; 马冬菊; 王华; 李燕娥

    2012-01-01

    详细概述了国内对抗草甘膦基因的发掘、棉花育种中抗草甘膦基因的利用以及研究方法等.我国抗草甘膦的品种培育与专利申请等发展趋势较快,在不同科研单位的合作背景下,积极开展了有关抗草甘膦棉花等作物方面的相关研究,这些研究成果在农业生产利用方面,有助于降低劳动力成本和提高农业生产效率,并对进一步提高我国农业生产竞争力具有重要作用.同时,转基因作物在生物安全性、商业化竞争方面也面临新的机遇与挑战.%According to current research of glyphosate-resistant and transgenic cotton in China, all related studies were summarized in this paper and the principle and method were also showed for utilizing of glyphosate-resistant genes in transgenic cotton breeding. These research results could decrease labor cost, improve productivity and competition ability of agriculture in China. Meanwhile transgenic crops face new oppounities and challenges in bio-safety and commercial competition.

  18. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  19. Mapping of glyphosate-resistant gene CP4-EPSPS in cotton%棉花草甘膦抗性基因CP4-EPSPS的初步定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉焘; 马晓杰; 狄佳春; 陈旭升

    2013-01-01

    以抗草甘膦陆地棉品系G-6和不抗草甘膦海岛棉品系海7124为试验材料,对分离世代进行检测,分析抗性基因的遗传规律;利用覆盖棉花26条染色体的234对核心引物,通过群体分离分析法进行差异性标记筛选,利用F2分离群体对抗性基因进行染色体定位.结果表明,抗草甘膦性状是受1对显性基因控制的质量性状.特异引物检测显示控制抗草甘膦性状的基因为人工合成基因CP4-EPSPS.利用筛选获得的(27)对多态性引物检测F2作图群体每个单株的基因型,发现分子标记NAU5417、NAU1339、BNL3992、BNL2448、NAU2140与目的基因CP4-EPSPS连锁.进一步筛选,共得到15个分子标记.参照现有的遗传图谱,推断目的基因CP4-EPSPS位于棉花第5染色体BNL2448与NAU2140之间,遗传距离分别为7.0 cM和16.2 cM.%G-6 (glyphosate-resistant cotton) and Hai 7124 (non-resistant sea island cotton) were used in this study.The hybrid F1 population was resistant to glyphosate.The ratio of resistant plants to non-resistant ones in F2 population was consistent with 3 ∶ 1,and the ratio in recessive backcross population BC2 was consistent with 1 ∶ 1,indicating that glyphosate-resistant trait was controlled by a pair of dominant genes.The glyphosate-resistant gene was detected to be an artificially synthesized one,CP4-EPSPS,using a pair of distinctive primers.By bulk segregation analysis,a total of 27 polymorphic primers were obtained from 234 pairs covering 26 pairs of chromosomes in cotton,among which 5 pairs of primers,NAU5417,NAU1339,BNL3992,BNL2448 and NAU2140 were found to be linked with target gene CP4-EPSPS.Further screening showed 15 pairs of primers linked to the gene.According to a known genetic map,CP4-EPSPS was located on BNL2448 and NAU2140 of the fifth chromosome,with genetic distances of 7.0 cM and 16.2 cM,respectively.

  20. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  1. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: acemioglu@kilis.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  2. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  3. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.. The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialisation.

  4. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  5. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  6. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  7. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  8. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  9. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  10. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  11. Synchronizability Analysis of Harmonious Unification Hybrid Preferential Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The harmonious unification hybrid preferential model uses the dr ratio to adjust the proportion of deterministic preferential attachment and random preferential attachment, enriched the only deterministic preferential network model,

  12. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses revealed a detailed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs. To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin, and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively. Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber.

  13. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  14. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  15. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  16. 转几丁质酶和葡聚糖酶双价基因棉花对土壤细菌种群多样性的影响%Effects of transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes on the diversity of soil bacterial community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志芳; 冯自力; 赵丽红; 师勇强; 冯鸿杰; 朱荷琴

    2015-01-01

    以转几丁质酶和葡聚糖酶双价基因棉花为研究对象,非转基因受体棉花为对照,通过比较可培养细菌数量和基于16S rRNA克隆文库细菌种群分析,评价外源双价基因的导入在苗期、蕾期、花铃期和吐絮期对棉花根际细菌群落多样性的影响。结果表明,可培养细菌的数量不受外源双价基因的影响,随着棉花生育期的交替而变化,以代谢旺盛的花铃期最多。构建的转基因和非转基因不同生育期根际土壤细菌16S rRNA文库容量为2400个克隆,涵盖了细菌的283个属。其中,Acidobacterium是最大优势类群,共包括624个克隆,其次为未知细菌种群和 Flavisolibacter。比较转基因和非转基因棉花根际土壤细菌的种群结构,结果显示,同一生育期内前者种群的多样性显著低于后者,二者的共有类群随着生长发育的进行而增多。研究结果说明几丁质酶基因和葡聚糖酶基因对棉花根际细菌种群多样性有着不同程度的削减作用,但是随着种植时间的延长,该差异呈现逐渐缩小的趋势。%The transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes was studied using nontransgenic cotton as a control. Specifically, the effects of exogenous genes on bacterial community diversity in rhizospheres of cotton at stages of seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening were evaluated through comparing the number of cultiva-ble bacteria and analyzing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results showed that the number of cultivable bacteria was not affected by exogenous genes but the cotton growth period, and the number peaked at the stage of boll forming with vigorous metabolism. The 16S rRNA gene clone library prepared from soil bacteria in rhizospheres of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton at different stages contained 2400 clones which covered 283 genera. Among them,Acido-bacterium was the most dominant group which contained 642 clones

  17. Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Chinn, Mari [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Campus Box 7625, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625 (United States); Howell, Noura [North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27715 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The potential of microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade lignin and facilitate fuel ethanol production was investigated under two culture conditions: submerged cultivation (SmC) and solid state (SSC) cultivation. Although microbial pretreatments showed significant lignin degradation (LD) (19.38% and 35.53% for SmC and SSC, respectively), a study on hydrolysis and fermentation of the microbial-pretreated cotton stalks showed no increase in cellulose conversion (10.98% and 3.04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared to untreated cotton stalks (17.93%). Solid state cultivation demonstrated better selectivity of 0.82 than 0.70 with submerged pretreatment. Washing of pretreated cotton stalks did not significantly increase cellulose conversion. However, heating and washing remarkably improved (P<0.05) cellulose conversion to 14.94% and 17.81% for SmC and SSC 14 day pretreatment, respectively. Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g{sup -1} initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due to the low cellulose conversion. Although potential and some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment using P. chrysosporium have been explored in this study, additional investigation is still required especially to improve the selectivity for preferential LD and to optimize hydrolysis efficiency. The mechanism of catalytic binding of cellulolytic enzymes to cotton stalks as affected by the presence of fungal mycelia also warrants further study. (author)

  18. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  19. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  20. Preferential urn model and nongrowing complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Jun; Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2005-12-01

    A preferential urn model, which is based on the concept "the rich get richer," is proposed. From a relationship between a nongrowing model for complex networks and the preferential urn model in regard to degree distributions, it is revealed that a fitness parameter in the nongrowing model is interpreted as an inverse local temperature in the preferential urn model. Furthermore, it is clarified that the preferential urn model with randomness generates a fat-tailed occupation distribution; the concept of the local temperature enables us to understand the fat-tailed occupation distribution intuitively. Since the preferential urn model is a simple stochastic model, it can be applied to research on not only the nongrowing complex networks, but also many other fields such as econophysics and social sciences.

  1. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  2. Study on Survival Competitive Ability of Transgenic Cotton Harboring CrylAc+Cry2Ab Double Bt Genes in Cultivated Field%转双价双Bt基因(Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab)抗虫棉栽培地生存竞争能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴华; 田绍仁; 张天玉; 李捷; 杨兆光; 乔艳艳

    2012-01-01

    为建立国家转双价双Bt抗虫基因棉环境安全评价技术,对转双价双Bt基因(Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab)抗虫棉栽培地生存竞争能力进行研究,结果表明,转双价双Bt基因棉花与对照赣棉11相比,各生育期株高生长具有显著竞争优势,优势值3.48~4.75 cm;吐絮期棉覆盖度竞争优势超对照46.77个百分点,达显著水平;产量竞争力优势籽棉超对照1 013.85 kg/hm2,皮棉超对照433.20 kg/hm2,均未达到显著水平;发芽率竞争优势极显著,超过对照2.75个百分点。与非转基因常规棉相比,转双价双Bt抗虫基因棉生存竞争能力优势显著。%The research studied for establishing the environmental safety assessment technologies of bivalent Bt genes (CrylAc+Cry2Ab) transferred cotton in China. The result showed that :the plant height competitive advantage of transgenic cotton harboring double gcnes(CrylA c+Cry2A b ) increased 3.3,8-4.75 cm in whole growth stages compared to the non- transgenie cotton significantly.The coverage competitive advantage was 46.77 pencentage points more than control significantly.The yield competitive advantage of seed cotton was 1 013.85 kg/hm2 more than control and the lint yield was 433.20 kg/hmz more than control ,but not significantly.The germination rate competitive advantage was 2.75 percentage points more than control, but the difference was not significant. The survival competitive ability of transgenic cotton harboring CrylAc +Cry2A b double Bt genes was higher than the non-transgenic cotton significantly.

  3. The flavonoid pathway regulates the petal colors of cotton flower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Tan

    Full Text Available Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development.

