WorldWideScience

Sample records for costs increase conservation

  1. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  2. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  3. Costs of integrating economics and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Anni; Cabeza, Mar; Eklund, Johanna; Kujala, Heini; Lehtomäki, Joona

    2010-10-01

    Recent literature on systematic conservation planning has focused strongly on economics. It is a necessary component of efficient conservation planning because the question is about effective resource allocation. Nevertheless, there is an increasing tendency toward economic factors overriding biological considerations. Focusing too narrowly on economic cost may lead us back toward solutions resembling those obtained by opportunistic choice of areas, the avoidance of which was the motivation for development of systematic approaches. Moreover, there are many overlooked difficulties in incorporating economic considerations reliably into conservation planning because available economic data and the free market are complex. For instance, economies based on free markets tend to be shortsighted, whereas biodiversity conservation aims far into the future. Although economic data are necessary, they should not be relied on too heavily or considered separately from other sociopolitical factors. We suggest focusing on development of more-comprehensive ecological-economic modeling, while not forgetting the importance of purely biological analyses that are needed as a point of reference for evaluating conservation outcomes. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  5. [Cost] effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartholt, Klaas A; Boyé, Nicole D A; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Polinder, Suzanne; De Vries, Oscar J; Kerver, Albert J H; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; De Vries, Mark R; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Uitterlinden, André G; Van Beeck, Ed F; Lips, Paul; Patka, Peter; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M

    2011-08-21

    Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D), costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593).

  6. [Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattace-Raso Francesco US

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs on the number of new falls versus 'care as usual' in older adults presenting at the Emergency Department after a fall. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in hospitals in the Netherlands. Persons aged ≥65 years who visit the Emergency Department due to a fall are invited to participate in this trial. All patients receive a full geriatric assessment at the research outpatient clinic. Patients are randomized between a structured medication assessment including withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs and 'care as usual'. A 3-monthly falls calendar is used for assessing the number of falls, fallers and associated injuries over a one-year follow-up period. Measurements will be at three, six, nine, and twelve months and include functional outcome, healthcare consumption, socio-demographic characteristics, and clinical information. After twelve months a second visit to the research outpatient clinic will be performed, and adherence to the new medication regimen in the intervention group will be measured. The primary outcome will be the incidence of new falls. Secondary outcome measurements are possible health effects of medication withdrawal, health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 and EuroQol-5D, costs, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs in older patients as a method for falls reduction. Trial Registration The trial is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1593

  7. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  8. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  10. [Cost]effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk increasing drugs versus conservative treatment in older fallers: design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (IMPROveFALL-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartholt, K.A.; van der Velde, N.; van Lieshout, E.M.M.; Polinder, S.; de Vries, O.J.; Boyé, N.D.A.; Kerver, A.J.H.; Ziere, G.; Bruijninckx, M.M.M.; de Vries, M.R.; Mattace-Raso, F.U.S.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Beeck, E.F.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Patka, P.; van der Cammen, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fall incidents represent an increasing public health problem in aging societies worldwide. A major risk factor for falls is the use of fall-risk increasing drugs. The primary aim of the study is to compare the effect of a structured medication assessment including the withdrawal of

  11. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2)), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease malaria toll in the region while preserving these

  12. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  13. Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Matthias; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.; Blumentrath, Stefan; Nordén, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%. PMID:25393951

  14. Carbon payments and low-cost conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Neville D; Bryan, Brett A; Summers, David M

    2011-08-01

    A price on carbon is expected to generate demand for carbon offset schemes. This demand could drive investment in tree-based monocultures that provide higher carbon yields than diverse plantings of native tree and shrub species, which sequester less carbon but provide greater variation in vegetation structure and composition. Economic instruments such as species conservation banking, the creation and trading of credits that represent biological-diversity values on private land, could close the financial gap between monocultures and more diverse plantings by providing payments to individuals who plant diverse species in locations that contribute to conservation and restoration goals. We studied a highly modified agricultural system in southern Australia that is typical of many temperate agriculture zones globally (i.e., has a high proportion of endangered species, high levels of habitat fragmentation, and presence of non-native species). We quantified the economic returns from agriculture and from carbon plantings (monoculture and mixed tree and shrubs) under six carbon-price scenarios. We also identified high-priority locations for restoration of cleared landscapes with mixed tree and shrub carbon plantings. Depending on the price of carbon, direct annual payments to landowners of AU$7/ha/year to $125/ha/year (US$6-120/ha/year) may be sufficient to augment economic returns from a carbon market and encourage tree plantings that contribute more to the restoration of natural systems and endangered species habitats than monocultures. Thus, areas of high priority for conservation and restoration may be restored relatively cheaply in the presence of a carbon market. Overall, however, less carbon is sequestered by mixed native tree and shrub plantings. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of credentialism on the cost of conservation treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic cost of treatment of cultural heritage using conservation of wall paintings in Danish churches over its entire period, from 1855 to 2015, as a primary data source. Financial costs for 990 individual projects harvested from archival documents were adjusted with s...

