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Sample records for cotton fibers gossypium

  1. Comparative evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber transcriptome.

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    Mi-Jeong Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ~5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution.

  2. Isolation and Analysis of Expansins from the Gossypium barbadense Cotton Elongating Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Li-li; DENG Feng-lin; TAN Jia-fu; LI Yang; ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium barbadense L.is one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness,luster,long staple,and high strength.Transferring the excellent fiber traits from G.barbadense as the secondary gene pool to the widely cultivated G.hirsutum via traditional and molecular-aided selection is an attractive aim of breeders.

  3. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

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    Daohua He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  4. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fibre and a significant oilseed crop. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an allotetraploid derived from A- and D-genome progenitors, accounts for >95% of world production. Here, we sequenced and assembled 88% of the 2.5-gigabase genome of the ...

  5. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown color and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

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    Some naturally-colored brown cotton fibers from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fiber loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the me...

  6. MicroRNA expression profiles during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) fiber early development

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    Wang, Min; Sun, Runrun; Li, Chao; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during cotton fiber development remains unclear. Here, a total of 54 miRNAs belonging to 39 families were selected to characterize miRNA regulatory mechanism in eight different fiber development stages in upland cotton cv BM-1. Among 54 miRNAs, 18 miRNAs were involved in cotton fiber initiation and eight miRNAs were related to fiber elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Additionally, 3,576 protein-coding genes were candidate target genes of these miRNAs, which are potentially involved in cotton fiber development. We also investigated the regulatory network of miRNAs and corresponding targets in fiber initiation and elongation, and secondary wall formation. Our Gene Ontology-based term classification and KEGG-based pathway enrichment analyses showed that the miRNA targets covered 220 biological processes, 67 molecular functions, 45 cellular components, and 10 KEGG pathways. Three of ten KEGG pathways were involved in lignan synthesis, cell elongation, and fatty acid biosynthesis, all of which have important roles in fiber development. Overall, our study shows the potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in cotton fiber development and the importance of miRNAs in regulating different cell types. This is helpful to design miRNA-based biotechnology for improving fiber quality and yield. PMID:28327647

  7. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

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    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.

  8. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

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    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  9. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

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    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  10. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium

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    Mittler Ron

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers" of cotton (Gossypium, using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

  11. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm2, signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied.The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12—24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm2 condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  12. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

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    Gregory N. Thyssen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  13. Modeling Fiber Fineness, Maturity, and Micronaire in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

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    ZHAO Wen-qing; ZHOU Zhi-guo; MENG Ya-li; CHEN Bing-lin; WANG You-hua

    2013-01-01

    Crop performance is determined by the combined effects of the genotype of the crop and the environmental conditions of the production system. This study was undertaken to develop a dynamic model for simulating environmental (temperature and solar radiation) and N supply effects on fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire. Three different experiments involving genotypes, sowing dates, and N fertilization rates were conducted to support model development and model evaluation. The growth and development duration of fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire were scaled by using physiological development time of secondary wall synthesis (PDTSWSP), which was determined based on the constant ratio of SWSP/BMP. PTP (product of relative thermal effectiveness (RTE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), MJ m-2) and subtending leaf N content per unit area (NA, g m-2) and critical subtending leaf N content per unit area (CNA, g m-2) of cotton boll were calculated or simulated to evaluate effects of temperature and radiation, and N supply. Besides, the interactions among temperature, radiation and N supply were also explained by piecewise function. The overall performance of the model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets from three field experiments with two sowing dates, three or five flowering dates and three or four N fertilization rates for three subsequent years (2005, 2007, and 2009) at three ecological locations. The average RMSE and RE for fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire predictions were 372 m g-1 and 5.0%, 0.11 m g-1 and 11.4%, 0.3 m g-1 and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a good fit between the simulated and observed data. It appears that the model can give a reliable prediction for fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire formation under various growing conditions.

  14. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Osman ÇOPUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  15. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

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    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  16. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

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    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  17. Gossypolhemiquinone, a dimeric sesquiterpenoid identified in cotton (Gossypium)

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    The report that the cotton leaf perforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella, is one of the few insect herbivores to attack Gossypium thurberi prompted an investigation of the terpenoids present in the leaves of this wild species of cotton. Members of Gossypium produce subepidermal pigment glands in their ...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

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    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

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    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  20. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  1. Ameliorative effects of potassium nutrition on yield and fiber quality characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. under NaCl stress

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    Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. being moderately tolerant to salinity has been extensively grown in arid and semiarid regions where soil salinization is a major threat to plant growth and soil productivity. Excess salts in the growth medium may interfere with growth processes of cotton, leading to a severe decline in yield and fiber quality characteristics. Adequate mineral nutrient status of plants can provide an important strategy to improve plant tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment was planned to evaluate the ameliorative effects of additional potassium (K applied at 50 and 100 mg K2O kg-1 soil as potassium sulfate against NaCl stress of 100 and 180 mM in cotton. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomized design with five replications. NaCl caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in shoot sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl- with a corresponding decrease in shoot K+, K+: Na+ ratio, calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+. Plant growth, yield and fiber quality characteristics were also declined significantly by increasing external NaCl concentration. Additional K reduced shoot Na + while increased K+, K+: Na+ ratio, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with the consequent improvement in plant growth, lint yield and yield attributes as well as fiber quality characteristics at both levels of NaCl. Results revealed that K nutrition improved shoot K+: Na+ ratio by 116 and 246% at NaCl100 while 188 and 294% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively as compared to NaCl treated plants without additional K. Likewise, lint yield was improved by 38.27 and 60.49% at NaCl100 while 75.12 and 136% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively compared to NaCl stressed plants without additional K. Ameliorative effects of K against NaCl stress were relatively more prominent at higher K application at both NaCl levels. In conclusion, K-induced decrease in Na+, increase in Ca2+, K+, K+: Na+ ratio, relative water content and membrane stability index provide protective

  2. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

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    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  3. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

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    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  4. Xyloglucan breakdown during cotton fiber development.

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    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-11-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fibers elongated almost linearly up to about 20 days post anthesis. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in fiber cell walls decreased gradually during the elongation stage. When enzymatically active (native) cell wall preparations of fibers were autolyzed, the molecular mass of xyloglucans decreased. The decrease was most prominent in wall preparations obtained from the rapidly elongating fibers. The xyloglucan-degrading activity was recovered from the fiber cell walls with 3 mol/L NaCl, and the activity was high at the stages in which fibers elongated vigorously. These results suggest the possible involvement of xyloglucan metabolism in the regulation of cotton fiber elongation.

  5. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  6. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

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    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  7. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid CottonGenome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun; WANG Kun-bo; LI Fu-guang; KOHEL Russell J; PERCY Richard G; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's nationaleconomy.Cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cottonproduction,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 MbDNA.

  8. The immature fiber mutant phenotype of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is linked to a 22-bp frame-shift deletion in a mitochondria targeted pentatricopeptide repeat gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton seed trichomes are the globally most important source of natural fibers. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im) gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process...

  9. Rapid plant regeneration from cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A simple and rapid regeneration method of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.cv.Xinluzao 4) is described.The proper use of phytohormone KT and IBA validly promoted the survival rate of test-tube plants and shortened the period of culture in combination with the techniques of micro-propagation and graft.

  10. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.

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    Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y

    2004-04-01

    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yu-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  12. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

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    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  13. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.. The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialisation.

  14. An integrative analysis of four CESA isoforms specific for fiber cellulose production between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Xia, Tao; Xu, Wen; Chen, Tingting; Li, Xianliang; Fan, Jian; Wang, Ruyi; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai

    2013-06-01

    Cotton fiber is an excellent model system of cellulose biosynthesis; however, it has not been widely studied due to the lack of information about the cellulose synthase (CESA) family of genes in cotton. In this study, we initially identified six full-length CESA genes designated as GhCESA5-GhCESA10. Phylogenetic analysis and gene co-expression profiling revealed that CESA1, CESA2, CESA7, and CESA8 were the major isoforms for secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas CESA3, CESA5, CESA6, CESA9, and CESA10 should involve in primary cell wall formation for cotton fiber initiation and elongation. Using integrative analysis of gene expression patterns, CESA protein levels, and cellulose biosynthesis in vivo, we detected that CESA8 could play an enhancing role for rapid and massive cellulose accumulation in Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. We found that CESA2 displayed a major expression in non-fiber tissues and that CESA1, a housekeeping gene like, was predominantly expressed in all tissues. Further, a dynamic alteration was observed in cell wall composition and a significant discrepancy was observed between the cotton species during fiber elongation, suggesting that pectin accumulation and xyloglucan reduction might contribute to cell wall transition. In addition, we discussed that callose synthesis might be regulated in vivo for massive cellulose production during active secondary cell wall biosynthesis in cotton fibers.

  15. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  16. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M

    2013-01-16

    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  17. Developing hybrid cotton (Gossypium spp.) using honey bees as pollinators and the Roundup Ready® Phenotype as the selection trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile fiber crop in the United States (US). Hybrid cotton is grown in several countries but the use of hybrids in the US has been limited due to seed production costs. The objective of this study was to investigate a novel method for the production of ...

  18. CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shaolin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD http://www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. Description At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays data for three of the microsatellite projects that have been screened against a panel of core germplasm. The standardized panel consists of 12 diverse genotypes including genetic standards, mapping parents, BAC donors, subgenome representatives, unique breeding lines, exotic introgression sources, and contemporary Upland cottons with significant acreage. A suite of online microsatellite data mining tools are accessible at CMD. These include an SSR server which identifies microsatellites, primers, open reading frames, and GC-content of uploaded sequences; BLAST and FASTA servers providing sequence similarity searches against the existing cotton SSR sequences and primers, a CAP3 server to assemble EST sequences into longer transcripts prior to mining for SSRs, and CMap, a viewer for comparing cotton SSR maps. Conclusion The collection of publicly available cotton SSR markers in a centralized, readily accessible and curated web-enabled database provides a more efficient utilization of microsatellite resources and will help accelerate basic and applied research in molecular breeding and genetic mapping in Gossypium spp.

  19. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  20. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdukarimov Abdusattor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp., including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2 in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA, before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for

  1. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  2. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  3. Genome physical mapping of polyploids: a BIBAC physical map of cultivated tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Huang, James J; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

  4. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton.

  5. Gossypolone and Gossypolhemiquinone: Biological activity of terpenoids found in cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild cotton plant, Gossypium thurberi grows in the Sonoran Desert in northern Mexico and southern Arizona, and is attacked by few herbivorous insects (Korban, 1999). In general, members of Gossypium produce a rich assortment of sesquiterpenoid and sesterterpenoids in the subepidermal pigment gl...

  6. QTL mapping in A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton and their congruence analysis with AD-genome tetraploid cotton in genus Gossypium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuexia; Ding, Yezhang; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Lv, Yanhui; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2008-12-01

    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an Old World cultivated cotton species. The sinense race was planted extensively in China. Due to the advances in spinning technology during the last century, the species was replaced by the New World allotetraploid cotton G. hirsutum L. Gossypium arboreum is still grown in India and Pakistan and also used as an elite in current cotton breeding programs. In addition, G. arboreum serves as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, we generated an A-genome diploid cotton intraspecific genetic map including 264 SSR loci with three morphological markers mapped to 13 linkage groups. The map spans 2,508.71 cM with an average distance of 9.4 cM between adjacent loci. A population containing 176 F(2:3) families was used to perform quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for 17 phenotypes using Multiple QTL Model (MQM) of MapQTL ver 5.0. Overall, 108 QTLs were detected on 13 chromosomes. Thirty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F2 population. Forty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F(2:3) families with a total of 43 QTLs for fiber qualities. Two QTLs for seed cotton weight/plant and lint index and three QTLs for seed index were consistently detected both in F2 and F(2:3). Most QTLs for fiber qualities and yields were located at the same interval or neighboring intervals. These results indicated that the negative correlation between fiber qualities and yield traits may result from either pleiotropic effect of one gene or linkage effects of multiple closely linked genes.

  7. Genetic diversity and structure of elite cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, XianTao; Liang, YaJun; Wang, JunDuo; Zheng, JuYun; Gong, ZhaoLong; Guo, JiangPing; Li, XueYuan; Qu, YanYing

    2017-07-28

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural textile fiber crop, and Gossypium hirsutum L. is responsible for 90% of the annual cotton crop in the world. Information on cotton genetic diversity and population structure is essential for new breeding lines. In this study, we analyzed population structure and genetic diversity of 288 elite Gossypium hirsutum cultivar accessions collected from around the world, and especially from China, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers. The average polymorphsim information content (PIC) was 0.25, indicating a relatively low degree of genetic diversity. Population structure analysis revealed extensive admixture and identified three subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE. The results from both population structure and phylogenetic analysis were, for the most part, in agreement with pedigree information. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a larger amount of variation was due to diversity within the groups. Establishment of genetic diversity and population structure from this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and systematic utilization of the standing genetic variation in upland cotton.

  8. Extensive and biased intergenomic nonreciprocal DNA exchanges shaped a nascent polyploid genome, Gossypium (cotton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiyin; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X; Peterson, Daniel G; Scheffler, Brian E; Chee, Peng W; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Genome duplication is thought to be central to the evolution of morphological complexity, and some polyploids enjoy a variety of capabilities that transgress those of their diploid progenitors. Comparison of genomic sequences from several tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium species and genotypes with putative diploid A- and D-genome progenitor species revealed that unidirectional DNA exchanges between homeologous chromosomes were the predominant mechanism responsible for allelic differences between the Gossypium tetraploids and their diploid progenitors. Homeologous gene conversion events (HeGCEs) gradually subsided, declining to rates similar to random mutation during radiation of the polyploid into multiple clades and species. Despite occurring in a common nucleus, preservation of HeGCE is asymmetric in the two tetraploid subgenomes. At-to-Dt conversion is far more abundant than the reciprocal, is enriched in heterochromatin, is highly correlated with GC content and transposon distribution, and may silence abundant A-genome-derived retrotransposons. Dt-to-At conversion is abundant in euchromatin and genes, frequently reversing losses of gene function. The long-standing observation that the nonspinnable-fibered D-genome contributes to the superior yield and quality of tetraploid cotton fibers may be explained by accelerated Dt to At conversion during cotton domestication and improvement, increasing dosage of alleles from the spinnable-fibered A-genome. HeGCE may provide an alternative to (rare) reciprocal DNA exchanges between chromosomes in heterochromatin, where genes have approximately five times greater abundance of Dt-to-At conversion than does adjacent intergenic DNA. Spanning exon-to-gene-sized regions, HeGCE is a natural noninvasive means of gene transfer with the precision of transformation, potentially important in genetic improvement of many crop plants.

  9. Introgression of Gossypium klotzschianum Genome into Cultivated Cotton,G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin-lian; ZHANG Xiang-gui; YANG Yu-wen; CAO Zhi-bin; NI Wan-chao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Exotic Gossypium germplasm is a rich source of useful agronomic traits for improvement programs of cultivated cotton.Efficient use of genetic variation available in the wild relatives depends on the ability to identify and introgress desirable DNA segments from wild species into cultivated cotton.

  10. Measuring diversity in Gossypium hirsutum using the CottonSNP63K Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CottonSNP63K array and accompanying cluster file has been developed and includes 45,104 intra-specific SNPs and 17,954 inter-specific SNPs for automated genotyping of cotton (Gossypium spp.) samples. Development of the cluster file included genotyping of 1,156 samples, a subset of which were iden...

  11. Breeding Potential of Introgression Lines Developed from Interspecific Crossing between Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense: Heterosis, Combining Ability and Genetic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfa Zhang

    Full Text Available Upland cotton (Gossypium hirstum L., which produces more than 95% of the world natural cotton fibers, has a narrow genetic base which hinders progress in cotton breeding. Introducing germplasm from exotic sources especially from another cultivated tetraploid G. barbadense L. can broaden the genetic base of Upland cotton. However, the breeding potential of introgression lines (ILs in Upland cotton with G. barbadense germplasm integration has not been well addressed. This study involved six ILs developed from an interspecific crossing and backcrossing between Upland cotton and G. barbadense and represented one of the first studies to investigate breeding potentials of a set of ILs using a full diallel analysis. High mid-parent heterosis was detected in several hybrids between ILs and a commercial cultivar, which also out-yielded the high-yielding cultivar parent in F1, F2 and F3 generations. A further analysis indicated that general ability (GCA variance was predominant for all the traits, while specific combining ability (SCA variance was either non-existent or much lower than GCA. The estimated GCA effects and predicted additive effects for parents in each trait were positively correlated (at P<0.01. Furthermore, GCA and additive effects for each trait were also positively correlated among generations (at P<0.05, suggesting that F2 and F3 generations can be used as a proxy to F1 in analyzing combining abilities and estimating genetic parameters. In addition, differences between reciprocal crosses in F1 and F2 were not significant for yield, yield components and fiber quality traits. But maternal effects appeared to be present for seed oil and protein contents in F3. This study identified introgression lines as good general combiners for yield and fiber quality improvement and hybrids with high heterotic vigor in yield, and therefore provided useful information for further utilization of introgression lines in cotton breeding.

  12. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  13. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  14. Structural analysis of Gossypium hirsutum fibers grown under greenhouse and hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Friedrich, Norman; Köck, Margret; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Paris, Oskar; Paschke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    Cotton is the one of the world's most important crops. Like any other crop, cotton growth/development and fiber quality is highly dependent on environmental factors. Increasing global weather instability has been negatively impacting its economy. Cotton is a crop that exerts an intensive pressure over natural resources (land and water) and demands an overuse of pesticides. Thus, the search for alternative cotton culture methods that are pesticide-free (biocotton) and enable customized standard fiber quality should be encouraged. Here we describe a culture of Gossypium hirsutum ("Upland" Cotton) utilizing a greenhouse and hydroponics in which the fibers are morphological similar to conventional cultures and structurally fit into the classical two-phase cellulose I model with 4.19nm crystalline domains surrounded by amorphous regions. These fibers exhibit a single crystalline form of cellulose I-Iß, monoclinic unit cell. Fiber quality bulk analysis shows an improved length, strength, whiteness when compared with soil-based cultures. Finally, we show that our fibers can be spun, used for production of non-woven fabrics and indigo-vat stained demonstrating its potential in industrial and commercial applications.

  15. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.

  16. Cloning and expression of two sterol C-24 methyltransferase genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Luo; Kunling Tan; Zhongyi Xiao; Mingyu Hu; Peng Liao; Kuijun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important class of plant steroidal hormones that are essential in a wide variety of physiological processes. Two kinds of intermediates, sitosterol and campesterol, play a crucial role in cell elongation, cellulose biosynthesis, and accumulation. To illuminate the effects of sitosterol and campesterol on the development of cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.) fibers through screening cotton fiber EST database and contigging the candidate ESTs, two key genes GhSMT2-1 and GhSMT2-2 controlling the sitosterol biosynthesis were cloned from developing fibers of upland cotton cv. Xuzhou 142. The full length of GhSMT2-1 was 1, 151bp, including an 8bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1, 086bp open reading frame (ORF), and a 57bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-1 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The full length of GhSMT2-2 was 1, 166bp, including an 18bp 5'-UTR, a 1, 086bp ORF, and a 62bp 3'-UTR. GhSMT2-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 361 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 40kDa. The two deduced amino acid sequences had high homology with the SMT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Furthermore, the typical conserved structures characterized by the sterol C-24 methyltransferase, such as region I (LDVGCGVGGPIVIRAI), region Ⅱ (IEATCHAP), and region Ⅲ (YEWGWGQSFHF), were present in both deduced proteins. Southern blotting analysis indicated that GhSMT2-1 or GhSMT2-2 was a single copy in upland cotton genome. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression levels of both genes were detected in 10 DPA (day post anthesis) fibers, while the lowest levels were observed in cotyledon and leaves. The expression level of GhSMT2-1 was 10 times higher than that of GhSMT2-2 in all the organs and tissues detected. These results indicate that the homologue of sterol C-24 methyltransferase gene was cloned from upland cotton and both GhSMT2 genes play a crucial

  17. Performance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines selected for high productivity in three environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J H; Ferguson, D

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) selections that had been screened in separate climatic zones within the San Joaquin Valley were tested for a 2-year period. Selection pressure had been applied solely upon productivity.Seven production attributes and eight fiber properties were influenced by the selection pressure on this material. The increase in number of bolls per m(2) virtually account for the genetic gains in yield.Environmental influences accounted for the larger part of the variability with both production and quality attributes. Years (seasons) and years x zone mean square values were highly significant for all production attributes except boll size. Fiber length was increased for one group of selections and decreased for the other two groups. Coarser fiber (micronaire increase) resulted from the selection effort with two groups.Genetic x environmental interactions encountered with major fiber properties have significant implications. The cryptic variability revealed indicates breeding procedures could be modified to exploit more fully the genetic potential of breeding material. Identifying and utilizing the "optimum selection enviroment" for specific attributes is suggested.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of Gossypium barbadense inoculated with Verticillium dahliae provides a resource for cotton improvement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is the most severe disease in cotton (Gossypium spp.), causing great lint losses worldwide. Disease management could be achieved in the field if genetically improved, resistant plants were used. However, the interaction between V. dahliae and cotton is a complicated process, and its molecular mechanism remains obscure. To understand better the defense response to this pathogen as a means for obtaining more toler...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    OpenAIRE

    María J Ek-Ramos; Wenqing Zhou; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Gaylon D Morgan; David L. Kerns; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in f...

  20. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  1. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium sp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S.; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Shermatov, Shukhrat E.; Ruziboev, Haydarali S.; Shapulatov, Umidjon; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z.; Percy, Richard G.; Devor, Eric J.; Sharma, Govind C.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Krol, van der Sander; Kater, Hake D.; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I.; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of

  2. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium sp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S.; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Shermatov, Shukhrat E.; Ruziboev, Haydarali S.; Shapulatov, Umidjon; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z.; Percy, Richard G.; Devor, Eric J.; Sharma, Govind C.; Sripathi, Venkateswara R.; Kumpatla, Siva P.; Krol, van der Sander; Kater, Hake D.; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I.; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of functio

  3. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  4. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  6. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  8. Analysis of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii by Comparative Genomics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important economic crops and the primary source of natural fiber and is an important protein source for animal feed. The complete nuclear and chloroplast (cp genome sequences of G. raimondii are already available but not mitochondria. Here, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt DNA sequence of G. raimondii into a circular genome of length of 676,078 bp and performed comparative analyses with other higher plants. The genome contains 39 protein-coding genes, 6 rRNA genes, and 25 tRNA genes. We also identified four larger repeats (63.9 kb, 10.6 kb, 9.1 kb, and 2.5 kb in this mt genome, which may be active in intramolecular recombination in the evolution of cotton. Strikingly, nearly all of the G. raimondii mt genome has been transferred to nucleus on Chr1, and the transfer event must be very recent. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that G. raimondii, as a member of Malvaceae, is much closer to another cotton (G. barbadense than other rosids, and the clade formed by two Gossypium species is sister to Brassicales. The G. raimondii mt genome may provide a crucial foundation for evolutionary analysis, molecular biology, and cytoplasmic male sterility in cotton and other higher plants.

  9. Targeted mutagenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiugui; Lu, Xuke; Shu, Na; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Delong; Guo, Lixue; Ye, Wuwei

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in various plants because of its simplicity, high efficiency and design flexibility. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the application of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in cotton. Here, we report the genome editing and targeted mutagenesis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., hereafter cotton) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We designed two guide RNAs to target distinct sites of the cotton Cloroplastos alterados 1 (GhCLA1) and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (GhVP) genes. Mutations in these two genes were detected in cotton protoplasts. Most of the mutations were nucleotide substitutions, with one nucleotide insertion and one substitution found in GhCLA1 and one deletion found in GhVP in cotton protoplasts. Subsequently, the two vectors were transformed into cotton shoot apexes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in efficient target gene editing. Most of the mutations were nucleotide deletions, and the mutation efficiencies were 47.6–81.8% in transgenic cotton plants. Evaluation using restriction-enzyme-PCR assay and sequence analysis detected no off-target mutations. Our results indicated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was an efficient and specific tool for targeted mutagenesis of the cotton genome. PMID:28287154

  10. Rapid diversification of the cotton genus (Gossypium: Malvaceae) revealed by analysis of sixteen nuclear and chloroplast genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Tamara Hanselkorn; Jonathan F. Wendel

    2002-01-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have failed to resolve the branching order among the major cotton (Gossypium) lineages, and it has been unclear whether this reflects actual history (rapid radiation) or sampling properties of the genes evaluated. In this paper, we reconsider the phylogenetic relationships of diploid cotton genome groups using DNA sequences from...

  11. A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrna Dave

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. Results A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo hybridization probes, agarose based fingerprints and 'high information content fingerprinting' (HICF. A total of 13,662 BAC-end sequences and 2,828 DNA probes were used in genetically anchoring 1585 contigs to a cotton consensus genetic map, and 370 and 438 contigs, respectively to Arabidopsis thaliana (AT and Vitis vinifera (VV whole genome sequences. Conclusion Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components. Much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes. The integrated genetic-physical map is of value both in assembling and validating a planned reference sequence.

  12. Cytogenetic Characteristics of New Monosomic Stocks of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina F. Sanamyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aneuploid lines significantly increases the effectiveness of molecular-genetic analysis and the development of superior quality breeding lines via substitutions by alien chromosomes. To date, however, a complete set of aneuploid series for each cotton chromosome is not available. Here, we present the development of a monosomic stock collection of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. from Uzbekistan, including the origin of 92 primary monosomics, meiotic metaphase-I analysis, study of tetrads of microspores, pollen fertility, and monosomic transmission rates for some monosomic lines. We report desynaptic effects of some monosomes detected both in parental and daughter monosomics, a positive role of interchanges in translocation heterozygous monosomics due to selective advantages of gametes with deficiency and a simultaneous interchange, pollen fertility variation, and strong differences in transmission rates. This monosomic cotton collection, developed using single genome background, will be useful for future breeding, genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular-genetic investigations of the cotton genome.

  13. Cytogenetic Characteristics of New Monosomic Stocks of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamyan, Marina F; Petlyakova, Julia E; Sharipova, Elnora A; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2011-01-01

    The use of aneuploid lines significantly increases the effectiveness of molecular-genetic analysis and the development of superior quality breeding lines via substitutions by alien chromosomes. To date, however, a complete set of aneuploid series for each cotton chromosome is not available. Here, we present the development of a monosomic stock collection of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from Uzbekistan, including the origin of 92 primary monosomics, meiotic metaphase-I analysis, study of tetrads of microspores, pollen fertility, and monosomic transmission rates for some monosomic lines. We report desynaptic effects of some monosomes detected both in parental and daughter monosomics, a positive role of interchanges in translocation heterozygous monosomics due to selective advantages of gametes with deficiency and a simultaneous interchange, pollen fertility variation, and strong differences in transmission rates. This monosomic cotton collection, developed using single genome background, will be useful for future breeding, genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular-genetic investigations of the cotton genome.

  14. Constitutively overexpressing a tomato fructokinase gene (lefrk1) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. coker 312) positively affects plant vegetative growth, boll number and seed cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing fructokinase (FRK) activity in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants may reduce fructose inhibition of sucrose synthase (Sus) and lead to improved fibre yield and quality. Cotton was transformed with a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fructokinase gene (LeFRK1) under the control of the C...

  15. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  16. Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium,BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

  17. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  18. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.

  19. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan; WU Han-wen; JIANG Wei-li; MA Ya-jie; MA Yan

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop ifeld wil provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010–2012 to determine the inlfuence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m–1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m–1 of row signiifcantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6–19.2 goosegrass plant m–1 of row would result in a 50%cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Bol production was not affected in the early growing season. But bol numbers per plant were reduced about 25%at the den-sity of 4 plants m–1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton bol weight and seed numbers per bol were signiifcantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m–1 of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint ifber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspeciifc competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142–387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m–2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identiifed in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  20. The cytogenetics and fiber properties of an allohexaploid between Gossypium hirsutum and G. somalense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetics and fiber properties were studied on the Gossypium hirsutum×G. somalense F2 hybrid and later generations. The cytological analyses of pollen mother cells (PMCs) were made at meiotic metaphase Ⅰ. The results indicated that the hybrid was a new allohexaploid, its chro-mosome number determined as 2n=6x=78, and genome group as 2[(AD)1E2]. Chromosomal configurations of the hexaploid averaged 0.15Ⅰ+ 38.72Ⅱ+ 0.11Ⅲ + 0.02Ⅳ per cell, 85.09% PMCs having 39 bivalents, and only 11.84% PMCs having 1 to 2 multivalents, indicating that heteroge-netic recombinations of chromosomes occurs between (AD)1 and E2, nevertheless, the frequency is lower. The hexaploids are self-fertile and the progenies remain the hexaploids, whose fibers are light brown and have higher strength by measurement of HVI 900 system. The fiber strength in-creases 42% than that of upland cotton variety. Therefore, it is possible for the hexaploid to be an important germplasm resource to improve fiber strength of cotton.

  1. 陆地棉抗虫遗传工程%Genetic Engineering of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) for Insect-resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwei ZHU; Jingsan SUN; Yinchuan TIAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ In order to improve insect-resistance of cotton and cultivate new cotton varieties ,tissue culture and plant regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) were studied with Xinluzao 4,Xi 550,Jizi 492,Hengwu 89-30,Han 93-2 and Jizi 123 . A system of cotton tissue culture for rapid plant regeneration was developed.

  2. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid CottonGenome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS Thea A

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our under-standing of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a "white paper" published in2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated up-land cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degreeof conservation between diploid progenitors and AD species that will allow information derived fromdiploid genomes to be directly applied to the tetraploids.

  3. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    welcome

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... sp is not susceptible to Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac toxin so, there is ... encodes an insecticidal protein Cry1EC, (ii) 35S promoter from cauliflower ... the embryogenic calli were treated with the bacterial suspension by shaking ...

  4. Dominant Gene cplsr1 Corresponding to Premature Leaf Senescence Resistance in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingqing Zhao; Tengfei Jiang; Zhi Liu; Wenwei Zhang; Guiliang Jian; Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) premature leaf senescence-resistant inbred XLZ33 and senescencesusceptible inbred lines XLZ13 were selected and crossed to produce F1,F1-reciprocal,F2 and BC1 generations for evaluation of leaf senescence process and inheritance.The results showed that leaf senescence processes for XLZ13 and XLZ33 were obviously different and leaf senescence traits could be distinguished between the two parents at particular periods of cotton growth.Inheritance anlysis for the cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait further showed that the segregation in the F2 fit a 3:1 ratio inheritance pattern,with resistance being dominant.The backcross of F1 to the susceptible parent produced a 1:1 ratio,confirming that cotton premature leaf senescence resistant trait was from a single gene.The single dominant gene controlling cotton premature leaf senescence resistance in XLZ33 was named as cotton premature leaf senescence resistance 1,with the symbol cplsr1.

  5. Cotton GhACT1 Gene Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber and Required for Fiber Elongation%棉纤维发育优势表达及伸长必需的基因GhACT1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-bao LI; Lin CAI; Xiao-ping FAN; Ning-hui CHEN; Jian-wei LIU; Wei-cai YANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 ~3.0 cm from ovule surface within about 16days after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but it is unknown how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development.

  6. A new interspecific, Gossypium hirsutum x G. barbadense, RIL population: towards a unified consensus linkage map of tetraploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacape, Jean-Marc; Jacobs, J; Arioli, T; Derijcker, R; Forestier-Chiron, N; Llewellyn, D; Jean, J; Thomas, E; Viot, C

    2009-07-01

    We report the development of a new interspecific cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 140 lines deriving from an interspecific cross between Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), using the same two parents that have served for the construction of a BC(1) map and for the marker-assisted backcross selection program underway at CIRAD. Two marker systems, microsatellites and AFLPs, were used. An important feature of the RIL population was its marked segregation distortion with a genome-wide bias to Gh alleles (parental genome ratio is 71/29). The RIL map displays an excellent colinearity with the BC(1) map, although it is severely contracted in terms of map size. Existence of 255 loci in common (between 6 and 14 per chromosome) allowed the integration of the two data sets. A consensus BC(1)-RIL map based upon 215 individuals (75 BC1 + 140 RIL) was built. It consisted of 1,745 loci, spanned 3,637 cM, intermediate between the sizes of the two component maps, and constituted a solid framework to cross align cotton maps using common markers. The new RIL population will be further exploited for fiber property QTL mapping and eQTL mapping.