  4. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  5. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  6. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  7. QTL analysis for early-maturing traits in cotton using two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengqi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Dong, Na; Zhao, Haihong; Xia, Zhe; Wang, Rui; Converse, Richard L; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-06-01

    Making use of the markers linked closely to QTL for early-maturing traits for MAS (Marker-assisted selection) is an effective method for the simultaneous improvement of early maturity and other properties in cotton. In this study, two F2 populations and their F2:3 families were generated from the two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses, Baimian2 × TM-1 and Baimian2 × CIR12. QTL for early-maturing traits were analyzed using F2:3 families. A total of 54 QTL (31 suggestive and 23 significant) were detected. Fourteen significant QTL had the LOD scores not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold. At least four common QTL, qBP-17 for bud period (BP), qGP-17a/qGP-17b (qGP-17) for growth period (GP), qYPBF-17a/qYPBF-17b (qYPBF-17) for yield percentage before frost (YPBF) and qHFFBN-17 for height of first fruiting branch node (HFFBN), were found in both populations. These common QTL should be reliable and could be used for MAS to facilitate early maturity. The common QTL, qBP-17, had a LOD score not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold, explaining 12.6% of the phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in MAS. Early-maturing traits of cotton are primarily controlled by dominant and over-dominant effects.

  8. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  9. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  10. Preferential Education Policies for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Warren T.

    1981-01-01

    The author examines the issue of preferential education for the handicapped from the perspectives of ethics, civil rights, and theories of justice. This article is part of a theme issue on disabled persons. (SJL)

  11. Concept model semantics for DL preferential reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The preferential and rational consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and colleagues play a central role in non-monotonic reasoning, not least because they provide the foundation for the determination of the important notion of rational...

  12. 两个棉花β-葡聚糖酶新基因的结构与表达特征分析%Structure and Expression Analysis of Two Novel Genes Encoding β-glucanase in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董佳; 蔡彩平; 王立科; 赵亮; 张天真; 郭旺珍

    2011-01-01

    The β-glucanase is a type of enzyme degrading β-glucan.Cloning and expression analysis of genes encoding β-glucanase can provide information in both gene resources and breeding utilization for improvement of cotton fiber quality.The two novel genes encoding β-glucanase, designated as GhEG (GenBank accession No.HM462003) and GhGLU (GenBank accession No.HM462004), were obtained by sillico cloning and cDNA library screening, respectively.GhEG contained an open reading frame of 1581 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 526 amino acids, and GhGLU contained an open reading frame of 1410 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 469 amino acids.The genome sequence indicated that GhEG has five introns and six exons, while GhGLU has no intron and only one exon.The two genes all had one copy in diploid cotton species G.herbaceum and G.raimondii and two copies in tetraploid cotton species G.hirsutum acc.TM-1 and G.barbadense cv.Hai 7124, respectively.One of GhEG or GhGLU homoelogs in tetraploid was located on chromosome 19 and chromosome 4 by developing SNP marker, respectively.Q-PCR expression analysis showed that GhEG was expressed specifically in fiber elongation and had obvious difference between TM-1 and Hai7124 at the fiber elongation period of 15 DPA and 20 DPA, almost no transcripts were detected in root, stem and leaf.GhGLU was expressed in all tissues, dominantly in root, at fiber initiation and fiber late elongation phase, with obvious difference between TM-1 and Hai7124.%β-葡聚糖酶是一类能降解β-葡聚糖的水解酶.本研究分别通过电子克降和棉纤维发育cDNA文库筛选法克隆到2个棉花β-葡聚糖酶新基因,内切-1,4-β-葡聚糖酶基因(GhEG,GenBank登录号为HM462003)和1,3-β-葡聚糖酶基因(GhGLU,GenBank登录号为HM462004).GhEG全长ORF为1581 bp,编码526个氨基酸残基.GhGLU全长ORF为1 410 bp,编码469个氨基酸残基.基因组水平分析表明,GhEG含5个内含子和6个外显子.而GhGLU无内含子,仅1

  13. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  14. Effect of Chitinase-Producing Strain V-8 on 3ontrolling Cotton Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen endophytic bacteria which is antag- onistic to cotton Fusarium wilt. [Method] Fresh cotton plants collected from cotton- growing areas in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province were used as experimental materials to isolate endophytic bacteria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-or- ganisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, antagonistic strains to cotton Fusarium wilt were screened. [Result] A total of 83 bacterial isolates were obtained from cotton plants grown in the fields, six of which were chitinase-productive bacte- ria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-organisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, strain V-8 which had the strongest antagonistic effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was screened. Strain V-8 had a wider anti- fungal spectrum with certain inhibitory effect on all the six important pathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum; it colonized stably in the rhizospheric soil of cotton, with a colonization density of up to 6.2x10s cfu/g fifty days after inoc- ulation; the relative effect on controlling cotton Fusarium wilt in pot test was 73.2%. The Findings of this study suggested that strain V-8 had great potential for biological control of cotton Fusarium wilt and could be taken as a substantial material for the cloning of chitinase genes. [Conclusion] The results from this study provides bases for the control of cotton fusarium wilt, as well as the exploitation of endophytic bac- teria resources in cotton and the development of novel biological pesticides.

  15. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  17. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan

    2011-05-01

    The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved.

  18. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  19. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  20. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  1. Promoting Flowering, Lateral Shoot Outgrowth, Leaf Development, and Flower Abscission in Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-Like Gene GhFT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggested that sufficient level of foreign FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  2. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  3. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Berrocal, Veronica; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-04-18

    In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy) in the years 2013-2014.

  4. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  5. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  6. A generalized theory of preferential linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Guo, Jinli; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-12-01

    There are diverse mechanisms driving the evolution of social networks. A key open question dealing with understanding their evolution is: How do various preferential linking mechanisms produce networks with different features? In this paper we first empirically study preferential linking phenomena in an evolving online social network, find and validate the linear preference. We propose an analyzable model which captures the real growth process of the network and reveals the underlying mechanism dominating its evolution. Furthermore based on preferential linking we propose a generalized model reproducing the evolution of online social networks, and present unified analytical results describing network characteristics for 27 preference scenarios. We study the mathematical structure of degree distributions and find that within the framework of preferential linking analytical degree distributions can only be the combinations of finite kinds of functions which are related to rational, logarithmic and inverse tangent functions, and extremely complex network structure will emerge even for very simple sublinear preferential linking. This work not only provides a verifiable origin for the emergence of various network characteristics in social networks, but bridges the micro individuals' behaviors and the global organization of social networks.

  7. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  8. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  11. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  12. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  13. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  14. Prevalence of cry2-type genes in Bacillus thuringiensis isolates recovered from diverse habitats in India and isolation of a novel cry2Af2 gene toxic to Helicoverpa armigera (cotton boll worm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katara, Jawahar Lal; Kaur, Sarvjeet; Kumari, Gouthami Krishna; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Insecticidal cry and vip genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used for control of lepidopteran insects in transgenic crops. However, novel genes are required for gene pyramiding to delay evolution of resistance to the currently deployed genes. Two PCR-based techniques were employed for screening of cry2-type genes in 129 Bt isolates from diverse habitats in India and 27 known Bt strains. cry2Ab-type genes were more prevalent than cry2Aa- and cry2Ac-type genes. Correlation between source of isolates and abundance of cry2-type genes was not observed. Full-length cry2A-type genes were amplified by PCR from 9 Bt isolates and 4 Bt strains. The genes from Bt isolates SK-758 from Sorghum grain dust and SK-793 from Chilli seeds warehouse, Andhra Pradesh, were cloned and sequenced. The gene from SK-758 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866915) was novel, while that from SK-793 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866914) was identical to the cry2Ab1 gene. The Bacillus thuringiensis Nomenclature Committee ( http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/home/Neil_Crickmore/Bt/toxins2.html ) named these genes cry2Af2 and cry2Ab16, respectively. The cry2Af2 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to be toxic towards Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2Af2 gene will be useful for pyramiding in transgenic crops.

  15. Genomics-enabled analysis of the emergent disease cotton bacterial blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Z Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton bacterial blight (CBB, an important disease of (Gossypium hirsutum in the early 20th century, had been controlled by resistant germplasm for over half a century. Recently, CBB re-emerged as an agronomic problem in the United States. Here, we report analysis of cotton variety planting statistics that indicate a steady increase in the percentage of susceptible cotton varieties grown each year since 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the current outbreak cluster with race 18 Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm strains. Illumina based draft genomes were generated for thirteen Xcm isolates and analyzed along with 4 previously published Xcm genomes. These genomes encode 24 conserved and nine variable type three effectors. Strains in the race 18 clade contain 3 to 5 more effectors than other Xcm strains. SMRT sequencing of two geographically and temporally diverse strains of Xcm yielded circular chromosomes and accompanying plasmids. These genomes encode eight and thirteen distinct transcription activator-like effector genes. RNA-sequencing revealed 52 genes induced within two cotton cultivars by both tested Xcm strains. This gene list includes a homeologous pair of genes, with homology to the known susceptibility gene, MLO. In contrast, the two strains of Xcm induce different clade III SWEET sugar transporters. Subsequent genome wide analysis revealed patterns in the overall expression of homeologous gene pairs in cotton after inoculation by Xcm. These data reveal important insights into the Xcm-G. hirsutum disease complex and strategies for future development of resistant cultivars.

  16. Differential Display of Cotton cDNAs Expressed by Salicylic Acid Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 赵广荣; 刘进元

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is very important in systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive response in plant defense, and yet its role is not fully understood.This study seeks to clarify the mechanism of SA induced resistance in cotton.Total RNA was extracted from low-gossypol cultivated cotton seedlings treated with exogenous SA and subjected to fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR).Seven cDNA fragments were selected from the total ten differential bands.Comparison with Genbank database shows that all seven cDNA sequences are newly discovered in cotton.However, they share high amino acid identity to some registered cDNAs.Among them, three of the cDNAs could be predicted to encode basic chitinase, penicillin-binding 6 b precursor and ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecG, while the functions of the other four cDNAs are undetermined.Dot blot analysis demonstrates that the expression of five cDNAs in cotton seedlings is induced by SA, while SA induction has a negative effect on the transcript accumulation of the other two cDNAs (E13 and E14).Since SA was previously shown to enhance the resistance to cotton wilt disease, the finding of a basic chitinase gene in cotton expressed by SA induction will provide a new insight into induced disease resistance in cotton.