  17. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost

  18. Conserving what, where and how? Cost-efficient measures to conserve biodiversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels; Anthon, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation efforts in Europe have traditionally focused on farmland and open nature areas such as grasslands, heathlands and meadows, while little attention has been devoted to conservation actions in forest. Using detailed information on the geographical distribution of about 900...... terrestrial species in Denmark we apply systematic conservation planning techniques to identify how to protect biodiversity at the lowest cost to society. The results suggest that conservation actions in forest should be given a higher priority. Thus, three to four times the number of forest species...... are protected per million € compared with species living in open land natural areas. Furthermore, a gap analysis finds the current designation of Natura 2000 and other protected areas is skewed toward open land natural areas, and insufficient to meet the conservation targets on forest species....

  19. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator...

  20. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  1. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jenkins, Richard B; Boe, Kaia; Hoffmann, Michael; Angulo, Ariadne; Bachman, Steve; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Carpenter, Kent E; Comer, Pat J; Cox, Neil; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Darwall, William R T; Di Marco, Moreno; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Goettsch, Bárbara; Heath, Melanie; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hutton, Jon; Johnson, Tim; Joolia, Ackbar; Keith, David A; Langhammer, Penny F; Luedtke, Jennifer; Nic Lughadha, Eimear; Lutz, Maiko; May, Ian; Miller, Rebecca M; Oliveira-Miranda, María A; Parr, Mike; Pollock, Caroline M; Ralph, Gina; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rondinini, Carlo; Smart, Jane; Stuart, Simon; Symes, Andy; Tordoff, Andrew W; Woodley, Stephen; Young, Bruce; Kingston, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years) valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million), were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013) is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million). We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform decision-making for

  2. Cost-effectiveness of alternative conservation strategies with application to the Pacific leatherback turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Heidi; Squires, Dale; Dutton, Peter H; Eguchi, Tomoharu

    2014-02-01

    Although holistic conservation addressing all sources of mortality for endangered species or stocks is the preferred conservation strategy, limited budgets require a criterion to prioritize conservation investments. We compared the cost-effectiveness of nesting site and at-sea conservation strategies for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We sought to determine which conservation strategy or mix of strategies would produce the largest increase in population growth rate per dollar. Alternative strategies included protection of nesters and their eggs at nesting beaches in Indonesia, gear changes, effort restrictions, and caps on turtle takes in the Hawaiian (U.S.A.) longline swordfish fishery, and temporal and area closures in the California (U.S.A.) drift gill net fishery. We used a population model with a biological metric to measure the effects of conservation alternatives. We normalized all effects by cost to prioritize those strategies with the greatest biological effect relative to its economic cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty in the main variables and to calculate probability distributions for cost-effectiveness measures. Nesting beach protection was the most cost-effective means of achieving increases in leatherback populations. This result creates the possibility of noncompensatory bycatch mitigation, where high-bycatch fisheries invest in protecting nesting beaches. An example of this practice is U.S. processors of longline tuna and California drift gill net fishers that tax themselves to finance low-cost nesting site protection. Under certain conditions, fisheries interventions, such as technologies that reduce leatherback bycatch without substantially decreasing target species catch, can be cost-effective. Reducing bycatch in coastal areas where bycatch is high, particularly adjacent to nesting beaches, may be cost-effective, particularly, if fisheries in the area are small and of little commercial value.

  3. Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Juffe-Bignoli

    Full Text Available Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintaining four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary data collected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US$160 million (range: US$116-204 million, plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278-308 person-years valued at US$ 14 million (range US$12-16 million, were invested in these four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financing was provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnel costs. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowledge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were not possible to estimate for 2013 is US$6.5 million in total (range: US$6.2-6.7 million. We estimated that an additional US$114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines of data coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual maintenance costs will be approximately US$12 million. These costs are much lower than those to maintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodiversity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensive and accurate is fundamental to inform

  4. Cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair, open repair, and conservative management of splenic artery aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Wouter; Lavida, Anthi; Hunink, M. G Myriam; Moll, Frans L.; Geroulakos, George; Muhs, Bart E.; Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Open repair (OPEN) and conservative management (CONS) have been the treatments of choice for splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) for many years. Endovascular repair (EV) has been increasingly used with good short-term results. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of OPEN, EV, and

  5. 7 CFR 631.7 - Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., conservation practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the state. (b) The designated... conservation systems, practices, or identifiable units eligible for GPCP cost sharing in the county. ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation treatment eligible for cost sharing. 631...

  6. Fuel cycle cost considerations of increased discharge burnups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherpereel, L.R.; Frank, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluations are presented that indicate the attainment of increased discharge burnups in light water reactors will depend on economic factors particular to individual operators. In addition to pure resource conserving effects and assuming continued reliable fuel performance, a substantial economic incentive must exist to justify the longer operating times necessary to achieve higher burnups. Whether such incentive will exist or not will depend on relative price levels of all fuel cycle cost components, utility operating practices, and resolution of uncertainties associated with the back-end of the fuel cycle. It is concluded that implementation of increased burnups will continue at a graduated pace similar to past experience, rather than finding universal acceptance of particular increased levels at any particular time

  7. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 20 CFR 404.270 - Cost-of-living increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.270 Cost-of-living... rises in the cost of living. These automatic increases also apply to other benefit amounts, as described...