  7. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  8. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  9. Genetic Diversity of the Two Commercial Tetraploid Cotton Species in the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Lori L; Gazave, Elodie; Gore, Michael A; Fang, David D; Scheffler, Brian E; Yu, John Z; Jones, Don C; Frelichowski, James; Percy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    A diversity reference set has been constructed for the Gossypium accessions in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection to facilitate more extensive evaluation and utilization of accessions held in the Collection. A set of 105 mapped simple sequence repeat markers was used to study the allelic diversity of 1933 tetraploid Gossypium accessions representative of the range of diversity of the improved and wild accessions of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The reference set contained 410 G. barbadense accessions and 1523 G. hirsutum accessions. Observed numbers of polymorphic and private bands indicated a greater diversity in G. hirsutum as compared to G. barbadense as well as in wild-type accessions as compared to improved accessions in both species. The markers clearly differentiated the 2 species. Patterns of diversity within species were observed but not clearly delineated, with much overlap occurring between races and regions of origin for wild accessions and between historical and geographic breeding pools for cultivated accessions. Although the percentage of accessions showing introgression was higher among wild accessions than cultivars in both species, the average level of introgression within individual accessions, as indicated by species-specific bands, was much higher in wild accessions of G. hirsutum than in wild accessions of G. barbadense. The average level of introgression within individual accessions was higher in improved G. barbadense cultivars than in G. hirsutum cultivars. This molecular characterization reveals the levels and distributions of genetic diversity that will allow for better exploration and utilization of cotton genetic resources.

  10. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  11. Selection and Characterization of a Novel Glyphosate Tolerant Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Mutant(R1098)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAUD; M; K

    2008-01-01

    Stepwise selection approach was adopted to obtain glyphosate-tolerant upland cotton mutant(R1098) from the embryogenic calli of Coker 312(Gossypium hirsutum L.).The calli were transferred to selection medium and multi-step selection pressure process was carried out until the calli

  12. Next Generation Genetic Mapping of the Ligon-lintless-2 (Li2) Locus in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing offers new ways to identify the genetic mechanisms that underlie mutant phenotypes. The release of a reference diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5) genome and bioinformatics tools to sort tetraploid reads into subgenomes has brought cotton genetic mapping into the genomics er...

  13. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  14. Urease from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seeds: isolation, physicochemical characterization, and antifungal properties of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Angela; Wassermann, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne Helene S; Feder, Vanessa; Carlini, Celia R

    2008-06-25

    Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5) are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide These enzymes, which are found in fungi, bacteria, and plants, show very similar structures. Despite an abundance of urease in vegetal tissues, the physiological role of this enzyme in plants is still poorly understood. It has been previously described that ureases from the legumes jackbean ( Canavalia ensiformis) and soybean ( Glycine max) have insecticidal activity and antifungal properties. This work presents the physicochemical purification and characterization of a urease from cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum) seeds, the first description of this enzyme in Malvaceae. The urease content varied among different cotton cultivars. Cotton seed urease (98.3 kDa) displayed low ureolytic activity but exhibited potent antifungal properties at sub-micromolar concentrations against different phytopathogenic fungi. As described for other ureases, the antifungal effect of cotton urease persisted after treatment with an irreversible inhibitor of its enzyme activity. The data suggest an important role of these proteins in plant defense.

  15. SNP Marker Discovery in Pima Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Leaf Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Pratibha; Ulloa, Mauricio; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the known narrow genetic diversity and discover single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers for marker-assisted breeding within Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) leaf transcriptomes. cDNA from 25-day plants of three diverse cotton genotypes [Pima S6 (PS6), Pima S7 (PS7), and Pima 3-79 (P3-79)] was sequenced on Illumina sequencing platform. A total of 28.9 million reads (average read length of 138 bp) were generated by sequencing cDNA libraries of these three genotypes. The de novo assembly of reads generated transcriptome sets of 26,369 contigs for PS6, 25,870 contigs for PS7, and 24,796 contigs for P3-79. A Pima leaf reference transcriptome was generated consisting of 42,695 contigs. More than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between the genotypes, with 100% SNP frequency and a minimum of eight sequencing reads. The most prevalent SNP substitutions were C—T and A—G in these cotton genotypes. The putative SNPs identified can be utilized for characterizing genetic diversity, genotyping, and eventually in Pima cotton breeding through marker-assisted selection.

  16. QTL analysis for early-maturing traits in cotton using two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengqi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Dong, Na; Zhao, Haihong; Xia, Zhe; Wang, Rui; Converse, Richard L; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-06-01

    Making use of the markers linked closely to QTL for early-maturing traits for MAS (Marker-assisted selection) is an effective method for the simultaneous improvement of early maturity and other properties in cotton. In this study, two F2 populations and their F2:3 families were generated from the two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) crosses, Baimian2 × TM-1 and Baimian2 × CIR12. QTL for early-maturing traits were analyzed using F2:3 families. A total of 54 QTL (31 suggestive and 23 significant) were detected. Fourteen significant QTL had the LOD scores not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold. At least four common QTL, qBP-17 for bud period (BP), qGP-17a/qGP-17b (qGP-17) for growth period (GP), qYPBF-17a/qYPBF-17b (qYPBF-17) for yield percentage before frost (YPBF) and qHFFBN-17 for height of first fruiting branch node (HFFBN), were found in both populations. These common QTL should be reliable and could be used for MAS to facilitate early maturity. The common QTL, qBP-17, had a LOD score not only > 3 but also exceeding permutation threshold, explaining 12.6% of the phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in MAS. Early-maturing traits of cotton are primarily controlled by dominant and over-dominant effects.

  17. Evolutionary Conservation and Divergence of Gene Coexpression Networks in Gossypium (Cotton) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Hovav, Ran; Grover, Corrinne E; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Kadmon, Noa; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2016-12-01

    The cotton genus (Gossypium) provides a superior system for the study of diversification, genome evolution, polyploidization, and human-mediated selection. To gain insight into phenotypic diversification in cotton seeds, we conducted coexpression network analysis of developing seeds from diploid and allopolyploid cotton species and explored network properties. Key network modules and functional associations were identified related to seed oil content and seed weight. We compared species-specific networks to reveal topological changes, including rewired edges and differentially coexpressed genes, associated with speciation, polyploidy, and cotton domestication. Network comparisons among species indicate that topologies are altered in addition to gene expression profiles, indicating that changes in transcriptomic coexpression relationships play a role in the developmental architecture of cotton seed development. The global network topology of allopolyploids, especially for domesticated G. hirsutum, resembles the network of the A-genome diploid more than that of the D-genome parent, despite its D-like phenotype in oil content. Expression modifications associated with allopolyploidy include coexpression level dominance and transgressive expression, suggesting that the transcriptomic architecture in polyploids is to some extent a modular combination of that of its progenitor genomes. Among allopolyploids, intermodular relationships are more preserved between two different wild allopolyploid species than they are between wild and domesticated forms of a cultivated cotton, and regulatory connections of oil synthesis-related pathways are denser and more closely clustered in domesticated vs. wild G. hirsutum. These results demonstrate substantial modification of genic coexpression under domestication. Our work demonstrates how network inference informs our understanding of the transcriptomic architecture of phenotypic variation associated with temporal scales ranging from

  18. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  19. A combined functional and structural genomics approach identified an EST-SSR marker with complete linkage to the Ligon lintless-2 genetic locus in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yuhong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton fiber length is an important quality attribute to the textile industry and longer fibers can be more efficiently spun into yarns to produce superior fabrics. There is typically a negative correlation between yield and fiber quality traits such as length. An understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fiber length can potentially provide a valuable tool for cotton breeders to improve fiber length while maintaining high yields. The cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fiber mutation Ligon lintless-2 is controlled by a single dominant gene (Li2 that results in significantly shorter fibers than a wild-type. In a near-isogenic state with a wild-type cotton line, Li2 is a model system with which to study fiber elongation. Results Two near-isogenic lines of Ligon lintless-2 (Li2 cotton, one mutant and one wild-type, were developed through five generations of backcrosses (BC5. An F2 population was developed from a cross between the two Li2 near-isogenic lines and used to develop a linkage map of the Li2 locus on chromosome 18. Five simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were closely mapped around the Li2 locus region with two of the markers flanking the Li2 locus at 0.87 and 0.52 centimorgan. No apparent differences in fiber initiation and early fiber elongation were observed between the mutant ovules and the wild-type ones. Gene expression profiling using microarrays suggested roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis and cytokinin regulation in the Li2 mutant phenotype. Microarray gene expression data led to successful identification of an EST-SSR marker (NAU3991 that displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus. Conclusions In the field of cotton genomics, we report the first successful conversion of gene expression data into an SSR marker that is associated with a genomic region harboring a gene responsible for a fiber trait. The EST-derived SSR marker NAU3991 displayed complete linkage to the Li2 locus on

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  2. Genetic diversity of sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) revealed by mapped SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Feng, C H; Lin, Z X; Zhang, X L

    2011-12-08

    In order to evaluate the genetic diversity of sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense), 237 commonly mapped SSR markers covering the cotton genome were used to genotype 56 sea-island cotton accessions. A total of 218 polymorphic primer pairs (91.98%) amplified 361 loci, with a mean of 1.66 loci. Polymorphism information content values of the SSR primers ranged from 0.035 to 0.862, with a mean of 0.320. The highest mean polymorphism information content value for the SSR motifs was from a compound motif (0.402), and for the chromosomes it was Chr10 (0.589); the highest ratio of polymorphic primers in Xinjiang accessions was from Chr21 (83.33%). Genetic diversity was high in Xinjiang accessions. AMOVA showed that variation was 8 and 92% among populations and within populations, respectively. The 56 sea-island accessions were divided into three groups in the UPGMA dendrogram: Xinhai5 was in the first group; accessions from Xinjiang, except the five main ones, were in the second group, and the other 34 accessions were in the third group. Accessions from the former Soviet Union and Xinjiang main accessions were closely related. Both PCA and UPGMA confirmed that Xinhai5 was distinct from the other accessions, and accessions from Xinjiang were in an independent group. Given the differences between principal components analysis and UPGMA results, it is necessary to combine molecular markers and pedigree information so that genetic diversity can be objectively analyzed.

  3. Study on the Mitochondrial Genome of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) by BAC Library Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ai-guo; LI Shuang-shuang; LIU Guo-zheng; LEI Bin-bin; KANG Ding-ming; LI Zhao-hu; MA Zhi-ying; HUA Jin-ping

    2014-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial genome displays complex features, particularly in terms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Therefore, research on the cotton mitochondrial genome may provide important information for analyzing genome evolution and exploring the molecular mechanism of CMS. In this paper, we present a preliminary study on the mitochondrial genome of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) based on positive clones from the bacterial artiifcial chromosome (BAC) library. Thirty-ifve primers designed with the conserved sequences of functional genes and exons of mitochondria were used to screen positive clones in the genome library of the sea island cotton variety called Pima 90-53. Ten BAC clones were obtained and veriifed for further study. A contig was obtained based on six overlapping clones and subsequently laid out primarily on the mitochondrial genome. One BAC clone, clone 6 harbored with the inserter of approximate 115 kb mtDNA sequence, in which more than 10 primers fragments could be ampliifed, was sequenced and assembled using the Solexa strategy. Fifteen mitochondrial functional genes were revealed in clone 6 by gene annotation. The characteristics of the syntenic gene/exon of the sequences and RNA editing were preliminarily predicted.

  4. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs for levant cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Satya Narayan; Srivastava, Anukool; Rai, Krishan Mohan; Ranjan, Alok; Singh, Sunil K; Nisar, Tarannum; Srivastava, Meenal; Bag, Sumit K; Mantri, Shrikant; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Tuli, Rakesh; Sawant, Samir V

    2012-02-01

    Four microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries for CA(15), GA(15), AAG(8) and ATG(8) repeats and transcriptome sequences of five cDNA libraries of Gossypium herbaceum were explored to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 428 unique clones from repeat enriched genomic libraries were mined for 584 genomic SSRs (gSSRs). In addition, 99,780 unigenes from transcriptome sequencing were explored for 8,900 SSR containing sequences with 12,471 expressed SSRs. The present study adds 1,970 expressed SSRs and 263 gSSRs to the public domain for the use of genetic studies of cotton. When 150 gSSRs and 50 expressed SSRs were tested on a panel of four species of cotton, 68 gSSRs and 12 expressed SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 200 SSRs were further deployed on 15 genotypes of levant cotton for the genetic diversity assessment. This is the first report on the successful use of repeat enriched genomic library and expressed sequence database for microsatellite markers development in G. herbaceum.

  5. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  6. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  7. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  8. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Wang; Chengqi Li; Qinglian Wang

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5 /chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  9. Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chengqi; Wang, Qinglian

    2014-08-01

    Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5/chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for markerassisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.

  10. Specific expression of a β-tubulin gene (GhTub1) in developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yuanli; (李园莉); SUN; Jie; (孙杰); LI; Chunhong; (李春红); ZHU; Yongqing; (朱勇清); XIA; Guixian; (夏桂先)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -1-15 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a β-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis using 3′-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the developing fibers. The results showed that GhTub1 gene was specifically expressed in cotton fiber cells. During fiber development, GhTub1 transcripts accumulated highlyat the stage of cell rapid elongation with the highest expression appearing at the time when fiber expansion reaches the peak rate. To probe the in vivo function of GhTub1, its cDNA was cloned in the yeast expression vector pREP1 and transformed into the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overexpression of GhTub1 in yeast cells caused severe changes in the cell morphology. These results suggest that GhTub1 may play a role in the polar elongation of cotton fibers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fiber-specific transcript accumulation of a cotton β-tubulin gene.

  11. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Hemant P Borase; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Rahul K Suryawanshi; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K.; Satish V Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, etha...

  12. Biochemical Genetic Mechanism and QTLs of Early Maturing without Yield Loss in Short-season Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mei-zhen; YU Shu-xun; FAN Shu-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ The short season cotton (SSC) was important Upland plant ecotype (Gossypium hirsutum L.).The growth of SSC was very short that is 105~110 days (after planting).SSC could increase plant index and farmer incomes on the same soil in one year.However,there was a contradiction between the early maturing and high-yield potential of SSC varieties that restrict SSC development.The SSC varieties often exhibited premature senescence.

  13. Lipid metabolites in seeds of diverse Gossypium accessions: Molecular identification of a high oleic mutant allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestication and breeding of cotton for elite, high-fiber cultivars has led to reduced genetic variation of seed constituents within currently cultivated upland Cotton genotypes. However, a recent screen of the genetically diverse U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection identified Gossypium ...

  14. An Integrated Genetic,Physical and Transcript Map of Homoeologous Chromosomes 12 and 26 in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhang-you; KOHEL Russell J; SONG Guo-li; CHO Jaemin; YU Jing; YU Shu-xun; TOMKINS Jeffrey; YU John Z

    2008-01-01

    @@ While Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world production,its genetic improvement is hindered by the shortage of effective genomic tools and resources.The complex allotetraploid genome of the Upland cotton presents a unique challenge to such research efforts including integrated genome mapping and sequencing,which are considered highly experimental.Here,we report an integrated genetic,physical,and transcript map of homoeologous chromosomes 12 and 26 based on BAC/BIBAC clones,DNA markers,and EST unigenes.

  15. Differential Cotton leaf crumple virus-VIGS-mediated gene silencing and viral genome localization in different Gossypium hirsutum genetic backgrounds

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2010-12-01

    A Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV)-based gene silencing vector containing a fragment of the Gossypium hirsutum Magnesium chelatase subunit I was used to establish endogenous gene silencing in cotton of varied genetic backgrounds. Biolistic inoculation resulted in systemic and persistent photo-bleaching of the leaves and bolls of the seven cultivars tested, however, the intensity of silencing was variable. CLCrV-VIGS-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein was used to monitor the in planta distribution of the vector, indicating successful phloem invasion in all cultivars tested. Acala SJ-1, one of the cotton cultivars, was identified as a particularly optimal candidate for CLCrV-VIGS-based cotton reverse-genetics. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zare Feizabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare of ecological management of weed control on economical income, yield and yield components of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., a Randomized Complete Block design with 12 treatments and four replications was conducted in Mahvelat of Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of weeding, harrowing, burning, two times weeding, weeding + harrowing, weeding + burning, harrowing + harrowing, harrowing + weeding, harrowing + burning, weeding+ harrowing+ burning, weed free and weedy as a check treatment. Investigated traits were plant height, number of boll in plant, 20 boll weight, 20 boll cotton lint weight, cotton lint yield per plant, cotton yield, number and biomass of weeds, outcome, net and gross income. The result showed that treatments had significant effect (p

  17. Analyses of Fusarium wilt race 3 resistance in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Alisher A; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom B; Egamberdiev, Sharof Sh; Kuryazov, Zarif; Glukhova, Ludmila A; Adilova, Azoda T; Rizaeva, Sofiya M; Ulloa, Mauricio; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represents a serious threat to cotton (Gossypium spp.) production. For the last few decades, the FOV pathogen has become a significant problem in Uzbekistan causing severe wilt disease and yield losses of G. hirsutum L. cultivars. We present the first genetic analyses of FOV race 3 resistance on Uzbek Cotton Germplasm with a series of field and greenhouse artificial inoculation-evaluations and inheritance studies. The field experiments were conducted in two different sites: the experimental station in Zangiota region-Environment (Env) 1 and the Institute of Cotton Breeding (Env-2, Tashkent province). The Env-1 was known to be free of FOV while the Env-2 was known to be a heavily FOV infested soil. In both (Env-1 and Env-2) of these sites, field soil was inoculated with FOV race 3. F2 and an F3 Upland populations ("Mebane B1" × "11970") were observed with a large phenotypic variance for plant survival and FOV disease severity within populations and among control or check Upland accessions. Wilt symptoms among studied F2 individuals and F3 families significantly differed depending on test type and evaluation site. Distribution of Mendelian rations of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) phenotypes were 1S:1R field Env-1 and 3S:1R field Env-2 in the F2 population, and 1S:3R greenhouse site in the F3 population. The different segregation distribution of the Uzbek populations may be explained by differences in FOV inoculum level and environmental conditions during assays. However, genetic analysis indicated a recessive single gene action under high inoculum levels or disease pressure for FOV race 3 resistance. Uzbek germplasm may be more susceptible than expected to FOV race 3, and sources of resistance to FOV may be limited under the FOV inoculum levels present in highly-infested fields making the breeding process more complex.

  18. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  19. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) density effects on cottonGossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-yan[1; WU Han-wen[2; JIANG Wei-li[1; MA Ya-jie[1; MA Yan[1

    2015-01-01

    Goosegrass is one of the worst agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. Field experiments were conducted during 2010-2012 to determine the influence of goosegrass density on cotton growth at the weed densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 plants m-1 of row. Seed cotton yield tended to decrease with the increase in weed density, and goosegrass at a density of 4 plants m-1 of row significantly reduced cotton yields by 20 to 27%. A density of 11.6-19.2 goosegrass plant m-1 of row would result in a 50% cotton yield loss from the maximum yield according to the hyperbolic decay regression model. Boll production was not affected in the early growing season. But boll numbers per plant were reduced about 25% at the den- sity of 4 plants m-1 of row in the late growing season. Both cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were significantly reduced (8%) at 4 goosegrass plants m-~ of row. Cotton plant height, stem diameter and sympodial branch number were not affected as much as cotton yields by goosegrass competition. Seed index, lint percentage and lint fiber properties were unaffected by weed competition. Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, 142-387 g dry weight by harvest. Goosegrass biomass m-2 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a quadratic response. The adverse impact of goosegrass on cotton yield identified in this study has indicated the need of effective goosegrass management.

  20. cDNA-AFLP-based genetical genomics in cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Michel; Souquet, Marlène; Jean, Janine; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Lepitre, Vincent; Pré, Martial; Jacobs, John; Llewellyn, Danny; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-01

    Genetical genomics, or genetic analysis applied to gene expression data, has not been widely used in plants. We used quantitative cDNA-AFLP to monitor the variation in the expression level of cotton fiber transcripts among a population of inter-specific Gossypium hirsutum × G. barbadense recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two key fiber developmental stages, elongation (10 days post anthesis, dpa), and secondary cell wall thickening (22 dpa), were studied. Normalized intensity ratios of 3,263 and 1,201 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) segregating over 88 RILs were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for the 10 and 22 dpa fibers, respectively. Two-thirds of all TDFs mapped between 1 and 6 eQTLs (LOD > 3.5). Chromosome 21 had a higher density of eQTLs than other chromosomes in both data sets and, within chromosomes, hotspots of presumably trans-acting eQTLs were identified. The eQTL hotspots were compared to the location of phenotypic QTLs for fiber characteristics among the RILs, and several cases of co-localization were detected. Quantitative RT-PCR for 15 sequenced TDFs showed that 3 TDFs had at least one eQTL at a similar location to those identified by cDNA-AFLP, while 3 other TDFs mapped an eQTL at a similar location but with opposite additive effect. In conclusion, cDNA-AFLP proved to be a cost-effective and highly transferable platform for genome-wide and population-wide gene expression profiling. Because TDFs are anonymous, further validation and interpretation (in silico analysis, qPCR gene profiling) of the eQTL and eQTL hotspots will be facilitated by the increasing availability of cDNA and genomic sequence resources in cotton.

  1. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  2. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  3. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuange Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6 is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5 were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  4. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene,GhA OC1, in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange; Wang; Huaihua; Liu; Qingguo; Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase(AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid(JA)biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes(Gh AOC1–Gh AOC5) were cloned from upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.),sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of Gh AOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate(Me JA) and Cu Cl2 stresses. To investigate the role of Gh AOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton Gh AOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S(Ca MV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, Gh AOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress.This study provides the first evidence that Gh AOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  5. Improvement of copper tolerance of Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of an allene oxide cyclase gene, GhAOC1, in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuange Wang; Huaihua Liu; Qingguo Xin

    2015-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC, E 5.3.99.6) is an essential enzyme in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic pathway and mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. In this report, five AOC genes (GhAOC1–GhAOC5) were cloned from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), sequenced, and characterized. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcripts of GhAOCs were abundantly expressed in roots and less in fibers, and regulated in cotton plants under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and CuCl2 stresses. To investigate the role of GhAOC under copper stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing cotton GhAOC1 under control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter were generated. Compared to untransformed plants, GhAOC1-overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana plants exhibited markedly higher survival rate, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and photosynthetic efficiency, and reduced cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation under copper stress. This study provides the first evidence that GhAOC1 plays an important role in copper stress tolerance.

  6. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  7. Characteristics of Photosystem II Behavior in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Bract and Capsule Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-li; LUO Hong-hai; HU Yuan-yuan; Reto J. Strasser; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Though bract and capsule wall of boll in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have different photosynthetic capacities, the features of photosystem II (PS II) in these organs are scarce. In this paper, chlorophyll a lfuorescence emission was measured to investigate the difference in the photosynthetic apparatus of dark-acclimated (JIP-test) and light-acclimated (light-saturation pulse method) bract and capsule wall. Compared with leaves, the oxygen evolving system of non-foliar organs had lower efifciency. The pool size of PS II electron acceptor of non-foliar organs was small, and the photochemical activity of leaves was higher than that of the bract and capsule wall. In regard to the photosystem I (PS I) electron acceptor side, the pool size of end electron acceptors of leaves was larger, and the quantum yield of electron transport from QA (PS II primary plastoquinone acceptor) further than the PS I electron acceptors of leaves was higher than that of bract and capsule wall. In all green organs, the actual quantum yield of photochemistry decreased with light. The thermal dissipation fraction of light absorbed by the PS II antennae was the highest in bract and the lowest in capsule wall relative to leaves. Compared with leaves, capsule wall was characterized by less constitutive thermal dissipation and via dissipation as lfuorescence emission. These results suggested that lower PS II photochemical activity in non-foliar organs may be result from limitations at the donor side of PS II and the acceptor sides of both photosystems.

  8. Salt Tolerance Evaluation in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Using RAPD Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. [Niab78 (N78, Deir-Ezzor22 (DE22, Deltapine50 (DP50 and Aleppo118 (A118] varieties towards salt stress (0 and 200 mM NaCl for 7 weeks based on RAPD marker. Our data showed that the highest total polymorphic bands identified by the 26 RAPD tested primers were 150 bands generated by N78 variety, while the lowest ones were recorded for DP50 (29 bands. Otherwise, unique (negative and positive markers characterized the two tolerant varieties (N78 and DE22 were 22 and 29 markers, respectively. Our data indicated that the highest polymorphism level was detected in N78 variety (68.5% followed by DE22 (60.9%, whereas, the lowest one was recorded for DP50 (21.3%. Our data obtained herein indicates that RAPD marker provided molecular markers for salinity tolerance screening in early stage in genetic improvement programs.

  9. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Fernandes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  10. Changes in the sugar composition and molecular mass distribution of matrix polysaccharides during cotton fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-04-01

    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fiber development consists of a fiber elongation stage (up to 20 d post-anthesis) and a subsequent cell wall thickening stage. Cell wall analysis revealed that the extractable matrix (pectic and hemicellulosic) polysaccharides accounted for 30-50% of total sugar content in the fiber elongation stage but less than 3% in the cell wall thickening stage. By contrast, cellulose increased dramatically after the fiber elongation ceased. The amounts of extractable xyloglucans and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers per seed increased in the early fiber elongation stage and decreased thereafter. The amounts of extractable acidic polymers and non-cellulosic beta-glucans (mainly composed of beta-1,3-glucans) increased in parallel with fiber elongation and then decreased. The molecular masses of extractable non-cellulosic beta-glucans, and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers decreased during both fiber elongation and cell wall thickening stages. The molecular mass of extractable xyloglucans also decreased during the fiber elongation stage, but this decrease ceased during the cell wall thickening stage. Conversely, the molecular size of acidic polymers in the extractable pectic fraction increased during both stages. Thus, not only the amounts but also the molecular size of the extractable matrix polysaccharides showed substantial changes during cotton fiber development.

  11. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  12. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Evidence for Phenylpropanoid Synthesis and Presence of Wall-linked Phenolics in Cotton Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fan; Wei-Jun Shi; Wen-Ran Hu; Xiao-Yan Hao; Dong-Mei Wang; Hui Yuan; Hong-Ying Yan

    2009-01-01

    The mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber is a single cell with a typically thickened secondary cell wall. The aim of this research was to use molecular, spectroscopic and chemical techniques to investigate the possible occurrence of previously overlooked accumulation of phenolics during secondary cell wall formation in cotton fibers. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GhCAD6 and GhCAD1 were predominantly expressed among seven gene homologs, only GhCAD6 was up-regulated during secondary wall formation in cotton fibers. Phylogenic analysis revealed that GhCAD6 belonged to Class I and was proposed to have a major role in monolignol biosynthesis, and GhCADI belonged to Class III and was proposed to have a compensatory mechanism for monolignol biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that the cofactor binding sites of GhCADs were highly conserved with high similarity and identity to bona fide cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases. The substrate binding site of GhCADI is different from GhCAD6. This difference was confirmed by the different catalytic activities observed with the enzymes. Cell wall auto-fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical analyses confirmed that phenolic compounds were bound to the cell walls of mature cotton fibers. Our findings may suggest a potential for genetic manipulation of cotton fiber properties, which are of central importance to agricultural, cotton processing and textile industries.

  14. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum Weed interference periods in cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Salgado

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os efeitos de períodos de controle e de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum, cultivar Delta-Opal, realizou-se um experimento que constou de dois grupos de tratamentos. No primeiro, a cultura permaneceu livre da competição das plantas daninhas desde a emergência até 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 dias e colheita (159 dias. No segundo, a cultura permaneceu em competição com a comunidade infestante desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos para a primeira série de tratamentos. Dentre as espécies de plantas daninhas encontradas na área experimental, destacaram-se a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus, o fedegoso (Senna obtusifolia, a anileira (Indigofera hirsuta e o capim-carrapicho (Cenchrus echinatus. Pelas condições edáficas, climáticas e florísticas sob as quais foi conduzida a cultura de algodão, o Período Anterior à Interferência (PAI dessa comunidade que reduziu em 5% a produtividade da cultura foi de oito dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE; o Período Total de Prevenção da Interferência (PTPI foi de 66 DAE; e o Período Crítico de Prevenção da Interferência (PCPI foi dos 8 aos 66 DAE.In order to evaluate the effects of weed control and weed coexistence periods on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Delta Opal yield, an experiment was carried out consisting of two treatment groups. In the first, the crop was weed free from from emergence until 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 days, and harvest (159 days respectively. In the second group, the crop was in competition with the weed community from emergence until the same period, as described for the first series of treatment, respectively. Among the weed species found in the experimental area, the most important were purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus, sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia, indigo (Indigofera hirsuta and sandbur (Cenchrus echinatus. The period after cotton plant

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Genotypes That Are Susceptible, Resistant, and Hypersensitive to Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijuan Li

    Full Text Available Reniform nematode is a semi-endoparasitic nematode species causing significant yield loss in numerous crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. An RNA-sequencing analysis was conducted to measure transcript abundance in reniform nematode susceptible (DP90 & SG747, resistant (BARBREN-713, and hypersensitive (LONREN-1 genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. with and without reniform nematode infestation. Over 90 million trimmed high quality reads were assembled into 84,711 and 80, 353 transcripts using the G. arboreum and the G. raimondii genomes as references. Many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed between the three different genotypes both prior to and during nematode pathogenesis, including transcripts corresponding to the gene ontology categories of cell wall, hormone metabolism and signaling, redox reactions, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, stress responses, and signaling. Further analysis revealed that a number of these differentially expressed transcripts mapped to the G. raimondii and/or the G. arboreum genomes within 1 megabase of quantitative trait loci that had previously been linked to reniform nematode resistance. Several resistance genes encoding proteins known to be strongly linked to pathogen perception and resistance, including LRR-like and NBS-LRR domain-containing proteins, were among the differentially expressed transcripts mapping near these quantitative trait loci. Further investigation is required to confirm a role for these transcripts in reniform nematode susceptibility, hypersensitivity, and/or resistance. This study presents the first systemic investigation of reniform nematode resistance-associated genes using different genotypes of cotton. The candidate reniform nematode resistance-associated genes identified in this study can serve as the basis for further functional analysis and aid in further development of reniform a nematode resistant cotton germplasm.

  16. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  17. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  18. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    To Identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode and fungal disease resistance traits, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) chromosome substitution (CS) lines were used in this study. The CS lines were developed in ...

  19. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown colour and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some naturally-coloured brown cotton fibres from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fibre loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have yet to be identified, and the mechan...

  20. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  1. Genetic studies of quantitative traits in interspecific hybrids of tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. X Gossypium barbadense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Patel, N. A. Patel, N. V. Soni and V. D. Dave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty five inter specific hybrids between tetraploid species, G. hirsutum x G. barbadense derived involving nine diverse female parents of G.hirsutum and five pollen parents of G.barbadense were evaluated to study heterosis and combining ability for seed cotton yield and other characters viz., days to 50% flowering, number of monopodia/plant, number of sympodia/plant, seed index, lint index and oil content. The hybrid G. 67 x GSB 19 exhibited positively significant standard heterosis for seed cotton yield/plant, seed and lint index. Combining ability analysis suggested preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the characters under study except for days to 50% flowering. The female parent,G. 67 and male parent GSB 19 depicted positive significant gca effects for seed cotton yield/plant, seed and lint index; while, hybrid G. 247 x Suvin had significant positive sca effects for seed cotton yield/plant, number of monopodia/plant, number of sympodia/plant and oil content.

  2. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  3. Genotype and Planting Density Effects on Rooting Traits and Yield in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Zhen Zhang; Bao-Guo Li; Gen-Tu Yan; Wopke van der Werf; JHJ Spiertz; Si-Ping Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Root density distribution of plants is a major indicator of competition between plants and determines resource capture from the soil. This experiment was conducted in 2005 at Anyang, located in the Yellow River region, Henan Province, China. Three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were chosen: hybrid Bt-cultivar CRI46, conventional Bt-cultivars CRI44 and CRI45. Six planting densities were designed, ranging from 1.5 to 12.0 plants/m2. Root parameters such as surface area, diameter and length were analyzed by using the DT-SCAN image analysis method. The root length density (RLD), root average diameter and root area index (RAI), root surface area per unit land area, were studied. The results showed that RLD and RAI differed between genotypes; hybrid CRI46 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) RLD and RAI values than conventional cultivars, especially under low planting densities, less than 3.0 plants/m2. The root area index (RAI) of hybrid CRI46 was 61% higher than of CRI44 and CRI45 at the flowering stage. The RLD and RAI were also significantly different (P= 0.000) between planting densities. The depth distribution of RAI showed that at increasing planting densities RAI was increasingly distributed in the soil layers below 50 cm. The RAI of hybrid CRI46 was for all planting densities, obviously higher than other cultivars during the flowering and boll stages. It was concluded that the hybrid had a strong advantage in root maintenance preventing premature senescence of roots. The root diameter of hybrid CRI46 had a genetically higher root diameter at planting densities lower than 6.0 plants/m2. Good associations were found between yield and RAI in different stages. The optimum planting density ranged from 4.50 plants/m2 to 6.75 plants/m2 for conventional cultivars and around 4.0-5.0 plants/m2 for hybrids.