  17. Resistance allele frequency to bt cotton in field populations of helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyi; Xu, Zhiping; Chang, Juhua; Chen, Jin; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-06-01

    Resistance evolution in target insects to Bacillus thurningiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is a main threat to Bt cotton technology. An increasing trend of population density of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been observed since 2001 in Qiuxian County (Hebei, China), where Bt cotton has been planted dominantly since 1998. This region was selected in 2006 and 2007 for estimating frequency of gene alleles conferring resistance to Bt cotton by screening the F1 progeny from single-pair cross between field-collected male and laboratory female of the Bt-resistant strain of H. armigera (F1 screen). F1 offspring from each single-pair line were screened for resistance alleles based on larval growth, development, and survival on Bt cotton leaves for 5 d. Two-year results indicated that approximately equal to 20% of field-collected males carried resistance alleles. The conservative estimate of the resistance allele frequency was 0.094 (95% CI, 0.044-0.145) for 2006 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.055-0.159) for 2007. This is the first report of resistance allele frequency increase to such a high level in the field in China. Long-term adoption of Bt sprays, dominant planting of single-toxin-producing Bt cotton, and lack of conventional cotton refuge system might accelerate the resistance evolution in the region.

  18. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late, representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.

  19. Evaluation of two cotton varieties CRSP1 and CRSP2 for genetic transformation efficiency, expression of transgenes Cry1Ac + Cry2A, GT gene and insect mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the transgene with a desirable character in crop plant is the ultimate goal of transgenic research. Transformation of two Bt genes namely Cry1Ac and Cry2A cloned as separate cassette under 35S promoter in pKHG4 plant expression vector was done by using shoot apex cut method of Agrobacterium. Molecular confirmation of putative transgenic cotton plants for Cry1Ac, Cry2A and GT gene was done through PCR and ELISA. Transformation efficiency of CRSP-1 and CRSP-2 was calculated to be 1.2 and 0.8% for Cry1Ac while 0.9 and 0.6% for Cry2A and 1.5 and 0.7% for GTG respectively. CRSP-1 was found to adopt natural environment (acclimatized earlier than CRSP-2 when exposed to sunlight for one month. Expression of Cry1Ac, Cry2A and GTG was found to be 1.2, 1 and 1.3 ng/μl respectively for CRSP-1 as compared to CRSP-2 where expression was recorded to be 0.9, 0.5 and 0.9 ng/μl respectively. FISH analysis of the transgenic CRSP-1 and CRSP-2 demonstrated the presence of one and two copy numbers respectively. Similarly, the response of CRSP-1 against Glyphosate @1900 ml/acre was far better with almost negligible necrotic spot and efficient growth after spray as compared to CRSP-2 where some plants were found to have necrosis and negative control where the complete decay of plant was observed after seven days of spray assay. Similarly, almost 100% mortality of 2nd instar larvae of Heliothis armigera was recorded after three days in CRSP-1 as compared CRSP-2 where insect mortality was found to be less than 90%. Quantitatively speaking non transgenic plants were found with 23–90% leaf damage by insect, while CRSP-1 was with less than 5% and CRSP-2 with 17%. Taken together CRSP1 was found to have better insect control and weedicide resistance along with its natural ability of genetic modification and can be employed by the valuable farmers for better insect control and simultaneously for better production.

  20. Helicoverpa armigera baseline susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and resistance management for Bt cotton in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, G T; Kalia, V; Kumari, A; Singh, B P; Mittal, A; Nair, R; Mohan, M

    2007-07-01

    Transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), often referred to as Bt cotton, is widely grown in many countries. Bt cotton with a single cry1A gene and stacked also with cry2A gene has provided satisfactory protection against the damage by the lepidopteran bollworms, especially the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which is considered as a key pest. The baseline susceptibility of the larvae of H. armigera to Cry1Ac and other toxins carried out in many countries has provided a basis for monitoring resistance. There is no evidence of development of field-level resistance in H. armigera leading to the failure of Bt cotton crop anywhere in the world, despite the fact that Bt cotton was grown on the largest ever area of 12.1 million hectares in 2006 and its cumulative cultivation over the last 11 years has surpassed the annual cotton area in the world. Nevertheless, the Bt resistance management has become a necessity to sustain Bt cotton and other transgenic crops in view of potential of the target insects to evolve Cry toxin resistance.

  1. Reverse preferential spread in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Tani, Seiichi; Miyoshi, Naoto; Okamoto, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Large-degree nodes may have a larger influence on the network, but they can be bottlenecks for spreading information since spreading attempts tend to concentrate on these nodes and become redundant. We discuss that the reverse preferential spread (distributing information inversely proportional to the degree of the receiving node) has an advantage over other spread mechanisms. In large uncorrelated networks, we show that the mean number of nodes that receive information under the reverse preferential spread is an upper bound among any other weight-based spread mechanisms, and this upper bound is indeed a logistic growth independent of the degree distribution.

  2. Assortativity in generalized preferential attachment models

    CERN Document Server

    Krot, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze assortativity of preferential attachment models. We deal with a wide class of preferential attachment models (PA-class). It was previously shown that the degree distribution in all models of the PA-class follows a power law. Also, the global and the average local clustering coefficients were analyzed. We expand these results by analyzing the assortativity property of the PA-class of models. Namely, we analyze the behavior of $d_{nn}(d)$ which is the average degree of a neighbor of a vertex of degree $d$.

  3. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  4. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  5. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  6. Influence of Susy Gene Introduction on Agronomic Characters of Cotton%转Susy基因对棉花农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕红; 王冬梅; 周小云; 曲延英; 黄乐平

    2008-01-01

    以新陆早13号为受体,对利用花粉管通道法得到的转蔗糖合成酶基因(Sucrose Synthase Gene, Susy)棉花进行研究,比较转Susy基因植株T5代株系与受体新陆早13号形态性状、产量性状和纤维品质的差异,结果表明,Susy基因的导入对棉花各农艺性状有不同程度的影响,各性状变异系数增加,其中果枝数和皮棉产量差异显著;植株叶片和茎秆的表皮茸毛密集,数量比对照显著增加5倍;纤维长度和强度略有增加,马克隆值降低,品质得到改善.有望为棉花品质育种提供优良材料.

  7. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  8. Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear genome of upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdiev, Sharof S; Saha, Sukumar; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne; Y Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim

    2016-06-01

    The importance of the cytoplasmic genome for many economically important traits is well documented in several crop species, including cotton. There is no report on application of cotton chloroplast specific SSR markers as a diagnostic tool to study genetic diversity among improved Upland cotton lines. The complete plastome sequence information in GenBank provided us an opportunity to report on 17 chloroplast specific SSR markers using a cost-effective data mining strategy. Here we report the comparative analysis of genetic diversity among a set of 42 improved Upland cotton lines using SSR markers specific to chloroplast and nuclear genome, respectively. Our results revealed that low to moderate level of genetic diversity existed in both nuclear and cytoplasm genome among this set of cotton lines. However, the specific estimation suggested that genetic diversity is lower in cytoplasmic genome compared to the nuclear genome among this set of Upland cotton lines. In summary, this research is important from several perspectives. We detected a set of cytoplasm genome specific SSR primer pairs by using a cost-effective data mining strategy. We reported for the first time the genetic diversity in the cytoplasmic genome within a set of improved Upland cotton accessions. Results revealed that the genetic diversity in cytoplasmic genome is narrow, compared to the nuclear genome within this set of Upland cotton accessions. Our results suggested that most of these polymorphic chloroplast SSRs would be a valuable complementary tool in addition to the nuclear SSR in the study of evolution, gene flow and genetic diversity in Upland cotton.

  9. 图位克隆法分离陆地棉Velvet绒毛基因%Isolate a Gene for Velvet Hairiness in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) by Map-based Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehboob-ur-RAHMAN; M. A. I. ALI; S. A. RANDNAWA; T. A. MALIK; K. A. MALIK; Y. ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton crop is prone to many insect pests.Finely dense pubescence (pilose/velvet hairy),one of the important elements of defense umbrella confers in built resistance against several insect pests. The present research was conducted to isolate DNA markers for velvet hairiness, which would be useful to launch mapbasedcloning.

  10. Fine Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cotton (Gossypium spp. ) Using RAPD and SSR%棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的SSR及RAPD标记与定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-wang LIU; Wang-zhen GUO; Xie-fei ZHU; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ The heterosis in cotton is much significant,especially in increasing yield andfiber quality.Comparing with hand-emasculation and pollination, and genetic male sterile lines,utilization of CMS lines is much more effective and economical in producing commercial hybrid seeds. Since 1965 in the world, several CMS lines have been developed, such as CMS lines with G.

  11. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasburg Jared L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/139

  12. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  13. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  14. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  15. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  16. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  17. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  18. Cottonseed and cotton plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant generates several marketable products as a result of the ginning process. The product that garners the most attention in regards to value and research efforts, is lint with cottonseed being secondary. In addition to lint and cottonseed, the plant material itself has a value that...

  19. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  20. Cotton GhBAK1 Mediates Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Cell Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiquan Gao; Fangjun Li; Maoying Li; Ali S.Kianinejad; Jane K.Dever; Terry A.Wheeler; Zhaohu LP

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a powerful approach for functional analysis of individual genes by knocking down their expression.We have adopted this approach to dissect gene functions in cotton resistant to Verticillium wilt,one of the most devastating diseases worldwide.We showed hera that highly efficient VIGS was obtained in a cotton breeding line (CA4002) with partial resistance to Verticillium wilt,and GhMKK2 and Gh Ve 1 are required for its resistance to Verticillium wilt.Arabidopsis AtBAK1/SERK3,a central regulator in plant disease resistance,belongs to a subfamily of somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) with five members,AtSERK1 to AtSERK5.Two BAK1 orthologs and one SERK1 ortholog were identified in the cotton genome.Importantly,GhBAK1 is required for CA4002 resistance to Verticillium wilt.Surprisingly,silencing of GhBAK1 is sufficient to trigger cell death accompanied with production of reactive oxygen species in cotton.This result is distinct from Arabidopsis in which AtBAK1 and AtSERK4 play redundant functions in cell death control.Apparently,cotton has only evolved SERK1 and BAK1 whereas AtSERK4/5 are newly evolved genes in Arabidopsis.Our studies indicate the functional importance of BAK1 in Verticillium wilt resistance and suggest the dynamic evolution of SERK family members in different plant species.