  9. Drug synergy drives conserved pathways to increase fission yeast lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhe Huang

    Full Text Available Aging occurs over time with gradual and progressive loss of physiological function. Strategies to reduce the rate of functional loss and mitigate the subsequent onset of deadly age-related diseases are being sought. We demonstrated previously that a combination of rapamycin and myriocin reduces age-related functional loss in the Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and produces a synergistic increase in lifespan. Here we show that the same drug combination also produces a synergistic increase in the lifespan of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and does so by controlling signal transduction pathways conserved across a wide evolutionary time span ranging from yeasts to mammals. Pathways include the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 protein kinase, the protein kinase A (PKA and a stress response pathway, which in fission yeasts contains the Sty1 protein kinase, an ortholog of the mammalian p38 MAP kinase, a type of Stress Activated Protein Kinase (SAPK. These results along with previous studies in S. cerevisiae support the premise that the combination of rapamycin and myriocin enhances lifespan by regulating signaling pathways that couple nutrient and environmental conditions to cellular processes that fine-tune growth and stress protection in ways that foster long term survival. The molecular mechanisms for fine-tuning are probably species-specific, but since they are driven by conserved nutrient and stress sensing pathways, the drug combination may enhance survival in other organisms.

  10. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  11. Appropriate methodologies for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.M.; Gill, G.S.; Harvey, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of cost-benefit analysis for assessing the societal cost and benefits of conservation programmes is discussed. It is concluded that it should not be the sole criterion for project choice. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  13. Costs, tariffs and electric power conservation: integrated purpose for the solution of the distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.

    1992-01-01

    The relations between costs and prices theory of energy with electricity conservation are discussed, analysing the demand characteristics by electricity and the importance of their knowledge for defining a politics for conservation. The theoretic treatment of the question is considered, mentioning the paper of the clients and the distributors, and the methodology used for energy conservation. (C.G.C.)

  14. Constraining Forest Certificate's Market to Improve Cost-Effectiveness of Biodiversity Conservation in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Paula; Blumentrath, Stefan; Barton, David N; Rusch, Graciela M; Romeiro, Ademar R

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched Brazilian "forest certificates" market is expected to reduce environmental compliance costs for landowners through an offset mechanism, after a long history of conservation laws based in command-and-control and strict rules. In this paper we assessed potential costs and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the instrument when introducing to this market constraints that aim to address conservation objectives more specifically. Using the conservation planning software Marxan with Zones we simulated different scopes for the "forest certificates" market, and compared their cost-effectiveness with that of existing command-and-control (C&C), i.e. compliance to the Legal Reserve on own property, in the state of São Paulo. The simulations showed a clear potential of the constrained "forest certificates" market to improve conservation effectiveness and increase cost-effectiveness on allocation of Legal Reserves. Although the inclusion of an additional constraint of targeting the BIOTA Conservation Priority Areas doubled the cost (+95%) compared with a "free trade" scenario constrained only by biome, this option was still 50% less costly than the baseline scenario of compliance with Legal Reserve at the property.

  15. Constraining Forest Certificate's Market to Improve Cost-Effectiveness of Biodiversity Conservation in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bernasconi

    Full Text Available The recently launched Brazilian "forest certificates" market is expected to reduce environmental compliance costs for landowners through an offset mechanism, after a long history of conservation laws based in command-and-control and strict rules. In this paper we assessed potential costs and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the instrument when introducing to this market constraints that aim to address conservation objectives more specifically. Using the conservation planning software Marxan with Zones we simulated different scopes for the "forest certificates" market, and compared their cost-effectiveness with that of existing command-and-control (C&C, i.e. compliance to the Legal Reserve on own property, in the state of São Paulo. The simulations showed a clear potential of the constrained "forest certificates" market to improve conservation effectiveness and increase cost-effectiveness on allocation of Legal Reserves. Although the inclusion of an additional constraint of targeting the BIOTA Conservation Priority Areas doubled the cost (+95% compared with a "free trade" scenario constrained only by biome, this option was still 50% less costly than the baseline scenario of compliance with Legal Reserve at the property.

  16. Quantifying the Short-Term Costs of Conservation Interventions for Fishers at Lake Alaotra, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P C Wallace

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries are a key source of food and income for millions of people, but if poorly managed, fishing can have declining returns as well as impacts on biodiversity. Management interventions such as spatial and temporal closures can improve fishery sustainability and reduce environmental degradation, but may carry substantial short-term costs for fishers. The Lake Alaotra wetland in Madagascar supports a commercially important artisanal fishery and provides habitat for a Critically Endangered primate and other endemic wildlife of conservation importance. Using detailed data from more than 1,600 fisher catches, we used linear mixed effects models to explore and quantify relationships between catch weight, effort, and spatial and temporal restrictions to identify drivers of fisher behaviour and quantify the potential effect of fishing restrictions on catch. We found that restricted area interventions and fishery closures would generate direct short-term costs through reduced catch and income, and these costs vary between groups of fishers using different gear. Our results show that conservation interventions can have uneven impacts on local people with different fishing strategies. This information can be used to formulate management strategies that minimise the adverse impacts of interventions, increase local support and compliance, and therefore maximise conservation effectiveness.

  17. Costing and Budgeting for Preservation and Conservation in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA) region, little or no information is available on budgeting systems for archival institutions in the region to enhance preservation and conservation programs. Preservation and conservation requires both economic ...