  4. Effect of Different Hormone Combinations on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cotton Cultivar Xinluzao 33(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panpan MA; Zongming XIE; Quansheng LI; Yousheng TIAN; Youzhong LI

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration for an upland cotton cultivar Xinluzao33 under the induction of different hormone combinations and thus to determine the optimal hormone combination. [Method] Cal i of Xinluzao33 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were in-duced from seedling hypocotyl tissue by a range of DK and BK combinations. Em-bryogenic cal i and embryos were induced on cal us-inducing medium (CIM) without any hormones. Cal us appearance and quality were compared to determine which medium was the optimal for cal us induction. Embryogenesis ratio was calculated to determine which medium was the best for somatic embryogenesis and plant regen-eration. [Result] Cal us induction rate was 100% in al the 12 hormone combinations. The cal i were yel ow or kel y, and their texture was loose or soft under low con-centrations of DK combinations, green or white, variably compact under high con-centrations of DK combinations. The cal i induced by BK combinations were kel y or green, covering creamy white substance. The best medium for cal us induction was DK6 (0.05 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.10 mg/L KT). Embryogenic cal i were successful y in-duced from al the combinations. The efficiency of embryogenic cal us induction, embryogenesis, and plantlet regeneration were significantly different among the 12 combinations. The result showed that the embryogenesis ratio was the highest in BK3 combination (0.50 mg/L IBA and 0.50 mg/L KT), 72.86% of embryogenic cal i differentiated into somatic embryos after being cultured on CIM for 80 d, and 80.93% of the somatic embryos final y regenerated into plants on SEM (somatic em-bryo induction medium). [Conclusion] These results indicate that hormone combina-tion BK3 (0.50 mg/LIBA and 0.50 mg/L KT) was the best medium for somatic em-bryogenesis and plant regeneration from Xinluzao33.

  5. An opportunistic Pantoea sp. isolated from a cotton fleahopper that is capable of causing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bud rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea ananatis (Serano) representatives are known to have a broad host range including both humans and plants. The cotton fleahopper (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus, Reuter) is a significant pest that causes cotton bud damage that may result in significant yield losses. In this study, cotton fleahopp...

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

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    Caiping Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes. We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboreum, and G. raimondii. These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G. raimondii with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups, with 20 members in group I, 88 in group II, and 12 in group III. The 88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups, groups IIa–e, containing 7, 16, 37, 15, and 13 members, respectively. We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins. The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response. Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiping; Cai; Erli; Niu; Hao; Du; Liang; Zhao; Yue; Feng; Wangzhen; Guo

    2014-01-01

    WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes.We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species,Gossypium hirsutum,Gossypium barbadense,Gossypium arboreum,and G.raimondii.These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G.raimondii with uneven distribution.Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups,with 20 members in group I,88 in group II,and 12 in group III.The88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups,groups IIa–e,containing 7,16,37,15,and 13 members,respectively.We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins.The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response.Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  8. Comparison of ionomic and metabolites response under alkali stress in old and young leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is an important agriculture-related environmental problem. Alkali stress and salt stress strongly influence the metabolic balance in plants. Salt and alkali stresses exert varied effects on old and young tissues, which display different adaptive strategies. In this study, we used cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. plants as experimental material to investigate whether alkali stress exerts varied effects on ion balance and metabolism in old and young leaves of cotton plants exposed to alkali stress. Moreover, we compared the functions of young and old leaves in alkali tolerance. Results showed that alkali stress exerted a considerably stronger growth inhibition on old leaves than on young leaves. Under alkali stress, young leaves can maintain low Na and high K contents and retain relatively stable pigment accumulation and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, resulting in greater accumulation of photosynthetic metabolites. In terms of metabolic response, the young and old leaves clearly displayed different mechanisms of osmotic regulation. The amounts of inositol and mannose significantly increased in both old and young leaves of cotton exposed to alkali stress, and the extent of increase was higher in young leaves than in old leaves. In old leaves, synthesis of amino acids, such as GABA, valine, and serine, was dramatically enhanced, and this phenomenon is favorable for osmotic adjustment and membrane stability. Organs at different developmental stages possibly display different mechanisms of metabolic regulation under stress condition. Thus, we propose that future investigations on alkali stress should use more organs obtained at different developmental stages.

  9. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  11. Genetic mapping and characteristics of genes specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Li

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC(1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs, the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum and 3-79 (G. barbadense. Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength.

  12. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  13. Identification and Analyses of miRNA Genes in Allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum Fiber Cells Based on the Sequenced Diploid G.raimondii Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Li; Xiang Jin; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The plant genome possesses a large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) mainly 21-24 nucleotides in length.They play a vital role in regulation of target gene expression at various stages throughout the whole plant life cycle.Here we sequenced and analyzed ~ 10 million non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from fiber tissue of the allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) 7 days post-anthesis using ncRNA-seq technology.In terms of distinct reads,24 nt ncRNA is by far the dominant species,followed by 21 nt and 23 nt ncRNAs.Using ab initio prediction,we identified and characterized a total of 562 candidate miRNA gene loci on the recently assembled D5 genome of the diploid cotton G.raimondii.Of all the 562 predicted miRNAs,22 were previously discovered in cotton species and 187 had sequence conservation and homology to homologous miRNAs of other plant species.Nucleotide bias analysis showed that the 9th and 1st positions were significantly conserved among different types of miRNA genes.Among the 463 putative miRNA target genes,most significant up/down-regulation occurred in 10-20 days post-anthesis,indicating that miRNAs played an important role during the elongation and secondary cell wall synthesis stages of cotton fiber developmem.The discovery of new miRNA genes will help understand the mechanisms of miRNA generation and regulation in cotton.

  14. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

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    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  15. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  16. Genetic Dissection of Net Effects Between Yield and Its Components in Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zi-hong; MEI Yong-jun; ZOU Ke-qin; FU Xian-shu; JIANG Lin-shu

    2008-01-01

    The number of bolls,individual boll weight,and lint percentage are three important yield components of lint yield of cotton.In the present study,nine parents,twenty F1,and twenty F2 crosses of intraspecific hybrids of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) were grown at Tarim University,Alar,Xinjiang,China,in 2000 and 2001.Lint yield and its three component traits were measured and analyzed by an extended conditional mixed linear model approach.Lint percentage made the largest contribution to additive,additive x environment,and dominance x environment variations for lint yield.The contribution ratios of number of bolls,individual boll weight,and combined contribution of these two traits to additive x environment and dominance x environment variations for lint yield were not statistically significant.Lint yield of different parents could be affected differently by lint percentage.Lint yield of some parents was closely correlated with lint percentage,whereas for other parents,the behavior of individual boll weight and number of bolls played much more important roles on lint yield than that of lint percentage.It was shown by the conditional and conventional predicted additive x environment interaction effects of parents that the environment condition could influence different parents with varied effects.

  17. Salt-induced effects on some key morpho-physiological attributes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. at various growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Lubna Shaheen and Muhammad Shahbaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a multidimensional stress affecting crop yield and productivity at various levels of plant organization. To assess salt induced adverse effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., ten cultivars were grown in sand culture supplemented with full strength Hoagland’s nutrients solutions and different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Salt stress markedly reduced growth attributes, relative water contents, efficiency of photosystem II, net CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E and stomatal conductance in all cultivars. Reduction was maximum at the highest level of salt stress i.e. 200 mM. However, response of cotton cultivars was variable to various levels of salinity and even at various developmental stages. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant on the basis of their better growth performance and net CO2 assimilation rate whereas cvs. CIM-496, CIM-473 and FH-901 were relatively salt sensitive. Cultivars RH-510, BH-118 and MNH-770 exhibited high shoot fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic rate (A, and Photosystem II (Fv/Fm efficiency at both seedling and maturity growth stages. Results suggest that selection of plants having high photosynthetic rate and biomass at seedling stage may be a good source of high yield at mature stage of growth.

  18. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Pmapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  19. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  20. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  1. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  2. ACQUIREMENT OF TRANSGENIC COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. RESISTANT TO HERBICIDE AND INSECT USING GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT aroAM12 GENE AS A SELECTABLE MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Longxu

    2005-08-01

    , was used as a dominant selectable marker for cotton plant transformation. The genes were introduced into commercial cultivar Zhongmian12 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were directly selected on medium supplemented with 80μmol/L glyphosate. In this research, 40 regenerative cotton plantlets were obtained through screening. Integration of aroAM12 and Bts1m genes was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot, the results indicated that all the 40 plants possessed the aroAM12 gene, 28 of which possessed both the aroAM12 and BtS1m genes. Expression of both the genes was established by Western blots. Insect bioassay and glyphosate resistance assay indicated that the transgenic cotton plants obtained were highly resistant to glyphosate and insect. The results of glyphosate resistance and insect bioassay of T1 generation showed that the numbers of resistance and sensitive phenotypes showed Mendelian segregation ratio.

  3. Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAVEENDRAN T S; PREETHA S; RAJESWARI S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the worlds leading natural fiber crop,and it is the cornerstone of textile industries worldwide.The cotton industry is confronted with problems in cost of production and requirements for high quality in the product.It is an industry in which marketing is based on measurable quality factors and where technological changes are being implemented rapidly and constantly.So the breeders have to constantly breed cotton varieties to suit the requirements of the textile industry.

  4. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available To date, no miRNAs have been identified in the important diploid cotton species although there are several reports on miRNAs in upland cotton. In this study, we identified 73 miRNAs, belonging to 49 families, from Asiatic cotton using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. Several of the predicted miRNAs were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The length of miRNAs varied from 18 to 22 nt with an average of 20 nt. The length of miRNA precursors also varied from 46 to 684 nt with an average of 138 ±120 nt. For a majority of Asiatic cotton miRNAs, there is only one member per family; however, multiple members were identified for miRNA 156, 414, 837, 838, 1044, 1533, 2902, 2868, 5021 and 5142 families. Nucleotides A and U were dominant, accounted for 62.95%, in the Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs. The Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs had high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE and adjusted MFE (AMFE and high MFE index (MFEI. Many miRNAs identified in Asiatic cotton suggest that miRNAs also play a similar regulatory mechanism in diploid cotton.

  5. Partial Dominance, Overdominance and Epistasis as the Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yumei; Hua, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Determination of genetic basis of heterosis may promote hybrid production in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This study was designed to explore the genetic mechanism of heterosis for yield and yield components in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations derived from a hybrid ‘Xinza No. 1’. Replicated yield field trials of the progenies were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Phenotypic data analyses indicated overdominance in F1 for yield and yield components. Additive and dominance effects at single-locus level and digenic epistatic interactions at two-locus level were analyzed by 421 marker loci spanning 3814 cM of the genome. A total of 38 and 49 QTLs controlling yield and yield components were identified in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations, respectively. Analyses of these QTLs indicated that the effects of partial dominance and overdominance contributed to heterosis in Upland cotton simultaneously. Most of the QTLs showed partial dominance whereas 13 QTLs showing overdominance in F2:3 population, and 19 QTLs showed overdominance in F2:4. Among them, 21 QTLs were common in both F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations. A large number of two-locus interactions for yield and yield components were detected in both generations. AA (additive × additive) epistasis accounted for majority portion of epistatic effects. Thirty three complementary two-locus homozygotes (11/22 and 22/11) were the best genotypes for AA interactions in terms of bolls per plant. Genotypes of double homozygotes, 11/22, 22/11 and 22/22, performed best for AD/DA interactions, while genotype of 11/12 performed best for DD interactions. These results indicated that (1) partial dominance and overdominance effects at single-locus level and (2) epistasis at two-locus level elucidated the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton. PMID:26618635

  6. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  7. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The number of cotton (Gossypium sp. ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  8. Fine mapping of the red plant gene R1 in upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; CAI CaiPing; ZHANG TianZhen; GUO WangZhen

    2009-01-01

    Sub 16 is a substitution line with G. hirsutum cv. TM-1 genetic background except that the 16th chro-mosome (Chr. 16) is replaced by the corresponding homozygous chromosome of G. barbadense cv. 3-79, and T586 is a G. hirsutum multiple gene marker line with 8 dominant mutation genes. The R1 gene for anthocyanin pigmentation was tagged in Chr. 16 in T586. The objective of this research was to screen SSR markers tightly linked with R1 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants derived from the cross of Sub 16 and T586 and the backbone genetic linkage map from G. hir-sutumxG, barbadense BC1 newly updated by our laboratory. Genetic analysis suggested that the se-gregation ratio of red plants in the F2 population fit Mendelian 1:2:1 inheritance, confirming that the red plant trait was controlled by an incomplete dominance gene. Preliminary mapping of R1 was conducted using 237 randomLy selected F2 individuals and JoinMap v3.0 software. Then, a fine map of R1 was constructed using the F2 segregating population containing 1259 plants, and R1 was located between NAU4956 and NAU6752, with only 0.49 cM to the nearest maker loci (NAU6752). These results pro-vided a foundation for map-based cloning of R1 and further development of cotton cultivars with red fibers by transgenic technology.

  9. Xinjiang: Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.

  10. Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabrales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development.

  11. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H

    2012-10-01

    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  12. Cloning of Two Genes Related to Plant Defense Response of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. )%两个与海岛棉防卫反应相关基因的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daolong DOU; Bingshan WANG; Yixiong TANG; Zhixing WANG; Jingsan SUN; Shirong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium wilt, caused by V. dahaliae, is a serious fungus disease of cotton in China.Nearly all cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties are sensitive to it. Some species of island cotton ( G. barbadense ),however, have a natural resistance to this pathogen. To investigate the mechanism of SAR signal transduction and response to pathogen,two genes, which play important roles in the development of SAR, are cloned by degenerated PCR.

  13. Assessment of Tolerance Level of some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine KARADEMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the tolerance level of some cotton varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. disease. Verticillium wilt is one of the major constraint diseases of cotton production worldwide and also in Turkey. The study was carried out at the Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute’s naturally infected experimental area during 2004-2006. In this study, 10 different commercial cotton varieties were used as plant material. The experimental design was a randomized complete-block with four replications. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI, vascular disease index (VDI and vascular disease rate (VDR were observed in addition to seed cotton yield and some fiber quality characteristics. According to the results, it was determined that with regards to FDI, VDI and VDR, the most tolerant varieties were ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’, while the most sensitive varieties were ‘Maraş 92’, ‘Sayar 314’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. The other varieties had moderate tolerance levels. The highest seed cotton yield and lint yield were obtained from ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. These results showed that some sensitive varieties had high yield; the reason for this situation may be related with early or late occurrence of the disease. The result of this study indicated that ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’ varieties must be preferred for infected areas; on the other hand, ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’ can be recommended and grown in uninfected areas. Additionally, ‘Carmen’, ‘GW-Teks’ and ‘GW-Golda’ varieties can be used as material for improving disease resistance in cotton breeding programs.

  14. Agrobacterium-meditated Genetic Transformation of an Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 310) Using a Novel Bt Gene Cry 2Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THIRUVENGADAM V; RASHMI J A; UDYASURIAN V; BALASUBRAMANIAN P; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ The development of transgenic cotton varieties resistant to bollworms has been a major success of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture,evidenced by phenomenal increase in the cultivable area under (B.thuringiensis) Bt cotton in recent years worldwide.Of late,there are reports of insects developing resistance against the most commonly used Bt toxin CrylAc.Hence,there is an urgent need to broaden the source of resistance by employing new genes in order to reduce the chances of insects developing Bt resistance.Keeping this objective in view,cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn cv Coker 310) plants expressing a novel insecticidal crystal protein Cry2Ac were developed in the present study.

  15. Plant tissue culture independent Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated In-planta transformation strategy for upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra B. Kalbande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method of transgenic development called “In-planta” transformation method, where Agrobacterium is used to infect the plantlets but the steps of in vitro regeneration of plants is totally avoided. In this study, we have reported a simple In-planta method for efficient transformation of diploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum cv LRK-516 Anjali using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA-105 harbouring recombinant binary vector plasmid pBinAR with Arabidopsis At-NPR1 gene. Four day old plantlets were used for transformation. A vertical cut was made at the junction of cotyledonary leaves, moderately bisecting the shoot tip and exposing meristem cells at apical meristem. This site was infected with Agrobacterium inoculum. The transgenic events obtained were tested positive for the presence of At-NPR1 gene with promoter nptII gene. They are also tested negative for vector backbone integration and Agrobacterium contamination in T0 events. With this method a transformation frequency of 6.89% was reported for the cv LRK-516.

  16. Cell synchrony and chromosomal protocols for somatic cells of cotton gossypium hirsutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van`t Hof, J.; Lamm, S.S.

    1994-10-10

    The intent of this pamphlet is to share information with others who are interested in useful protocols for cotton cytogenetics and cytology. The protocols described are a beginning effort and they are expected to be improved. All methods, results and data given pertain to cultivar MD 51ne. We are not satisfied with our results of in situ hybridization.

  17. Modeling cotton (Gossypium spp) leaves and canopy using computer aided geometric design (CAGD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this research is to develop a geometrically accurate model of cotton crop canopies for exploring changes in canopy microenvironment and physiological function with leaf structure. We develop an accurate representation of the leaves, including changes in three-dimensional folding and orie...

  18. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  19. New red flower germplasm lines of cotton selected from hybrid of Gossypium hirsutum × G. bickii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁正兰; 姜茹琴; 钟文南

    1997-01-01

    By means of dropping GA3 (50 ppm) and NAA (40 ppm) on the hybrid boll-embryo culture in vitro, one F1 plant of G. hirsutum G. bickii was obtained; when F1 branches were grafted on upland cotton and then back-crossed with upland cotton under short-day and cooler-night condition, some BC1 seeds could be harvested. The characteristic segregation was very violent in early generation. Through 3 times of back-crossing and selecting, ten stable hybrid lines with the character of both male parent (viz. red petal-purple spot and strong fibre) and female par-ent (plant type, earliness, white fibre, lint length, etc. ) were established. These lines were assigned as HB red flow-er lines (HBRL). Transference of character of G. bickii to upland cotton was proved to be successful for the first time. These new germplasms may play an important role in both the genetic research and new cotton variety breeding.

  20. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  1. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Jieyu; YU Lixiang; WU Yuejin; TANG Canming

    2008-01-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine,including ion energy,total dose,dose rate,impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied.The best parameters were screened out.The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  2. The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kunbo; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Fuguang

    2012-01-01

    identified 2,355 syntenic blocks in the G. raimondii genome, and we found that approximately 40% of the paralogous genes were present in more than 1 block, which suggests that this genome has undergone substantial chromosome rearrangement during its evolution. Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao...

  3. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; YIN Meng-hui; DONG Jing

    2008-01-01

    @@ With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber was controlled by 6 loci (Lc1-6) in cotton.

  4. [Glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Transformed with aroAM12 gene via Agrobacterium tumefaciens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long-Xu; Li, Yun-Feng; Xu, Pei-Lin

    2004-04-01

    A mutant, aroAM12, exhibiting resistance to glyphosate produced in a previous study using the staggered extension process with aroA genes from Salmonella typhimurium and Eschrichia coli. In this paper, we constructed a vector pGRA1300 carrying aroAM12 gene, comprising transit peptide of Arabidopsis EPSPS, under the control of the CaMV35S promoter and used as selectable marker for cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) transformation. Transgenic cottons with increased resistance to glyphosate were obtained by cotransformtion of hypocotyl segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and selected directly on medium containing glyphosate. Regeneration of glyphosate-resistant calli was carried out on a MS basic medium containing 2,4-D 0.1 mg/L, KT 0.1 mg/L, cefotaxime 500 mg/L and glyphosate 60 micromol/L. Globular embryos were induced and then developed by culturing on MSB (MS salts+B(5) vitamins) medium supplemented with asparagine 1 g/L and glutamine 2 g/L, but not containing hormone, for 40 d. The developed plantlets were then removed and cultured on an MS medium. After about 20 d, the deeply-rooted shoots were in soil. PCR analysis showed that the aroAM12 gene was present in all T(0) transgenic plants. The integration of the aroAM12 gene in the genomic DNA of cotton was further confirmed by Southern blot, which showed that the transgenic plants carried one or two copies of the aroAM12 genes. Western blot analysis showed that a 48-kD band of was detected in all T(0) transgenic plants. There was no apparent corelation between copy numbers and the expression level of the aroAM12 gene. Greenhouse screening for glyphosate resistance was performed to test 65 independent T(0) plants by spraying (three times) with an aqueous suspension at a dose corresponding to 9.317 kg/ha of Roundup (once every 5 d). After 15 d, phenotype examination was carried out of the plants in comparison with untransformed control plants. Under these conditions, it was observed that the plants transformed

  5. Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Genes Encoding Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhi-yong; LI Bo; Neumann MPeter; L Meng; FAN Ling

    2014-01-01

    Two genes (GhC4H1 and GhC4H2) that encode putative cotton cinnamate 4-hydroxylases that catalyze the second step in the phenylpropanoid pathway were isolated from developing cotton ifbers. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 each contain open reading frames of 1 518 base pairs (bp) in length and both encode proteins consisting of 505 amino acid residues. They are 90.89%identical to each other at the amino acid sequence level and belong to class I of plant C4Hs. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 genomic DNA are 2 247 and 2 161 bp long, respectively, and contain two introns located at conserved positions relative to the coding sequence. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters were isolated and found to contain many cis-elements (boxes P, L and AC-I element) previously identiifed in the promoters of other phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Histochemical staining showed GUS expression driven by the GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 promoters in ovules and ifbers tissues. GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 were also widely expressed in other cotton tissues. GhC4H2 expression reached its highest level during the elongation stage of ifber development, whereas GhC4H1 expression increased during the secondary wall development period in cotton ifbers. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the biochemical role of GhC4H1 and GhC4H2 in cotton ifber development.

  6. Global gene expression in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves to waterlogging stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Kong, Xiangqiang; Dai, Jianlong; Luo, Zhen; Li, Zhenhuai; Lu, Hequan; Xu, Shizhen; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Weijiang; Xin, Chengsong; Dong, Hezhong

    2017-01-01

    Cotton is sensitive to waterlogging stress, which usually results in stunted growth and yield loss. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to waterlogging in cotton remain elusive. Cotton was grown in a rain-shelter and subjected to 0 (control)-, 10-, 15- and 20-d waterlogging at flowering stage. The fourth-leaves on the main-stem from the top were sampled and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for physiological measurement. Global gene transcription in the leaves of 15-d waterlogged plants was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Seven hundred and ninety four genes were up-regulated and 1018 genes were down-regulated in waterlogged cotton leaves compared with non-waterlogged control. The differentially expressed genes were mainly related to photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis and plant hormone signal transduction. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis indicated that most genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis as well as circadian rhythm pathways were differently expressed. Waterlogging increased the expression of anaerobic fermentation related genes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), but decreased the leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis by down-regulating the expression of photosynthesis related genes. Many genes related to plant hormones and transcription factors were differently expressed under waterlogging stress. Most of the ethylene related genes and ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factors were up-regulated under water-logging stress, suggesting that ethylene may play key roles in the survival of cotton under waterlogging stress.

  7. Genomic Differentiation Between Gossypium barbadense and G.hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) has superior fiber quality properties,while Uplandcotton (G.hirsutum L.) is characterized by its high yield.Although these two species are easilycrossed,it is difficult to integrate their superior genes.It will be very helpful to molecular breedingand evolution study in Gossypium to reveal genomic differentiation between G.barbadense and G.hir-suture.An enhanced genetic map consisting of 2247 loci and covering 3514.6 cM,with an average in-ter-marker distance of 1.5 cM has been developed.

  8. LYOCELL AND COTTON FIBERS AS REINFORCEMENTS FOR A THERMOSET POLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Frollini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers obtained from the textile industry (lyocell were investigated as a potential reinforcement for thermoset phenolic matrices, to improve their mechanical properties. Textile cotton fibers were also considered. The fibers were characterized in terms of their chemical composition and analyzed using TGA, SEM, and X-ray. The thermoset (non-reinforced and composites (phenolic matrices reinforced with randomly dispersed fibers were characterized using TG, DSC, SEM, DMTA, the Izod impact strength test, and water absorption capacity analysis. The composites that were reinforced with lyocell fibers exhibited impact strengths of nearly 240 Jm-1, whereas those reinforced with cotton fibers exhibited impact strengths of up to 773 Jm-1. In addition to the aspect ratio, the higher crystallinity of cotton fibers compared to lyocell likely plays a role in the impact strength of the composite reinforced by the fibers. The SEM images showed that the porosity of the textile fibers allowed good bulk diffusion of the phenolic resin, which, in turn, led to both good adhesion of fiber to matrix and fewer microvoids at the interface.

  9. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William W.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather ...

  10. Global Annotation of Small RNA and MicroRNA Mature Sequences from Developing Ovules of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDURAKHMONOV Ibrokhim Y; DEVOR Eric J; HUANG Ling-yan; BURIEV Zabardast T; MAKAMOV Abdusalom; SHERMATOV Shukhrat E; ABDUKARIMOV Abdusattor

    2008-01-01

    @@ The involvement of small RNAs in cotton fiber development is under explored.The objective of this work was to directly clone,annotate,and analyze small RNAs of developing ovules to reveal the candidate small interfering RNA/microRNAs (siRNAs/miRNAs) involved in cotton ovule and fiber development.We cloned small RNA sequences from 0~10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing ovules of Gossypium hirsutum var.

  11. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  12. Cloning GhSCFP Gene and Its Function in Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; YANG Xia; LIU Hao; LI Jia-bao; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a major raw material for the textile industry and the most important fiber crop in the world,cotton is of great significance in Chinese economy.The development of cotton fiber can be divided into initiation,elongation,secondary wall synthesis,and maturation stages.The initiation and elongation stages of fiber,which determine the number of fibers on each seed and the final length of fiber,directly affect the yield and quality of cotton fiber.

  13. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  14. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if...

  15. Nitrogen fertilizer sources and tillage effects on cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) as a N fertilizer is increasing due, in part, to increased restriction on ammonium nitrate. This has resulted in UAS being marketed as an alternative fertilizer source; however, UAS has not been widely tested. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field study was c...

  16. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased

  17. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  18. Monopodial and sympodial branching architecture in cotton is differentially regulated by the Gossypium hirsutum SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS and SELF-PRUNING orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Prewitt, Sarah F; Culpepper, Samantha; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer; Ayre, Brian G

    2016-10-01

    Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit. Virus-based manipulation of GhSP and GhSFT expression enabled unprecedented functional analysis of cotton development. GhSP maintains growth in all apices; in its absence, both monopodial and sympodial branch systems terminate precociously. GhSFT encodes a florigenic signal stimulating rapid onset of sympodial branching and flowering in side shoots of wild photoperiodic and modern day-neutral accessions. High florigen concentrations did not alter monopodial apices, implying that once a cotton apex is SP-determined, it cannot be reset by florigen. GhSP is also essential to establish and maintain cambial activity. Dynamic changes in GhSFT and GhSP levels navigate meristems between monopodial and sympodial programs in a single plant. SFT and SP influenced cotton domestication and are ideal targets for further agricultural optimization.

  19. Confamiliar transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) to twenty two Malvaceous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya, Pratik; Paswan, Pramod Kumar; Ghosh, Swagata; Majumdar, Snehalata; Ali, Nasim

    2016-06-01

    Cross-species transferability is a quick and economic method to enrich SSR database, particularly for minor crops where little genomic information is available. However, transferability of SSR markers varies greatly between species, genera and families of plant species. We assessed confamiliar transferability of SSR markers from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and jute (Corchorus olitorius) to 22 species distributed in different taxonomic groups of Malvaceae. All the species selected were potential industrial crop species having little or no genomic resources or SSR database. Of the 14 cotton SSR loci tested, 13 (92.86 %) amplified in G. arboreum and 71.43 % exhibited cross-genera transferability. Nine out of 11 jute SSRs (81.81 %) showed cross-transferability across genera. SSRs from both the species exhibited high polymorphism and resolving power in other species. The correlation between transferability of cotton and jute SSRs were highly significant (r = 0.813). The difference in transferability among species was also significant for both the marker groups. High transferability was observed at genus, tribe and subfamily level. At tribe level, transferability of jute SSRs (41.04 %) was higher than that of cotton SSRs (33.74 %). The tribe Byttnerieae exhibited highest SSR transferability (48.7 %). The high level of cross-genera transferability (>50 %) in ten species of Malvaceae, where no SSR resource is available, calls for large scale transferability testing from the enriched SSR databases of cotton and jute.

  20. Identification and Characterization of miRNA Transcriptome in Asiatic Cotton (Gossypium arboreum Using High Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small 20–24nt molecules that have been well studied over the past decade due to their important regulatory roles in different cellular processes. The mature sequences are more conserved across vast phylogenetic scales than their precursors and some are conserved within entire kingdoms, hence, their loci and function can be predicted by homology searches. Different studies have been performed to elucidate miRNAs using de novo prediction methods but due to complex regulatory mechanisms or false positive in silico predictions, not all of them express in reality and sometimes computationally predicted mature transcripts differ from the actual expressed ones. With the availability of a complete genome sequence of Gossypium arboreum, it is important to annotate the genome for both coding and non-coding regions using high confidence transcript evidence, for this cotton species that is highly resistant to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we have analyzed the small RNA transcriptome of G. arboreum leaves and provided genome annotation of miRNAs with evidence from miRNA/miRNA∗ transcripts. A total of 446 miRNAs clustered into 224 miRNA families were found, among which 48 families are conserved in other plants and 176 are novel. Four short RNA libraries were used to shortlist best predictions based on high reads per million. The size, origin, copy numbers and transcript depth of all miRNAs along with their isoforms and targets has been reported. The highest gene copy number was observed for gar-miR7504 followed by gar-miR166, gar-miR8771, gar-miR156, and gar-miR7484. Altogether, 1274 target genes were found in G. arboreum that are enriched for 216 KEGG pathways. The resultant genomic annotations are provided in UCSC, BED format.

  1. Isolation and characterization of resistance and defense gene analogs in cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yulong; GUO; Wangzhen; WANG; Lei

    2006-01-01

    Plant disease resistance gene (R gene) and defense response gene encode some conserved motifs. In the present work, a PCR strategy was used to clone resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and defense gene analogs (DGAs) from Sea-island cotton variety Hai7124 using oligonucleotide primers based on the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and serine/threonine kinase (STK) in the R-gene and pathogenesis-related proteins of class 2 (PR2) of defense response gene. 79 NBS sequences, 21 STK sequences and 11 DGAs were cloned from disease-resistance cotton. Phylogenic analysis of 79 NBS-RGAs and NBS-RGAs nucleotide sequences of cotton already deposited in GenBank identified one new sub-cluster. The deduced amino acid sequences of NBS-RGAs and STK-RGAs were divided into two distinct groups respectively: Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) group and non-TIR group, A group and B group. The expression of RGAs and DGAs having consecutive open reading frame (ORF) was also investigated and it was found that 6 NBS-RGAs and 1 STK-RGA were induced, and 1 DGA was up-regulated by infection of Verticillium dahliae strain VD8. 4 TIR-NBS-RGAs and 4 non-TIR- NBS-RGAs were arbitrarily used as probes for Southern-blotting. There existed 2-10 blotted bands. In addition, since three non-TIR-NBS-RGAs have the same hybridization pattern, we conjecture that these three RGAs form a cluster distribution in the genome.

  2. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes in four Gossypium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucleotide binding site (NBS) genes encode a large family of disease resistance (R) proteins in plants. The availability of genomic data of the two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, and the two allotetraploid cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum (TM-1) and Gossypium ...

  3. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Robert; AMANTURDIEV Alisher; MEJLUMYAN Larisa; BABAYEV Yashen; KIM Michael

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality.Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  4. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; Robert; AMANTURDIEV; Alisher; MEJLUMYAN; Larisa; BABAYEV; Yashen; KIM; Michael

    2008-01-01

    Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality. Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  5. Cloning and Function Characteristic of GhDWF4,an Ortholog of Arabidopsis DWF4 from Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the longest cells characterized in plant kingdom,cotton fibers were regarded as an ideal material for studying plant cell growth and development.In recent years,several reports revealed that

  6. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Badigannavar; Gerald O. Myers

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47–25.16%, protein from 1.85–28.45% and fibre content from 15.88–37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content. With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of ST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  7. Simple Sequence Repeat Genetic Linkage Maps of A-genome Diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Xia Ma; Bao-Liang Zhou; Yan-Hui Lü; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces the construction of the first intraspacific genetic linkage map of the A-genome diploid cotton with newly developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using 189 F2 plants derived from the cross of two Asiatic parents were detected using 6 092 pairs of SSR primers. Two-hundred and sixty-eight pairs of SSR pdmers with better polymorphisms were picked out to analyze the F2 population. In total, 320 polymorphic bands were generated and used to construct a linkage map with JoinMap3.0. Two-hundred and sixty-seven loci, Including three phenotypic traits were mapped at a logarithms of odds ratio (LOD) ≥ 3.0 on 13 linkage groups. The total length of the map was 2 508.71 cM, and the average distance between adjacent markers was 9.40 cM. Chromosome assignments were according to the association of linkages with our backbone tetraploid specific map using the 89 similar SSR loci. Comparisons among the 13 suites of orthologous linkage groups revealed that the A-genome chromosomes are largely collinear with the At and Dt sub-genome chromosomes. Chromosomes associated with inversions suggested that allopolyploidization was accompanied by homologous chromosomal rearrangement. The inter-chromosomal duplicated loci supply molecular evidence that the A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton is paleopolyploid.