  1. Advances in Molecular Mapping of Fertility Restorer Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Marker-assisted Seletion in Cotton%棉花细胞质雄性不育育性恢复基因的定位及分子标记辅助育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秀霞; 吴建勇; 邢朝柱; 郭立平; 戚廷香; 王海林

    2012-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system of cotton had encouraging prospects in achieving the mass production of hybrid seed and breeding new cotton hybrids with high yield, fine fiber, and adversity resistance, while the restorer line played an important role in utilizing CMS system, therefore, it was essential for developing elite fertility restorer. This paper firstly reviewed the typeed of cytoplasmic male sterile lines and restoring lines of cotton; the research progress of inheritance pattern of fertility restoration and the mapping of fertility restoring genes. Then it discussed the prospects of fine mapping and marker identification of fertility restorer genes for marker-assisted selection in molecular breeding of hybrids. At last, this paper listed some strategies and methods to solve problems in current marker-assisted selection in cotton.%棉花细胞质雄性不育系统在实现棉花杂交种子大规模生产和培育高产、优质、抗逆等棉花新品种中具有重要的应用价值,而恢复系的好坏对细胞质雄性不育系杂交种的选育的利用起着举足轻重的作用.因此,培育优良恢复系至关重要.主要介绍了棉花细胞质雄性不育系、恢复系的类型,综述了棉花细胞质雄性不育育性恢复基因的遗传方式和遗传定位研究进展,讨论了恢复基因的精细定位和分子标记鉴定在分子标记辅助育种中的意义和应用前景,并针对目前存在的问题提出相应对策.

  2. Expression Differences of Dirigent-Like Protein Genes in Upland Cotton Responsed to Infection by Verticillium dahliae%黄萎病菌侵染下陆地棉Dirigent-like蛋白基因表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝生; 师恭曜; 王凯辉; 刘素恩; 赵存鹏; 王兆晓; 耿军义; 华金平

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study is to explore the Dirigent-like protein gene family and to figure out polymorphism of genes and expression differences between resistant and susceptible varieties of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in responding to infection by Verticillium dahliae.[Method]Dirigent-like protein genes were acquired using Illumina Hiseq 2000 RNA-Seq transcriptional analysis. Multiple sequence alignment of encoding proteins was carried using online sequence analysis softwares and bioinformatics analysis tools for phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR with gene-specific primers was employed to identify the expression differences between resistant variety‘Ji 79’ and susceptible variety‘TM-1’, at 0, 1, 8, 24, 48, 72 h, and 96 h after inoculation. The quantitative reactions were performed on the ABI 7500 Real-Time PCR System with 7500 System Software (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the SYBR Green Master Mix. The comparative 2-ΔΔCt method of quantification was used with cotton GhACTIN as the reference.[Result]Totally 12 members of this gene family were found in Gossypium hirsutum, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated 3 distinct subfamilies and 4 relatively conservative domains existed. The members of Dirigent-like protein genes were located on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 13 in Gossypium raimondii, and some located in clusters on the same chromosome of D5 genome. Differential expression analysis indicated that dynamic response existed in different varieties. There were 6 members (GhDIR4, GhDIR6, GhDIR7, GhDIR9, GhDIR10 and GhDIR11) up-regulated (RQ≥2) in resistant variety Ji 79 after 1h inoculation, and RQ of GhDIR9 reached about 6.5;and 4 members (GhDIR1, GhDIR4, GhDIR7 and GhDIR11) up-regulated (RQ≥1) after 8h inoculation, only GhDIR4 up-regulated (RQ≥2) after 24h inoculation, GhDIR1, GhDIR4, GhDIR7 and GhDIR11 up-regulated (RQ≥2) after 48h inoculation;only GhDIR9 up-regulated (RQ=6.4) after 72h inoculation

  3. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton germplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19, in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents. Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in resistant level at different developmental stages in the three categories of germplasm lines. When neonate larvae are fed with leaves of cotton plant at the seeding stage with less than 10 leaves on the main stem, the mortality of the neonate larvae is 100%, but the resistance level will decline at later season. When Bt gene has been transferred to the cotton genome, it can be steadily transferred to the progeny, the level of resistance to bollworm keeps fundamentally uniform. Such insects as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virencens) in laboratory directive selection are very apt to produce resistance to the Bt insecticidal crystal protein. From the present crop system of cotton region in the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, and the expression characteristic of transgenic Bt resistant cotton, we suggest that the resistance to toxin protein in bollworm is not apt to be produced if the transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties are released and grown in the regions except in the Xinjiang cotton region. The managing strategies to delay or retard the resistance are discussed.

  4. High-level inducible Smad4-reexpression in the cervical cancer cell line C4-II is associated with a gene expression profile that predicts a preferential role of Smad4 in extracellular matrix composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Elisabeth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smad4 is a tumour suppressor frequently inactivated in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. We have recently reported loss of Smad4 in every fourth carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Smad4 transmits signals from the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines and functions as a versatile transcriptional co-modulator. The prevailing view suggests that the tumour suppressor function of Smad4 primarily resides in its capability to mediate TGF-β growth inhibitory responses. However, accumulating evidence indicates, that the acquisition of TGF-β resistance and loss of Smad4 may be independent events in the carcinogenic process. Through inducible reexpression of Smad4 in cervical cancer cells we wished to shed more light on this issue and to identify target genes implicated in Smad4 dependent tumor suppression. Methods Smad4-deficient human C4-II cervical carcinoma cells were used to establish inducible Smad4 reexpression using the commercial Tet-on™ system (Clontech. The impact of Smad4 reexpression on cell growth was analysed in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional responses were assessed through profiling on cDNA macroarrays (Clontech and validated through Northern blotting. Results Clones were obtained that express Smad4 at widely varying levels from approximately physiological to 50-fold overexpression. Smad4-mediated tumour suppression in vivo was apparent at physiological expression levels as well as in Smad4 overexpressing clones. Smad4 reexpression in a dose-dependent manner was associated with transcriptional induction of the extracellular matrix-associated genes, BigH3, fibronectin and PAI-1, in response to TGF-β. Smad4-dependent regulation of these secreted Smad4 targets is not restricted to cervical carcinoma cells and was confirmed in pancreatic carcinoma cells reexpressing Smad4 after retroviral transduction and in a stable Smad4 knockdown model. On the other hand, the classical cell cycle-associated TGF-β target genes, c-myc, p

  5. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a focus for discovery of resistance (R) or pathoge...

  6. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of “preferentiality” in countries’ trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members’ trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech “Textiles and Textile Articles” and the high-tech “Electronics” sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns. PMID:26485163

  7. Satellite observed preferential states in soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilasa, Luis U.; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; Dolman, Han A. J.; Wang, Guojie

    2013-04-01

    This study presents observational evidence for the existence of preferential states in soil moisture content. Recently there has been much debate about the existence, location and explanations for preferential states in soil moisture. A number of studies have provided evidence either in support or against the hypothesis of a positive feedback mechanism between soil moisture and subsequent precipitation in certain regions. Researchers who support the hypothesis that preferential states in soil moisture holds information about land atmosphere feedback base their theory on the impact of soil moisture on the evaporation process. Evaporation recycles moisture to the atmosphere and soil moisture has a direct impact on the supply part of this process but also on the partitioning of the available energy for evaporation. According to this theory, the existence of soil moisture bimodality can be used as an indication of possible land-atmosphere feedbacks, to be compared with model simulations of soil moisture feedbacks. On the other hand, other researchers argue that seasonality in the meteorological conditions in combination with the non-linearity of soil moisture response alone can induce bimodality. In this study we estimate the soil moisture bimodality at a global scale as derived from the recently available 30+ year ESA Climate Change Initative satellite soil moisture dataset. An Expectation-Maximization iterative algorithm is used to find the best Gaussian Mixture Model, pursuing the highest likelihood for soil moisture bimodality. With this approach we mapped the regions where bi-modal probability distribution of soil moisture appears for each month for the period between 1979-2010. These bimodality areas are analyzed and compared to maps of model simulations of soil moisture feedbacks. The areas where more than one preferential state exists compare surprisingly well with the map of land-atmosphere coupling strength from model simulations. This approach might

  8. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  9. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., paper, or non-woven cotton fabric, the payment will be calculated on 25 percent of the weight (gross... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or manufacture of non-woven cotton fabric, 25 percent of... definitions from the regulations for cotton non-recourse loans and loan deficiency payments. It clarifies...