  18. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  19. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  20. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  1. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McCreless

    Full Text Available The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  2. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  3. The cost of conservative synchronization in parallel discrete event simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a synchronous conservative parallel discrete-event simulation protocol is analyzed. The class of simulation models considered is oriented around a physical domain and possesses a limited ability to predict future behavior. A stochastic model is used to show that as the volume of simulation activity in the model increases relative to a fixed architecture, the complexity of the average per-event overhead due to synchronization, event list manipulation, lookahead calculations, and processor idle time approach the complexity of the average per-event overhead of a serial simulation. The method is therefore within a constant factor of optimal. The analysis demonstrates that on large problems--those for which parallel processing is ideally suited--there is often enough parallel workload so that processors are not usually idle. The viability of the method is also demonstrated empirically, showing how good performance is achieved on large problems using a thirty-two node Intel iPSC/2 distributed memory multiprocessor.

  4. Costs of conservative management of early-stage prostate cancer compared to radical prostatectomy–a claims data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Brandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread PSA testing incidence rates of localized prostate cancer increase but curative treatment is often not required. Overtreatment imposes a substantial economic burden on health care systems. We compared the direct medical costs of conservative management and radical therapy for the management of early-stage prostate cancer in routine care. Methods An observational study design is chosen based on claims data of a German statutory health insurance fund for the years 2008–2011. Three hundred fifty-three age-matched men diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with conservative management and radical prostatectomy, are included. Individuals with diagnoses of metastases or treatment of advanced prostate cancer are excluded. In an excess cost approach direct medical costs are considered from an insured community perspective for in- and outpatient care, pharmaceuticals, physiotherapy, and assistive technologies. Generalized linear models adjust for comorbidity by Charlson comorbidity score and recycled predictions method calculates per capita costs per treatment strategy. Results After follow-up of 2.5 years per capita costs of conservative management are €6611 lower than costs of prostatectomy ([−9734;−3547], p < 0.0001. Complications increase costs of assistive technologies by 30% (p = 0.0182, but do not influence any other costs. Results are robust to cost outliers and incidence of prostate cancer diagnosis. The short time horizon does not allow assessing long-term consequences of conservative management. Conclusions At a time horizon of 2.5 years, conservative management is preferable to radical prostatectomy in terms of costs. Claims data analysis is limited in the selection of comparable treatment groups, as clinical information is scarce and bias due to non-randomization can only be partly mitigated by matching and confounder adjustment.

  5. Eliminating Residents Increases the Cost of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Deborah M; Forster, Richard; Gakis, Thomas; Finberg, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    Academic health centers are facing a potential reduction in Medicare financing for graduate medical education (GME). Both the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (Deficit Commission) have suggested cutting approximately half the funding that teaching hospitals receive for indirect medical education. Because of the effort that goes into teaching trainees, who are only transient employees, hospital executives often see teaching programs as a drain on resources. In light of the possibility of a Medicare cut to GME programs, we undertook an analysis to assess the financial risk of training programs to our institution and the possibility of saving money by reducing resident positions. The chief administrative officer, in collaboration with the hospital chief financial officer, performed a financial analysis to examine the possibility of decreasing costs by reducing residency programs at the University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center. Despite the real costs of our training programs, the analysis demonstrated that GME programs have a positive impact on hospital finances. Reducing or eliminating GME programs would have a negative impact on our hospital's bottom line.

  6. 20 CFR 228.60 - Cost-of-living increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost-of-living increase. 228.60 Section 228... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.60 Cost-of-living increase. The tier II... tier II component at the time the survivor annuity begins, all cost-of-living increases that were...

  7. Factoring economic costs into conservation planning may not improve agreement over priorities for protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Jackson, Heather B; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Clark, Melissa; Fargione, Joseph E; Iacona, Gwenllian D; Kim, Taeyoung; Larson, Eric R; Minney, Thomas; Sutton, Nathan A

    2017-12-21

    Conservation organizations must redouble efforts to protect habitat given continuing biodiversity declines. Prioritization of future areas for protection is hampered by disagreements over what the ecological targets of conservation should be. Here we test the claim that such disagreements will become less important as conservation moves away from prioritizing areas for protection based only on ecological considerations and accounts for varying costs of protection using return-on-investment (ROI) methods. We combine a simulation approach with a case study of forests in the eastern United States, paying particular attention to how covariation between ecological benefits and economic costs influences agreement levels. For many conservation goals, agreement over spatial priorities improves with ROI methods. However, we also show that a reliance on ROI-based prioritization can sometimes exacerbate disagreements over priorities. As such, accounting for costs in conservation planning does not enable society to sidestep careful consideration of the ecological goals of conservation.

  8. Marginal cost of electricity conservation: an application of linear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, A.M. da; Hollanda, J.B. de

    1987-01-01

    This paper is addressed ti the planning of electricity industry when the use of energetically efficient appliances (conservation) is financed by the utilities. It is based on the Linear Programming Model proposed by Masse and Boiteaux for planning of conventional energy sources, where one unity of electricity (Kw/Kw h) saved is treated as if it were a generator of equivalent size. In spite of the formal simplicity of the models it can support interesting concessions on the subject of a electrical energy conservation policy. (author)

  9. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  10. Financial costs of meeting global biodiversity conservation targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Donal P.; Donald, Paul F.; Scharlemann, Jörn P.W.