  8. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Scheffler, Brian E; Stelly, David M

    2010-02-01

    MIC-3 is a recently identified gene family shown to exhibit increased root-specific expression following nematode infection of cotton plants that are resistant to root-knot nematode. Here, we cloned and sequenced MIC-3 genes from selected diploid and tetraploid cotton species to reveal sequence differences at the molecular level and identify chromosomal locations of MIC-3 genes in Gossypium species. Detailed sequence analysis and phylogenetic clustering of MIC-3 genes indicated the presence of multiple MIC-3 gene members in Gossypium species. Haplotypes of a MIC-3 gene family member were discovered by comparative analysis among consensus sequences across genotypes within an individual clade in the phylogram to overcome the problem of duplicated loci in the tetraploid cotton. Deficiency tests of the SNPs delimited six A(t)-genome members of the MIC-3 family clustered to chromosome arm 4sh, and one D(t)-genome member to chromosome 19. Clustering was confirmed by long-PCR amplification of the intergenic regions using A(t)-genome-specific MIC-3 primer pairs. The clustered distribution may have been favored by selection for responsiveness to evolving disease and/or pest pressures, because large variants of the MIC-3 gene family may have been recovered from small physical areas by recombination. This could give a buffer against selection pressure from a broad range of pest and pathogens in the future. To our knowledge, these are the first results on the evolution of clustering and genome-specific haplotype members of a unique cotton gene family associated with resistant response against a major pathogen.

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  10. Genetic Linkage Analysis of the Natural Colored Fiber and Fuzzless Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; WANG Ju-qin; LU Yan-tin; BAO Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Genetic linkage relationship of the natural colored fiber and six fuzzless seed germplasms in obsolete backgrounds of Gossypium hirsutum (AD genome) and G.barbadense were analyzed in the past two years.Three lines of natural brown fiber that were controlled by single dominant genes and two lines of green fiber controlled by another single dominant gene.

  11. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  12. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W W

    1982-07-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather than by genetic resistance mechanisms. However, the nematode resistant cultivar did not support maturation of nematodes until a soil tempurature of 35 C was attained. This indicated that resistance mechanisms are partially repressed at 35 C and differences in nematode development cannot be explained in terms of accumulated heat units. The moderately resistant cultivar was significantly more sensitive to the effects of high temperature than was the resistant cultivar.

  13. In-ovulo embryo culture and seedling development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J M; Hsu, C L

    1977-01-01

    A convenient and reliable method for culturing cotton embryos is needed to obtain interspecific hybrids of this genus. C.A. Beasley and I.P. Ting (Amer. J. Bot. 60, 130, 1973) developed a phytohormone-supplemented medium (BTP) upon which the growth of ovules was similar that of in situ ovules. This medium was examined for in-ovulo embryo culture. Although good ovule growth occurred on BTP no embryos developed to maturity. However, when the medium was supplemented with NH 4 (+) , more than 50% of the ovules produced mature embryos, and many of these germinated precociously after 8-10 weeks of culture. After germination seedlings were established on a separate medium designed to give balanced root and shoot growth. Subsequently young plants could be transferred to pots for greenhouse culture.

  14. Spunlaced Cotton and Cotton Blend Cosmetic Pads and Bed Sheets: Study of Fiber Entanglement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Muenstermann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven webs containing five different blends of bleached cotton with Lyocell rayon, bicomponent core/sheath polyester/polyethylene, or cotton comber noil were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by spunlacing (hydroentanglement. We optically acquired fiber bundle size measurements to learn about the pre-needling process, the hydroentangling process and the influence of fiber blend composition on fiber entanglement. Fiber entanglement measurements were compared to basis weight uniformity measurements. One of the bed sheet developments utilized a combination of bonding technologies (spunlacing and thermal bonding that used low energy. Results from this work indicate that spunlacing produced high quality cosmetic pads and economical short-life bed sheeting.

  15. Functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs revealed in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fenni; Li, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Nina; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-04-01

    In GhCFE5 homoeologs, GhCFE5D interacted with more actin homologs and stronger interaction activity than GhCFE5A. GhCFE5D - but not GhCFE5A -overexpression severely disrupted actin cytoskeleton organization and significantly suppressed cell elongation. Homoeologous genes are common in polyploid plants; however, their functional divergence is poorly elucidated. Allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) is the most widely cultivated cotton; accounting for more than 90 % of the world's cotton production. Here, we characterized GhCFE5A and GhCFE5D homoeologs from G. hirsutum acc TM-1. GhCFE5 homoeologs are expressed preferentially in fiber cells; and a significantly greater accumulation of GhCFE5A mRNA than GhCFE5D mRNA was found in all tested tissues. Overexpression of GhCFE5D but not GhCFE5A seriously inhibits the Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root cell elongation. Yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed that compared with GhCFE5A, GhCFE5D interacts with more actin homologs and has a stronger interaction activity both from Arabidopsis and Upland cotton. Interestingly, subcellular localization showed that GhCFE5 resides on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and is colocalized with actin cables. The interaction activities between GhCFE5 homoeologs and actin differ in their effects on F-actin structure in transgenic Arabidopsis root cells. The F-actin changed direction from vertical to lateral, and the actin cytoskeleton organization was severely disrupted in GhCFE5D-overexpressing root cells. These data support the functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs in the actin cytoskeleton structure and cell elongation, implying an important role for GhCFE5 in the evolution and selection of cotton fiber.

  16. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YU-xian

    2008-01-01

    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  17. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  18. Xinjiang:Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.The Seminar was attended by inspector Zhang

  19. Chemical, compositional and structural characterisation of cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world, is a well-traded agricultural commodity primarily for textile fiber purpose. It is a type of natural cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues), and its growth or development is considered to include at least four overlapping bu...

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Fiber Elongating Process in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan; YANG Yi-wei; BIAN Shao-min

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was performed to explore the mechanism of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers.The temporal changes of global proteomes at five representative development stages (5~25 days post-anthesis [DPA]) were examined using 2-D electrophoresis.

  1. Polyamine and its metabolite H2O2 play a key role in the conversion of embryogenic callus into somatic embryos in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Han eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase understanding about the mechanism by which polyamines (PAs promote the conversion of embryogenic calli (EC into somatic embryos in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. We measured the levels of endogenous PAs and H2O2, quantified the expression levels of genes involved in the PAs pathway at various stages of cotton somatic embryogenesis (SE, and investigated the effects of exogenous PAs and H2O2 on differentiation and development of embryogenic calli. Putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm significantly increased from the EC stage to the early phase of embryo differentiation. The levels of Put then decreased until the somatic embryo stage whereas Spd and Spm remained nearly the same. The expression profiles of GhADC genes were consistent with changes in Put during cotton SE. The H2O2 concentrations began to increase significantly at the EC stage, during which time both GhPAO1 and GhPAO4 expressions were highest and PAO activity was significantly increased. Exogenous Put, Spd, Spm and H2O2 not only enhanced embryogenic callus growth and embryo formation, but also alleviated the effects of D-arginine and 1, 8-diamino-octane, which are inhibitors of polyamine synthesis and PAO activity. Overall, the results suggest that both PAs and their metabolic product H2O2 are essential for the conversion of EC into somatic embryos in cotton.

  2. Fingerprinting Analysis of the Introgressed lines from Gossypium hirsutum L.× G.barbadense L.based on AFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-hui; ZHANG Yong; DONG Shun-wen; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ The main cultivated varieties in the world belong to the species of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.),and their genetic background is very narrow.However,the wild species and races in the genus of Gossypium have abundant genetic diversity and possess lots of excellent genes with potential high yield,fine and strong fiber,disease and insect resistance,drought and coldness resistance,male sterility,and so on.

  3. Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphal feeding in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; DENNIS A. MARGOSAN; JAMES S. BUCKNER; THOMAS P. FREEMAN; THOMAS J. HENNEBERRY

    2007-01-01

    We used brightfield electron microscopy (BEM), differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the stylet pathways of Bemisia tabaci during nymphal feeding behavior in cotton leaves beginning with penetration of the abaxial leaf surface and ending with stylers in sieve tubes in phloem tissues. Most nymphal stylets within salivary sheaths penetrating leaf tissues made complex turns and developed more than one salivary sheath branch before ending in sieve tubes. The external morphology of the salivary sheaths and their routes between and through leaf cells are described during the present study. Results showed the presence of the stylet within the sieve tubes. B. tabaci nymphs may remove stylets and feed in different sieve tubes.Ten short movies showing the progression of the stylet penetrations from adaxial surface to the sieve tubes are attached to Figures 8-15. The report and movies can be viewed from the internet. Download the movies to a local drive in your compute rfirs tfor fast upload. The movies are posted on theweb sitehttp ://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm? docid= 14629.The movies can be used as a teaching aid in biology classes.

  4. Combining ability analysis in intraspecific F1 diallel cross of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Usharani*, P. Vindhiyavarman and P. Amala Balu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diallel analysis was carried out by involving nine parents and their 72 cross combinations in upland cotton for assessing their combining ability for yield and its component characters. Variance due to parents and hybrids showed significant differences between all the characters studied except number of bolls, boll weight, single plant yield, lint index and seed index. Significance of variance in parents versus hybrids interaction provides adequacy for comparing the heterotic expression for all the characters except boll weight, ginning per cent, lint index and seed index. The GCA variances were larger than those of SCA for all the traits except number of bolls per plant, indicating the preponderance of additive action. The parents MCU 5 and MCU 7 were proved to be good general combiners for single plant yield and other economic traits and hence need to be included in the yield improvement programmes. The hybrid combinations viz., MCU 5 x MCU 7, Khandwa 2 x Suraj, KC 2 x MCU 5, Anjali x MCU 7 and Anjali x Suraj recorded superior per se performance for number of bolls, boll weight and single plant yield and other characters. Among these crosses KC 2 x MCU 5, Anjali x Suraj and Anjali x MCU 7 exhibited additive type gene action with one good general combining ability parent for number of bolls, boll weight and lint index respectively. Hence, selection can be made in these crosses in early generation itself.

  5. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  6. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment. [Gossypium hirsumtum L. ; Medicago sativa L. ; Cucumis melo L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots.

  7. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber

  8. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ke-yun

    2008-01-01

    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  9. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Lacape, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats), wild/feral (protected habitats), and truly wild cotton (TWC) populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida), as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively low genetic

  10. Distribution and differentiation of wild, feral, and cultivated populations of perennial upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge

    Full Text Available Perennial forms of Gossypium hirsutum are classified under seven races. Five Mesoamerican races would have been derived from the wild race 'yucatanense' from northern Yucatán. 'Marie-Galante', the main race in the Caribbean, would have developed from introgression with G. barbadense. The racial status of coastal populations from the Caribbean has not been clearly defined. We combined Ecological Niche Modeling with an analysis of SSR marker diversity, to elucidate the relationships among cultivated, feral and wild populations of perennial cottons. Out of 954 records of occurrence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 630 were classified into four categories cultivated, feral (disturbed and secondary habitats, wild/feral (protected habitats, and truly wild cotton (TWC populations. The widely distributed three first categories cannot be differentiated on ecological grounds, indicating they mostly belong to the domesticated pool. In contrast, TWC are restricted to the driest and hottest littoral habitats, in northern Yucatán and in the Caribbean (from Venezuela to Florida, as confirmed by their climatic envelope in the factorial analysis. Extrapolating this TWC climatic model to South America and the Pacific Ocean points towards places where other wild representatives of tetraploid Gossypium species have been encountered. The genetic analysis sample comprised 42 TWC accessions from 12 sites and 68 feral accessions from 18 sites; at nine sites, wild and feral accessions were collected in close vicinity. Principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and STRUCTURE consistently showed a primary divergence between TWC and feral cottons, and a secondary divergence separating 'Marie-Galante' from all other feral accessions. This strong genetic structure contrasts strikingly with the absence of geographic differentiation. Our results show that TWC populations of Mesoamerica and the Caribbean constitute a homogenous gene pool. Furthermore, the relatively

  11. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

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    Chandrashekhar D Patil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay.LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4(th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2(nd and 3(rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2(nd, 3(rd and 4(th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively.Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

  12. Gene cloning and molecular breeding to improve fiber qualities in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Cotton fiber is one of known natural resources comprising the highest purity cellulose. It plays an important role worldwide in the textile industry. With the acceleration of spinning speeds and the improvement of the people's living level, the demand of improving cotton fiber qualities is getting stronger and stronger. So, making clear the developmental model of fiber cell and elucidating systematically the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber development and regulation will produce a great significance to make full use of cotton gene resources, raise cotton yield and improve fiber quality, and even develop man-made fiber. In the paper, the status of the gene cloning and the molecular breeding to improve cotton fiber quality were reviewed, the importance and potential of gene cloning related with cotton fiber quality were put forward and the proposal and prospect on fiber quality improvement were made. Using national resources available and through the creative exploration in corresponding research, some international leading patents in genes or markers linked with cotton fiber development having Chinese own intellectual property should be licensed quickly. And they can be used to improve cotton fiber quality in cotton breeding practice.

  13. Controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine aplicado em mistura com outros herbicidas, na cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Weed control in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. with cyanazine and other herbicides

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    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1985-12-01

    initial and final stand. Cyanazi ne + metolachlor did not show any significant difference for seed - control yield as compared to weed - fre e check. Plant height, seed index, fiber percent age, lint index and fiber propertie s were not affected by any of the treatments . The cotton boll weight was affected by oryzalin.

  14. Improvements of Fiber Yield and Fiber Fineness by Expressing the iaaM Gene in Cotton Seed Coat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yan; ZHENG Xue-lian; ZHANG Mi; ZENG Qi-wei; HOU Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton,the most important natural fiber crop in the world,is a mainstay in China's economy.However,for over two decades,cotton yields both in China and U.S.have been at a plateau.One reason for this plateau is the limitation of current cotton germplasm.Cotton fibers are single cells resulting from elongated cells of the ovule epidermis.IAA regulates both plant growth and differentiation,and it has important roles in cotton fiber development.

  15. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Renesh; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Mangu, Venkata Ramanarao; Sanchez Timm, Luis Eduardo; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a β-Galactosidase Gene Expressed Preferentially in Cotton Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Mu ZHANG; Jin-Yuan LIU

    2005-01-01

    β-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23) constitute a widespread family of enzymes in plants that is thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. We reported herein the isolation of a fulllength cDNA encoding a typical β-galactosidase protein, designated GhGal1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.galactosidase), of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of nearly 94.8 kDa. In addition to a glycosyl hydrolase family 35 domain and a putative signal peptide, an unusual characteristic of GhGal 1 is that, at the C-terminus of the enzyme, a domain was found that is structurally related to a sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL-lectin) with D-galactose- and L-rhamnose-binding domains. Based on results from Southern blot, we estimated that there would be two copies of the GhGal1 gene per haploid genome of G. hirsutum.The transcripts of GhGal1 were regulated spatially and temporally and were present in very high abundance at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. The expression pattern suggests that the GhGal1 gene could be involved in metabolism of the primary cell wall.

  17. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Jie; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased the production costs.So the breeding for dwarf plant is the best way to solve this problem.In the past,some dwarf mutants of cotton with recessive gene controlled were reported.

  18. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS AO COMPLEXO DE INIMIGOS NATURAIS NA CULTURA DO ALGODÃO (Gossypium hirsutum L. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES ON THE COMPLEX OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN COTTON CROP (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The selectivity of insecticides was evaluated in the complex of natural enemies of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crop. The cultivar Deltapine was used in a randomized block experimental design, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments, all in their commercial formulation, were: control; thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1; lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1; betacyflutrin (800 mL.ha-1; imidacloprid (70g.ha-1; diflubenzuron (6,0 g.ha-1; and endosulfan (1500 mL.ha-1. The insecticides were sprayed at 45 days after germination. Besides the initial evaluation, other evaluations were performed three and seven days after insecticide application. Each plot was sampled by the fabric beating method, with two random beatings per plot. Natural enemies were identified and counted. Three days after application, the insecticides thiamethoxam (300 g.ha-1, lufenuron (300 mL.ha-1, and diflubenzuron (60 g.ha-1 did not showed negative effect on the complex of predators present in the cotton. However, seven days after application, only the lufenuron treatment maintained the selective effect over predator complex.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecticide; biological control; Gossypium.

  19. Constructing a high-density linkage map for Gossypium hirsutum ? Gossypium barbadense and identifying QTLs for lint percentage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhen Shi; Haihong Shang; Juwu Gong; Wankui Gong; Zemao Yang; Feiy Tang; Zhi Liu; Weiping Zhu; Jianxiong Jiang; Xiaonan Yu; Tao Wang; Wentan Li; Wei Wang; Tingting Chen; Kunbo Wang; Zhengsheng Zhang; Youlu Yuan; Aiguo Li; Ruihua Ge; Baocai Zhang; Junzhi Li; Guangping Liu; Junwen Li; Aiying Liu

    2015-01-01

    To introgress the good fiber quality and yield from Gossypium barbadense into a commercial Upland cotton variety, a high‐density simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map was developed from a BC1F1 population of Gossypium hirsutum ? Gossypium barbadense. The map com-prised 2,292 loci and covered 5115.16 centiMorgan (cM) of the cotton AD genome, with an average marker interval of 2.23 cM. Of the marker order for 1,577 common loci on this new map, 90.36% agrees well with the marker order on the D genome sequence genetic map. Compared with five pub-lished high‐density SSR genetic maps, 53.14% of marker loci were newly discovered in this map. Twenty‐six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for lint percentage (LP) were identified on nine chromosomes. Nine stable or common QTLs could be used for marker‐assisted selection. Fifty percent of the QTLs were from G. barbadense and increased LP by 1.07%–2.41%. These results indicated that the map could be used for screening chromosome substitution segments from G. barbadense in the Upland cotton background, identifying QTLs or genes from G. barbadense, and further developing the gene pyramiding effect for improving fiber yield and quality.

  20. Evaluation on Ideal Test Sites and Regional Characteristics of Cotton Fiber Quality in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LI; Naiyin XU

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim of this study was to explore the dominant fiber quality traits of test sites in cotton regional trials , by analyzing the regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in Jiangsu province, in order to provide the theory background for cotton fiber quality improvement. [Method] The dominant fiber quality traits of test locations were analyzed with eight main fiber quality indexes of hybrid cotton regional trials during 2009-2013 in Jiangsu province by use of the "ideal test site"view of GGE biplot. [Result] The test locations with the best integrative fiber quality were proved to be Yanliang, and fol owed by Dongxin and Guanyun; The better test locations in terms of the major fiber quality indexes, including fiber strength, fiber Length and micronaire value, were Guanyun, Xinyang and Yanliang; To sum up, the best test location with balanced fiber quality was Yanliang. The test locations with specialties in fiber quality index were listed as bel ow: Dafeng, Xinghua and Dongtai performance better in fiber length; Qidong, Liuhe and Yanhai locations were of bet-ter fiber length uniformity; Sheyang and Dongxin were better in micronaire value;while Sheyang along was better in fiber elongation and reflectance. Moreover, the correlation between fiber yel owness and other traits was significant (P<0.01). [Con-clusion] The regional characteristic of cotton fiber quality index in Jiangsu province was obvious and fiber yel owness was worthy an indicator trait to assist the compre-hensive improvement of cotton fiber quality.

  1. Characterization of an Organ Specific and Pathogen Responsive CC-NBS-LRR Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-long; NI Wan-chao; YANG Yu-wen; SHEN Xin-lian

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton diseases represent a major challenge to cotton growth.Cloning of a cotton pathogen response gene and promoter is of great importance to improve disease resistance.In this study,a full length CC-NBS-LRR gene (GHNBS) and its 5L flanking sequence have been cloned by race and tail PCR and further studied.

  2. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  3. Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) resistance locus from Gossypium aridum identified and introgressed into upland cotton (G. hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSR markers associated with reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) resistance were identified and mapped using progeny from a cross between a tri-species hybrid [Gossypium arboreum × (G 371 - G. hirsutum × G. aridum -)] and G. hirsutum MD51ne. The 50 most resistant and 26 most susceptible prog...

  4. Identification of early salt-stress responsive proteins in seedling roots of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. employing iTRAQ-based proteomic technique

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    Wu eLi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is highly tolerant to salinity; however, large-scale proteomic data of cotton in response to salt-stress are still scanty. Here, an iTRAQ-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the early differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from salt-treated cotton roots. 77 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated proteins were identified. The majority of the proteins have functions related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription related, protein metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, membrane and transport, signal transduction, as well as stress and defense. It is worth emphasizing that some novel salt-responsive proteins were identified, which involved in cell cytoskeleton metabolism(ARP2 and FLAs), membrane transport(TIPs and PIPs), signal transduction(LRR-RLKs)and stress responses(TLP, USP, DIR,desiccation-related protein PCC13-62. High positive correlation was evaluated between the abundance of some altered proteins (SOD, POD, GST, MDAR and MDH and their enzyme activity. The results demonstrate the iTRAQ-based proteomic technique is reliable for identifying and quantifying a large number of cotton root proteins. qRT-PCR was used to study the gene expression levels of five above-mentioned proteins, four patterns are consistent with those of induced protein. These results showed that cotton’s proteome to NaCl stress is complex, and that the comparative protein profiles of roots under salinity vs control improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the tolerance of plants to salt stress. It provides a good starting point for further functional elucidation of these DEPs using genetic and/or other approaches, and thereby candidate genes for genetic engineering to improve crop salt tolerance.

  5. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses revealed a detailed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs. To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin, and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively. Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber.

  6. The genome sequence of Sea-Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) provides insights into the allopolyploidization and development of superior spinnable fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Daojun; Tang, Zhonghui; Wang, Maojun; Gao, Wenhui; Tu, Lili; Jin, Xin; Chen, Lingling; He, Yonghui; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Longfu; Li, Yang; Liang, Qiqi; Lin, Zhongxu; Yang, Xiyan; Liu, Nian; Jin, Shuangxia; Lei, Yang; Ding, Yuanhao; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Xiaoan; Ruan, Yijun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum contributes the most production of cotton fibre, but G. barbadense is valued for its better comprehensive resistance and superior fibre properties. However, the allotetraploid genome of G. barbadense has not been comprehensively analysed. Here we present a high-quality assembly of the 2.57 gigabase genome of G. barbadense, including 80,876 protein-coding genes. The double-sized genome of the A (or At) (1.50 Gb) against D (or Dt) (853 Mb) primarily resulted from the expansion of Gypsy elements, including Peabody and Retrosat2 subclades in the Del clade, and the Athila subclade in the Athila/Tat clade. Substantial gene expansion and contraction were observed and rich homoeologous gene pairs with biased expression patterns were identified, suggesting abundant gene sub-functionalization occurred by allopolyploidization. More specifically, the CesA gene family has adapted differentially temporal expression patterns, suggesting an integrated regulatory mechanism of CesA genes from At and Dt subgenomes for the primary and secondary cellulose biosynthesis of cotton fibre in a “relay race”-like fashion. We anticipate that the G. barbadense genome sequence will advance our understanding the mechanism of genome polyploidization and underpin genome-wide comparison research in this genus. PMID:26634818

  7. Slow desiccation leads to high-frequency shoot recovery from transformed somatic embryos of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310 FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, B; Kumar, S; Prasad, K V S K; Oinam, G S; Burma, P K; Pental, D

    2003-06-01

    In Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 310FR) the frequency at which somatic embryos were converted to plantlets was significantly improved by subjecting the embryos to slow physical desiccation. We used Agrobacterium strain GV3101 containing the binary vector pGSFR with the nos-nptII gene for in vitro selection and the 35S gus-int fragment as a reporter to optimize the transformation protocol. Although the concentration of kanamycin was reduced during embryogenesis and embryo maturation, even at the lower levels somatic embryos were predominantly abnormal, showing hypertrophy and reduced or fused cotyledons or poor radicle ends. A majority of these embryos (more than 75%) were beta-glucuronidase (GUS)-positive. Embryos with an abnormal appearance showed a very poor conversion to plantlets. However, these embryos, when subjected to slow physical desiccation followed by transfer to fresh medium, regenerated single or multiple shoots from the cotyledonary end. These shoots could be grafted on wild-type seedling stocks in vitro, which, following their transfer to soil, developed normally and set seeds. Regenerated plants tested positive for the transgene by Southern analysis. An overall scheme for the high-frequency production of cotton transgenics from both normal and abnormal appearing somatic embryos is presented.

  8. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton

  9. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang

    2014-02-10

    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  10. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late, representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.

  11. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity.

  12. Observation of fiber ultrastructure of Ligon lintless mutant in upland cotton during fiber elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chaohua; WANG Xuede; NI Xiyuan

    2005-01-01

    Lintless mutant is a super-short fiber mutant in upland cotton only 4-8 mm in fiber length and also named Ligon cotton controlled by one dominant gene Li1. Fiber ultrastructure of the mutant (Li1) and its wild type (li1) in situ and in vitro was observed under an electron microscope to understand its cytological characteristics during the fiber cell elongation. The results showed that the mutant fiber in situ had thinner cytoplasm, more small vacuoles, less mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticula, and there were more starch granules which were free or packed in the amyloplast beside the cell wall than that of wild type. It was indicated that scarcity of functional organelles and disability of transformation from starch to sugar might be associated with the fact that the mutant fiber cell was aborted too early to elongate into normal length. Mutant ovule in some media containing GA3 could produce a kind of huge callus that grew faster than normal ovules. The callus was covered with many white, loose, and semitransparent fiber-like cells that apt to get off from ovule. These fiber-like cells were multicellular fibers generated by cell division and had black dots just like pigment glands in the stem and leaf of cotton. There were lots of micro-tubes beside cytoplasm membrane of the multicellular fiber, which were thought to be primary preparation for second wall deposition of multicellular fiber. It was indicated that GA3 might induce the expression of gene(s) that kept inactive in the field condition and then stimulate the original fiber cell in vitro to undergo division again.

  13. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near infrared spectroscopy instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber components—fiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  14. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  15. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  16. In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-na YUAN; Waqas MALIK; Shui-jin HUA; Noreen BIBI; Xue-de WANG

    2012-01-01

    Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers.The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented.This experiment was conducted to study the effects cf respiratory chain inhibitors,i.e.,rotenone and thiourea,on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.After 1 d post-anthesis,ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d.The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions,and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea.Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton.In green cotton fiber,rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 μmol/L,while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400,600,800,1000,and 2000 μmol/L).Both respiratory inhibitors,however,had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers.The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors.It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

  17. Water use, canopy temperature, lint yield, and fiber quality response of six upland cotton cultivars to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining saturated thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer combined with the unpredictability of precipitation during the growing season in the Southern High Plains has resulted in elevated production risks associated with short-term crop water deficits. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars that can use...

  18. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  19. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Mujahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  1. Effects of pigment glands andgossypol on somatic cell cul-ture of upland cotton (Gos-sypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of pigment glands and gossypol on the somatic cell culture of upland cotton were studied, using the materials as follows: three pairs of glanded and glandless upland cotton near isogenic lines, TM-1, and Coker 312. The results showed that the pigment glands and gossypol contents in the explants had great inhibiting effect on the induction and growth of callus in somatic cell culture of upland cotton, and the induction rate of callus and the single callus weight of glandless cotton were much higher than those of their glanded near isogenic lines. It was easier to obtain regeneration plants from glandless cotton than from their glanded near isogenic lines. There was a significant inverse correlation between the gossypol contents in the explants and callus induction rate, with the correlation coefficient of ?0.84. The vitro gossypol in the medium had some inhibiting effect on the induction and growth of callus, especially for the glandless cotton. However, a certain concentration of vitro gossypol in the medium (0.1 mg/L) was an aid to the steadiness growth of callus in glandless cotton somatic cell culture, with a high rate of embryogenic cells which was in favor of plant regeneration, and it was also relatively easy to obtain regeneration plants when they were transferred into differentiation medium with 0.1 mg/L of vitro gossypol, even for some cultivars which are difficult in somatic cell culture. In addition, the gossypol content and its variation in the seedlings and callus during culture of Coker 312 were discussed, as well as the relationship between gossypol variation in the explants and its somatic cell culture. The probability of vitro gossypol used in cotton somatic cell culture for the improvement of somatic cell culture was suggested.

  2. Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Chand, Ph.D.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting CACC fibers were investigated for their biocidal action against E.coli, by using zone inhibition and colonies counting method. Finally, CACC fibers were reduced with sodium borohydride to yield copper nanoparticles- loaded composite fibers and investigated for biocidal action. It was found that CACC fibers possessed both, the fair mechanical strength and antibacterial action. The extent of biocidal action was found to depend upon the amount of Cu(II loaded and concentration of alginate into cotton- cellulose fibers. The fibers showed higher Cu(II release in physiological fluid as compared to distilled water. Copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC fibers show fair mechanical strength and release copper ions in the presence of physiological fluid and protein solution. These fibers have great potential to be used as dressing materials.

  3. Functional Genomic Studies of Cotton Fiber Development%棉花纤维发育功能基因组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ya CHEN; Zhi-ping LIN; Tian-zhen ZHANG; Yong-qing ZHU; Jia-wei WANG; Chun-hong LI; Ke-xiang XU; Jin-ying GOU; Shui WANG; Jun-wei JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes derived from the epidermis of cotton ovules. Analysis of transcripts in developing fiber cells may provide valuable information to understand mechanisms regulation fiber initiation and growth, as well as to cotton breeding. We have made an array of more than 5000 clones isolated from a cotton ovule ( and the fiber ) cDNA library.

  4. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan

    2011-05-01

    The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved.

  5. Spontaneous, uncomplicated dissolution of a large cotton fiber in the laser in situ keratomileusis interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report the spontaneous dissolution of a long cotton thread in the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK flap interface. In this observational case report, sequential follow-up of a post-LASIK eye with a long cotton fiber noticed in the LASIK interface was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, with no evidence of infection, uveitis, or any other complications. The cotton thread underwent spontaneous dissolution. Conservative management of a cotton fiber, not causing any symptoms and noticed after the immediate postoperative follow-up period is over, seems to be a possible alternative to flap relift and intervention.

  6. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira; Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto; Hudson Fernando Moura; Leonardo Lima Pepino de Macedo; Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes; Wagner Alexandre Lucena; Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessuti; Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa; Maria Cristina Mattar Silva; Maria Fátima eGrossi de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  7. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K.

  8. Dynamic transcriptome analysis and volatile profiling of Gossypium hirsutum in response to the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Jie-Yin; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Wu, Juan; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit elevated levels of volatile organic compounds for direct and indirect resistance. However, little is known about the molecular and genomic basis of defense response that insect herbivory trigger in cotton plants and how defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Here we monitored the transcriptome changes and volatile characteristics of cotton plants in response to cotton bollworm (CBW; Helicoverpa armigera) larvae infestation. Analysis of samples revealed that 1,969 transcripts were differentially expressed (log2|Ratio| ≥ 2; q ≤ 0.05) after CBW infestation. Cluster analysis identified several distinct temporal patterns of transcriptome changes. Among CBW-induced genes, those associated with indirect defense and jasmonic acid pathway were clearly over-represented, indicating that these genes play important roles in CBW-induced defenses. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that CBW infestation could induce cotton plants to release volatile compounds comprised lipoxygenase-derived green leaf volatiles and a number of terpenoid volatiles. Responding to CBW larvae infestation, cotton plants undergo drastic reprogramming of the transcriptome and the volatile profile. The present results increase our knowledge about insect herbivory-induced metabolic and biochemical processes in plants, which may help improve future studies on genes governing processes.

  9. Overexpression of the phytochrome B gene from Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Qayyum RAO; Muhammad IRFAN; Zafar SALEEM; Idrees Ahmad NASIR; Sheikh RIAZUDDIN; Tayyab HUSNAIN

    2011-01-01

    The phytochrome B (PHYB) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced into cotton through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Integration and expression of PHYB gene in cotton plants were confirmed by molecular evidence.Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in one of the transgenic lines, QCC11, was much higher than those of control and other transgenic lines. Transgenic cotton plants showed more than a two-fold increase in photosynthetic rate and more than a four-fold increase in transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in photosynthetic rate led to a 46% increase in relative growth rate and an 18% increase in net assimilation rate. Data recorded up to two generations,both in the greenhouse and in the field, revealed that overexpression ofArabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene in transgeniccotton plants resulted in an increase in the production of cotton by improving the cotton plant growth, with 35% more yield. Moreover, the presence of the Arabidopsis thaliana PHYB gene caused pleiotropic effects like semi-dwarfism,decrease in apical dominance, and increase in boll size.

  10. [Arachnofauna (araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypium hirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, María Ana; González, Alda

    2012-06-01

    Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 51, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1053, 83.91%), "Orb weavers" (n=85, 6.77%) and "Stalkers" (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider's community in cotton crops.