  10. Cloning, Expression, and Functional Analysis of GhMYB0 Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsumtum L.)%棉花GhMYB0基因的克隆、表达分析及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诺菡; 喻树迅; 于霁雯; 吴嫚; 马启峰; 李兴丽; 裴文锋; 李海晶; 黄双领; 张金发

    2014-01-01

    MYB类转录因子是植物转录因子最大的家族之一,参与控制植物腺毛细胞的模式和形态建成。本研究利用雷蒙德氏棉(Gossypium raimondii) D5基因组数据库以 AtMYB0(GL1, NM_113708)蛋白为参比序列获得同源基因GrMYB0,从徐州142中克隆了陆地棉的GhMYB0,其开放阅读框长度为843 bp,编码280个氨基酸。经过保守结构域分析和亚细胞定位确定GhMYB0为R2R3-MYB转录因子。qRT-PCR的结果表明, GhMYB0在徐州142开花当天开始高调表达,开花后20 d表达量达高峰;在所有的组织器官中,花中表达量最高,其次为胚珠。转基因功能分析结果表明,在野生型拟南芥(Columbia)中过表达 GhMYB0,使其叶片表皮毛与野生型相比明显减少;该基因在拟南芥突变体 gl-1中过表达,能恢复表皮毛缺失型突变体的表型,说明该基因可能对拟南芥表皮毛的形态建成发挥一定作用,本试验为研究R2R3-MYB转录因子在棉纤维起始和伸长过程中的调控作用提供有力证据。%MYB transcription factor, one of the most important protein families in plants, is involved in the regulation of secon-dary metabolism, morphogenesis of plant, responding to environment stress and plant hormone. In this study, we used D5 genomic bank of Gossypium raimondii as the reference to AtMYB0 (GL1, NM_113708) protein, and cloned the full-length cDNA of a new MYB transcription factor gene GhMYB0 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The open reading frame of GhMYB0 is 843 bp in length, which encodes 280 amino acid residues. GhMYB0 was confirmed as R2R3-MYB transcription factor via conserved struc-ture analysis and subcellular localization. The qRT-PCR result indicated that GhMYB0 was highly expressed at the blossom day, its expresssion amount reached the peak after 20 days, with the most amount in flower, then in ovules. Transgenic funtion analysis indicated that GhMYB0 over-expressed in Arabidopsis lines, showing fewer trichomes in leaf

  11. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  12. Cotton dust-mediated lung epithelial injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayars, G H; Altman, L C; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T; Chi, E Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. ...

  13. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  14. Genome physical mapping of polyploids: a BIBAC physical map of cultivated tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Huang, James J; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

  15. Biplot analysis of phenotypic stability in upland cotton genotypes in Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-05-20

    Seed cotton yield is a trait governed by multiple genes that cause changes in the performance of genotypes depending on the cultivation environment. Breeding programs examine the genotype x environment interaction (GE) using precise statistical methods, such as AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction). The AMMI method combines the analysis of variance and principal components, to adjust the main effects (genotypes and environments) and the effects of GE interaction, respectively. The GGE biplot groups the genotype additive effect together with the multiplicative effect of the GE interaction, and submits both of these to the principal components analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and select cotton genotypes that simultaneously showed high productivity of seed cotton and stability in Mato Grosso environments. Trials were conducted with cotton cultivars in eight environments across Mato Grosso State in the 2008/2009 crop season. The experiment used a randomized block design with 16 genotypes and four replicates per genotype x environment combination. Data for seeds cotton productivity were analyzed by AMMI and GGE biplot methods. Both methods were concordant in the discrimination of environments and genotypes for phenotypic stability. The genotypes BRS ARAÇÁ and LD 05 CV had high seed cotton productivity and phenotypic stability, and could be grown in all environments across Mato Grosso State.

  16. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  17. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  19. Bollworm responses to release of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Chen, Xinwen; Zhang, Zhongxin; Wang, Hualin; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Peng, Huiyin; Vlak, Just M; Hu, Zhihong

    2002-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) has been developed as a commercial biopesticide to control the cotton bollworm, H. armigera, in China. The major limitation to a broader application of this virus has been the relative long time to incapacitate the target insect. Two HaSNPV recombinants with improved insecticidal properties were released in bollworm-infested cotton. One recombinant (HaCXW1) lacked the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene and in another recombinant (HaCXW2), an insect-selective scorpion toxin (AaIT) gene replaced the egt gene. In a cotton field situation H. armigera larvae treated with either HaCXW1 or HaCXW2 were killed faster than larvae in HaSNPV-wt treated plots. Second instar H. armigera larvae, which were collected from HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 treated plots and further reared on artificial diet, showed reduced ST(50) values of 15.3 and 26.3%, respectively, as compared to larvae collected from HaSNPV-wt treated plots. The reduction in consumed leaf area of field collected larvae infected with HaCXW1 and HaCXW2 was approximated 50 and 63%, respectively, as compared to HaSNPV-wt infected larvae at 108 h after treatment. These results suggest that in a cotton field situation the recombinants will be more effective control agents of the cotton bollworm than wild-type HaSNPV.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) fiber early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Runrun; Li, Chao; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during cotton fiber development remains unclear. Here, a total of 54 miRNAs belonging to 39 families were selected to characterize miRNA regulatory mechanism in eight different fiber development stages in upland cotton cv BM-1. Among 54 miRNAs, 18 miRNAs were involved in cotton fiber initiation and eight miRNAs were related to fiber elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Additionally, 3,576 protein-coding genes were candidate target genes of these miRNAs, which are potentially involved in cotton fiber development. We also investigated the regulatory network of miRNAs and corresponding targets in fiber initiation and elongation, and secondary wall formation. Our Gene Ontology-based term classification and KEGG-based pathway enrichment analyses showed that the miRNA targets covered 220 biological processes, 67 molecular functions, 45 cellular components, and 10 KEGG pathways. Three of ten KEGG pathways were involved in lignan synthesis, cell elongation, and fatty acid biosynthesis, all of which have important roles in fiber development. Overall, our study shows the potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in cotton fiber development and the importance of miRNAs in regulating different cell types. This is helpful to design miRNA-based biotechnology for improving fiber quality and yield. PMID:28327647

  1. The role of induced mutation in conversion of photoperiod dependence in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Kushanov, Fakhriddin N; Djaniqulov, Fayzulla; Buriev, Zabardast T; Pepper, Alan E; Fayzieva, Nilufar; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

    2007-01-01

    Wild cotton germplasm resources are largely underutilized because of photoperiod-dependent flowering of "exotic" cottons. The objectives of this work were to explore the genome-wide effect of induced mutation in photoperiod-converted induced cotton mutants, estimating the genetic change between mutant and wild-type cottons using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as well as understand the pattern of SSR mutation in induced mutagenesis. Three groups of photoperiod-converted radiomutants ((32)P) including their wild-type parental lines, A- and D-genome diploids, and typically grown cotton cultivars were screened with 250 cotton SSR primer pairs. Forty SSRs revealed the same SSR mutation profile in, at least, 2 independent mutant lines that were different from the original wild types. Induced mutagenesis both increased and decreased the allele sizes of SSRs in mutants with the higher mutation rate in SSRs containing dinucleotide motifs. Genetic distance obtained based on 141 informative SSR alleles ranged from 0.09 to 0.60 in all studied cotton genotypes. Genetic distance within all photoperiod-converted induced mutants was in a 0.09-0.25 range. The genetic distance among photoperiod-converted mutants and their originals ranged from 0.28 to 0.50, revealing significant modification of mutants from their original wild types. Typical Gossypium hirsutum cultivar, Namangan-77, revealed mutational pattern similar to induced radiomutants in 40 mutated SSR loci, implying possible pressure to these SSR loci not only in radiomutagenesis but also during common breeding process. Outcomes of the research should be useful in understanding the photoperiod-related mutations, and markers might help in mapping photoperiodic flowering genes in cotton.

  2. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  3. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  4. Breeding, introgression and inheritance of delayed gland morphogenesis trait from Gosspium bickii into upland cotton germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shuijin; JIANG Yurong; Reddy Naganagouda; JI Daofan

    2004-01-01

    A tri-specific hybrid with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis was obtained by crossing the amphidiploid of (G. arboreum×G. bickii) F1 and an upland cotton germplasm with pigment gland genotype of Gl2Gl2gl3gl3. The tri-specific hybrid was a typical interspecific hybrid with high sterile, and the chromosome configuration at meiosis MI of PMC was 2n = 52 = 41.04Ⅰ+ 4.54Ⅱ + 0.57Ⅲ + 0.04. The crossover value of bivalent was 1.19. Two fertile plants with objective character were obtained in BC8 population by continuously backcrossing with Gl2Gl2gl3gl3 as recurrent parent to the tri-specific hybrid, and a new upland cotton germplasm, named ABH-0318, with delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait was developed through selfing and screening. The pigment gland trait of ABH-0318 was stable, and there were almost no pigment glands observed in the dormant seeds, although there were a few pigment glands confined to cotyledon edges, and the gossypol content in the dormant seeds was 0.017% only, being a typical low gossypol cotton type. However, a large quantity of pigment glands emerged in cotyledons and other main organs of plant after seed germination, and the gossypol contents in the upper parts of the plant were similar to that of ordinary glanded cotton types. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the delayed pigment gland morphogenesis trait of this germplasm was controlled by the interaction of the genes located in two pigment gland loci, Gl2 and Gl3. Among them, the gene located in locus of Gl2, derived from G.bickii, was dominance to upland cotton pigment gland alleles, Gl2 and gl2 , but was recessive epistatic to another glanded gene Gl3, which was named Gl2b temporarily. While the gene located in the locus of Gl3 was a recessive gene come from upland cotton.

  5. Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Complex Molecular Regulation in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Mutant Yu98-8A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.

  6. Preferential sampling of helicity by isotropic helicoids

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavsson, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study on the motion of isotropic helicoids in complex flows. These are particles whose motion is invariant under rotations but not under mirror reflections of the particle. This is the simplest, yet unexplored, extension of the much studied case of small spherical particles. We show that heavy isotropic helicoids, due to the coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom, preferentially sample different helical regions in laminar or chaotic advecting flows. This opens the way to control and engineer particles able to track complex flow structures with potential applications to microfluidics and turbulence.