    2012-01-01

    World governments have committed to halting human-induced extinctions and safeguarding important sites for biodiversity by 2020, but the financial costs of meeting these targets are largely unknown. We estimate the cost of reducing the extinction risk of all globally threatened bird species (by ≥1...

  11. Water Worries: The Hidden Costs of Water Conservation in China are not Working

    OpenAIRE

    Junlian Zhang

    2006-01-01

    One of the obstacles many conservation strategies face is the amount of time and money it actually costs for people t o be involved in their implementation - in other words, their "transaction costs" (TCs) . A new study from China has looked at how these costs have affected an innovative market-based water conservation system. The study found that TCs are a significant barrier to proper functioning of the system. It also found that these costs are linked to key social and administrative obsta...

  12. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Policies with Varying Costs and Benefits: A Land Conservation Classroom Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.; Jacobson, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Some policies try to maximize net benefits by targeting different individuals to participate. This is difficult when costs and benefits of participation vary independently, such as in land conservation. The authors share a classroom game that explores cases in which minimizing costs may not maximize benefits and vice versa. The game is a…

  14. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  15. Developing a conservation strategy to maximize persistence of an endangered freshwater mussel species while considering management effectiveness and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; McRae, Sarah E.; Augspurger, Tom; Ratcliffe, Judith A.; Nichols, Robert B.; Eads, Chris B.; Savidge, Tim; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2015-01-01

    We used a structured decision-making process to develop conservation strategies to increase persistence of Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in North Carolina, USA, while accounting for uncertainty in management effectiveness and considering costs. Alternative conservation strategies were portfolios of management actions that differed by location of management actions on the landscape. Objectives of the conservation strategy were to maximize species persistence, maintain genetic diversity, maximize public support, and minimize management costs. We compared 4 conservation strategies: 1) the ‘status quo’ strategy represented current management, 2) the ‘protect the best’ strategy focused on protecting the best populations in the Tar River basin, 3) the ‘expand the distribution’ strategy focused on management of extant populations and establishment of new populations in the Neuse River basin, and 4) the ‘hybrid’ strategy combined elements of each strategy to balance conservation in the Tar and Neuse River basins. A population model informed requirements for population management, and experts projected performance of alternative strategies over a 20-y period. The optimal strategy depended on the relative value placed on competing objectives, which can vary among stakeholders. The protect the best and hybrid strategies were optimal across a wide range of relative values with 2 exceptions: 1) if minimizing management cost was of overriding concern, then status quo was optimal, or 2) if maximizing population persistence in the Neuse River basin was emphasized, then expand the distribution strategy was optimal. The optimal strategy was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Overall, the structured decision process can help identify the most promising strategies for endangered species conservation that maximize conservation benefit given the constraint of limited funding.

  16. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  17. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the food service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, within the 24,000 establishment-strong food service sector in Ontario are identified. Operators are encouraged to take advantage of these opportunities to lower their costs while conserving valuable resources at the same time. In preparing this guide, site visits were carried out at six food service facilities in Ontario. Information about how much money is generally spent on energy, water and waste management by food service operators is provided. The amount and type of waste generated by these facilities is also described. The volatility of the commercial food service market place was identified as one of the major impediments to energy conservation. It was found that most owners of the food service facilities make business decisions based on the lowest first costs, irrespective of longer-term energy efficiency and operating costs. 31 refs., 13 tabs., 9 figs., 4 appendices.

  18. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  19. E-learning: controlling costs and increasing value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-04-01

    E-learning now accounts for a substantial proportion of medical education provision. This progress has required significant investment and this investment has in turn come under increasing scrutiny so that the costs of e-learning may be controlled and its returns maximised. There are multiple methods by which the costs of e-learning can be controlled and its returns maximised. This short paper reviews some of those methods that are likely to be most effective and that are likely to save costs without compromising quality. Methods might include accessing free or low-cost resources from elsewhere; create short learning resources that will work on multiple devices; using open source platforms to host content; using in-house faculty to create content; sharing resources between institutions; and promoting resources to ensure high usage. Whatever methods are used to control costs or increase value, it is most important to evaluate the impact of these methods.

  20. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J N; Noble, A D; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Hine, R E; Penning De Vries, F W T; Morison, J I L

    2006-02-15

    Despite great recent progress, hunger and poverty remain widespread and agriculturally driven environmental damage is widely prevalent. The idea of agricultural sustainability centers on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, and that lead to improvements in food productivity. Here we show the extent to which 286 recent interventions in 57 poor countries covering 37 M ha (3% of the cultivated area in developing countries) have increased productivity on 12.6 M farms while improving the supply of critical environmental services. The average crop yield increase was 79% (geometric mean 64%). All crops showed water use efficiency gains, with the highest improvement in rainfed crops. Potential carbon sequestered amounted to an average of 0.35 t C ha(-1) y(-1). If a quarter of the total area under these farming systems adopted sustainability enhancing practices, we estimate global sequestration could be 0.1 Gt C y(-1). Of projects with pesticide data, 77% resulted in a decline in pesticide use by 71% while yields grew by 42%. Although it is uncertain whether these approaches can meet future food needs, there are grounds for cautious optimism, particularly as poor farm households benefit more from their adoption.