  11. Quantification of Cry1Ac protein at different stages of plant growth in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan during cotton growing season 2009-10. Nine cotton cultivars with Cry 1 Ac gene (Mon 531 event selected for current experiment to characterize the toxin level of Cry1Ac protein in different Bt cotton cultivars and to record the variation in Cry1Ac protein at various plant growth stages. It was found that age of plant was having an influence on the expression of gene. Maximum level of endotoxin (0.373g/g was observed in genotype CIM-595 at 100 days of planting. While minimum value (0.166g/g was observed in genotype V-1 at 160 days of planting. Similarly different cotton genotypes showed different boll worm damage % at different growth stages. CEMB-2 was found to be most susceptible genotype showing 93.33 % boll worm damage at 160 days after planting. While V-5 proved to be most resistant showing no boll worm damage at 70 and 100 days after planting.

  12. Efeito de tratamentos com fungicidas na conservação de sementes de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Fungicides treatment and storage of cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Cia

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre a germinação de sementes das variedades comerciais de algodoeiro IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, mantendo-se as sementes em condições de labo-ratório durante dois anos e utilizando-se os seguintes tratamentos com fungicidas: 1 PCNB + thiram; 2 Benomyl; 3 deslintamento mecânico (testemunha; 4 deslintamento ácido (D.A.; 5 PCNB + thiram + D.A.; e 6 mercúrio metálico. A semeadura foi efetuada em canteiros de casa de vegetação, com três repetições, utilizando-se cinqüenta sementes por parcela. A avaliação dos dados foi feita através de índices de emergência (relação entre o stand inicial e o número de sementes utilizadas e de resistência a fungos do tombamento (relação entre a média ponderada das notas das plantas 25 dias após a emergência e o stand inicial. As notas variaram de 1 a 3 de acordo com a lesão de tombamento na altura do colo da planta. Pelos isolados obtidos de plantas com lesão, constatou-se maior incidência de Rhyzoctonia solani Kuhn. Nas condições do ensaio, os fungicidas à base de mercúrio metálico, PCNB + thiram e Benomyl apresentaram um bom efeito aos sete meses de tratamento, o qual foi mantido até os dezesseis meses com os mesmos tratamentos, exceção feita para Benomyl. O deslintamento com ácido deu bom resultado somente até os sete meses, pois aos dezesseis meses o poder germinativo piorou relativamente, sendo que esse efeito negativo foi diminuído com tratamento de PCNB + thiram.An experiment was carried out for two years in a greenhouse to study the effect of fungicides treatment on the germination of seeds of São Paulo cotton varieties, IAC 13-1 and IAC 17. Treated seeds were stored in uncontrolled conditions and germination was tested yearly. For each variety, the following treatments were applied: 1 PCNB + thiram, 2 Benomyl, 3 Check (mechanically delinted seed, 4 Acid delinted seed (D.A., 5 D.A. + PCNB + thiram, 6 Metallic mercury. For treatments 1, 2 and 6

  13. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  14. A high-efficiency CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted mutagenesis in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Unver, Turgay; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    The complex allotetraploid genome is one of major challenges in cotton for repressing gene expression. Developing site-specific DNA mutation is the long-term dream for cotton breeding scientists. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is emerging as a robust biotechnology for targeted-DNA mutation. In this study, two sgRNAs, GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2, were designed in the identical genomic regions of GhMYB25-like A and GhMYB25-like D, which were encoded by cotton A subgenome and the D subgenome, respectively, was assembled to direct Cas9-mediated allotetraploid cotton genome editing. High proportion (14.2–21.4%) CRISPR/Cas9-induced specific truncation events, either from GhMYB25-like A DNA site or from GhMYB25-like D DNA site, were detected in 50% examined transgenic cotton through PCR amplification assay and sequencing analyses. Sequencing results also demonstrated that 100% and 98.8% mutation frequency were occurred on GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2 target site respectively. The off-target effect was evaluated by sequencing two putative off-target sites, which have 3 and 1 mismatched nucleotides with GhMYB25-like-sgRNA1 and GhMYB25-like-sgRNA2, respectively; all the examined samples were not detected any off-target-caused mutation events. Thus, these results demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 is qualified for generating DNA level mutations on allotetraploid cotton genome with high-efficiency and high-specificity. PMID:28256588

  15. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perdomo, Felipe; Abril, Jorge; Camelo, Mauricio; Moreno-Galván, Andrés; Pastrana, Iván; Rojas-Tapias, Daniel; Bonilla, Ruth

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this research was to evaluate whether the application of two plant growth-promoting (rhizo)bacteria might reduce nitrogen fertilization doses in cotton. We used strains Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 and AC10 for their proven ability to promote seed germination and cotton growth. These microorganisms were characterized by their plant growth-promoting activities. Then, we conducted a glasshouse study to evaluate the plant growth promoting ability of these strains with reduced doses of urea fertilization in cotton. Results revealed that both strains are capable of fixing nitrogen, solubilizing phosphorus, synthesizing indole compounds and producing hydrolytic enzymes. After 12 weeks, the glasshouse experiment showed that cotton growth was positively influenced due to bacterial inoculation with respect to chemical fertilization. Notably, we observed that microbial inoculation further influenced plant biomass (p<0.05) than nitrogen content. Co-inoculation, interestingly, exhibited a greater beneficial effect on plant growth parameters compared to single inoculation. Moreover, similar results without significant statistical differences were observed among bacterial co-inoculation plus 50% urea and 100% fertilization. These findings suggest that co-inoculation of A. chroococcum strains allow to reduce nitrogen fertilization doses up to 50% on cotton growth. Our results showed that inoculation with AC1 and AC10 represents a viable alternative to improve cotton growth while decreasing the N fertilizer dose and allows to alleviate the environmental deterioration related to N pollution. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  17. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  18. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  19. Mapping of QTL for Fiber Length Using Interspecific Gossypium hirsutum × G.barbadense F2 Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PREETHA S; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton occupies a pre-eminent place among cash crops as it guides the destiny of a large section of the farming community as well as that of a flourishing textile industry.As the yarn manufacturing industry has undergone a technological revolution,more emphasis is given to quality of the raw material in order to overcome high speed spinning.Though different yarn manufacturing technologies have various requirements in terms of basic fiber properties,fiber length has a premier role in deciding the spinning efficiency.

  20. Transmission of the opportunistic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll pathogen Pantoea agglomerans by the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus Say)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to developing cotton bolls by piercing-sucking insects such as stink bugs has traditionally been attributed solely to pest feeding. Previously, we showed clear differences in severity of boll damage resulting from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula L.) fed sterile food compared to thos...

  1. Effect of Implantation Machine Parameters on N+ ion Implantation for Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jieyu; Yu, Lixiang; Wu, Yuejin; Tang, Canming

    2008-10-01

    Effect of parameters of ion implantation machine, including ion energy, total dose, dose rate, impulse energy and implantation interval on the pollen grains of upland cotton implanted with nitrogen ion beam were studied. The best parameters were screened out. The results also showed that the vacuum condition before the nitrogen ion implantation does not affect the pollen viability.

  2. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  3. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar.

  4. A Long-Read Transcriptome Assembly of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Intraspecific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery

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    Hamid Ashrafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Upland cotton ( L. has a narrow germplasm base, which constrains marker development and hampers intraspecific breeding. A pressing need exists for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers that can be readily applied to germplasm in breeding and breeding-related research programs. Despite progress made in developing new sequencing technologies during the past decade, the cost of sequencing remains substantial when one is dealing with numerous samples and large genomes. Several strategies have been proposed to lower the cost of sequencing for multiple genotypes of large-genome species like cotton, such as transcriptome sequencing and reduced-representation DNA sequencing. This paper reports the development of a transcriptome assembly of the inbred line Texas Marker-1 (TM-1, a genetic standard for cotton, its usefulness as a reference for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq-based SNP identification, and the availability of transcriptome sequences of four other cotton cultivars. An assembly of TM-1 was made using Roche 454 transcriptome reads combined with an assembly of all available public expressed sequence tag (EST sequences of TM-1. The TM-1 assembly consists of 72,450 contigs with a total of 70 million bp. Functional predictions of the transcripts were estimated by alignment to selected protein databases. Transcriptome sequences of the five lines, including TM-1, were obtained using an Illumina Genome Analyzer-II, and the short reads were mapped to the TM-1 assembly to discover SNPs among the five lines. We identified >14,000 unfiltered allelic SNPs, of which ∼3,700 SNPs were retained for assay development after applying several rigorous filters. This paper reports availability of the reference transcriptome assembly and shows its utility in developing intraspecific SNP markers in upland cotton.

  5. Chromosome Substitution Lines:Useful Genomic Resources in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genus Gossypium is a very diverse one with about 50 species.However,a very narrow germplasm base is presently being used for genetic improvement of Upland cotton.The wild tetraploid cotton species are reservoirs of important genes for pest and disease resistance,and for improved agronomic and fiber traits.Two of the most important forces impeding Upland cotton improvement are" 1)the paucity of information about genes that control important traits,and 2) the need for extensive usage of diverse germplasm.

  6. QTL Analysis of Fiber Yield and Quality and Resistance to Verticillium Wilt Using Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense Advanced Backcross Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-guo; WANG Tao; YUAN You-lu; LIU Guang-ping; ZHANG Bao-cai; LI Jun-wen; SHI Yu-zhen; LIU Ai-ying; YANG Ze-mao; LIU Zhi; YU Xiao-nan

    2008-01-01

    @@ To introgress elite QTL alleles of Gossypium barbadense L.for fiber yield and quality and resistance to Verticillium wilt into G.hirsutum L.,enlarge the genetic base of G.hirsutum,and provide new germplasm resources for the variety development,the cultivars Zhongmiansuo 36,G.hirsutum,and Hai 1,G.barbadense,were used as recurrent and donor parent,respectively,to produce BC1 F1,BC1S1,and BC2F1 populations.QTL analyses of fiber quality,yield-related,Key words: interspecific backcrosss; AB-QTL; fiber quality; yield; Verticillium wilt resistance

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Associated with Fiber Strength in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-man; ZHU You-min; TONG Xiang-chao; HU Wen-jing; CAI Cai-ping; GUO Wang-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is one of the most important enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). AOC catalyzes the conversion of allene oxide into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of JA. Using 28K cotton genome array hybridization, an expressed sequence tag (EST;GenBank accession no. ES792958) was investigated that exhibited signiifcant expression differences between lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM isogenic lines during ifber initiation stages. The EST was used to search the Gossypium EST database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) for corresponding cDNA sequences encoding full-length open reading frames (ORFs). Identiifed ORFs were conifrmed using transcriptional and genomic data. As a result, a novel gene encoding AOC in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum AOC;GenBank accession no. KF383427) was cloned and characterized. The 741-bp GhAOC gene comprises three exons and two introns and encodes a polypeptide of 246 amino acids. Two homologous copies were identiifed in the tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and one copy in the diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii. qRT-PCR showed that the GhAOC transcript was abundant in cotton ifber tissues from 8 to 23 days post anthesis (DPA), and the expression proifles were similar in the two cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, with a higher level of transcription in the former. One copy of GhAOC in tetraploid cotton was localized to chromosome 24 (Chr. D8) using the subgenome-speciifc single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker analysis, which co-localized GhAOC to within 10 cM of a ifber strength quantitative trait locus (QTL) reported previously. GhAOC was highly correlated with ifber quality and strength (P=0.014) in an association analysis, suggesting a possible role in cotton ifber development, especially in secondary cell wall thickening.

  8. The Effect of Calcium on Early Fiber Elongation in Cotton Ovule Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes that initiate on the ovule epidermis. Fiber initials accumulate calcium and membranes, including ER. Multiple calcium sensors, and small GTPase proteins that may act in calcium signaling pathways and/or primary cell wall biosynthesis were present in fiber init...

  9. Use of FTIR spectroscopy technique in the determination of cotton fiber maturity and crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber consists of natural cellulose I component and its end-use qualities depend on the amount of cellulose deposited during the growth. The term fiber maturity has been used to describe the degree of cellulosic development or the secondary cell wall thickening of fibers. Useful information a...

  10. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoon Jitjaicham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  11. Introduction of rol Genes into Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome and Effects of Transgene Expression on the Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yan; YANG Ye-hua; WU Zheng-bin; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jin

    2004-01-01

    The rol genes cloned from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were transferred to the cotton genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses and developmental identification of the putative transgenic plants were carried out by means of PCR, Southern blotting and field characterization. The results showed that the expression of rol genes greatly increased the rooting ability of the transgenic plants, and changed the plant development. Highly male-sterile plants with strong apical dominance and fertile plants with short internodes, stunted growth and improved economic characteristics were segregated from the T1 transgenic lines of wild rol B gene and the rol B gene driven by 35S promoter. The transgenic lines of rol ABC construct usually had normal boll setting and slow growth. Therefore we concluded that the rol genes, modified in suitable ways,could be used to create new cotton varieties with some highly valuable characteristics.

  12. Intragenome distribution of 5-methylcytosine in DNA of healthy and wilt-infected cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, V A; Kiryanov, G I; Vanyushin, B F

    1975-03-01

    Fractionation of DNA of healthy and wilt-infected cotton plants has been carried out according to the reassociation kinetics and the content of GC and 5-methylcytosine in the resulting fractions has been studied. The genome of cotton plant was found to be methylated quite unevenly. The GC rich (GC equals 64.7 mole%) fraction of highly reiterated sequences (Cot equals 0-3.7 times 10- minus 2) has a high content of 5-methylcytosine (5.8 mole%), whereas the methylation degree of the fraction of unique sequences (Cot larger than or equal to 487) is very low (the 5-methylcytosine content is about 0.5 mole%). In plants being infected with wilt, the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA or cotton leaves decreases two-fold; no changes in the structure and molecular population of DNA has been found. The sharp change in the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA of infected plants takes place at the expense of the decrease in the 5-methylcytosine content in fractions of highly reiterated sequences. The methylation degree of unique sequences (structural genes) remains unchanged.

  13. Effect of Cotton Fibers and Their Trash Characteristics on the Performance of Spinning Preparatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. (Mrs. Tasnim N. Shaikh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological revolution in the age old cotton textile industry has made spinning preparatory section as a control centre for quality and economy of the outgoing product. Spinners have to chase these goals by cleaning the cotton mix without detoriating feed cotton characteristics and undue increase in the waste levels at higher productivity level. The successful efforts demand through investigation of the cotton fibers and their trash characteristics as well as identification of their best fit interrelationship with process parameters. Set of experimentations done in this direction are described in this paper as case study.

  14. Site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean and susceptible-cotton photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. [Glycine max (L. ); Gossypium hirsutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, M.A.; Liebl, R.A.; Widholm, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the herbicidal site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Corsoy) (SB-M) and susceptible-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) cv Stoneville 825) (COT-M) photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. Although a 10 micromolar clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the terpene or mixed terpenoid content (microgram per gram fresh weight) of the SB-M cell line, there was over a 70% reduction in the chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR), and plastoquinone (PQ) content of the COT-M cell line. The tocopherol (TOC) content was reduced only 35.6%. Reductions in the levels of Chl, CAR, TOC, and PQ indicate that the site of clomazone action in COT-M cells is prior to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). The clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the flow of ({sup 14}C)mevalonate (({sup 14}C)MEV) (nanocuries per gram fresh weight) into CAR and the three mixed terpenoid compounds of SB-M cells. Conversely, ({sup 14}C)MEV incorporation into CAR and the terpene moieties of Chl, PQ, and TOC in COT-M cells was reduced at least 73%, indicating that the site of clomazone action must be after MEV. Sequestration of clomazone away from the chloroplast cannot account for soybean tolerance to clomazone since chloroplasts isolated from both cell lines incubated with ({sup 14}C)clomazone contained a similar amount of radioactivity (disintegrations per minute per microgram of Chl). The possible site(s) of clomazone inhibition include mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and/or a prenyl transferase.

  15. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with semigamy in Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. through comparative microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart J McD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semigamy in cotton is a type of facultative apomixis controlled by an incompletely dominant autosomal gene (Se. During semigamy, the sperm and egg cells undergo cellular fusion, but the sperm and egg nucleus fail to fuse in the embryo sac, giving rise to diploid, haploid, or chimeric embryos composed of sectors of paternal and maternal origin. In this study we sought to identify differentially expressed genes related to the semigamy genotype by implementing a comparative microarray analysis of anthers and ovules between a non-semigametic Pima S-1 cotton and its doubled haploid natural isogenic mutant semigametic 57-4. Selected differentially expressed genes identified by the microarray results were then confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Results The comparative analysis between isogenic 57-4 and Pima S-1 identified 284 genes in anthers and 1,864 genes in ovules as being differentially expressed in the semigametic genotype 57-4. Based on gene functions, 127 differentially expressed genes were common to both semigametic anthers and ovules, with 115 being consistently differentially expressed in both tissues. Nine of those genes were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, seven of which were confirmed. Furthermore, several well characterized metabolic pathways including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of and response to plant hormones were shown to be affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic tissues. Conclusion As the first report using microarray analysis, several important metabolic pathways affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic cotton genotype have been identified and described in detail. While these genes are unlikely to be the semigamy gene itself, the effects associated with expression changes in those genes do mimic phenotypic traits observed in semigametic plants

  16. Relationship Between Piercing-Sucking Insect Control and Internal Lint and Seed Rot in Southeastern Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Enrique G; Bell, Alois A; Greene, Jeremy K; Roberts, Phillip M; Bacheler, Jack S; Marois, James J; Wright, David L; Esquivel, Jesus F; Nichols, Robert L; Duke, Sara

    2015-08-01

    In 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (Hemiptera spp.) in South Carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. The disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern Cotton Belt. Externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. In greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the opportunistic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Here, green bolls were sampled from stink bug management plots (insecticide protected or nontreated) from four South Atlantic coast states (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) to determine disease incidence in the field and its association with piercing-sucking insects feeding. A logistic regression analysis of the boll damage data revealed that disease was 24 times more likely to occur (P = 0.004) in bolls collected from plots in Florida, where evidence of pest pressure was highest, than in bolls harvested in NC with the lowest detected insect pressure. Fruit from plots treated with insecticide, a treatment which reduced transmission agent numbers, were 4 times less likely to be diseased than bolls from unprotected sites (P = 0.002). Overall, punctured bolls were 125 times more likely to also have disease symptoms than nonpunctured bolls, irrespective of whether or not plots were protected with insecticides (P = 0.0001). Much of the damage to cotton bolls that is commonly attributed to stink bug feeding is likely the resulting effect of vectored pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Peliculização e tratamento químico de sementes de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Film-coating and chemical treatment of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Baptista de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento ideal de plantas no campo é determinado, dentre outros fatores, pela qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes utilizadas. Neste sentido, o tratamento químico de sementes torna-se essencial, pois proporciona melhor desempenho das mesmas no campo. Atualmente, em associação com o tratamento químico, a fim de aumentar a aderência dos produtos químicos nas sementes, dentre outros objetivos, tem sido estudada a utilização de películas de revestimento. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de algodoeiro de quatro lotes, tratadas quimicamente e peliculizadas com 2 tipos de películas comerciais. Utilizou-se dois lotes da cultivar Delta Opal, dois da cultivar Sure Grow, e dois tipos de películas, denominadas AG201 e TGBP1080. As sementes foram submetidas ao tratamento com a mistura dos fungicidas carboxin+thiram com o inseticida imidacloprid, na dosagem 5 mL/Kg + 5 mL/Kg de sementes e na dosagem 2,5 mL/Kg + 2,5 mL/Kg de sementes. Os tratamentos foram avaliados por teste de germinação, teste de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, teste de frio e de sanidade. O tratamento químico com a mistura de carboxin+thiram com imidacloprid, na dosagem 5 mL/Kg + 5 mL/Kg de sementes promove melhor desempenho das sementes, sendo eficaz no controle de fungos. O uso da peliculização não possibilita redução da dosagem do tratamento químico. A peliculização não afeta a germinação, emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência de lotes de alta qualidade.Physiological and healthy quality of cotton seeds (Gossypium hirsutum L. are decisive factor to establish an ideal stand in the field. The chemical seed treatment is necessary to preserve the healthy quality and to obtain a better development performance of the seeds in the field. Actually, researches on chemical treatment are liberally conducted, which film-coating technique has been used

  18. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome substitution (CS) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. In this study, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) CS lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. The CS lines were developed in the G. hirsutum L. TM-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment substitutions from G. barbadense L. Pima 3-79 or G. tomentosum. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) (races 1 and 4) resistance alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously placed on cotton chromosomes using SSR markers in two interspecific recombinant inbred line populations were chosen for testing. Phenotypic responses of increased resistance or susceptibility in controlled inoculation and infested field assays confirmed the resistance QTLs, based on substitution with the positive or negative allele for resistance. Lines CS-B22Lo, CS-B04, and CS-B18 showed high resistance to nematode root-galling, confirming QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 22 (long arm) with resistance alleles from Pima 3-79. Line CS-B16 had less fusarium race 1-induced vascular root staining and higher percent survival than the TM-1 parent, confirming a major resistance QTL on chromosome 16. Lines CS-B(17-11) and CS-B17 had high fusarium race 4 vascular symptoms and low survival due to susceptible alleles introgressed from Pima 3-79, confirming the localization on chromosome 17 of an identified QTL with resistance alleles from TM1 and other resistant lines. Analyses validated regions on chromosomes 11, 16, and 17 harboring nematode and fusarium wilt resistance genes and demonstrated the value of CS lines as both a germplasm resource for breeding programs and as a powerful genetic analysis tool for determining QTL effects for disease

  19. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  20. Development and Validation of a Fluorescent Multiplexed Immunoassay for Measurement of Transgenic Proteins in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Paul, Sudakshina; Nahirna, Iryna; Wang, Yongcheng; Deffenbaugh, Andrew E; Liu, Zi Lucy; Glenn, Kevin C

    2016-06-22

    In order to provide farmers with better and more customized alternatives to improve yields, combining multiple genetically modified (GM) traits into a single product (called stacked trait crops) is becoming prevalent. Trait protein expression levels are used to characterize new GM products and establish exposure limits, two important components of safety assessment. Developing a multiplexed immunoassay capable of measuring all trait proteins in the same sample allows for higher sample throughput and savings in both time and expense. Fluorescent (bead-based) multiplexed immunoassays (FMI) have gained wide acceptance in mammalian research and in clinical applications. In order to facilitate the measurement of stacked GM traits, we have developed and validated an FMI assay that can measure five different proteins (β-glucuronidase, neomycin phosphotransferase II, Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab2, and CP4 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) present in cotton leaf from a stacked trait product. Expression levels of the five proteins determined by FMI in cotton leaf tissues have been evaluated relative to expression levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of the individual proteins and shown to be comparable. The FMI met characterization requirements similar to those used for ELISA. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that FMI results are equivalent to those determined by conventional individual ELISAs to measure GM protein expression levels in stacked trait products but with significantly higher throughput, reduced time, and more efficient use of resources.

  1. Genes Expressing Differences in Upland Cotton Fiber Development Between 12 DPA and 16 DPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cai-rui; YU Shu-xun; WANG Wu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the major dominant natural fiber crop on the earth.Although some current cotton genetics and breeding programs had made great progresses in cotton lint yield increases and disease resistance (tolerance),fiber quality has little improvement.Global understanding genes expression will benefit to the fiber quality genetic improvement in the future.There are total 929 genes that were differently expressed between 12 DPA and 16 DPA based on the12 K cotton cDNA arrays (CapitalBio Corporation) analysis.There were 357 (38%) up-regulated,and 572 (62%) down-regulated.This work was supported by grants from the China National Basic Research Program (2004CB117306)

  2. Characterization of developmental immature fiber (im) mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) cotton fibers by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immature fiber (im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutants with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed princip...

  3. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Fiber-related Gene Expression in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Z Jeffrey; LEE Jinsuk J; HAN Zhi-guo; HA Misook; AGARWAL Vikram

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fiber cell initiation is a complex process involving many pathways,including phytohormones and components for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.Here we report expression analyses of fiber-related genes and small RNAs during fiber development.Using laser-dissected tissues and oligonucleotide microarrays corresponding to 23000 unigenes,we compared transcriptome profiles between the cells in epidermal layers,fibers,and inner integuments of cotton ovules.

  4. NOVEL USE OF WASTE KERATIN AND COTTON LINTER FIBERS FOR PROTOTYPE TISSUE PAPERS AND THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

  5. Fine mapping of the dominant glandless Gene Gle2 in Sea-island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gle2 is a mutant gene that controls glandless trait in cotton plants and seeds. It is an important gene resource to gossypol-free cottonseed breeding. The objective of this research was to develop SSR markers tightly linked with Gle2 by using the F2 segregating population containing 1599 plants derived from the cross of G. hirsutum genetic standard line TM-1 and G. barbadense glandless mutant line Hai-1. Genetic analysis suggested that the Gle2 was an incomplete dominant gene. Based on the backbone of genetic linkage map from G. hirsutum × G. barbadense BC1 published by our laboratory, Gle2 was located between CIR362 and NAU2251b, NAU3860b, STV033, with a genetic distance 9.27 and 0.96 cM, respectively. This result is useful for cloning Gle2 gene by map-based cloning method.

  6. Identification and application of biocontrol agents against Cotton leaf curl virus disease in Gossypium hirsutum under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memoona Ramzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.

  7. Major Gene Identiifcation and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Yield-Related Traits in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhe; ZHANG Xin; LIU Yang-yang; JIA Zi-fang; ZHAO Hai-hong; LI Cheng-qi; WANG Qing-lian

    2014-01-01

    Segregation analysis of the mixed genetic model of major gene plus polygene was used to identify the major genesfor cotton yield-related traits using six generations P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2 generated from the cross of Baimian 1×TM-1. In addition to boll size and seed index, the major genes for the other ifve traits were detected:one each for seed yield, lint percentage, boll number, lint index; and two for lint yield. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) mapping was performed in the F2 and F2:3 populations of above cross through molecular marker technology, and a total of 50 QTL (26 suggestive and 24 signiifcant) for yield-related traits were detected. Four common QTL were discovered: qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3)andqLP-19b (F2)/qLP-19(F2:3) for lint percentage, qBN-17(F2)/qBN-17(F2:3)for boll number, and qBS-26b(F2)/qBS-26(F2:3) for boll size. Especially, qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3), not only had LOD scores>3 but also exceeded the permutation threshold (5.13 and 5.29, respectively), correspondingly explaining 23.47 and 29.55% of phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in marker assisted selection (MAS). Segregation analysis and QTL mapping could mutually complement and verify, which provides a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of cotton yield-related traits by using major genes (QTL).

  8. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Stetina, Salliana R; Turley, Rickie B

    2015-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals) determines the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait) effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a 2-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes) in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines). Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source) to seed (sink). This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for food and feed.

  9. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  10. Use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy in non-destructive and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge of chemical and compositional components in cotton fibers is of value to cotton breeders and growers for cotton enhancement and to textile processors for quality control. In this work, we applied the previously proposed simple algorithms to analyze the attenuated total reflection Fouri...

  11. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  12. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  13. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and

  14. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  15. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  16. Analysis of the Fiber Quality of Upland Cotton in China from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-hua; TANG Shu-rong; XU Hong-xia; WANG Yan-qin; ZHOU Da-yun; KUANG Meng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upper-half-mean length (Len),uniformity index (UI),breaking tenacity (Str),and mieronaire value (Mic) are the key quality parameters of cotton fiber.In this study,182 upland cotton varieties examined and approved by The National or Provincial Committees for the Examination and Approval of Crop from 2005 to 2007 were selected as materials.These varieties were the most popular varieties planted in China.The result indicated that the distribution of fiber length was very limited.The fiber length of 145 varieties was concentrated from 28 mm to 30 mm,which was nearly 80% of the varieties.

  17. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan;

    2014-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  18. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Familiesin Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-XunFENG; Sheng-JianJI; Yong-HuiSHI; YuXU; GangWEI; Yu-XianZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50 fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  19. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Families in Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xun FENG; Sheng-Jian JI; Yong-Hui SHI; Yu XU; Gang WEI; Yu-Xian ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50-fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  20. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength......A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  1. Molecular Cloning,Expression,and Characterization of an Adenylyl Cyclase-associated Protein from Gossypium arboreum Fuzzless Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng; ZHAO Guo-hong; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ CAP,an adenylyl cyclase-associated protein,is predicted to be involved in cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction.Recently,we found that CAP may play an important role in fuzz-like fiber cell initiation in cotton.For the further research,we isolated two CAP homologues from wild type cotton Gossypium arboreum L.(DPL971) and its natural fuzzless mutant (DPL972).The gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,416 nucleotides encoding a protein of 471 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 50.6 kDa.

  2. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu John Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  3. Characterization of in vivo phosphorylation modification of differentially accumulated proteins in cotton fiber-initiation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Bing; He, Wenying; Wang, Zi; Li, Guanqiao; Liu, Jinyuan

    2016-08-01

    Initiation of cotton fiber from ovule epidermal cells determines the ultimate number of fibers per cotton ovule, making it one of the restriction factors of cotton fiber yield. Previous comparative proteomics studies have collectively revealed 162 important differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in cotton fiber-initiation process, however, whether and how post-translational modifications, especially phosphorylation modification, regulate the expression and function of the DAPs are still unclear. Here we reported the successful identification of 17 phosphopeptides from 16 phosphoproteins out of the 162 DAPs using the integrated bioinformatics analyses of peptide mass fingerprinting data and targeted MS/MS identification method. In-depth analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 phosphorylation sites were novel phosphorylation sites first identified in plants, whereas 6 of the 16 phosphoproteins were found to be the phosphorylated isoforms of 6 proteins. The phosphorylation-regulated dynamic protein network derived from this study not only expanded our understanding of the cotton fiber-initiation process, but also provided a valuable resource for future functional studies of the phosphoproteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effect of pectin particles and cotton fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutarat Prachayawarakorn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to poor mechanical properties and high water uptake of thermoplastic starch (TPS, this research focused on property improvement of thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS using natural compatible polymers, i.e. pectin particles and cotton fibers. Different TPCS composites, reinforced by the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers, were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and a compression molding machine, respectively. It was found from infrared (IR spectra that the peak position of O-H stretching of the TPCS polymer clearly shifted to lower wavenumber by the addition of the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers. Moreover, the significant increase of stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/pectin particle and the TPCS/cotton fiber composites was observed. The drop of water uptake was also found when the cotton fibers were incorporated into the TPCS matrix with/without pectin particles. In addition, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis were used to characterize different TPCS composites.

  5. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  6. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  7. Construction of Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive genetic linkage map was constructed using 270 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between two upland cotton cultivars Yumian 1 and T586.The linkage map comprised of 604 loci and 57 linkage groups ordered into 25 chromosomes,spanning 3106.9 cM,and approximately accounting for the 69.87~ of the whole cotton genome with an average genetic distance of 5.15 cM between two markers.Based on interval mapping,29 QTLs affecting fiber quality were identified,including 5 QTLs for fiber length,7 QTLs for fiber uniformity,10 QTLs for fiber strength,2 QTLs for fiber elongation,and 5 QTLs for fiber fineness.Seventeen QTLs were mapped on A sub-genome chromosomes,and 12 on D sub-genome.

  8. China Project "973"-Molecular Improvement of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the main cash crop in China,and plays a very important and irreplaceable role in the national economy.With only 3% of total crop plant area,China accounts for over 10% of the output of the cotton industry.

  9. Dynamics of soil diazotrophic community structure, diversity, and functioning during the cropping period of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli

    2015-01-01

    The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site.

  10. Carbon source dependent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2 through suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2005-10-01

    Highly reproducible and simple protocol for cotton somatic embryogenesis is described here by using different concentrations of maltose, glucose, sucrose and fructose. Maltose (30 g/l) is the best carbon source for embryogenic callus induction and glucose (30 g/l) was suitable for induction, maturation of embryoids and plant regeneration. Creamy white embryogenic calli of hypocotyl explants were formed on medium containing MS basal salts, myo-inositol (100 mg/l), thiamine HCI (0.3 mg/l), picloram (0.3 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and maltose (30 g/l). During embryo induction and maturation, accelerated growth was observed in liquid medium containing NH3NO4 (1 g/l), picloram (2.0 mg/l), 2 ip (0.2 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Before embryoid induction, large clumps of embryogenic tissue were formed. These tissues only produced viable embryoids. Completely matured somatic embryos were germinated successfully on the medium fortified with MS salts, myo-inositol (50 mg/l), thiamine HCl (0.2 mg/l), GA3 (0.2 mg/l), BA (1.0 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Compared with earlier reports, 65% of somatic embryo germination was observed. The abnormal embryo formation was highly reduced by using glucose (30 g/l) compared to other carbon sources. The regenerated plantlets were fertile but smaller in height than the seed derived control plants.