  7. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for VgDGAT1a gene based on shoot tip culture of cotton%农杆菌介导的VgDGAT1a基因棉花茎尖转化体系优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安可; 何秋伶; 潘晶晶; 孙英超; 祝水金; 陈进红

    2013-01-01

    In past two decades , abundant researches have been published on transformation , regeneration , and genetic enhancement of cotton , especially Gossypium hirsutum . Generally , genes conferring agronomic advantages have been introduced into plants via A grobacterium‐mediation or particle bombardment , and then the transgenic plants are regenerated through somatic embryogenesis from callus . However , the embryogenic callus‐based regeneration is difficult and time‐consuming in cotton . Therefore , it is necessary to establish an effective system for the A grobacterium‐mediated genetic transformation of shoot tip in cotton . Triacylglycerols ( TAG) are a heterogeneous group of molecules with a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids attached by ester bones . Diacylglycerol acyltransferase ( DGAT ; EC3 .2 .1 .20) catalyzes the last step of TAG biosynthesis and it is the only key enzyme evolved in . DGA T1 and DGA T2 , as two types of DGA T in eukaryotes , belong to different gene families . And previous studies have reported that the expression of DGA T1 increased seed oil content and mass . In order to get new cotton germplasm with high oil content , we used the shoot tips of Zhongmiansuo 49 as explants and introduced an improved vector carrying a selection marker H ptⅡ gene and a target V gDGA T1a gene into cotton via A grobacterium‐mediated transformation . This improved A grobacterium‐mediated transformation and regeneration system were established by optimizing different parameters such as pre‐culture period of seeds , concentration of A grobacterium in solution , immersing time , co‐cultivation period and components of MSB [ Murashige and Skoog ( MS) medium + vitamins of Gamborg s (B5) medium] . Cotton seeds ( Gossypium hirsutum L . cv . Zhongmiansuo 49 ) were decorticated manually and surface sterilized in 0 .1% HgCl for 8 min , followed by rinsing with sterile distilled water for five times . The cotyledons were removed from 3‐day‐old to

  8. Structure, evolution, and comparative genomics of tetraploid cotton based on a high-density genetic linkage map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ximei; Jin, Xin; Wang, Hantao; Zhang, Xianlong; Lin, Zhongxu

    2016-06-01

    A high-density linkage map was constructed using 1,885 newly obtained loci and 3,747 previously published loci, which included 5,152 loci with 4696.03 cM in total length and 0.91 cM in mean distance. Homology analysis in the cotton genome further confirmed the 13 expected homologous chromosome pairs and revealed an obvious inversion on Chr10 or Chr20 and repeated inversions on Chr07 or Chr16. In addition, two reciprocal translocations between Chr02 and Chr03 and between Chr04 and Chr05 were confirmed. Comparative genomics between the tetraploid cotton and the diploid cottons showed that no major structural changes exist between DT and D chromosomes but rather between AT and A chromosomes. Blast analysis between the tetraploid cotton genome and the mixed genome of two diploid cottons showed that most AD chromosomes, regardless of whether it is from the AT or DT genome, preferentially matched with the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid A genome, and then the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid D genome, indicating that the diploid D genome underwent converted evolution by the diploid A genome to form the DT genome during polyploidization. In addition, the results reflected that a series of chromosomal translocations occurred among Chr01/Chr15, Chr02/Chr14, Chr03/Chr17, Chr04/Chr22, and Chr05/Chr19.

  9. Complex cooperative networks from evolutionary preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poncela

    Full Text Available In spite of its relevance to the origin of complex networks, the interplay between form and function and its role during network formation remains largely unexplored. While recent studies introduce dynamics by considering rewiring processes of a pre-existent network, we study network growth and formation by proposing an evolutionary preferential attachment model, its main feature being that the capacity of a node to attract new links depends on a dynamical variable governed in turn by the node interactions. As a specific example, we focus on the problem of the emergence of cooperation by analyzing the formation of a social network with interactions given by the Prisoner's Dilemma. The resulting networks show many features of real systems, such as scale-free degree distributions, cooperative behavior and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, results such as the cooperators being located mostly on nodes of intermediate degree are very different from the observations of cooperative behavior on static networks. The evolutionary preferential attachment mechanism points to an evolutionary origin of scale-free networks and may help understand similar feedback problems in the dynamics of complex networks by appropriately choosing the game describing the interaction of nodes.

  10. Preferential Flow in Fractured Welded Tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, Rohit

    2004-08-15

    To better understand preferential flow in fractured rock, we carried out an in situ field experiment in the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This experiment involved the release of {approx} 22 m3 of ponded water (at a pressure head of {approx} 0.04 m) over a period of 7 months, directly onto a 12 m2 infiltration plot located on a fractured welded tuff surface. As water was released, changes in moisture content were monitored along horizontal boreholes located in the formation {approx} 19-22 m below. Distinct flow zones, varying in flow velocity, wetted cross-sectional area, and extent of lateral movement, intercepted the monitoring boreholes. There was also evidence of water being diverted above the ceiling of a cavity in the immediate vicinity of the monitoring boreholes. Observations from this field experiment suggest that isolated conduits, each encompassing a large number of fractures, develop within the fractured rock formation to form preferential flow paths that persist if there is a continuous supply of water. In addition, in fractured welded tuffs the propensity for fracture-matrix interactions is significantly greater than that suggested by existing conceptual models,in which flow occurs along a section of fracture surfaces. An overriding conclusion is that field investigations at spatial scales of tens of meters provide data critical to the fundamental understanding of flow in fractured rock.

  11. QTL mapping in A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton and their congruence analysis with AD-genome tetraploid cotton in genus Gossypium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuexia; Ding, Yezhang; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Lv, Yanhui; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2008-12-01

    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an Old World cultivated cotton species. The sinense race was planted extensively in China. Due to the advances in spinning technology during the last century, the species was replaced by the New World allotetraploid cotton G. hirsutum L. Gossypium arboreum is still grown in India and Pakistan and also used as an elite in current cotton breeding programs. In addition, G. arboreum serves as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, we generated an A-genome diploid cotton intraspecific genetic map including 264 SSR loci with three morphological markers mapped to 13 linkage groups. The map spans 2,508.71 cM with an average distance of 9.4 cM between adjacent loci. A population containing 176 F(2:3) families was used to perform quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for 17 phenotypes using Multiple QTL Model (MQM) of MapQTL ver 5.0. Overall, 108 QTLs were detected on 13 chromosomes. Thirty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F2 population. Forty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F(2:3) families with a total of 43 QTLs for fiber qualities. Two QTLs for seed cotton weight/plant and lint index and three QTLs for seed index were consistently detected both in F2 and F(2:3). Most QTLs for fiber qualities and yields were located at the same interval or neighboring intervals. These results indicated that the negative correlation between fiber qualities and yield traits may result from either pleiotropic effect of one gene or linkage effects of multiple closely linked genes.

  12. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  13. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1043 - Cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton dust. 1910.1043 Section 1910.1043 Labor Regulations...), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or designee. Equivalent Instrument means a cotton dust...

  15. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  16. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  17. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  18. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  19. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  20. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  1. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  2. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  3. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  4. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  5. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  6. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... creates technical problems if the loan schedules and base grade specifications are changed. CCC... cotton industry to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). AMS can and does change...

  7. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  8. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  9. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  10. A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrna Dave

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF. A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT and Vitis vinifera (VV whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Stearoyl-ACP Desaturase Gene (GhSAD2)in Upland Cotton (Gossy pium hirsutum L .)%陆地棉 GhSA D2基因克隆与表达特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡曼; 李卫华; 王娟; 王旭文; 孔宪辉; 余渝; 刘丽

    2016-01-01

    Δ9 stearoyl ACP desaturase gene (GhSA D2 ) is a fatty acid synthesis and metabolism in the process of key desaturase gene .To clarify the gene function in biosynthesis of cotton fatty acids ,we cloned the GhSA D2 gene from upland cotton ,and analyzed the gene sequence features ,evolutionary relationship and expression characteristics .In this study ,a full‐length cDNA of stearoyl‐ACP desaturase gene was cloned from upland cotton ‘Xinluzao 33’ leaves successfully by using electronic stitching and RT‐PCR , which named GhSA D2 and access number was KX197920 in GenBank .The gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analyzed by using NCBI and DNAMAN and a phylogenetic tree was constructed by using Clustalw 1 .83 and MAGE 5 .0 software ,which would help analyze the gene evolutionary relationships a‐mong different species .Result showed that the GhSA D2 gene open reading frame had 1188bp ,encoding a polypeptide of 396 amino acids .Sequence analysis revealed that this gene GhSA D2 had two highly con‐served histidine clusters of ferritin‐like superfamily :EENRHG and DEKRH were located at amino acid 185 and 271 .Phylogenetic analysis showed that GhSA D2 homologous gene evolutionary relationship with the cacao tree is very close ,w hich is consistent with the status of the species in the classical taxonomy .qPCR showed that GhSA D2 in G .hirsutum had a much higher expression in leaves than that in stems and roots . GhSA D2 express highest at 25 days (s25) after flowering seed .GhSA D2 in leaves expression under cold stress analysis showed that the gene were upregulated under varying low temperature treatments .It has the highest expression at 6 hours treatment ,and then gradually reduced .Studies have shown that GhS‐A D2 gene may play an important role at cotton seed oil unsaturated fatty acid synthesis .At the same time , it has a certain physiological role in the cold resistance of cotton .%Δ9硬脂酰 ACP脱氢酶基因(GhSA D2)是脂肪酸合

  12. Study on the Genetics and Development of Fiber Pigments and Color Deviation After Wetting Process of Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xin-mian; ZHOU Wen-long

    2003-01-01

    The genetic control of fiber pigment color in naturally colored cotton was studied. The expres-sion of brown and green fiber color was controlled by incompletely dominant single genes and incompletelydominant major genes, respectively. Production and accumulation of the fiber pigment were related to specialexpression of enzymatic genes for pigment synthesis in fiber cells. At the stage of fiber lengthening, naturallycolored cotton, like white cotton, appeared purely white. But when fiber cell walls entered the thickeningstage, pigment appeared by degrees. When the fiber was completely matured (on boll dehiscence), the colorreached its darkest level. After wetting process treatment, the hues of the fiber pigment changed in regularpatterns. The hue circle for brown and green cotton changed in the opposite direction with wetting processtreatment. In general, the treated cotton color and luster became dark and vivid, and this trend provided the possibili-ty for enhancing the fiber quality by suitable enviromnental friendly finishing. The analysis showed that the color andluster of the cotton may be controlled by a series of pigments which show different chemical performance.