  2. The Effect of Conservative Accounting on the Bondholder-Shareholder Conflict and Cost of Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlind, Felix; Lucki Racana, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on conservative accounting and bondholder-shareholder conflict show that firms with higher degree of conservatism experience less austere conflict and lower cost of debt. However, since the implementation of IFRS in 2005, conservatism has been widely reduced in favor of fair value principles. This study sets out to examine if accounting conservatism still mitigates the conflict and reduces cost of debt. We regress two measures of conservatism on three conflict proxies and debt ...

  3. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  4. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  5. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guide identifies and promotes opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, in the dairy processing sector. The guide begins with an introduction and a profile of Ontario`s dairy processing sector, outlining the context for resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. It then outlines the rationale and the generic processes selected for careful examination of resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. Subsequent chapters describe the energy, water, and material resources commonly used in relation to the generic processes; the air, water, and solid waste residuals commonly derived from those processes; and new technologies with potential application in dairy processing. The generic processes covered in the guide are for fluid milk, cheese, ice cream and frozen products, cultured products such as yogurt, butter, and dried or evaporated products. The report ends with additional useful information for dairy processors.

  6. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  7. 12 CFR 1206.4 - Increased costs of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increased costs of regulation. 1206.4 Section 1206.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS ASSESSMENTS § 1206... regulation of a Regulated Entity due to its classification as other than adequately capitalized, or as a...

  8. Global variation in the cost of increasing ecosystem carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Kanninen, Markku; Gordillo, Harold; Koskinen, Joni; Kukkonen, Markus; Käyhkö, Niina; Larson, Anne M.; Wunder, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Slowing the reduction, or increasing the accumulation, of organic carbon stored in biomass and soils has been suggested as a potentially rapid and cost-effective method to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon increase1. The costs of mitigating climate change by increasing ecosystem carbon relative to the baseline or business-as-usual scenario has been quantified in numerous studies, but results have been contradictory, as both methodological issues and substance differences cause variability2. Here we show, based on 77 standardized face-to-face interviews of local experts with the best possible knowledge of local land-use economics and sociopolitical context in ten landscapes around the globe, that the estimated cost of increasing ecosystem carbon varied vastly and was perceived to be 16-27 times cheaper in two Indonesian landscapes dominated by peatlands compared with the average of the eight other landscapes. Hence, if reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and other land-use mitigation efforts are to be distributed evenly across forested countries, for example, for the sake of international equity, their overall effectiveness would be dramatically lower than for a cost-minimizing distribution.

  9. Downsizing a database platform for increased performance and decreased costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1993-06-01

    Technological advances in the world of microcomputers have brought forth affordable systems and powerful software than can compete with the more traditional world of minicomputers. This paper describes an effort at Sandia National Laboratories to decrease operational and maintenance costs and increase performance by moving a database system from a minicomputer to a microcomputer.

  10. Constraining Forest Certificate’s Market to Improve Cost-Effectiveness of Biodiversity Conservation in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumentrath, Stefan; Barton, David N.; Rusch, Graciela M.; Romeiro, Ademar R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched Brazilian “forest certificates” market is expected to reduce environmental compliance costs for landowners through an offset mechanism, after a long history of conservation laws based in command-and-control and strict rules. In this paper we assessed potential costs and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the instrument when introducing to this market constraints that aim to address conservation objectives more specifically. Using the conservation planning software Marxan with Zones we simulated different scopes for the “forest certificates” market, and compared their cost-effectiveness with that of existing command-and-control (C&C), i.e. compliance to the Legal Reserve on own property, in the state of São Paulo. The simulations showed a clear potential of the constrained “forest certificates” market to improve conservation effectiveness and increase cost-effectiveness on allocation of Legal Reserves. Although the inclusion of an additional constraint of targeting the BIOTA Conservation Priority Areas doubled the cost (+95%) compared with a “free trade” scenario constrained only by biome, this option was still 50% less costly than the baseline scenario of compliance with Legal Reserve at the property. PMID:27780220

  11. Cost Accounting as a Tool for Increasing Cost Transparency in Selective Hepatic Transarterial Chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman; Patel, Mikin; Ward, Thomas; Sze, Daniel Y; Telischak, Kristen; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V

    2015-12-01

    To increase cost transparency and uncover potential areas for savings in patients receiving selective transarterial chemoembolization at a tertiary care academic center. The hospital cost accounting system charge master sheet for direct and total costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 was queried for each of the four highest volume interventional radiologists at a single institution. There were 517 cases (range, 83-150 per physician) performed; direct costs incurred relating to care before, during, and after the procedure with respect to labor, supply, and equipment fees were calculated. A median of 48 activity codes were charged per selective transarterial chemoembolization from five cost centers, represented by the angiography suite, units for care before and after the procedure, pharmacy, and observation floors. The average direct cost of selective transarterial chemoembolization did not significantly differ among operators at $9,126.94, $8,768.77, $9,027.33, and $8,909.75 (P = .31). Intraprocedural costs accounted for 82.8% of total direct costs and provided the greatest degree in cost variability ($7,268.47-$7,691.27). The differences in intraprocedural expense among providers were not statistically significant (P = .09), even when separated into more specific procedure-related labor and supply costs. Cost accounting systems could effectively be interrogated as a method for calculating direct costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization. The greatest source of expenditure and variability in cost among providers was shown to be intraprocedural labor and supplies, although the effect did not appear to be operator dependent. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  13. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  14. A cost analysis of conservative management of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawu, A A; Olawepo, A; Salami, A O O; Kuranga, S A; Abdulhameed, S; Esenwah, V C