  11. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  12. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ji-wen; YU Shu-xun; ZHANG Jin-fa; ZHAI Hong-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and fiber quality are complex quantitative traits and are usually negatively associated that hampers the simultaneous improvement of lint yield and fiber quality by traditional breeding.

  13. Studies of new EST-SSRs derived from Gossypium barbadense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YanXin; LIN ZhongXu; LI Wu; TU LiLi; NIE YiChun; ZHANG XianLong

    2007-01-01

    Existing cotton EST-SSR markers are mostly derived from Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hir- sutum, but EST-SSR markers from Gossypium barbadense are scarce. One hundred and nineteen EST-SSRs were developed based on 98 unique ESTs from a cDNA library constructed in our laboratory using developing fibers from G. barbadense cv. Pima3-79. Among the SSRs, trinucleotide AAG appeared at a high frequency of 11.76%. 36 accessions (consisting of 13 diploids of the A genome, 11 diploids of the D genome and 12 allotetraploids of the AD genome) were employed to test new EST-SSRs. 76 EST-SSRs were successfully amplified, and 313 polymorphic fragments were yielded, with an average of 4.11 fragments per primer pair. The PIC ranged from 0.17 to 0.95 with an average of 0.53. Based on Jaccard's genetic similarity coefficient, these 36 accessions were clustered into three groups. 21 EST-SSRs exhibited polymorphisms in BC1 population ((Emian22 × Pima3-79) × Emian22), 24 polymor- phic loci were generated, while 22 of the 24 polymorphic loci were integrated with our interspecific BC1 backbone genetic linkage map, and anchored in 12 chromosomes. This study effectively proved that EST-SSRs from G. barbadense are valuable for genetic diversity analysis and genetic mapping.

  14. Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall sythesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber morphogenesis reflects extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation in an easily isolated single cell. Uncovering the cellular control mechanisms can lead to strategies for producing improved cotton fiber for textiles and other uses. To identify potential controls of the high...

  15. Chemical-free Extraction of Cotton Stalk Bark Fibers by Steam Flash Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fibers (CSBF were extracted by steam flash explosion, completed within 0.09 s, and the extracted fibers were compared with those obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Results indicate that the optimum steam pressure was 2.5 MPa when steaming time was set to 2 min for extracting CSBF. Under the optimized conditions, the obtained CSBF had a cellulose content of 72%, length of 48 mm, fineness of 45 dtex, crystallinity index of 68, moisture regain of 8%, water retention of 98%, and tensile strength of 2.4 cN/dtex, which were similar to results obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Compared with bark of cotton stalks, CSBF had lower moisture regain and water retention, and higher onset decomposition temperature. The results show that moderate steam flash explosion is a chemical-free, quick, and effective method for exploring the industrial applications of bark of cotton stalks as natural cellulose fibers.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Actin-depolymerizing Factor Gene in Gossypium barbadense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhi-ying; CHI Ji-na; WANG Xing fen; ZHOU Hong-mei; ZHANG Gui-yin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) has been highly valued in Verticillium wilt resistance and many fiber qualities including fiber length,strength,and fineness.To identify whether it had some special genes in fiber development in comparison with the upland cotton (G.hirsutum L.),an actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) gene was cloned and characterized in this research.A 420 bp open reading frame of the cloned gene,termed GbADF1,encoded a protein of 139 amino acids,which included39.57% nonpolar amino acids,17.27% acidic amino acids,15.83% basic amino acids,and 31.92% hydrophobic amino aids.

  17. Expression of a cotton profilin gene GhPFN1 is associated with fiber cell elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Profilin is an important actin-binding protein involved in regulating the organization of actin filaments. A cotton profilin gene (GhPFN1) that shares 71% identity to profilin1 of Arabidopsis in its amino acid sequence was isolated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that GhPFN1 was expressed preferentially in the developing cotton fibers and reached the highest level at the fast elongation stage. The function of GhPFN1 in vivo was analyzed using the S. pombe system, and results suggested that GhPFN1 plays a role in fiber cell elongation.

  18. A new synthetic allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2 between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: bridging for simultaneously transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum, a cultivated diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, A1A1, has favorable traits such as excellent drought tolerance and resistance to sucking insects and leaf curl virus. G. australe, a wild diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, G2G2, possesses numerous economically valuable characteristics such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis (which is conducive to the production of seeds with very low levels of gossypol as a potential food source for humans and animals and resistance to insects, wilt diseases and abiotic stress. Creating synthetic allotetraploid cotton from these two species would lay the foundation for simultaneously transferring favorable genes into cultivated tetraploid cotton. Here, we crossed G. herbaceum (as the maternal parent with G. australe to produce an F1 interspecific hybrid and doubled its chromosome complement with colchicine, successfully generating a synthetic tetraploid. The obtained tetraploid was confirmed by morphology, cytology and molecular markers and then self-pollinated. The S1 seedlings derived from this tetraploid gradually became flavescent after emergence of the fifth true leaf, but they were rescued by grafting and produced S2 seeds. The rescued S1 plants were partially fertile due to the existence of univalents at Metaphase I of meiosis, leading to the formation of unbalanced, nonviable gametes lacking complete sets of chromosomes. The S2 plants grew well and no flavescence was observed, implying that interspecific incompatibility, to some extent, had been alleviated in the S2 generation. The synthetic allotetraploid will be quite useful for polyploidy evolutionary studies and as a bridge for transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton through hybridization.

  19. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  20. The induction of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 and NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductases by long-term salt treatment of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankova, Liliana; Ivanov, Sergei; Alexieva, Vera

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effect of salinity on the activity of microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, EC 1.6.2.4) and NADH:ferricytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (B5R, EC 1.6.2.2) in two dicotyledonous plant species differing in their sensitivity to salt, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Ogosta) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Dobrujanski 7). A significant inhibition of fresh weight of salt-treated bean plants was observed, while cotton was affected to a much lesser degree. NaCl application resulted in a significant increase in the activity of both reductases, but was more pronounced in salt-tolerant cotton. We suppose that alterations in B5R and CPR activities may be targeted to the maintenance of membrane lipids. Most probably, plants use both enzymes (B5R and CPR) and their respective electron donors (NADH and NADPH) to reduce cytochrome b(5), which can donate reducing equivalents to a series of lipid-modification reactions such as desaturation and hydroxylation.

  1. Correlations and path analysis in components of fiber yield in cultivars of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse Ferreira de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relative contribution of agronomic and technological components on the fiber yield in upland cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with 11 upland cotton cultivars in a completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Initially, we performed analysis of variance, with the F test at 5% probability for the effect of cultivar as fixed effects as well as block and environment effects as random. Then the values were ordered according to cluster test Scott-Knott, at 5% probability level. The significance of the null hypothesis that all possible canonical correlations are null was evaluated using the chi-square test. The correlations were estimated through the path analysis. By examining the canonical correlations there was dependence between the two groups of variables and therefore it is possible to promote changes in certain characteristics through the selection of others correlated. Plants of upland cotton with higher fiber yield were influenced by the decrease in average weight of the cotton boll. When there is a reduced fiber yield, there is also an increase in uniformity and strength thereof. The fiber resistance had negative indirect effects on the fiber uniformity and length.

  2. Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H

    2005-10-01

    Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated.

  3. 棉花纤维和衣分等基因系的收集和遗传学研究%Genetics and the Genetic Collection of Isogenic Lines of Seed Lint Type and Fiber Output in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. A. MUSAEV; M. F. ABZALOV; A. S. ALMATOV; T. TURABEKOV; S. T. MUSAEVA; G. N. FATKHULLAEVA; N. G. GUBANOVA; Kh. A. AKHMEDOV

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a result of long standing investigation on urgent problems of amphidiploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum genetics, for the first time genetic determination of the most important traits has been established, and the unique genetic collection of homozygous isogenic lines has been developed. A scientifically wellfounded theory about combined types of polygene interaction in genetic determination of tracts in cotton, has been developed.

  4. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, H.; Yeung, L. Y.; Hu, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a possible mechanism for transfer of the shape-memory effect to fabrics is proposed. Forming as a coating on the fiber surface after the finishing process, the shape-memory polymer takes a critical role in reducing the residual stress in weft fibers, establishing the prerequisite for reserving the shape-memory effect to fabric. In addition, this work has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to probe the residual stresses in cotton fabrics after being treated by chemicals in addition to that due to physical deformation. Our result provides clear evidence that in the finishing process strength reduction in fibers in general is not only caused solely by a chemical reaction, but also by a physical modification of the cotton structure.

  5. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  6. Harvester-based sensing system for cotton fiber-quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture in cotton production attempts to maximize profitability by exploiting information on field spatial variability to optimize the fiber yield and quality. For precision agriculture to be economically viable, collection of spatial variability data within a field must be automated a...

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  8. Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose membranes from natural cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan CAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of organic solutions with different cellulose concentrations are prepared by dissolving natural cotton fibers in lithium chloride/dimethyl acetamide (LiCl/DMAC solvent system after the activation of cotton fibers. Under different coagulating bath, the regenerated cellulose membranes are formed in two kinds of coagulation baths, and two coating methods including high-speed spin technique (KW-4A spin coating machine and low-speed scraping (AFA-Ⅱ Film Applicator are selected in this paper. The macromolecular structure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, thermal stability and wetting property of the regenerated cellulose membrane are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR,X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and contacting angle tester. The effects of mass fraction, coagulation bath type, membrane forming process on the regenerated membrane properties are investigated. Experimental results show that the performance of regenerated cellulose membrane is relatively excellent under the condition of using the KW-4A high-speed spin method, water coagulation bath, and when mass fraction of cellulose is 3.5%. The crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose membrane changes a lot compared with natural cotton fibers. The variation trend of thermal stability is similar with that of cotton fiber. But thermal stability is reduced to some degree, while the wetting ability is improved obviously.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of cotton fiber qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world. Its production and profitability are determined by at least three main factors including genotype, environment, and production practices that interact to one another and ultimately affects the yield and quality of cotto...

  10. GraP: platform for functional genomics analysis of Gossypium raimondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Guo, Jinyan; You, Qi; Yi, Xin; Ling, Yi; Xu, Wenying; Hua, Jinping; Su, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most important natural fiber and oil crops worldwide. Improvement of fiber yield and quality under changing environments attract much attention from cotton researchers; however, a functional analysis platform integrating omics data is still missing. The success of cotton genome sequencing and large amount of available transcriptome data allows the opportunity to establish a comprehensive analysis platform for integrating these data and related information. A comprehensive database, Platform of Functional Genomics Analysis in Gossypium raimondii (GraP), was constructed to provide multi-dimensional analysis, integration and visualization tools. GraP includes updated functional annotation, gene family classifications, protein-protein interaction networks, co-expression networks and microRNA-target pairs. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis and cis-element significance analysis tools are also provided for gene batch analysis of high-throughput data sets. Based on these effective services, GraP may offer further information for subsequent studies of functional genes and in-depth analysis of high-throughput data. GraP is publically accessible at http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/GraP/, with all data available for downloading. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Study on the Genetics and Development of Fiber Pigments and Color Deviation After Wetting Process of Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xin-mian; ZHOU Wen-long

    2003-01-01

    The genetic control of fiber pigment color in naturally colored cotton was studied. The expres-sion of brown and green fiber color was controlled by incompletely dominant single genes and incompletelydominant major genes, respectively. Production and accumulation of the fiber pigment were related to specialexpression of enzymatic genes for pigment synthesis in fiber cells. At the stage of fiber lengthening, naturallycolored cotton, like white cotton, appeared purely white. But when fiber cell walls entered the thickeningstage, pigment appeared by degrees. When the fiber was completely matured (on boll dehiscence), the colorreached its darkest level. After wetting process treatment, the hues of the fiber pigment changed in regularpatterns. The hue circle for brown and green cotton changed in the opposite direction with wetting processtreatment. In general, the treated cotton color and luster became dark and vivid, and this trend provided the possibili-ty for enhancing the fiber quality by suitable enviromnental friendly finishing. The analysis showed that the color andluster of the cotton may be controlled by a series of pigments which show different chemical performance.

  12. BAC-end sequence-based SNP mining in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium) utilizing re-sequencing data, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and BAC-end sequences for Gossypium hirsutum L. have recently been developed. Here we report on genomic-based genome-wide SNP mining utilizing re-sequencing data with a BAC-end sequence reference for twelve G. hirsutum L. lines, one G. barbadense L. li...

  13. Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI FeiFei; WU ShenJie; L(U) FenNi; CHEN TianZi; JU Ming; WANG HaiHai; JIANG YanJie; ZHANG Jie; GUO WangZhen; ZHANG TianZhen

    2009-01-01

    A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptll and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous lines in T3 were obtained. Southern blot and Northern bolt demonstrated that the fibroin gene was inserted into the genome of these 6 lines, stably inherited and expressed. Compared to the control, the surface structure of mature fiber in the 6 lines was significantly distorted and an increased number of convolution was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fiber quality traits analysis indicated that fiber elongation of the 6 homozygous lines was all increased and fiber strength of 3 lines was enhanced. These results indicated that fibroin expression influenced cotton fiber structure and quality, suggesting that fibroin has great potential for improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering.

  14. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  15. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  16. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  17. [Major-polygene effect analysis of super quality fiber properties in upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, You-Lu; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Yu, John; Kohel, Russell J

    2002-09-01

    The modern textile industry depends on the improvement of fiber quality, especially strength to meet the needs of higher spinning speed. Inheritance of super quality fiber properties in Upland cotton was conducted in the present paper. P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 of eight crosses from five parents with different fiber strength, i.e. 7235 x TM1, TM1 x 7235, HS42 x TM1, PD69 x TM1, MD51 x TM1, 7235 x HS42, 7235 x PD69 and HS42 x PD69, and F2:3 for 7235 x TM1, were used in the study. The materials were planted in Nanjing or Hainan in 1998 and 1999, the individual plant fiber samples were tested with HVI system in Cotton Research Institute of CAAS at Anyang. The segregation analysis methods for major genes plus polygene mixed inheritance model developed by Gai were used to identify the genetic system of fiber qualities. The results from joint analyses of multiple segregating generations as well as single segregating generations, especially for F2:3, showed one major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model in all fiber quality characters. The heritability values of major gene in F2 of 7235 x TM1 with great parent difference were estimated as 19.6% for fiber strength, 32.0% for micronaire and 13.9% for fiber length, but little in B1 and B2 for fiber qualities. The fiber length showed high and positive dominant effect, but negative value or zero of major or polygene dominant effects for other fiber qualities. Therefore, Mid-parent value or tendency to lower parent in F1 for most of fiber qualities lead to low selection efficiency, which suggests that molecular assisted selection should be considered at first in the improvement of fiber qualities.

  18. Chilling stress--the key predisposing factor for causing Alternaria alternata infection and leading to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. leaf senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqing Zhao

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence plays a vital role in nutrient recycling and overall capacity to assimilate carbon dioxide. Cotton premature leaf senescence, often accompanied with unexpected short-term low temperature, has been occurring with an increasing frequency in many cotton-growing areas and causes serious reduction in yield and quality of cotton. The key factors for causing and promoting cotton premature leaf senescence are still unclear. In this case, the relationship between the pre-chilling stress and Alternaria alternata infection for causing cotton leaf senescence was investigated under precisely controlled laboratory conditions with four to five leaves stage cotton plants. The results showed short-term chilling stress could cause a certain degree of physiological impairment to cotton leaves, which could be recovered to normal levels in 2-4 days when the chilling stresses were removed. When these chilling stress injured leaves were further inoculated with A. alternata, the pronounced appearance and development of leaf spot disease, and eventually the pronounced symptoms of leaf senescence, occurred on these cotton leaves. The onset of cotton leaf senescence at this condition was also reflected in various physiological indexes such as irreversible increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and electrolyte leakage, irreversible decrease in soluble protein content and chlorophyll content, and irreversible damage in leaves' photosynthesis ability. The presented results demonstrated that chilling stress acted as the key predisposing factor for causing A. alternata infection and leading to cotton leaf senescence. It could be expected that the understanding of the key factors causing and promoting cotton leaf senescence would be helpful for taking appropriate management steps to prevent cotton premature leaf senescence.

  19. Utility assessment of published microsatellite markers for fiber length and bundle strength QTL in a cotton breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) may help mitigate some of the current challenges regarding the genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, such as low genetic diversity and the negative association between fiber quality and lint yield. A multitude of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber length a...

  20. Physiological and antioxidant responses of cotton and spurred anoda under interference and mild drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Harish Ratnayaka; William T. Molin; Tracy M. Sterling

    2003-01-01

    ... (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Delta Pine 5415, and Gossypium barbadense L. cv. Pima S-7) and spurred anoda (Anoda cristata L. Schlecht.) of the Malvaceae. Without interference, cotton and spurred anoda had similar net photosynthesis...

  1. Genetic Effect on Yield and Fiber Quality Traits of 16 Chromosome Substitution Lines in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Ming-bao; GUO Xiang-mo; ZHANG Yongshan; YAO Jin-bo

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the genetic effect on yield and fiber quality can provide useful information on cotton breeding. Sixteen CSB lines and TM-1 introduced from USDA/ARS were used as male and top-crossed with three elite cultivars and the 51 F1 hybrids, 16 CSB lines, TM-1, and 3 elite cultivars were planted at the Cotton Research Institute of CAAS, Anyang, Henan Province and Xiajin, shandong Province, China. The yield traits and fiber quality data were obtained and additive and dominance effect on each trait were measured by AD model. Boll weight takes the largest additive proration, whereas boll number takes the least additive proration. The largest and the least dominant proration for lint yield and boll weight were measured, respectively. Fiber length has the additive and dominance effect, and dominance effect was slightly more than additive effect. Larger additive and no dominance effect on uniformity, micronaire, and fiber strength were measured. Significantly, positive additive effect on boll weight of CSB06 and CSB12Sh was observed. CSBI4Sh and CSB01 have significantly positive additive effect on 4 and 3 traits of fiber quality, respectively. CSB01 has the greatest dominant effect on lint yield among CSB lines. The dominant effect on fiber length of CSB lines showed positive. It is beneficial to use CSB06 and CSB12Sh as parents to improve boll size, to use CSB14Sh and CSB01 as parents to improve fiber quality. As for hybrid cotton breeding, it is reasonable using CSB01 to improve lint yield traits, and using CSB01, CSB11Sh, and CSB06 to improve fiber length.

  2. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed composition constituents (protein, oil, and minerals) determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed constituents is critical. Ph...

  3. A knittable fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on natural cotton thread for wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianlong; Jia, Chunyang; Ye, Xingke; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan

    2016-09-01

    At present, the topic of building high-performance, miniaturized and mechanically flexible energy storage modules which can be directly integrated into textile based wearable electronics is a hotspot in the wearable technology field. In this paper, we reported a highly flexible fiber-shaped electrode fabricated through a one-step convenient hydrothermal process. The prepared graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread derived from natural cotton thread is electrochemically active and mechanically strong. Fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on the prepared fiber electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol-H3PO4 gel electrolyte exhibits good capacitive performance (97.73 μF cm-1 at scan rate of 2 mV s-1), long cycle life (95.51% capacitance retention after 8000 charge-discharge cycles) and considerable stability (90.75% capacitance retention after 500 continuous bending cycles). Due to its good mechanical and electrochemical properties, the graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread based all-solid fiber-shaped supercapacitor can be directly knitted into fabrics and maintain its original capacitive performance. Such a low-cost textile thread based versatile energy storage device may hold great potential for future wearable electronics applications.

  4. Evaluation of the introgressed lines and screening for elite germplasm in Gossypium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Chaoyou; DU Xiongming; MA Zhiying

    2006-01-01

    In this research, 155 cotton introgressed lines from interspecific hybridization have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the effects of enhancement of new upland cotton germplasm by interspecific hybridization, screening for elite germplasm and improving cotton breeding. Through identification of various agricultural traits, we found that different wild cotton species had different capacities in terms of fiber quality, disease resistance, tolerance of abiotic stress, pest resistance and so on. SSR molecular marker technology has been used to detect the exotic genetic elements in interspecific hybrids, and 25 SSR specific loci that can be classified into two groups were found among 15 pairs of SSR primers. Results also showed that 8 exotic germplasm (Gossypium barbadense, G. arboreum and G. thurberi, etc) had genetic transmission toward upland cotton. A strategy of screening elite germplasm with exotic genes based on the molecular marker-assisted breeding techniques was suggested, and 18 lines with high-quality fiber and 4 lines with resistance to Fusanrium wilt and Verticillium wilt have been obtained.

  5. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xue-ying; SHANGGUAN Xiao-xia; WANG Shui; WANG Ling-jian; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2 (GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have analyzed several cotton homeodomain-containing proteins that belong to the class IV HD-ZIP family.One of them,GaHOX1,shows a high sequence identity to Arabidopsis GL2 (95% in the homeodomain and 64% overall).

  6. Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using four sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs. Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N. The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (NF in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (FN or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds. Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines that in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher

  7. Hydrological responses of land use change from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to cellulosic bioenergy crops in the Southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yong; Ale, Srinivasulu; Rajan, Nithya; Morgan, Cristine L. S; Park, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    The Southern High Plains ( SHP ) region of Texas in the United States, where cotton is grown in a vast acreage, has the potential to grow cellulosic bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor...

  8. Effects of Increased Night Temperature on Cellulose Synthesis and the Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jing-shan; HU Yuan-yuan; GAN Xiu-xia; ZHANG Ya-li; HU Xiao-bing; GOU Ling; LUO Hong-hai; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key factors that influence cotton fiber synthesis at the late growth stage of cotton. In this paper, using two early-maturing cotton varieties as experimental materials, night temperature increase was stimulated in the field using far-infrared quartz tubes set in semi-mobile incubators and compared with the normal night temperatures (control) in order to investigate the effects of night temperature on the cotton fiber cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. The results showed that the activity of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) quickly increased and remained constant during the development of cotton fiber, while the activity of acid invertase (AI) and alkaline invertase (NI) decreased, increased night temperatures prompted the rapid transformation of sugar, and all the available sucrose fully converted into cellulose. With night temperature increasing treatment, an increase in SuSy activity and concentration of sucrose indicate more sucrose converted into UDPG (uridin diphosphate-glucose) during the early and late stages of cotton fiber development. Furthermore, SPS activity and the increased concentration of fructose accelerated fructose degradation and reduced the inhibition of fructose to SuSy; maintaining higher value of allocation proportion of invertase and sucrose during the early development stages of cotton fiber, which was propitious to supply a greater carbon source and energy for cellulose synthesis. Therefore, the minimum temperature in the nightime was a major factor correlated with the activity of sucrose metabolism enzymes in cotton fiber. Consequently, soluble sugar transformation and cellulose accumulation were closely associated with the minimum night temperature.

  9. Preparations of meiotic pachytene chromosomes and extended DNA fibers from cotton suitable for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhai Peng

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH

  10. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  11. Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiong; STELLY David; SONG Guo-li; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong; LIU San-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gossypium mustelinum [-(AD)4"] is one of five tetraploid species in Gossypium.Three pairs of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in (AD)4 were detected by FISH with 45S rDNA as a probe,they also were observed with genomic DNA (gDNA) from Gossypium D genome species as probes.Of the three NORs or GISH-NORs,one was super-major and other two were minor,which was distinctly different from other tetraploid cottons.

  12. CORRELACIONES Y ANÁLISIS DE SENDERO EN ALGODÓN (Gossypium hirsutum L. EN EL CARIBE COLOMBIANO CORRELATIONS AND PATH ANALYSIS IN COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum L. IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del algodón es la principal actividad agrícola en la economía del Caribe colombiano en el segundo semestre del año y el principal abastecedor de fibra a la industria nacional desde hace aproximadamente 60 años. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales, entre 11 caracteres agronómicos y realizar un análisis de sendero para rendimiento de fibra. Se utilizaron los datos de la evaluación agronómica de 10 genotipos de algodón en ocho ambientes del Caribe colombiano. En cada ambiente se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los resultados indicaron que las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y ambientales. El rendimiento de fibra (REF presentó las mayores correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y fenotipicas parciales con el porcentaje de fibra (PFI, el rendimiento de algodón - semilla (RAS y el peso de mota (PMO, con valores de r > 0,43 (PThe cotton crop is the main agricultural activity in the economy of the colombian Caribbean in the second semester of the year and the main supplier of fibre to national industry for about 60 years. The objective of this work was to estimate the phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations, between 11 agronomic characters and to make a path analysis for fibre yield. Data of agronomic evaluation of 10 genotypes of cotton in eight environments of the colombian Caribbean were used. In each environment experimental design at random complete blocks with four repetitions were used. The results indicated that genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental correlations. Fibre yield (FIY presented the highest phenotypic, genetic and partial phenotypic correlations with ginning percentage (GP, seed-cotton yield (SCY and boll weight (BOW with values of r > 0,43 (P<0,01. The FIP (0,810 was the cause variable that showed the greatest direct effect on

  13. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  14. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  15. Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou

    2009-08-15

    Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use.

  16. Effect of Age of Explant on Transgenic Cotton (Gossypium Plant Due to Expression of Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene from Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynelle van Emmenes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important textile plant in the world and is one of the most important crops for the production of oilseed. Because of its worldwide economic importance, new cultivars are constantly being released in the world. Although great improvements have been achieved through traditional breeding methods, cotton breeders are facing many problems, i.e., narrow genetic base, inability to use alien genes and difficulty in breaking gene linkages. Genetic transformations analyses are main tools used by breeders to overcome these problems. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to determine the effect of age of explant on regeneration response of apical shoot for tissue culture and gene transfer systems of cotton. This enabled us evaluate it effects on cotton transformation. The age of explants was observed to have significant effect on shoot tip elongation. The elongation rates of the three varieties studied were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.1573 and was observed to be affected by the size of isolated tips. It was observed that if the starting size of the apex was less than 1 mm, the tips would not grow at all. Insecticidal lectin gene from Allium sativum was transferred into the transgenic cotton plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using shoot apices as explants. Putative transgenic plants were confirmed by leaf GUS assay, kanamycin leaf test and molecular analysis of plantlet.

  17. Morphogenesis Model-Based Virtual Growth System of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)%基于形态模型的棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)虚拟生长系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 周治国; 陈兵林; 孟亚利

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Modeling dynamics of each organ size in cotton growth process, then a virtual growth system for cotton was implemented to provide a technical basis for research of virtual farming. [Method] Based on the potted plant research of cotton variety, sowing date, nitrogen, water and DPC in a summer seasons of 2005 and 2006, with the systematic analysis principle and mathematical modeling technique applied to cotton morphogenesis, a morphological model, which includes several sub-models of leaf, stem, boll, and so on, was developed by the quantitative analyses of experimental data. And a virtual growth system for cotton was implemented with usage of OpenGL for 3D graphic and MFC for graphical user interface. [Result] The results showed that the dynamic change of each organ size could be characterized by logistic equation in relation to GDD, nitrogen, water and DPC. The model was validated by the data from 2006, and the mean RMSEs were 0.85, 0.82, 0.87, 0.57, 0.086, 0.65, 0.74, 0.8, 0.73, 0. 016, 0.36 and 0.4 cm for main stem leaf length and width, main stem leaf stalk length, main stem internode length and diameter, fruiting branch leaf length and width, fruiting branch leaf stalk length, fruiting node length and diameter, and boll length and width, respectively. Then NURBS was applied to simulate the shape of cotton leaf and boll, internode and petiole were treated as cylinder. Finally, a cotton growth system which comprises of models, database and interface was implemented with OpenGL on the platform of Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. [Conclusion] The system can be used to simulate the real growth process of each organ, individual and group with some inputs.%[目的]基于棉花形态器官形成过程的定量描述,模拟棉花三维生长过程,为虚拟棉作研究提供技术基础.[方法]基于2005-2006年棉花品种、播期、氮素、水分和DPC化控试验,将系统分析方法和数学建模技术应用于棉花植株的形态建成,通过对棉花

  18. High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin, E-mail: bwang23@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xuan, Jin [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State-Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Leung, Michael K.H., E-mail: mkh.leung@cityu.edu.hk [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Hollow carbon fibers derived from natural cotton was successfully prepared by pyrolysis method. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile hydrothermal method showed high photocatalytic activity. • The enhancement was due to the reduced band gap, improved dye adsorption capacity and effective electron–hole separation. -- Abstract: In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO{sub 2}-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO{sub 2} was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and q{sub m} of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 (9.0 mg/g) was 6–7 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu){sub 4} showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO{sub 2} immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron–hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO{sub 2} on carbon fibers for environmental remediation.

  19. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  20. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Ryan J; Coneva, Viktoriya; Frank, Margaret H; Tuttle, John R; Samayoa, Luis Fernando; Han, Sang-Won; Kaur, Baljinder; Zhu, Linglong; Fang, Hui; Bowman, Daryl T; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Haigler, Candace H; Jones, Don C; Holland, James B; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kuraparthy, Vasu

    2017-01-03

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D1), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D1 locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D1 locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.

  1. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jieying Zheng,; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Cotton woven waste can be recycled as precursor to produce activated carbon fiber. • The optimum carbonization and activation temperature are 700 °C and 800 °C. • The prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. • The prepared ACF can be used to remove over 80% of COD from oilfield wastewater. - Abstract: In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF RIPPLE OF POLYACRYLONITRILIC FIBERS COTTON TYPE ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed the influence of the number of undulations of polyacrylonitrile fibers, cotton type, on the properties of yarns with Nm50/1 fineness, made on BD 200 the rotor spinning machine. Rotor spinning of the synthetic fibers is largely influenced by some characteristics of the fibers as being: the quality and quantity of the avivage, frequency of undulations and the number of defects fiber. Tensile properties and structural characteristics aspect of the yarns carried on BD 200 rotor spinning machine are determined, at the fiber content, the structural model and the technological parameters of processing, by the result of the transfer of fibers proprieties, into the meaning fiber-yarn. The yarns structural compactness, determined by the degree of twisting and tensional properties are defining for the quality of yarns and warrants the corresponding to their destination. Structural characteristics of the yarns which are characterized by complexity and diversity of their actions were studied by determining the linear irregularity (U% , standard deviation (CV% and the imperfections in the form of thinning (S, thickening (G, neppines (N, relative to 1000 m yarn.

  3. Influence of Anthesis Date and Boll Branch Position on Qualities and Super-molecular Structure of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shi-hua; SHI Pei; SUN Xue-zhen; ZHOU Zhi-guo; BIAN Dong-cai

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the anthesis date and the fruiting branch positions on parameters of cotton fiber quality and super-molecular structure were studied. Fiber quality parameters, such as cotton fiber length, micronair, maturity and fiber strength deteriorated with postponing the anthesis date and decreasing temperature. When anthesis happened on the same date, the fruiting branch positions affected the fiber quality parameters, and the fiber quality parameters of the lower portion turned out to be higher than that of the upper portion, although the difference was insignificant. The super-molecular structure of the lower portion turned out to be superior to that of the upper portion at the early anthesis date and high temperature, which is in accordance with what was mentioned above, but the fruiting branch positions did not affect the impact of the anthesis date on the super-molecular structure.

  4. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  5. Laboratory and outside the laboratory measurements of ginned and ot ginned cotton for fiber micronaire and maturity by portable Near Infrared (NIR) Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key cotton quality assessment property, impacting downstream fiber processing and dye consistency. A component of micronaire is fiber maturity (degree of secondary wall development). Historically, micronaire and maturity are measured in a laboratory under tight environmental condit...

  6. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  7. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on Phytoalexins Biosynthesis and Induced Disease Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Kouakou François Konan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA sprayed on cotton healthy leaves was evaluated in terms of inherent bioactive chemicals induction. The total phenolic content significantly increased after MeJA 5.0 mM treatments compared to the other tested concentrations (0; 2.5; 10; 15; 20 mM. Among the eleven phenolic compounds which were found except for ferulic acid, gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and piceatannol were identified as major phenolic constituents of cotton. Their content also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, gossypol increased 64 times compared to the control, in the 5.0 mM MeJA treatment. Furthermore, cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene are synthesized de novo in leaves of MeJA-treated plant. Treatment of cotton leaves with MeJA 5.0 mM followed 72 h of incubation hampered the expression of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV. MeJA efficiency was concentration and incubation time dependent. Disease severity on MeJA-treated leaves was significantly lower as compared to the control. Therefore, the high content of gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, ferulic acid, and piceatannol and the presence of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene in plants treated with MeJA, contrary to the control, are essential to equip the cotton compounds with defences or phytoalexins against FOV.

  8. Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY-1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photo-assimilate in crop plants and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders ha...

  9. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  10. Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel Fortier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA. Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups.