  13. Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fazal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV] and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant

  14. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  15. Identification and expression profile of GbAGL2, a C-class gene from Gossypium barbadense

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang Liu; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Ying Li; Jieting Xu; Lida Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2009-12-01

    An AGAMOUS (AG)-like gene, GbAGL2, was isolated from Gossypium barbadense and characterized. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that GbAGL2 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues including ovules and carpels, but barely expressed in vegetative tissues. In addition, GbAGL2 expression in a cotton cultivar XuZhou142 (wt) (XZ142, G. hirsutum L.) and its fibreless mutant XZ142 (fl) was examined. RNA in situ hybridization analysis indicated that GbAGL2 transcripts were preferentially restricted to outer ovule integuments, carpels and fibres. These expression patterns implied that GbAGL2 might participate in the development of the carpel and ovule. Furthermore, Arabidopsis transformation was performed and modifications occurred in flowers, and the silique length of transgenic plants also increased slightly, suggesting that the GbAGL2 gene may have a positive effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. Our findings suggest that GbAGL2 might not only specify the identity of floral organs but also play a potential key role in ovary or fibre development in cotton.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may request... members to represent cotton importers on the Cotton Board. Such eligibility shall be based, in addition...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization which has been certified by the...

  18. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  19. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  20. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  1. Test of pressure transducer for measuring cotton-mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a cotton harvester yield monitor was developed based on the relationship between air pressure and the mass of seed cotton conveyed. The sensor theory was verified by laboratory tests. The sensor was tested on a cotton picker with seed cotton at two moisture contents, 5.9% and 8.5% we...

  2. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  3. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in cotton is of great industrial importance due to the demanding consumer market for high performance textiles. It is not only a high value- added characteristic but it also has high commercial use and wide spectra of applications. Super- hydrophobicity... stream_source_info Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7375 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Erasmus1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile...

  4. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  5. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  6. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  7. Growth fluctuation in preferential attachment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In the Yule-Simon process, creation and selection of words follows the preferential attachment mechanism, resulting in a power-law growth in the cumulative number of individual word occurrences as well as the power-law population distribution of the vocabulary. This is derived using mean-field approximation, assuming a continuum limit of both the time and number of word occurrences. However, time and word occurrences are inherently discrete in the process, and it is natural to assume that the cumulative number of word occurrences has a certain fluctuation around the average behavior predicted by the mean-field approximation. We derive the exact and approximate forms of the probability distribution of such fluctuation analytically, and confirm that those probability distributions are well supported by the numerical experiments.

  8. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  9. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  10. The Utilization of HB-red Flower in Hybrid Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liu-ming; WANG Jia-bao

    2008-01-01

    @@ The HB-red flower trait came from the filial generation of the interspecific cross of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and G.bickii.It exhibits pink petals and filaments,with a large purplish red spot in the petal base,and it showed single dominant gene inheritance.Backcrossing since 2000 was used to produce HB near-isogenic lines.

  11. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain Btm27, an Egyptian Isolate Highly Toxic to Cotton Leafworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Brigida; Chen, Yue; Koenig, Sara S. K.; El-Helow, Ehab R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a potent microbial control agent against insect pests. Here, we present the draft genome of the Egyptian strain Btm27 that shows high toxicity toward the cotton leafworm. The genome contains three insecticidal genes cry1Ac9, cry2Ab1, and vip3V that have been implicated in conferring toxicity toward lepidoptera. PMID:25977430

  12. Sequence composition and mapping of BACs of cotton homoeologous chromosomes 11 and 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in cotton chromosome 11 and its homoeologous chromosome 21 derives from the discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R genes underlying QTLs involved in root-knot nematode, reniform nematode, Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, and black root rot resistance. Genetic and QTL mapping eff...

  13. Isolation and Analysis of Expansins from the Gossypium barbadense Cotton Elongating Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-li; DENG Feng-lin; TAN Jia-fu; LI Yang; ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium barbadense L.is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness,luster,long staple,and high strength.Transferring the excellent fiber traits from G.barbadense as the secondary gene pool to the widely cultivated G.hirsutum via traditional and molecular-aided selection is an attractive aim of breeders.

  14. The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kunbo; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Fuguang

    2012-01-01

    identified 2,355 syntenic blocks in the G. raimondii genome, and we found that approximately 40% of the paralogous genes were present in more than 1 block, which suggests that this genome has undergone substantial chromosome rearrangement during its evolution. Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao...

  15. Target and nontarget effects of novel "triple-stacked" Bt-transgenic cotton 1: canopy arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M E A; Wilson, L J; Davies, A P; Cross, D; Goldsmith, P; Thompson, A; Harden, S; Baker, G

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic cotton varieties (Bollgard II) expressing two proteins (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted in Australia to control larvae of Helicoverpa. A triple-stacked Bt-transgenic cotton producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, and Vip3A proteins (Genuity Bollgard III) is being developed to reduce the chance that Helicoverpa will develop resistance to the Bt proteins. Before its introduction, nontarget effects on the agro-ecosystem need to be evaluated under field conditions. By using beatsheet and suction sampling methods, we compared the invertebrate communities of unsprayed non-Bt-cotton, Bollgard II, and Bollgard III in five experiments across three sites in Australia. We found significant differences between invertebrate communities of non-Bt and Bt (Bollgard II and Bollgard III) cotton only in experiments where lepidopteran larval abundance was high. In beatsheet samples where lepidopterans were absent (Bt crops), organisms associated with flowers and bolls in Bt-cotton were more abundant. In suction samples, where Lepidoptera were present (i.e., in non-Bt-cotton), organisms associated with damaged plant tissue and frass were more common. Hence in our study, Bt- and non-Bt-cotton communities only differed when sufficient lepidopteran larvae were present to exert both direct and indirect effects on species assemblages. There was no overall significant difference between Bollgard II and III communities, despite the addition of the Vip gene in Bollgard III. Consequently, the use of Bollgard III in Australian cotton provides additional protection against the development of resistance by Helicoverpa to Bt toxins, while having no additional effect on cotton invertebrate communities.

  16. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems.

  17. Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Abdullaev, A A; Saha, S; Buriev, Z T; Arslanov, D; Kuryazov, Z; Mavlonov, G T; Rizaeva, S M; Reddy, U K; Jenkins, J N; Abdullaev, A; Abdukarimov, A

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research was to tag loci associated with natural leaf defoliation using microsatellite markers in Upland cotton. The F2 populations developed from reciprocal crosses between the two parental cotton lines--AN-Boyovut-2 (2n = 52), a late leaf defoliating type, and Listopad Beliy (2n = 52), a naturally early leaf defoliating type--demonstrated that the naturally early leaf defoliation trait has heritability values of 0.74 and 0.84 in the reciprocal F2 population. The observed phenotypic segregation difference in reciprocal crosses suggested a minor cytoplasmic effect in the phenotypic expression of the naturally early leaf defoliation trait. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) nonparametric test revealed that JESPR-13 (KW = 6.17), JESPR-153 (KW = 9.97), and JESPR-178 (KW = 13.45) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are significantly associated with natural leaf defoliation in the mapping population having stable estimates at empirically obtained critical thresholds (P < .05-.0001). JESPR-178 revealed the highest estimates (P < .0001) for association with the natural leaf defoliation trait, exceeding maximum empirical threshold values. JESPR-178 was assigned to the short arm of chromosome 18, suggesting indirectly that genes associated with natural leaf defoliation might be located on this chromosome. This microsatellite marker may have the potential for use to introgress the naturally early leaf defoliation quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the donor line Listopad Beliy to commercial varieties of cotton through marker-assisted selection programs.

  18. Biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-H; Shi, L; Han, Q; Hu, H-L; Zhao, M-W; Tang, C-M; Li, S-P

    2012-09-01

    To explore biocontrol potential of 39 DAEB isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity. Thirty-nine antagonistic endophytic bacteria strains were tested for their ability to control verticillium wilt in cotton plants caused by a defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae 107 in cotton under controlled conditions. The biocontrol trial revealed that an endophytic bacterium, designated HA02, showed a significant biocontrol activity to V. dahliae 107. After cotton seedlings were inoculated with a gfp gene-tagged HA02 (HA02-gfp), HA02-gfp populations were higher in the root than in the stem; in addition, the HA02-gfp was distributed in the maturation zone of cotton root. Furthermore, HA02-gfp also colonized seedlings of maize, rape and soybean after the bacteria inoculation. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rDNA sequences combined with morphological, physiological and identification showed that the bacterium belongs to the Enterobacter genus. Our results showed that only 1 of 39 DAEB isolates demonstrated more efficient biocontrol potential towards V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. HA02-gfp mainly colonized cotton in roots. In addition, we quantitatively observed HA02 colonization in other hosts. HA02 belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This is the first study on biocontrol to defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae Kleb by endophytic bacteria. The HA02 showed effective biocontrol to V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, we assessed the quantitative and qualitative colonization of HA02 in cotton seedlings. Our study provides basic information to further explore managing strategies to control this critical disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  20. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  1. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  2. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  3. DNA screening reveals pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton remains rare after a decade of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Henderson, Scottie; Biggs, Robert W; Yafuso, Christine M; Nyboer, Megan E; Manhardt, Nancy M; Coughlin, Laura A; Sollome, James; Carrière, Yves; Dennehy, Timothy J; Morin, Shai

    2006-10-01

    Transgenic crops producing toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Although Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Bt corn (Zea mays L.) covered 26 million ha worldwide in 2005, their success could be cut short by evolution of pest resistance. Monitoring the early phases of pest resistance to Bt crops is crucial, but it has been extremely difficult because bioassays usually cannot detect heterozygotes harboring one allele for resistance. We report here monitoring of resistance to Bt cotton with DNA-based screening, which detects single resistance alleles in heterozygotes. We used polymerase chain reaction primers that specifically amplify three mutant alleles of a cadherin gene linked with resistance to Bt cotton in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), a major pest. We screened DNA of 5,571 insects derived from 59 cotton fields in Arizona, California, and Texas during 2001-2005. No resistance alleles were detected despite a decade of exposure to Bt cotton. In conjunction with data from bioassays and field efficacy tests, the results reported here contradict predictions of rapid pest resistance to Bt crops.