    2011-11-01

    A prospective study. To determine the cost of acute phase of injury (ASCI) among spinal cord-injured patients managed conservatively in Nigeria. Gwagwalada, Abuja. Over a 1-year period (1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009), the cost of ASCI of consecutive spinal cord-injured patients, gainfully employed preinjury, who paid the hospital bill directly from their purses and could estimate their daily income, and who were managed conservatively for 6 weeks before discharge to rehabilitation, was prospectively examined. A total of 34 cases of spinal cord-injured patients with a mean age of 35.4 ± 12.8 years were included in this study. The mean cost of ASCI over 6 weeks was $1598.29, an average of 6.4-232.8% of patients' annual income where >50% of the people live on less than a dollar a day. The mean cost of hospitalization was 14.9% of the total cost of ASCI in this study. It was significantly more expensive to treat tetraplegics compared with paraplegics. This study identified the cost of acute phase of spinal cord injury in Nigeria to assist clinicians in planning treatment that could reduce financial burden on the patients but optimize patients' care.

  15. Assessing the shelf life of cost-efficient conservation plans for species at risk across gradients of agricultural land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Cassandra M; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2017-08-01

    High costs of land in agricultural regions warrant spatial prioritization approaches to conservation that explicitly consider land prices to produce protected-area networks that accomplish targets efficiently. However, land-use changes in such regions and delays between plan design and implementation may render optimized plans obsolete before implementation occurs. To measure the shelf life of cost-efficient conservation plans, we simulated a land-acquisition and restoration initiative aimed at conserving species at risk in Canada's farmlands. We accounted for observed changes in land-acquisition costs and in agricultural intensity based on censuses of agriculture taken from 1986 to 2011. For each year of data, we mapped costs and areas of conservation priority designated using Marxan. We compared plans to test for changes through time in the arrangement of high-priority sites and in the total cost of each plan. For acquisition costs, we measured the savings from accounting for prices during site selection. Land-acquisition costs and land-use intensity generally rose over time independent of inflation (24-78%), although rates of change were heterogeneous through space and decreased in some areas. Accounting for spatial variation in land price lowered the cost of conservation plans by 1.73-13.9%, decreased the range of costs by 19-82%, and created unique solutions from which to choose. Despite the rise in plan costs over time, the high conservation priority of particular areas remained consistent. Delaying conservation in these critical areas may compromise what optimized conservation plans can achieve. In the case of Canadian farmland, rapid conservation action is cost-effective, even with moderate levels of uncertainty in how to implement restoration goals. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Economic costs attributable to smoking in Hong Kong in 2011: a possible increase from 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-11-15

    Reduction in smoking prevalence does not necessarily reduce the costs of smoking as evidence shows in developed countries. We provide up-to-date estimates for direct and indirect costs attributable to smoking in Hong Kong in 2011 and compare with our 1998 estimates. We took a societal perspective to include lives and life years lost, health care costs and time lost from work in the costing. We followed guidelines on estimating costs of active smoking for those aged 35 years or above (35+) and costs due to SHS exposure for 35+, infants aged 12 months and under and children aged 15 and below. All costs are in US$. We estimated that 6154 deaths among 35+ in Hong Kong in 2011 were attributable to active smoking, an increase of 10% from 1998. Besides, 672 deaths were attributable to SHS exposure, i.e. 10% of the total 6826 smoking-attributable deaths. The estimate of productive life lost due to deaths from active smoking by those aged under 65 years in 2011 was $166 million, an increase of about 4% over the estimate in 1998. Our conservative estimate of the annual tobacco-related disease cost in 2011 was $716 million which accounted for 0.3% of GDP. If we added the value of attributable lives lost, the annual cost would be $4.7 billion. Despite the reduction in smoking prevalence, smoking-attributable disease still imposes a substantial economic burden on Hong Kong society. These findings support more stringent and effective tobacco control legislation, polices and measures. Current evidence shows reduction in smoking prevalence does not necessarily reduce the economic costs of smoking. Most studies in developed countries employed a societal perspective, including costs of productivity loss and indirect costs, but not all studies estimated costs associated with second-hand smoking (SHS). The present study estimated the total costs of smoking in Hong Kong including direct and indirect costs attributable to active smoking and to SHS exposure. Our study confirms the

  17. Increased costs to US pavement infrastructure from future temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B. Shane; Guido, Zack; Gudipudi, Padmini; Feinberg, Yarden

    2017-10-01

    Roadway design aims to maximize functionality, safety, and longevity. The materials used for construction, however, are often selected on the assumption of a stationary climate. Anthropogenic climate change may therefore result in rapid infrastructure failure and, consequently, increased maintenance costs, particularly for paved roads where temperature is a key determinant for material selection. Here, we examine the economic costs of projected temperature changes on asphalt roads across the contiguous United States using an ensemble of 19 global climate models forced with RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Over the past 20 years, stationary assumptions have resulted in incorrect material selection for 35% of 799 observed locations. With warming temperatures, maintaining the standard practice for material selection is estimated to add approximately US$13.6, US$19.0 and US$21.8 billion to pavement costs by 2010, 2040 and 2070 under RCP4.5, respectively, increasing to US$14.5, US$26.3 and US$35.8 for RCP8.5. These costs will disproportionately affect local municipalities that have fewer resources to mitigate impacts. Failing to update engineering standards of practice in light of climate change therefore significantly threatens pavement infrastructure in the United States.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of Hydro-Quebec's energy conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, E.