  11. An environment-friendly thermal insulation material from cotton stalk fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-yan Zhou; Fei Zheng; Hua-guan Li; Cheng-long Lu [College of Wood Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, No. 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A new environment-friendly thermal insulation material - binderless cotton stalk fiberboard (BCSF) made from cotton stalk fibers with no chemical additives was developed using high frequency hot-pressing. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of board density, fiber moisture content (MC) and pressing time on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of BCSF. The results showed that the board with a density of 150-450 kg/m{sup 3} had the thermal conductivity values ranging from 0.0585 to 0.0815 W/m K, which was close to that of the expanded perlite and vermiculite within the same density range. The thermal conductivity values had a strong linear correlation with the board density. The internal bonding strength (IBS) of boards was good at the relatively low-density level, which can be significantly improved with increasing the fiber MC and prolonging pressing time. The same trend was observed for modulus of rapture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the boards. As an environment-friendly and renewable material, the BCSF is particularly suitable for ceiling and wall applications to save energy. (author)

  12. 进口印度棉与美棉纤维品质的对比分析%Contrast and Analyses of Indian Cotton and American Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宁; 耿向阳; 曲京武; 王铭; 董俊哲

    2013-01-01

    Fiber quality of Indian cotton and American cotton was discussed. Six fiber quality indexes of the two kinds fiber were contrasted and analyzed, including upper half mean length, fiber uniformity index, micronaire, reflectivity, breaking tenacity and spinning consistency index. The result shows that length and breaking tenacity of Indian cotton are better than American cotton. Fiber uniformity index of the two kinds fiber is upper-middle. A grade and B grade of American cotton micronaire is higher than Indian cotton in total proportion. In reflectivity, the American cotton is the same, the distribution of Indian cotton is wider. In spinning consistency index, the Indian cotton is wider and higher than American cotton,so Indian cotton is more suitable to textile industry needs.%探讨进口印度棉与美棉的纤维品质.通过对比分析进口印度棉和美棉的上半部平均长度、纤维整齐度指数、马克隆值、反射率、断裂比强度、纺纱均匀指数等6项纤维品质指标,结果表明:印度棉的长度和断裂比强度要远好于美棉;印度棉和美棉的纤维整齐度指数均属于中等偏上;美棉马克隆值A、B两级总比例高于印度棉;反射率方面,美棉较一致,印度棉分布范围较广;印度棉的纺纱均匀指数较美棉分布广而且高,更能满足纺织业对棉花品质多层次的用棉需求.

  13. Mapping of QTL for Fiber Length Using Interspecific Gossypium hirsutum × G.barbadense F_2 Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PREETHA; S; RAVEENDRAN; T; S

    2008-01-01

    Cotton occupies a pre-eminent place among cash crops as it guides the destiny of a large section of the farming community as well as that of a flourishing textile industry.As the yarn manufacturing industry has undergone a technological revolution,more emphasis is given to quality of the raw material

  14. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes

  15. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45S and 5S rDNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  16. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yan

    Full Text Available Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum, a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062 showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus.

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Functional Analysis of GhMYB0 Gene from Cotton (Gossypium hirsumtum L.)%棉花GhMYB0基因的克隆、表达分析及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诺菡; 喻树迅; 于霁雯; 吴嫚; 马启峰; 李兴丽; 裴文锋; 李海晶; 黄双领; 张金发

    2014-01-01

    MYB类转录因子是植物转录因子最大的家族之一,参与控制植物腺毛细胞的模式和形态建成。本研究利用雷蒙德氏棉(Gossypium raimondii) D5基因组数据库以 AtMYB0(GL1, NM_113708)蛋白为参比序列获得同源基因GrMYB0,从徐州142中克隆了陆地棉的GhMYB0,其开放阅读框长度为843 bp,编码280个氨基酸。经过保守结构域分析和亚细胞定位确定GhMYB0为R2R3-MYB转录因子。qRT-PCR的结果表明, GhMYB0在徐州142开花当天开始高调表达,开花后20 d表达量达高峰;在所有的组织器官中,花中表达量最高,其次为胚珠。转基因功能分析结果表明,在野生型拟南芥(Columbia)中过表达 GhMYB0,使其叶片表皮毛与野生型相比明显减少;该基因在拟南芥突变体 gl-1中过表达,能恢复表皮毛缺失型突变体的表型,说明该基因可能对拟南芥表皮毛的形态建成发挥一定作用,本试验为研究R2R3-MYB转录因子在棉纤维起始和伸长过程中的调控作用提供有力证据。%MYB transcription factor, one of the most important protein families in plants, is involved in the regulation of secon-dary metabolism, morphogenesis of plant, responding to environment stress and plant hormone. In this study, we used D5 genomic bank of Gossypium raimondii as the reference to AtMYB0 (GL1, NM_113708) protein, and cloned the full-length cDNA of a new MYB transcription factor gene GhMYB0 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The open reading frame of GhMYB0 is 843 bp in length, which encodes 280 amino acid residues. GhMYB0 was confirmed as R2R3-MYB transcription factor via conserved struc-ture analysis and subcellular localization. The qRT-PCR result indicated that GhMYB0 was highly expressed at the blossom day, its expresssion amount reached the peak after 20 days, with the most amount in flower, then in ovules. Transgenic funtion analysis indicated that GhMYB0 over-expressed in Arabidopsis lines, showing fewer trichomes in leaf

  18. Biodegradable Poly(butylene succinate Composites Reinforced by Cotton Fiber with Silane Coupling Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Funabashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of cotton fiber (CF as a filler in poly(butylene succinate (PBS and the effect of silane treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and biodegradability of PBS/CF composites are investigated. The results showed that the tensile strength of PBS was improved (15%–78% with the incorporation of CF (10–40 wt% and was further increased (25%–118% when CF was treated with a silane coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation of the fracture surfaces of PBS/CF composites showed that there was slight improvement in fiber-matrix compatibility. Thermogravimetric (TG analysis showed that the thermal stability of the composites was lower than that of neat PBS and decreased with increasing filler loading. The biobased carbon content of the composites increased with increasing CF content. The incorporation of CF (with and without silane treatment in PBS significantly increased the biodegradation rate of the composites.

  19. Genetic analysis of drought tolerance with respect to fiber traits in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, R A; Khan, I A; Iqbal, M A; Khan, A A

    2016-10-05

    Cotton germplasm was analyzed to investigate its potential for developing water stress tolerance in varieties in the future. Four tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482, BH-121, and VH-142) and four susceptible (CIM-446, FH-1000, FH-900, and FH-901) lines were identified of 50 accessions based on their seedling root length. A complete set of diallel crosses among eight selected genotypes was subjected to genetic analysis for fiber property traits. Additive and non-additive genetic variance was involved in the inheritance of fiber strength, fineness, and length under normal and drought conditions. A large proportion of genetic variance was additive, which was further supported by moderately high narrow-sense heritability estimates for the characters. Graphic representation of variance versus covariance also depicted additive gene activity with partial dominance and the absence of non-allelic interactions in trait inheritance. The results of this study suggest that drought tolerance of cotton genotypes can be improved through crosses among tolerant genotypes using conventional selection procedures in segregating generations.

  20. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation, K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot, α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached, and MA (clot strength. TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio. The material surface polarity (ζplateau varied from −22 to −61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  1. Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian

    2014-11-28

    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (ζplateau) varied from -22 to -61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  2. High Expression of Cry1Ac Protein in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum by Combining Independent Transgenic Events that Target the Protein to Cytoplasm and Plastids.

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    Amarjeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Transgenic cotton was developed using two constructs containing a truncated and codon-modified cry1Ac gene (1,848 bp, which was originally characterized from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain HD73 that encodes a toxin highly effective against many lepidopteran pests. In Construct I, the cry1Ac gene was cloned under FMVde, a strong constitutively expressing promoter, to express the encoded protein in the cytoplasm. In Construct II, the encoded protein was directed to the plastids using a transit peptide taken from the cotton rbcSIb gene. Genetic transformation experiments with Construct I resulted in a single copy insertion event in which the Cry1Ac protein expression level was 2-2.5 times greater than in the Bacillus thuringiensis cotton event Mon 531, which is currently used in varieties and hybrids grown extensively in India and elsewhere. Another high expression event was selected from transgenics developed with Construct II. The Cry protein expression resulting from this event was observed only in the green plant parts. No transgenic protein expression was observed in the non-green parts, including roots, seeds and non-green floral tissues. Thus, leucoplasts may lack the mechanism to allow entry of a protein tagged with the transit peptide from a protein that is only synthesized in tissues containing mature plastids. Combining the two events through sexual crossing led to near additive levels of the toxin at 4-5 times the level currently used in the field. The two high expression events and their combination will allow for effective resistance management against lepidopteran insect pests, particularly Helicoverpa armigera, using a high dosage strategy.

  3. Combining Ability and Heterosis Between High Strength Lines and Transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bollworm-Resistant Lines in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng; LI Xian-bi; XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; LIU Da-jun; HUANG Shun-li; ZHANG Feng-xin

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the combining ability and heterosis between high-strength lines and transgenic Btbollworm-resistant lines in upland cotton, 5 high-strength lines were crossed as female lines with 12 transgenicBt bollworm-resistant lines according to NCII design. It was demonstrated that the compositions of variance invarious traits were quite different. For seed cotton yield, lint yield, boll numbers per plant and boll weight,the dominant (special combining ability) effects were the major effects, accounting for 87.38, 84.40, 80.04and 64.46 % of the total phenotypic variances, respectively, while for fibre strength and micronaire value, theadditive (general combining ability) effects had the major effects, with a ratio of additive variance to pheno-typic variance of 78.85 and 43.80 %. As for lint percent and 2. 5 % span length, the dominant and additivevariances had similar effects, in phenotypic variances (54.94 and 40. 11% for lint percent, 45.76and42.49% for 2.5% span length, respectively). The mid-parent heterosis (Hpm), surpassing parent heterosis(Hpb) and competitive heterosis (Hck) for seed cotton yield and lint yield were both extremely significant.For fibre properties, the Hck and Hpm of 2.5 % fibre span length were extremely significant, the Hck of fibrestrength was significant, and the favorable negative Hck of micronaire was also extremely significant. The in-crements of hybrid over common variety were 17 % for lint yield and fibre strength, 7 % for fibre span length,and 4% for fineness.

  4. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GhDREB, confers enhanced tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Qing; Chen, Ming; Xia, Lian-Qin; Xiu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Li, Lian-Cheng; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Ma, You-Zhi

    2009-02-01

    A cotton (G. hirsutum L.) dehydration responsive element binding protein gene, GhDREB, which encodes a 153 amino acid protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated from the cDNA library of cotton cv. Simian 3 by a yeast one-hybrid system. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhDREB gene was induced in cotton seedlings by drought, high salt and cold stresses. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that the GhDREB protein bound specifically to the DRE core element (A/GCCGAC) in vitro. Two expression vectors containing the GhDREB gene with either of the Ubiqutin or rd29A promoters were constructed and transferred into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by bombardment. Fifty-eight Ubi::GhDREB and 17 rd29A::GhDREB T(0) plants of Yangmai (36 plants) and Lumai (39 plants) were identified by PCR analysis, respectively. Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that two or three copies of the GhDREB were integrated into the Yangmai 10 genome and were expressed at the transcriptional level, and three or four copies were integrated into the Lumai 23 genome. Functional analysis indicated that the transgenic plants had improved tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses through accumulating higher levels of soluble sugar and chlorophyll in leaves after stress treatments. No phenotype differences were observed between transgenic plants and their non-transgenic controls. These results indicated that GhDREB might be useful in improving wheat stress tolerance through genetic engineering.

  5. Expression of baculovirus anti-apoptotic genes p35 and op-iap in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. enhances tolerance to verticillium wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T(3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T(1-T(3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants.

  6. PRICE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE U.S. FIBER MARKETS: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examined the price relationship between cotton and polyester. The results provide strong evidence of long term price transmissions and granger causality between cotton and polyester price as well as the asymmetry transmissions for cotton on cotton, cotton on polyester, and polyester on polyester price. However, we did not find any evidence that there exists asymmetry transmission for polyester price on cotton price. Our results also did not support the contemporaneous effects hypoth...

  7. Rapid recovery of photosynthetic rate following soil water deficit and re-watering in cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum L.) is related to the stability of the photosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, He-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Hai; Gou, Ling; Chow, Wah Soon; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The responses of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the anti-oxidative system of cotton leaves were studied during water deficit and recovery. The results show that water deficit led to a reversible reduction in the photosynthetic rate. This reduction was mainly accompanied by stomatal limitation. The activity of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) was relatively stable during water deficit and recovery. Water deficit caused an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation. Proline accumulation and the anti-oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD), along with the antioxidant ascorbate (AsA), increased during water deficit. On re-watering, the ROS generation rate, anti-oxidative enzymes activities and the extent of the lipid peroxidation returned to near control values. Overall, rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate is related to the stability of the photosystems which appears to be a critical mechanism allowing cotton plants to withstand and survive drought environments.

  8. Overexpression of a Potato Sucrose Synthase Gene in Cotton Accelerates Leaf Expansion,Reduces Seed Abortion, and Enhances Fiber Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Xu; Elizabeth Brill; Danny J.Llewellyn; Robert T.Furbank; Yong-Ling Ruan

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength,especially in crop species,based on mutational and gene suppression studies.It remains elusive,however,whether,or to what extent,increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development.We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development.Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development,which reduced seed abortion,hence enhanced seed set,and (3) promoted fiber elongation.In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines,fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas,in elongating fibers,both fructose and glucose levels were increased.Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves,in contrast to developing fibers,it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation,probably through sugar signaling.The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%.However,further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight,indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect.Finally,based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number,a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole,rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  9. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  10. Infrared imaging of cotton fiber bundles using a focal plane array detector and a single reflectance accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report the use of an infrared instrument equippe...

  11. Micronaire measurements on seedcotton and cotton fiber, in and outside of laboratory using micro nir-infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronaire is a key quality parameter in cotton fiber. NIR-spectroscopy has the ability to measure micronaire in and out of the laboratory. New very small micronaire instruments have recently been introduced. A program was established to measure micronaire in and outside the laboratory on seed cotto...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  13. Molecular confirmation of Gossypium hirsutum chromosome substitution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary gene pool for tetraploid cotton species includes G. hirsutum L., as well as the other four 2n=52 species of Gossypium (G. barbadense, G. mustellinum, G. tomentosum and G. darwinii). To help overcome barriers to effective introgression, we have developed a number of alien chromosome subst...

  14. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  15. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  16. Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D; Zach S Liechty; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium ra...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sus Gene Family in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsong Zou; Cairui Lu; Haihong Shang; Xinrui Jing; Hailiang Cheng; Youping Zhang; Guoli Song

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism.In cotton,Sus (EC 2.4.1.13) is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat.This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L.,G.raimondii Ulbr.,and G.hirsutum L.,contained 8,8,and 15 Sus genes,respectively.Their structural organizations,phylogenetic relationships,and expression profiles were characterized.Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns,the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species.Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species,suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G.hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors.One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution.Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells.Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species.These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family,and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development.

  18. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  19. Antennal electrophysiological responses of three parasitic wasps to caterpillar-induced volatiles from maize (Zea mays mays), cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouinguené, Sandrine; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J; Birkett, Michael A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2005-05-01

    Many parasitic wasps are attracted to volatiles that are released by plants when attacked by potential hosts. The attractiveness of these semiochemicals from damaged plants has been demonstrated in many tritrophic systems, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the insect responses are poorly understood. We recorded the antennal perception by three parasitoids (Cotesia marginiventris, Microplitis rufiventris, and Campoletis sonorensis) to volatiles emitted by maize, cowpea, and cotton plants after attack by the common caterpillar pest Spodoptera littoralis. Gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) recordings showed that wasps responded to many, but not all, of the compounds present at the physiologically relevant levels tested. Interestingly, some minor compounds, still unidentified, elicited strong responses from the wasps. These results indicate that wasps are able to detect many odorant compounds released by the plants. It remains to be determined how this information is processed and leads to the specific behavior of the parasitoids.

  20. Determinação do poder germinativo de sementes de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. Studies on germination of cotton seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zink

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados das determinações do poder germinativo de sementes de sete variedades paulistas de algodoeiro, provenientes de ensaios de competição de variedades instalados nos Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, no ano agrícola de 1966/67. Os testes de germinação foram efetuados simultaneamente no Laboratório de Sementes, do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, e no Laboratório Central, da Divisão de Sementes e Mudas, da Secretaria da Agricultura do Estado de São Paulo. Com referência a plântulas normais e plântulas anormais B (infetadas verificaram-se, conforme o caso, diferenças significativas entre localidades, entre variedades, entre laboratórios e entre substratos, bem como diversas interações envolvendo as variáveis mencionadas.Seeds of seven varieties of cotton produced at different regions of the States of São Paulo and Paraná (Brazil were submitted to germination tests at two laboratories: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC at 20 - 30°C and Divisão de Sementes e Mudas (DSM at 30°C. The substrata used for the tests were cotton towels desinfected differently at each laboratory. The statistical analysis for numbers of normal and abnormal plants (infected showed significant differences between regions, varieties, laboratories and substrata. Several significant interactions including these variables were also detected.

  1. Characterization and photocatalytic properties of cotton fibers modified with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were prepared using the sol–gel method. Cotton fibers were loaded with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique. The prepared ZnO NPs and ZnO-coated cotton were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The self-cleaning property of ZnO-coated cotton and the photocatalytic removal of methyl orange dye from the contaminated water and cotton fibers were studied by measuring the optical absorbance after exposure to sunlight and Philips 200W lamp illumination. The results showed that the cotton loaded with ZnO nanoparticles could efficiently decompose 73% of methyl orange dye in the sunlight and 30.7% in the lamp illumination after 12 hours. ZnO nanoparticles decomposed methyl orange dye by 92.7% in the sunlight and 26.4% in the lamp illumination after 7 hours.

  2. Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hageun

    A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least

  3. Preparation of Cotton-Wool-Like Poly(lactic acid-Based Composites Consisting of Core-Shell-Type Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, we reported the fabrication of cotton-wool-like composites consisting of siloxane-doped vaterite and poly(l-lactic acid (SiVPCs. Various irregularly shaped bone voids can be filled with the composite, which effectively supplies calcium and silicate ions, enhancing the bone formation by stimulating the cells. The composites, however, were brittle and showed an initial burst release of ions. In the present work, to improve the mechanical flexibility and ion release, the composite fiber was coated with a soft, thin layer consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to prepare a cotton-wool-like material comprising “core-shell”-type fibers with a diameter of ~12 µm. The fibers, which consisted of SiVPC coated with a ~2-µm-thick PLGA layer, were mechanically flexible; even under a uniaxial compressive load of 1.5 kPa, the cotton-wool-like material did not exhibit fracture of the fibers and, after removing the load, showed a ~60% recovery. In Tris buffer solution, the initial burst release of calcium and silicate ions from the “core-shell”-type fibers was effectively controlled, and the ions were slowly released after one day. Thus, the mechanical flexibility and ion-release behavior of the composites were drastically improved by the thin PLGA coating.

  4. Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K

    2008-06-12

    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

  5. Maize (Zea mays L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Straw Decomposition in Soil: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral Nitrogen and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the present understanding that decomposing straw may not only affect soil properties, but pos-sibly greenhouse gas emissions as well, focus among environmental researchers has gradually expanded toinclude understanding of decomposition rate and stability of straw of different plants in different soils underdifferent management conditions. Against such a background, a short-term (60 days) greenhouse simulationexperiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, external mineral N source and tillageon straw decomposition of maize and cotton in two contrasting soils, a red soil (Ferrasol) and a black soil(Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition only (T1); straw addition + mineral N (T2); and strawaddition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was doneevery 15 days. Placement, addition of external mineral N sources (urea, 46% N), straw type, soil type andexposure duration (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) affected straw decomposition. Decomposition was more in buriedstraw than in surface-placed straw at all sampling dates in red soil. The addition of an external N sourcesignificantly increased decomposition. The study could not, however, fully account for the effect of tillageon straw decomposition because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier tomechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags.

  6. 杏棉间作复合系统对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响%Effect of apricot-cotton intercropping system on fiber quality and yield of cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光磊; 陈耀锋; 万群芳; 张玉东; 陈瑞萍; 曹春波

    2011-01-01

    以大田棉花为对照(CK),研究了环塔里木盆地杏、棉间作系统对棉花的产量和纤维品质特性的影响.结果表明:杏、棉间作下棉花的产量及其构成因素相比对照均有不同程度的减小,且随着距杏树垂直距离的增加,其变化呈偏态分布趋势;在杏、棉间作区,棉花的比强度、伸长率和马克隆值明显减少,而纤维长度、整齐度、黄度和纺纱指数则形成了明显的增加区和降低区,表明杏、棉间作对棉花产量和纤维品质的影响很大.%With the ingle cropping of cotton as CK, the effect of apricot-cotton intercropping on fiber quality characteristics and yield of cotton around Tarim Basin was studied. The results showed that the trend of changes in the yield and its components of cotton was in partial distribution tendency in the apricot-cotton intercropping system, which were lower than those in CK. In apricot-cotton intercropping, the strength, elongation and Micronaire value of cotton were significantly reduced, but the fiber length, uniformity, yellowness and CSP of cotton increased obviously in some areas but reduced in others. The experiment showed that the apricot-cotton intercropping had great effect on fiber quality and yield of cotton.

  7. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  8. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  9. Molecular Cloning, and Characterization of an Adenylyl Cyclase-Associated Protein from Gossypium arboreum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng; ZHAO Guo-hong; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clone CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) gene from Gossypium arboreum L. and develop a platform for expressing and purifying CAP protein, which is a base for the construction and function researches of CAP. In this work, a CAP homolog from cotton (DPL971) ovule was identified and cloned. And the cDNA sequence consisted of an open reading frame of 1416 nucleotides encoding a protein of 471 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 50.6 kDa. To gain insight on the CAP role in cotton fiber development, the cloned CAP cDNA was expressed. A significant higher yield pure protein was obtained with the chromatographic method. Further experiments showed that the purified protein can bind with the actin in vitro indicating that the recombinant cotton CAP is functional. The procedure described here produced high yield pure protein through one chromatographic step, suitable for further structure-function studies.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicases, which help to unwind stable RNA duplexes, and have important roles in RNA metabolism, belong to a class of motor proteins that play important roles in plant development and responses to stress. Although this family of genes has been the subject of systematic investigation in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato, it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 161 putative RNA helicase genes in the genome of the diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. We classified these genes into three subfamilies, based on the presence of either a DEAD-box (51 genes, DEAH-box (52 genes, or DExD/H-box (58 genes in their coding regions. Chromosome location analysis showed that the genes that encode RNA helicases are distributed across all 13 chromosomes of G. raimondii. Syntenic analysis revealed that 62 of the 161 G. raimondii helicase genes (38.5% are within the identified syntenic blocks. Sixty-six (40.99% helicase genes from G. raimondii have one or several putative orthologs in tomato. Additionally, GrDEADs have more conserved gene structures and more simple domains than GrDEAHs and GrDExD/Hs. Transcriptome sequencing data demonstrated that many of these helicases, especially GrDEADs, are highly expressed at the fiber initiation stage and in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in cotton.

  11. Identification of a novel drought tolerance gene in Gossypium hirsutum L. cv KC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh N. Selvam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of drought resistant cotton cultivars has long been a major breeding objective, since water stress limits fiber production and productivity. Recent advances in functional genomics can increase the efficiency of conventional breeding for genetic improvement of crop plants for improved abiotic stress resistance. To this end, a novel drought resistance gene was identified by comparing the gene expression profile of Gossypium hirsutum cv KC3 and MCU12 by employing a cDNA-RAPD approach. Physiological and biochemical studies showed that KC3 has relatively better drought tolerance than MCU12. Among 25 random primers, OPA15 has identified differentially expressed cDNA in KC3. Results of BLASTP algorithm have shown that this cDNA has significant homology with P-Glycoprotein, ACC oxidase2 and ABC transporter which are involved either directly, or indirectly, in stress tolerance in animals and plants. Hence, the cDNA sequence identified in this study may be a novel gene that confers drought resistance in cotton as KC3 is well adapted and is widely cultivated in rain-fed tracts of Tamil Nadu, India. Further characterization of this gene may show it has potential application for development of cotton with improved drought resistance, through genetic engineering and/or marker aided selection (MAS

  12. Using Genome-Referenced Expressed Sequence Tag Assembly to Analyze the Origin and Expression Patterns of Gossypium hirsutum Transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jin; Qin Li; Guanghui Xiao; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We assembled a total of 297,239 Gossypium hirsutum (Gh,a tetraploid cotton,AADD) expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences that were available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database,with reference to the recently published G.raimondii (Gr,a diploid cotton,DD) genome,and obtained 49,125 UniGenes.The average lengths of the UniGenes were increased from 804 and 791 bp in two previous EST assemblies to 1,019 bp in the current analysis.The number of putative cotton UniGenes with lengths of 3 kb or more increased from 25 or 34 to 1,223.As a result,thousands of originally independent G.hirsutum ESTs were aligned to produce large contigs encoding transcripts with very long open reading frames,indicating that the G.raimondii genome sequence provided remarkable advantages to assemble the tetraploid cotton transcriptome.Significant different distribution patterns within several GO terms,including transcription factor activity,were observed between D-and A-derived assemblies.Transcriptome analysis showed that,in a tetraploid cotton cell,29,547 UniGenes were possibly derived from the D subgenome while another 19,578 may come from the A subgenome.Finally,some of the in silico data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments to show the changes in transcript levels for several gene families known to play key role in cotton fiber development.We believe that our work provides a useful platform for functional and evolutionary genomic studies in cotton.

  13. A Comparative miRNAome Analysis Reveals Seven Fiber Initiation-Related and 36 Novel miRNAs in Developing Cotton Ovules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Ming Wang; Wei Xue; Chun-Juan Dong; Long-Guo Jin; Shao-Min Bian; Chuan Wang; Xiu-Yun Wu; Jin-Yuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of microRNAs(miRNAs)have been shown to play crucial regulatory roles in the process of plant development.Here,we used high-throughput sequencing combined with computational analysis to characterize miRNAomes from the ovules of wild-type upland cotton and a fiberless mutant during fiber initiation.Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with northern blotting and RACE-PCR revealed seven fiber initiation-related miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules and experimentally validated targets of these miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes,including transcriptional regulation,auxin and gibberellin signal transduction,actin bundles,and lignin biosynthesis.This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules to coordinate fiber initiation responses.In addition,36 novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were newly identified,nearly doubling the number of known cotton miRNA families to a total of 78.Furthermore,a chromatin remodeling complex subunit and a pre-mRNA splicing factor are shown for the first time to be miRNA targets.To our knowledge,this study is the first systematic investigation of fiber initiation-related miRNAs and their targets in the developing cotton ovule,deepening our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in cotton fiber initiation.

  14. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  15. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  16. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from

  17. Suitable internal control genes for qRT-PCR normalization in cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis have been explored systematically with microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization. Real-time RT-PCR provides the simultaneous measurement of gene expression in many different samples, with which the data from microarray or others can be confirmed in detail. To achieve accurate and reliable gene expression results, normalization of real-time PCR data against one or several internal control genes is required, which should not fluctuate in different tissues during various stages of development. We assessed the gene expression of 7 frequently used housekeeping genes, including 18S rRNA, Histone3, UBQ7, Actin, Cyclophilin, Gbpolyubiquitin-1 and Gbpolyubiquitin-2, in a diverse set of 21 cotton samples. For fiber developmental series the expression of all housekeeping genes had the same down tendency after 17 DPA. But the expression of the AGP gene (arabinogalactan protein) that has high expression level at the later fiber development stage was up-regulated from 15 to 27 DPA. So the relative absolute quantification should be an efficient and convenient method for the fiber developmental series. The expression of nonfiber tissues series varied not so much against the fiber developmental series. And three best control genes Histone3, UBQ7 and Gbpolyubiquitin-1 have to be used in a combinated way to get better normalization.

  18. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed between Pima and Upland Cotton Fibers%比马棉和陆地棉纤维差异表达基因的分离、鉴定及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-dao WU; Khairy M. SOLIMAN; Allan ZIPF; Sukumar SAHA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased because of the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited due to the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes related to cotton fiber quality.

  19. A comparative analysis of a fuzzless-lintless mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓红; 朱勇清; 卢山; 张天真; 陈晓亚; 许智宏

    2000-01-01

    A fuzzless-lintless (fl) seed mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142 was investigated to study cotton fiber development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fiber initials were virtually absent from fl ovules. RT-PCR analysis showed that the steady-state levels of transcripts of the fiber-specific E6 and Expansin genes were high in wild type (WT) ovules during the fiber initiation and elongation stages, and peaked around 15 days post anthesis (DPA), but only a trace amount of these transcripts was detectable in fl ovules of alt developmental stages investigated. CotmybA, a member of the Myb family, exhibited a clear expression in developing WT ovules, but the expression was abnormal in fl ovules. Application of GA3, or GA3 plus IAA, to the culture medium rescued in vitro fiber initiation and growth of fl ovules only partially. In addition, transcription of E6 and Expansin genes of in vitro cultured WT and fl ovules responded similarly to exogenous hormones. The hormones had less effect on Cot

  20. A comparative analysis of a fuzzless-lintless mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A fuzzless-lintless (fl) seed mutant of Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Xu-142 was investigated to study cotton fiber development. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fiber initials were virtually absent from fl ovules. RT-PCR analysis showed that the steady-state levels of transcripts of the fiber-specific E6 and Expansin genes were high in wild type (WT) ovules during the fiber initiation and elongation stages, and peaked around 15 days post anthesis (DPA), but only a trace amount of these transcripts was detectable in fl ovules of all developmental stages investigated. CotmybA, a member of the Myb family, exhibited a clear expression in developing WT ovules, but the expression was abnormal in fl ovules. Application of GA3, or GA3 plus IAA, to the culture medium rescued in vitro fiber initiation and growth of fl ovules only partially. In addition, transcription of E6 and Expansin genes of in vitro cultured WT and fl ovules responded similarly to exogenous hormones. The hormones had less effect on CotmybA transcription in ovules cultured in vitro, and again the WT and fl ovules showed a similar expression. These results suggest that the abnormal or extremely low level of expression of E6, Expansin and CotmybA genes in developing fl seeds is related to the absence of seed-hairs, and the mechanism underlying needs further investigation.

  1. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Aiqun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7 identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum. Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

  2. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  3. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders’ ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed t...

  4. Submission to NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA): Raw read files from manuscript “RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) root tissue under water deficit stress” NCBI SRA Accession No. PRJNA210770

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar Siokra L-23 was grown under rainfed and irrigated treatments in a field with very sandy soil. Root samples were collected for each treatment during the reproductive growth period. The RNA of all root tissues was used in an RNA-seq transcriptome profiling study with an ...

  5. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

    2012-02-01

    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  6. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Rong, Zhang; Li, Ye; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs) with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area.

  7. Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Song, Wenqiang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yuxian

    2009-03-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and elongation, whereas, application of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the wild-type cotton ovule culture significantly suppressed fiber growth, respectively. Their inhibitory effects were caused by the reduction of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Ten GhPOX genes (cDNAs) encoding cotton class III peroxidases were isolated, among them eight GhPOX genes were reported for the first time. Microarray analyses indicated that GhPOX1 was the mostly predominantly expressed in fast-elongating cotton fiber cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the transcript level of GhPOX1 was over 400-fold higher in growing fiber cells than in ovules, flowers, roots, stems and leaves. To reveal the role of GhPOX1 in plant development, its Arabidopsis orthologue atpox13 mutant was demonstrated to be defective in branch root development. Taken together, the data suggest that GhPOX1 plays an important role during fiber cell elongation possibly by mediating production of reactive oxygen species.

  8. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, J

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past four decades has brought about a rapid development of insecticide resistance, serious outbreaks of key pests, resurgence of secondary pests, and risk for man and environment. Biological control of ...

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Gossypium hirsutum and Evolutionary Analysis of Higher Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E.; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. Conclusion The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species. PMID:23940520

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gossypium hirsutum and evolutionary analysis of higher plant mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. CONCLUSION: The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species.