  4. Identification of Homogeneous Transgenic Lines with phyA Gene in Cotton and Its Utilization for Organic Phosphate in Soil%转phyA基因棉花纯合株系筛选及其对土壤有机磷的利用能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠; 王省芬; 郭彩菊; 刘建凤; 王敬敬; 李志坤; 吴立强; 张桂寅; 马峙英

    2011-01-01

    To obtain homogeneous transgenic lines with expression of phyA and to identify the organic phosphate utilization ability of the transgenic cotton plants, PCR amplification, secreted phytase activity, the available phosphorus content and the yield characters oftransgenic cotton plants were analyzed. The results showed that two(L6 and L9) out of the four lines were homogeneous lines by PCR amplification. Under the phytate condition, the phytase activity of transgenic lines was higher than all of the wide types, and L6 increased by 1.5-fold. Also, L6 kept best performance in phosphorus content with an increase of 4.5%,5.95%, 5.45%, and 8.73% at seedling, budding, blooming and boll-opening stage, respectively. Moreover, the number of bolls per plant, lint index and lint percentage increased in the transgenic plants. Therefore, it is clearly shown that phyA gene with high expression can significantly increase the ability of cotton to utilize organic phosphate.%为了获得转植酸酶基因(phyA)棉花高代纯合株系并验证其利用土壤中有机态磷的能力,对实验室获得的转phyA基因T4代材料进行了PCR筛选,在水培条件下研究了纯合株系植株根际分泌的植酸酶活性,并在田间进行了植株磷含量和棉花产量性状分析.结果表明,在PCR筛选的4个株系中,有2个株系为纯合株系,其后代均为PCR阳性植株.在以植酸盐为唯一磷源条件下,高表达phyA的转基因株系的植酸酶活性较野生型增加了1.5倍,不同生育时期转基因株系植株叶片磷含量中L6株系增加最多,苗期、现蕾期、花铃期和吐絮期分别增加了4.5%,5.95%,5.45%和8.73%.

  5. Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Prabha, Swayam; Hurren, Rose; Rutledge, Angela C.; Lee, Anna Y.; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Sun, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming; Skrtic, Marko; Seneviratne, Ayesh; Cusimano, Maria; Jhas, Bozhena; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Cho, Eunice E.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Sharmeen, Sumaiya; Gebbia, Marinella; Urbanus, Malene; Eppert, Kolja; Dissanayake, Dilan; Jonet, Alexia; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Li, Xiaoming; Datti, Alessandro; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Wrana, Jeff; Rogers, Ian; Sonnet, Pascal; Ellis, William Y.; Corey, Seth J.; Eaves, Connie; Minden, Mark D.; Wang, Jean C.Y.; Dick, John E.; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and AML stem cells in a panel of leukemia cell lines and in mice. Using a yeast genome-wide functional screen for mefloquine sensitizers, we identified genes associated with the yeast vacuole, the homolog of the mammalian lysosome. Consistent with this, we determined that mefloquine disrupts lysosomes, directly permeabilizes the lysosome membrane, and releases cathepsins into the cytosol. Knockdown of the lysosomal membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 resulted in decreased cell viability, as did treatment of AML cells with known lysosome disrupters. Highlighting a potential therapeutic rationale for this strategy, leukemic cells had significantly larger lysosomes compared with normal cells, and leukemia-initiating cells overexpressed lysosomal biogenesis genes. These results demonstrate that lysosomal disruption preferentially targets AML cells and AML progenitor cells, providing a rationale for testing lysosomal disruption as a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:23202731

  6. Development, genetic mapping and QTL association of cotton PHYA, PHYB, and HY5-specific CAPS and dCAPS markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among SNP markers that become increasingly valuable in molecular breeding of crop plants are the CAP and dCAP markers derived from the genes of interest. To date, the number of such gene-based markers is small in polyploid crop plants such as tetraploid cotton that has A and D subgenomes. The obje...

  7. FUBT, a putative MFS transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaric acid (FA), a phytotoxic polyketide produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), has been shown to be associated with disease symptoms on cotton. A gene located upstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of FA is predicted to encode a member of the ...

  8. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  9. Student incentives and preferential treatment in college admissions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We consider a framework in which the optimal admissions policy of a purely academicquality oriented college implements preferential treatment in favor of the student from the deprived socioeconomic background which maximizes the competition between candidates. We find that the exact form of the preferential treatment admissions policy matters for student incentives and hence for student-body diversity in equilibrium. Preferential treatment policy in college admissions often tak...

  10. MEASURING THE RELATIVE STRENGTH OF PREFERENTIAL MARKET ACCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Nicita

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, tariffs imposed on international trade have been decreasing both in virtue of multilateral agreements under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and of the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) at the regional and bilateral level. The consequence of the large number of PTAs is that an increasing share of international trade is not subject to the most favoured nation tariffs, but enters markets through preferential access. Preferential access...

  11. Effects of transgenic Cry1A+CpTI cotton and Cry1Ac toxin on the parasitoid, Campoketis chlorideae (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-XIALIU; CHANG-GUISUN; QING-WENZHANG

    2005-01-01

    The effect oftransgenic double genes, Cry1A + CpTlcotton and Cry1Ac toxin on the parasitoid, Carnpoketis chlorideae Uchida of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was investigated in the laboratory. Helicoverpa armigera larvae when in the first,second and third instar could not survive if fed on transgenic cotton leaves. Consequently,C. chlorideae larvae could not complete their development if parasitizing on such hosts.After H. armigera larvae were reared on transgenic or traditional cotton leaves for 12-48 hours, they were parasitized by C. chlorideae females. Parasitized larvae continued to feed on transgenic or traditional cotton for 12-48 h. The present results showed that the body weight of larvae of the parasitoids were significantly reduced when parasitized hosts fed on transgenic cotton leaves compared to those fed on traditional cotton. Duration of egg and larvae stage were significantly prolonged, pupal and adult weight of C. chloridae was decreased when the host larvae fed on transgenic cotton leaves longer than 48 h. The development duration of C. chlorideae pupae on the hosts fed on transgenic cotton leaves in each treatment was not significantly different from those of controls. The longevity of parasitoid females and males fed with a solution containing Cry1Ac toxin was not significantly different with that of the control.

  12. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  13. Modeling online social networks based on preferential linking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Hai-Bo; Guo Jin-Li; Chen Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the phenomena of preferential linking in a large-scale evolving online social network and find that the linear preference holds for preferential creation,preferential acceptance,and preferential attachment.Based on the linear preference,we propose an analyzable model,which illustrates the mechanism of network growth and reproduces the process of network evolution.Our simulations demonstrate that the degree distribution of the network produced by the model is in good agreement with that of the real network.This work provides a possible bridge between the micro-mechanisms of network growth and the macrostructures of online social networks.

  14. Preferential epigenetic programming of estrogen response after in utero xenoestrogen (bisphenol-A) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Elisa M; Alderman, Myles H; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an environmentally ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting compound. Exposure to BPA in utero has been linked to female reproductive disorders, including endometrial hyperplasia and breast cancer. Estrogens are an etiological factor in many of these conditions. We sought to determine whether in utero exposure to BPA altered the global CpG methylation pattern of the uterine genome, subsequent gene expression, and estrogen response. Pregnant mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of BPA or DMSO control. Uterine DNA and RNA were examined by using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation methylation microarray, expression microarray, and quantitative PCR. In utero BPA exposure altered the global CpG methylation profile of the uterine genome and subsequent gene expression. The effect on gene expression was not apparent until sexual maturation, which suggested that estrogen response was the primary alteration. Indeed, prenatal BPA exposure preferentially altered adult estrogen-responsive gene expression. Changes in estrogen response were accompanied by altered methylation that preferentially affected estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-binding genes. The majority of genes that demonstrated both altered expression and ERα binding had decreased methylation. BPA selectively altered the normal developmental programming of estrogen-responsive genes via modification of the genes that bind ERα. Gene-environment interactions driven by early life xenoestrogen exposure likely contributes to increased risk of estrogen-related disease in adults.-Jorgensen, E. M., Alderman, M. H., III, Taylor, H. S. Preferential epigenetic programming of estrogen response after in utero xenoestrogen (bisphenol-A) exposure.

  15. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  16. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts

  17. SORPTION PROPERTIES OF PERIODATE OXIDIZED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  18. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  19. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Auxin and Cytokinin Regulating Somatic Embryogenesis in Different Sister Lines of Cotton Cultivar CCR124

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenzhen Xu; Chaojun Zhang; Xueyan Zhang; Chuanliang Liu; Zhixia Wu; Zuoren Yang; Kehai Zhou

    2013-01-01

    To get a broader view on the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis (SE) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.),global analysis of cotton transcriptome dynamics during SE in different sister lines was performed using RNA-Seq.A total of 204 349 unigenes were detected by de novo assembly of the 214 977 462 Illumina reads.The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements were positively correlated with the RNA-Seq results for almost all the tested genes (R2 =0.841,correlation was significant at the 0.01 level).Different phytohormone (auxin and cytokinin) concentration ratios in medium and the endogenous content changes of these two phytohormones at two stages in different sister lines suggested the roles of auxin and cytokinin during cotton SE.On the basis of global gene regulation of phytohormone-related genes,numerous genes from all the differentially expressed transcripts were involved in auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways.Analyses of differentially expressed genes that were involved in these pathways revealed the substantial changes in gene type and abundance between two sister lines.Isolation,cloning and silencing/ overexpressing the genes that revealed remarkable up-or down-expression during cotton SE were important.Furthermore,auxin and cytokinin play a primary role in SE,but potential cross-talk with each other or other factors remains unclear.

  20. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.