  11. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Sariful; Thyssen, Gregory N; Jenkins, Johnie N; Zeng, Linghe; Delhom, Christopher D; McCarty, Jack C; Deng, Dewayne D; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Jones, Don C; Fang, David D

    2016-11-09

    Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders' ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed through random-mating of multiple diverse parents has the ability to break this negative correlation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a method that can rapidly identify and genotype a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping a MAGIC population using GBS technologies will enable us to identify marker-trait associations with high resolution. An Upland cotton MAGIC population was developed through random-mating of 11 diverse cultivars for five generations. In this study, fiber quality data obtained from four environments and 6071 SNP markers generated via GBS and 223 microsatellite markers of 547 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the MAGIC population were used to conduct a genome wide association study (GWAS). By employing a mixed linear model, GWAS enabled us to identify markers significantly associated with fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL). We identified and validated one QTL cluster associated with four fiber quality traits [short fiber content (SFC), strength (STR), length (UHM) and uniformity (UI)] on chromosome A07. We further identified candidate genes related to fiber quality attributes in this region. Gene expression and amino acid substitution analysis suggested that a regeneration of bulb biogenesis 1 (GhRBB1_A07) gene is a candidate for superior fiber quality in Upland cotton. The DNA marker CFBid0004 designed from an 18 bp deletion in the coding sequence of GhRBB1_A07 in Acala Ultima is associated with the improved fiber quality in the MAGIC RILs and 105 additional commercial Upland cotton cultivars. Using GBS and a MAGIC population enabled more precise fiber QTL mapping in Upland cotton. The fiber QTL and associated markers identified in

  12. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  13. Power and Time Dependent Microwave Assisted Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Cotton (SNDC) Fibers for Bacterial Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Shukla, Abhishek; Mishra, Rohit K.; Singh, S. C.; Mishra, Vani; Uttam, K. N.; Singh, Mohan P.; Sharma, Shivesh; Gopal, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver and gold have fascinating optical properties due to their enhanced optical sensitivity at a wavelength corresponding to their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. Present work deals with the fabrication of silver nanoparticles decorated cotton (SNDC) fibers as a cheap and efficient point of contact disinfectant. SNDC fibers were fabricated by a simple microwave assisted route. The microwave power and irradiation time were controlled to optimize size and density of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) on textile fibers. As prepared cotton fabric was characterized for ATR-FTIR, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance, SEM and TEM investigations. Size of SNPs as well as total density of silver atoms on fabric gets increased with the increase of microwave power from 100 W to 600 W. The antibacterial efficacy of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers was found to be more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 38.5 ± 0.93 μg/mL against Salmonella typhimurium MTCC-98 and 125 ± 2.12 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-737, a linear correlation coefficient with R2 ranging from ∼0.928–0.935 was also observed. About >50% death cells were observed through Propidium Iodide (PI) internalization after treatment of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers with concentration 31.25 μg/mL. Generation of ROS and free radical has also been observed which leads to cell death. Excellent Escherichia coli deactivation efficacy suggested that SNDC fibers could be used as potentially safe disinfectants for cleaning of medical equipment, hand, wound, water and preservation of food and beverages. PMID:28316594

  14. Resistência de espécies e cultivares de algodão (Gossypium spp. ao herbicida diuron Resistance of cotton species and cultivars to the herbicide diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. de M. Beltrão

    1983-06-01

    algodão, deve-se levar em consideração, além dos demais fatores já sabidos, o cultivar a ser plantado.To determine the resistance of cotton species and cultivars to the herbicide diuron, a green house test was conducted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Genotypes of the species Gossypium: hirsutum latifolium Hutch. ( cv IAC 17 and BR 1 , G. hirsutum marie galante Hutch. (cv Veludo C 17 , and G. barbadense brasiliense Hutch. (cv rim-de-boi were studied . A split plot in a randomized complete block design was utilized in this experiment. The main plots were the herbicid e dosage (0,0 0, 0,0 48, 0,0 96, 0, 35 7, 0, 71 4 an d 1, 42 8 kg a. i. /h a applied to the sand subs trat when the plants had one or two true leaves, and the subplot were the genotypes. Each plot was represented by a wood bos (3 7 x 47 x 11/cm filled with washed sand. The seeds were acid deslinted before planting. To measure the resistance several parameters were observed such as: Phitotoxicity level 15 days after application, plant height, fresh and dry weight of plants, rate of stem elongation and rate of relative growth of aerial part. The results showed that cv IAC 17 and BR -1 were the most resistant to the chemical stress of the herbicide, the cv Veludo C 71 had in termediate resistance being the cv Rim de Boi the kg a . i . /ha was ha rmful to the plants of this cultivar. The results indicates that one should consider the specie and cultivar, before recommend ingthe application of diuron to a cotton field.

  15. The analysis of colored acrylic, cotton, and wool textile fibers using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Part 2: comparison with the traditional methods of fiber examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    In the second part of this survey, the ability of micro-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate 180 fiber samples of blue, black, and red cottons, wools, and acrylics was compared to that gathered with the traditional methods for the examination of textile fibers in a forensic context (including light microscopy methods, UV-vis microspectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography). This study shows that the Raman technique plays a complementary and useful role to obtain further discriminations after the application of light microscopy methods and UV-vis microspectrophotometry and assure the nondestructive nature of the analytical sequence. These additional discriminations were observed despite the lower discriminating powers of Raman data considered individually, compared to those of light microscopy and UV-vis MSP. This study also confirms that an instrument equipped with several laser lines is necessary for an efficient use as applied to the examination of textile fibers in a forensic setting.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton.

  17. 棉花种仁含油量与主要经济性状相关分析%Correlation Analysis of Seed Kernel Oil Content and Major Economic Traits in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝生; 刘素恩; 王凯辉; 耿香利; 张香云; 耿军义; 赵存鹏

    2013-01-01

    高油分棉花品种选育成为棉花育种一个新的研究方向,明确陆地棉棉子油分含量与其他主要经济性状的关系对高油品种选育具有重要指导意义.本研究利用DPS V3.01数据处理软件分析了108份不同种质的种仁油分含量与粗蛋白含量、皮棉产量、衣分、铃重、单株结铃数、纤维长度、比强度及马克隆值和枯萎病病情指数、黄萎病病情指数等主要农艺性状的相关性.研究发现棉花种仁油分含量与棉花的皮棉产量、单株成铃、铃重和衣分主要产量构成性状不存在显著相关;棉花种仁油分与纤维整齐度指数、伸长率呈显著正相关;与纤维上半部平均长度有一定的正相关,但是没有达到统计学意义上的显著水平;与纤维比强度和纤维细度间无相关性;棉花种仁油分与枯萎病抗性有微弱的负相关,与黄萎病抗性不存在相关性.但是棉花种仁蛋白含量与油分含量存在显著负相关.本研究表明育种中提高陆地棉油分含量不会影响其皮棉产量,对抗病性的影响也很微弱,并且对纤维品质的提高有一定的促进作用.因此,在保证棉花枯萎病和黄萎病抗性、皮棉产量和纤维品质的基础上,选育高油分含量的棉花新品种是切实可行的,但选育种仁油分和蛋白质含量均高的品种难度较大.%One of the new directions in cotton breeding is to develop varieties with high oil content.In this study,we analyzed the relationships between the oil content of cottonseed kemels and other selected major economic traits of cotton.We used the DPS V3.01 data processing system to calculate linear correlation coefficients using experimental data for cottonseed oil content and other agronomic characteristics obtained from 108 cotton lines.There were no significant correlations between oil content and lint yield,boll numbers per plant,boll weight,and lint percentage.There were significant positive

  18. Preferential Expression of a Beta-tubulin Gene in Developing Cotton Fibers%棉花发育纤维中一个优势表达的β-Tubulin基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-li LI; Jie SUN; Chun-hong LI; Yong-qing ZHU; Gui-xian XIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ The developing cotton fiber is considered as a model system for studying the function of microtubules in plant cell elongation and cell wall biosynthesis. It has been shown that microtubules undergo active dynamic changes during fiber development. At the molecular level, Dixon et al demonstrated that two alphatubulin and two beta-tubulin isoforms accumulated preferentially in fibers, and Whittaker and Triplett showed that the accumulation of alpha-tubulin transcripts changed in a gene-specific manner in the developing cotton fibers.

  19. Comparative analysis of genome-wide divergence, domestication footprints and genome-wide association study of root traits for Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using genome-wide distributed SNPs, we examined ...

  20. Genome-wide divergence, haplotype distribution and population demographic histories for Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense as revealed by genome-anchored SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of 10,129 singleton SNPs of known genomic location in tetraploid cotton provided unique opportunities to characterize genome-wide diversity among 440 Gossypium hirsutum and 219 G. barbadense cultivars and landrace accessions of widespread origin. Using the SNPs distributed genome-wide, we exami...

  1. MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers with enhanced cyclic performance for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fibers derived from bio-template are low cost and environmental benign, therefore have attracted much attention in energy storage materials. In this work, we successfully fabricated MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers (MoS2/CDCFs) via hydrothermal route followed by carbonization process. In the composite of MoS2/CDCFs, MoS2 nanosheets vertically grow on the carbon fibers which offer fast ways for electron transfer and at the same time act as robust support to buffer the volume changes of MoS2 nanosheets during discharge/charge cycles. As anode materials for sodium-ion batteries, MoS2/CDCFs exhibit good rate performance and markedly enhanced cyclic stability due to the conductive support of CDCFs. At a current density of 0.1 A g-1, the MoS2/CDCFs-1 shows an initial reversible capacity of 504.9 mAh g-1, and maintains 444.5 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Even when the current density increases to 0.5 A g-1, it maintains 323.1 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles, which is much higher than the capacity retention of 149.6 mAh g-1 for the bare MoS2 nanosheets. The improved electrochemical performance verifies the effective strategy of using cotton as carbon source to construct hierarchical composites for sodium-ion batteries.

  2. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  3. Genetic mapping and comparative expression analysis of transcription factors in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Xin; Li, Ximei; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The study of the structure and function of TFs represents a research frontier in plant molecular biology. The findings of these studies will provide significant information regarding genetic improvement traits in crops. Currently, a large number of TFs have been cloned, and their function has been verified. However, relatively few studies that genetically map TFs in cotton are available. To genetically map TFs in cotton in this study, specific primers were designed for TF genes that were published in the Plant Transcription Factor Database. A total of 977 TF primers were obtained, and 31 TF polymorphic loci were mapped on 15 cotton chromosomes. These polymorphic loci were clearly preferentially distributed on chromosomes 5, 11, 19 and 20; and TFs from the same family mapped to homologous cotton chromosomes. In-silico mapping verified that many mapped TFs were mapped on their corresponding chromosomes or their homologous chromosomes' corresponding chromosomes in the diploid genomes. QTL mapping for fiber quality revealed that TF-Ghi005602-2 mapped on Chr19 was associated with fiber length. Eighty-five TF genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, and 4 TFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different stages of fiber development between the mapping parents. Our data offer an overview of the chromosomal distribution of TFs in cotton, and the comparative expression analysis between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense provides a rough understanding of the regulation of TFs during cotton fiber development.

  4. 一种适合于cDNA文库构建的高质量棉花RNA的简单抽提法%An Improved Simple Protocol for Isolation of High Quality RNA from Gossypium spp. Suitable for cDNA Library Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱龙付; 涂礼莉; 曾范昌; 刘迪秋; 张献龙

    2005-01-01

    @@ Due to the large amounts of polyphenolics and polysaccharides, the extraction of high quality biochemical molecules like RNA and DNA is always an obstacle to the molecular biology study of cotton. The conventional RNA extraction methods and commercial kits always failed to get high quality RNA or even nothing. Perfect RNA was extracted from embryogenic callus in cotton using Trizol (Invitrogen, #15596-026) but failed to other tissues in this study. Here a modified simple protocol was described using guanidinium thiocyanate to extract high quality RNA from cotton with low cost, easily handling and time-saving. The steps included extracting of RNA by guanidinium thiocyanate, removing proteins and other impurities by chloroform-isoamylalcohol without phenol; after precipitation and resuspension of RNA, phenol / chloroform-isoamylalcohol were utilized to purify the RNA. This method was applied to RNA isolation from leaves, roots, hypocotyls, fibers, whole seedlings and callus in Gossypium spp. effectively.

  5. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of nectarilessness and hairiness genes in Gossypium tomentosum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiying Hou; Caiping Cai; Shuwen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Tianzhen Zhang; Baoliang Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. To effectively transfer these genes into Gossypium hirsutum, an entire microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR)-based genetic map was constructed using the interspecific cross of G. hirsutum × G. tomentosum (HT). We detected 1800 loci from 1347 pairs of polymorphic primers. Of these, 1204 loci were grouped into 35 linkage groups at LOD ≥4. The map covers 3320.8 cM, with a mean density of 2.76 cM per locus. We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map). The linkage groups were assigned chromosome numbers based on location of common loci and the HB map as reference. A comparison of common markers revealed that no significant chromosomal rearrangement exist between G. tomentosum and G. barbadense. Interestingly, however, we detected numerous (33.7%) segregation loci deviating from 3:1 ratio ($P \\lt 0.05$) in HT, mostly clustering on eight chromosomes in the Dt subgenome, with some on three chromosomes in At. Two morphological traits, leaf hairiness and leaf nectarilessness were mapped on chromosomes 6 (A6) and 26 (D12), respectively. The SSR-based map constructed in this study will be useful for further genetic studies on cotton breeding, including mapping loci controlling quantitative traits associated with fiber quality, stress tolerance and developing chromosome segment specific introgression lines from G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using marker-assisted selection.

  6. Interactions between a cotton phytopathogen and the host using a genomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an economic crop grown worldwide. Numerous G. hirsutum polyploids have been sequenced. Bacterial infections of cotton can cause major yield losses. Pantoea ananatis is a known bacterial pathogen of both cotton buds and bolls. Thus, we conducted a whole genome an...

  7. Imazamox Tolerance in Mutation Derived Lines of Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of genes conferring herbicide resistance by mutagenesis could facilitate use of imidazolinone herbicides in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 1997 and 1998, seeds of eight High Plains cotton cultivars were treated with 2.45% v/v EMS (ethyl methane sulfonate). The resulting M3 and M...

  8. 我国主产棉区棉花纤维品质性状的区域分布特征%Regional distribution characteristics of cotton fiber quality in main cotton production areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃银; 李健

    2016-01-01

    我国主产棉区及其亚区的棉纤维品质区域特征明显,适时评价各棉区的纤维品质发展现状有助于稳定优势棉花产区和促进特色棉花产区的发展。本研究采用 GGE双标图分析了2011—2015年全国棉花品种区域试验中各亚区环境与纤维品质性状的互作模式,分析比较了各主产棉区和亚区的纤维品质特征。结果表明:1)在主产棉区尺度上,长江流域棉区纤维长度和比强度最好,并且都达到了国家棉花品种审定的Ⅱ级标准,而马克隆值和纺纱均匀性指数居中;黄河流域棉区的纤维长度和比强度较好,但马克隆值偏高;西北内陆棉区的马克隆值和纺纱均匀性指数表现最好,纤维长度和马克隆值达到了国家棉花品种审定的Ⅱ级标准,但比强度在三大棉区中表现最差。2)在棉花亚区尺度上,纤维长度表现以长江下游和长江上游亚区为最好,黄土高原亚区稍差,其余亚区表现较好;比强度表现以长江下游、长江中游、淮北平原、南襄盆地和黄土高原最好,而南疆棉区、长江上游和北疆棉区比强度稍差;马克隆值以北疆棉区、南疆棉区和长江上游表现最好,而黄土高原、淮北平原、长江中游和华北平原的马克隆值偏高。3)在纤维品质的综合表现上,北疆棉区、长江下游、长江上游和南疆棉区的纤维品质综合表现最好,淮北平原、长江中游和南襄盆地次之,华北平原和黄土高原稍差。本研究展示了 GGE 双标图的“环境-性状”功能图在纤维品质区域特征评价方面的应用效果,可为我国棉花优势产区发展和棉纺企业合理用棉提供理论依据,也对全国棉花纤维品质生态区划分具有指导意义。%AbstractThe significant regional differences in cotton fiber characteristics have been well recognized in not only traditional main cotton production areas, but also in the

  9. Phenotypic and molecular evaluation of cotton hairy roots as a model system for studying nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cellular mechanisms that mediate resistance of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium spp.) to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) are poorly understood. Here, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots were investigated as a possible research...

  10. Genomic insights into divergence and dual domestication of cultivated allotetraploid cottons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton domestication was achieved by converting perennial trees into annual crops. After ploidization, two allotetraploid species, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, were domesticated and are cultivated worldwide. However, the overall genetic diversity between and within the cultivated species is...

  11. Spectral discrimination of two pigweeds from cotton with different leaf colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    To implement strategies to control Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) infestations in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, managers need effective techniques to identify the weeds. Leaf light reflectance measurements have shown...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cotton glucuronosyltranferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    A glucuronosyltranferase gene has been isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cells using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA, designated GhGlcAT1, is 1400 bp in length (AY346330) and contains an open reading frame of 1107 bp encoding a protein of 368 amino acids. Alignment of the GhGlcAT1 predicted amino acid sequence was shown to have high sequence similarity with animal glucuronosyltranferases. A phylogenic tree generated by the PHYLIP program package showed that GhGlcAT1 is clustered into the plant glucuronosyltranferase proteins and is distinct from those of other species. Homology modeling of the GhGlcAT1 structure using Homo sapiens native glucuronosyltranferase (1 kws and 1 fgg) structure as a template strongly suggests that the main-chain conformation and the folding patterns were similar to structural features characteristic of animal glucuronosyltranferases. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcripts of GhGlcAT1 were abundant in fiber cells, moderate in stem, but not detected in ovule, flower, seed, root and leaf. Transcripts were most abundant at 15dpa fiber. The transcription occurred at both the primary wall elongation stage and former stage of secondary cell thickening, suggesting that GhGLcAT1 may be involved in non-cellulose polysacchrides biosynthesis of the cotton cell wall.

  13. 种间杂交改良陆地棉的纤维品质%Fiber Quality Improvement by Interspecific Hybridization in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zhong LIU; Fu-rong WANG; Liu-ming WANG; Jia-bao WANG; Jing YANG; Qin-hong LIU

    2002-01-01

    @@ In order to transfer genes for extra fiber strength to existing cotton cultivars, we introduced 207 interspecific materials obtained by outcrossing where GG. hirsutum , GG.barbadense , G. sturtianum , G. thurberi , G.harknessii and G. somalense etc. were involved as parents respectively.

  14. Trivial Sources of Heterosis in Cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAMPBELL B T; BOWMAN D T; WEAVER D B

    2008-01-01

    @@ Historically,re-selection,pedigree,and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).Due to the predominance of these breeding methods,we hypothesize that modern cultivars,as opposed to obsolete cultivars,have accumulated additive genetic effects over time.

  15. Molecular tools for contemporary cotton breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among approximately 50 Gossypium (cotton) species are two tetraploids (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) and two diploids (G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) that are domesticated to produce raw materials for global textile and oilseed industries with an increasing demand for high-yield and high-quality of co...

  16. Collection,Evaluation,and Utilization of Cotton Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong-ming; ZHOU Zhong-li; SUN Jun-Ling; PAN Zhao-e; JIA Yin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ A total of 8193 accessions,including 6822 Gossypium hirsutum,350 G.hirsutum race (sub-spe-cies),385 of G.barbadense,378 of G.arboreum,17 of G.herbaceum and 41 wild species,of cotton germplasm are now maintained in China.This germplasm is kept in Beijing National Long-term Genebank and Anyang Cotton Medium-term Genebank.Live plants of the wild species are kept in Cotton garden at Hainan Island.

  17. Natural fire-defense of raw white and brown cotton fibers evidenced by suppressed unzipping depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-cleaned (scoured or scoured/bleached), cotton-based materials, whose utilization has greatly been enhanced in support of environmental sustainability, burn rapidly, causing a difficulty in controlling the spread of fire. This high burning rate is primarily associated with the unzipping depolymer...

  18. Thermal and flame retardant behaviors of cotton fiber treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate were prepared in very high yield and purity by one step procedure and the cotton fabrics treated with them at different levels of add-on (5 - 20 wt %) were c...

  19. Irrigation termination date and amount on cotton lint yield and fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton irrigation in the Texas High Plains (THP) is often dictated by the well capacity and not by the water needs of the crop. The source of irrigation-water is the Ogallala aquifer and in many areas of the THP the water table has declined to well capacities that deliver 1.3 to > 7.6 mm/d. There is...

  20. Meloidogyne incognita emigration from cotton roots may be induced by the resistance QTL qMi-C11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most widely grown crops in the southern US, and Meloidogyne incognita is the most significant pathogen of cotton in the US. Two QTLs, qMi-C11 and qMi-C14, conferring resistance to M. incognita have been identified in cotton. Previous research docume...

  1. Development of antibacterial knitted products with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber%镀银纤维/棉混纺纱抗菌针织产品的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华; 陈朱捷; 敖利民

    2013-01-01

    镀银纤维具有优异的抗菌性能,其针织面料的开发应用前景非常广阔。分析镀银纤维/棉混纺纱的外观特征和抗菌特点,并利用镀银纤维/棉混纺纱在单面针织机上开发了几种抗菌针织面料。测试结果表明,开发的镀银纤维/棉混纺纱针织面料具有良好的抗菌效果。%Silver-plated fiber has excellent antibacterial property , which makes its knitted fabrics have a vast potential for further development and application .The external appearance and antibacterial characteristics of blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were analyzed .Several antibacterial knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were developed.The test results show all the knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber have good antibacterial properties .

  2. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S

    2015-11-01

    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  3. Determination of total selenium in geological samples by HG-AFS after concentration with thiol cotton fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Haifeng; WEN Hanjie; HU Ruizhong; CHANG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Standard reference material and different geological samples were dissolved by system A (the mixture of nitric and perchloric acids) and system B (mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids), and total Se in all samples was measured by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) after concentration with thiol cotton fiber (TCF). The analytical results obtained by the two digestion method are in good agreement (within the limit of errors) for most of the samples, particularly for those having recommended values. The Se concentrations determined by the two methods are of no difference, and the correlation coefficient is 0.9986; the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.04 (g/g Se is 10.2%. The recovery rates of systems A and B by the standard-addition method were 96%-106% and 99%-104%, respectively.

  4. Screening Cotton Mini-core Collection for Characterizing the Genetic Variability of Drought Resistance Traits and Selection of Suitable Mapping Population Parents for Genetic Dissection of Drought Resistance and Fiber Quality Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOOPATHI; N; Manikanda; GOPIKRISHNAN; A; SELVAM; N; Jagadeesh; RAVIKESAVAN; R; IYANAR; K

    2008-01-01

    In the face of a global scarcity of water resources,drought has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide.In cotton,fiber productivity and quality is strongly influenced by

  5. Analysis of Complete Nucleotide Sequences of 12 Gossypium Chloroplast Genomes: Origin and Evolution of Allotetraploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Xiong, Guanjun; Li, Pengbo; He, Fei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Kunbo; Li, Zhaohu; Hua, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a model system for the analysis of polyploidization. Although ascertaining the donor species of allotetraploid cotton has been intensively studied, sequence comparison of Gossypium chloroplast genomes is still of interest to understand the mechanisms underlining the evolution of Gossypium allotetraploids, while it is generally accepted that the parents were A- and D-genome containing species. Here we performed a comparative analysis of 13 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, twelve of which are presented here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings The size of 12 chloroplast genomes under study varied from 159,959 bp to 160,433 bp. The chromosomes were highly similar having >98% sequence identity. They encoded the same set of 112 unique genes which occurred in a uniform order with only slightly different boundary junctions. Divergence due to indels as well as substitutions was examined separately for genome, coding and noncoding sequences. The genome divergence was estimated as 0.374% to 0.583% between allotetraploid species and A-genome, and 0.159% to 0.454% within allotetraploids. Forty protein-coding genes were completely identical at the protein level, and 20 intergenic sequences were completely conserved. The 9 allotetraploids shared 5 insertions and 9 deletions in whole genome, and 7-bp substitutions in protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree confirmed a close relationship between allotetraploids and the ancestor of A-genome, and the allotetraploids were divided into four separate groups. Progenitor allotetraploid cotton originated 0.43–0.68 million years ago (MYA). Conclusion Despite high degree of conservation between the Gossypium chloroplast genomes, sequence variations among species could still be detected. Gossypium chloroplast genomes preferred for 5-bp indels and 1–3-bp indels are mainly attributed to the SSR polymorphisms. This study supports that the common ancestor of diploid A-genome species in

  6. Transcriptome-wide identification of salt-responsive members of the WRKY gene family in Gossypium aridum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are plant-specific, zinc finger-type transcription factors. The WRKY superfamily is involved in abiotic stress responses in many crops including cotton, a major fiber crop that is widely cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Salinity is an important abiotic stress that results in considerable yield losses. In this study, we identified 109 WRKY genes (GarWRKYs in a salt-tolerant wild cotton species Gossypium aridum from transcriptome sequencing data to elucidate the roles of these factors in cotton salt tolerance. According to their structural features, the predicted members were divided into three groups (Groups I-III, as previously described for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, 28 salt-responsive GarWRKY genes were identified from digital gene expression data and subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The expression patterns of most GarWRKY genes revealed by this analysis are in good agreement with those revealed by RNA-Seq analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed that 27 GarWRKY genes were expressed in roots and one was exclusively expressed in roots. Analysis of gene orthology and motif compositions indicated that WRKY members from Arabidopsis, rice and soybean generally shared the similar motifs within the same subgroup, suggesting they have the similar function. Overexpression-GarWRKY17 and -GarWRKY104 in Arabidopsis revealed that they could positively regulate salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis during different development stages. The comprehensive data generated in this study provide a platform for elucidating the functions of WRKY transcription factors in salt tolerance of G. aridum. In addition, GarWRKYs related to salt tolerance identified in this study will be potential candidates for genetic improvement of cultivated cotton salt stress tolerance.

  7. 图位克隆法分离陆地棉Velvet绒毛基因%Isolate a Gene for Velvet Hairiness in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) by Map-based Cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehboob-ur-RAHMAN; M. A. I. ALI; S. A. RANDNAWA; T. A. MALIK; K. A. MALIK; Y. ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton crop is prone to many insect pests.Finely dense pubescence (pilose/velvet hairy),one of the important elements of defense umbrella confers in built resistance against several insect pests. The present research was conducted to isolate DNA markers for velvet hairiness, which would be useful to launch mapbasedcloning.

  8. Fine Mapping of Fertility Restoring Gene for Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Cotton (Gossypium spp. ) Using RAPD and SSR%棉花细胞质雄性不育恢复基因的SSR及RAPD标记与定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-wang LIU; Wang-zhen GUO; Xie-fei ZHU; Tian-zhen ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    @@ The heterosis in cotton is much significant,especially in increasing yield andfiber quality.Comparing with hand-emasculation and pollination, and genetic male sterile lines,utilization of CMS lines is much more effective and economical in producing commercial hybrid seeds. Since 1965 in the world, several CMS lines have been developed, such as CMS lines with G.

  9. Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Abdullaev, A A; Saha, S; Buriev, Z T; Arslanov, D; Kuryazov, Z; Mavlonov, G T; Rizaeva, S M; Reddy, U K; Jenkins, J N; Abdullaev, A; Abdukarimov, A

    2005-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf defoliation has a significant ecological and economical impact on cotton production. Thus the utilization of a natural leaf defoliation trait, which exists in wild diploid cotton species, in the development of tetraploid cultivated cotton will not only be cost effective, but will also facilitate production of very high-grade fiber. The primary goal of our research was to tag loci associated with natural leaf defoliation using microsatellite markers in Upland cotton. The F2 populations developed from reciprocal crosses between the two parental cotton lines--AN-Boyovut-2 (2n = 52), a late leaf defoliating type, and Listopad Beliy (2n = 52), a naturally early leaf defoliating type--demonstrated that the naturally early leaf defoliation trait has heritability values of 0.74 and 0.84 in the reciprocal F2 population. The observed phenotypic segregation difference in reciprocal crosses suggested a minor cytoplasmic effect in the phenotypic expression of the naturally early leaf defoliation trait. Results from the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) nonparametric test revealed that JESPR-13 (KW = 6.17), JESPR-153 (KW = 9.97), and JESPR-178 (KW = 13.45) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are significantly associated with natural leaf defoliation in the mapping population having stable estimates at empirically obtained critical thresholds (P < .05-.0001). JESPR-178 revealed the highest estimates (P < .0001) for association with the natural leaf defoliation trait, exceeding maximum empirical threshold values. JESPR-178 was assigned to the short arm of chromosome 18, suggesting indirectly that genes associated with natural leaf defoliation might be located on this chromosome. This microsatellite marker may have the potential for use to introgress the naturally early leaf defoliation quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the donor line Listopad Beliy to commercial varieties of cotton through marker-assisted selection programs.

  10. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor (Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  11. The effect of herbivory on temporal and spatial dynamics of foliar nectar production in cotton and castor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Zuber, D.; Wunderlin, R.; Keller, F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of feeding Spodoptera a littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on the quantity and distribution of extrafloral nectar production by leaves of castor ((Ricinus communis) and cotton (Gossypium herbaceum) were investigated. Following larval feeding, the total volume of nectar

  12. Polymorphism analysis of multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations of upland cotton developed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Li, Z X; Hu, J S; Lin, Z X; Li, X F

    2016-12-19

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop that provides renewable natural fiber worldwide. Currently limited genetic base leads to a decrease in upland cotton genetic diversity. Multi-parent advance generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations can be used to evaluate complex agronomic traits in crops. In this study, we developed an upland cotton MAGIC population. A total of 258 MAGIC population lines and their twelve founder lines were analyzed, using 432 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Gene diversity indices and the polymorphism information content were calculated using polymorphism analyses. Our genotype analysis showed that 258 inbred lines could be divided into 158 genotypes. Among these, we identified 17 pairs of specific SSR primers on the A chromosome subgroups and 24 pairs of specific SSR primers on the B chromosome subgroups of upland cotton. These were related to 77 and 128 genotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that the upland cotton MAGIC population contained abundant genetic diversity and may provide enormous resources for future genetic breeding.

  13. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A

    2008-12-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at 30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and stratification existing in cotton germplasm

  14. GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM LINN: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khaleequr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum Linn is known as cotton plant, belongs to the family Malvaceae, and occupies an imperative place in traditional systems of medicine especially in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines. The plant is widely distributed throughout western India, Africa, Middle East countries, central Asia and graded availability is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Russian and Turkistan. The qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids. The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol, a phenolic compound. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil contains sitosterol, ergostoerol, lipids, gossypol, oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids. The herb has been used traditionally from antiquity, in the treatment of inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, otalgia, sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin diseases. It chiefly possesses antifertlility, galactagogue, antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antibacterial activity. This work is an endeavor to explore and assemble the various pharmacological action and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant G. herbaceum reported till date.

  15. Hybridization between Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium stochsii through embryo rescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GILLMANJEETS; YPSBAJAJ

    1996-01-01

    Nutrient media and culture conditions have been defined for ovules 3 and 5 d after pollination and embryos of Gossypium herbaceum respectively.The technique was then used to produce interspecific hybrids between a cultivated Gossypium herbaceum and a wild species,G.stocksii.The hybrid plants were transferred to field and they exhibited most of the characters of the pollen parent i.e.G.stocksii.

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins of 320 and 307 amino acid residues,respectively. Quantatitive RT-PCR analysis showed that both these genes were highly preferentially expressed during the cotton fiber elongation period with much lower levels recovered from roots, stems and leaves. GhKCR1 and 2 showed 30%-32% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr159p at the deduced amino acid level. These cotton cDNAs were cloned and expressed in yeast haploid ybr159w△ mutant that was deficient in 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity.Wild-type growth rate was restored in ybr159w△ cells that expressed either GhKCR1 or 2. Further analysis showed that GhKCR1 and 2 were co-sedimented within the membranous pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation, similar to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum marker ScKar2p. Both GhKCR(s) showed NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity in an in vitro assay system using palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates. Our results suggest that GhKCR1 and 2 are functional orthologues of ScYbr159p.

  17. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homolog GhFT1 from Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danli Guo; Chao Li; Rui Dong; Xiaobo Li; Xiangwen Xiao; Xianzhong Huang

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family that functions as the mobile floral signal, playing an important role in regulating the floral transition in angiosperms. We isolated an FT-homolog (GhFT1) from Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar, Xinluzao 33 GhFT1 was predominantly expressed in stamens and sepals, and had a relatively higher expression level during the initiation stage of fiber development. GhFT1 mRNA displayed diurnal oscillations in both long-day and short-day condition, suggesting that the expression of this gene may be under the control of the circadian clock. Subcel ular analysis revealed that GhFT1 protein located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Ectopic expression of GhFT1 in transgenic arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering compared with wild-type plants. In addition, ectopic expression of GhFT1 in arabidopsis ft-10 mutants partial y rescued the extremely late flowering phenotype. Finally, several flowering related genes functioning downstream of AtFT were highly upregulated in the 35S::GhFT1 transgenic arabidopsis plants. In summary, GhFT1 is an FT-homologous gene in cotton that regulates flower transition similar to its orthologs in other plant species and thus it may be a candidate target for promoting early maturation in cotton breeding.

  18. Comparative Transmission Genetics of Introgressed Chromatin in Gossypium Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAGHMARE Vijay N; RONG Jun-kang; ROGERS Carl J; BOWERS John E; PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ Wild relatives and un-adapted germplasm of crop species harbors several adaptive traits.Introgression of genes for economic and adaptive traits brings in novel genetic variation into the gene pools of many crops including cotton.We compared patterns of introgression into polyploid Gossypium hirsuture from its sister G.tomentosum,and from G.barbadense representing a different clade tracing to the same polyploidization.Advanced-generation populations,resulting from recurrent backcrossing to G.hirsutum,show a paucity of G.tomentosum alleles and severe deficiencies of homozygotes.

  19. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  20. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.