    1993-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis is presented of the energy conservation programs of Hydro-Quebec for 1991 to 2010. Three possible scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, Hydro-Quebec data are used without modification. In the second, the simulation is carried out in the absence of the Hydro-Quebec programs, and in the third, it is assumed that any economies achieved are only for the short term. A comparison between these simulations allows determination of results concerning the advantages and the costs which the programs introduce for the three groups comprising society: the consumer, the producer, and the government. The results of these comparisons show that the consumer, the producer, and the whole society gain benefits from the energy conservation programs, while the government loses. 13 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs

  19. Hospital Merger Increased Medicare and Medicaid Payments for Capital Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-22

    15 provisions relating to depreciation and appraisals, i.e., the very subjects addressed by the draft report, expressly incorporate GAAP . For example...the historical cost for depreciation purposes of "owned" assets and, as stated be- fore, (see p. 54) places limitations on the use of GAAP for es...increased because of the acquisition by a net amount of about $55 million attributable to changes in interest, depreciation , and home office expenses. A

  20. Delayed otolaryngology referral for voice disorders increases health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth M; Kim, Jaewhan; Roy, Nelson; Courey, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Despite the accepted role of laryngoscopy in assessing patients with laryngeal/voice disorders, controversy surrounds its timing. This study sought to determine how increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology outpatient visit affected the health care costs of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Retrospective analysis of a large, national administrative claims database was performed. Patients had an International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision-coded diagnosis of a laryngeal/voice disorder; initially saw a primary care physician and, subsequently, an otolaryngologist as outpatients; and provided 6 months of follow-up data after the first otolaryngology evaluation. The outpatient health care costs accrued from the first primary care outpatient visit through the 6 months after the first otolaryngology outpatient visit were determined. There were 260,095 unique patients who saw a primary care physician as an outpatient for a laryngeal/voice disorder, with 8999 (3.5%) subsequently seeing an otolaryngologist and with 6 months postotolaryngology follow-up data. A generalized linear regression model revealed that, compared with patients who saw an otolaryngologist ≤1 month after the first primary care visit, patients in the >1-month and ≤3-months and >3-months time periods had relative mean cost increases of $271.34 (95% confidence interval $115.95-$426.73) and $711.38 (95% confidence interval $428.43-$993.34), respectively. Increased time from first primary care to first otolaryngology evaluation is associated with increased outpatient health care costs. Earlier otolaryngology examination may reduce health care expenditures in the evaluation and management of patients with laryngeal/voice disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A structured blood conservation programme reduces transfusions and costs in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternström, Lisa; Hyllner, Monica; Backlund, Erika; Schersten, Henrik; Jeppsson, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Transfusions of blood products can be lifesaving, but they are also associated with considerable risks and adverse effects, including immune response and infections. In cardiac surgery, transfusions have also been associated with increased mortality. We prospectively studied the effects of a structured programme to reduce transfusions and transfusion-associated costs in cardiac surgery. The programme included: (i) education of all staff about the risks and benefits of blood transfusions; (ii) revised guidelines for transfusions; and (iii) a transfusion log where indication for transfusion, status of the patient and prescribing physician were registered. Transfusion prevalence, complications and costs for blood products were registered for all acute and elective cardiac operations during a 12-month period before (n = 1128) and after (n = 1034) the programme was started. The two time periods were compared. In addition, the prevalence of transfusions was registered for 2 more years after the programme was initiated. The first year after the programme was initiated the proportion of patients transfused with red blood cell concentrate decreased by 21.8% (from 58.2 to 45.5%, P platelets by 21.0% (from 20.5 to 16.2%, P = 0.010). Reoperations for bleeding (5.8 vs 5.0%), early complication rate and 30-day mortality (2.5 vs 2.6%) were not significantly different before and after the start date. Based on the 2009 institutional prices for red blood cell concentrate (102 €/unit), plasma (35 €/unit) and platelets (290 €/unit), the savings on blood products were €161,623 during the first 12 months after the programme was launched. The proportion of patients transfused with any blood product was 60.9% before the programme was started and 48.3, 54.0 and 50.7% 1-3 years after its start (all P conservation programme reduces transfusions and costs for blood products in cardiac surgery, without any signs of compromised medical safety. The effects of introducing such a programme

  2. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy following conservative surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, W. Warren; Hillner, Bruce E.; Pierce, Lori J.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and materials: A Markov model was constructed for a theoretical cohort of 55-year-old women with DCIS over a life-time horizon. Probability estimates for local noninvasive (N-INV), local invasive (INV), and distant recurrences were obtained from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-17. Utilities for eight nonmetastatic health states were collected from both healthy women and DCIS patients. Direct medical (2002 Medicare fee schedule) and nonmedical costs (time and transportation) of RT were ascertained. Results: For BCS + RT vs. BCS alone, the estimated N-INV and INV rates at 12 years were 9% and 8% vs. 16% and 18%, respectively. The incremental cost of adding RT was $3300 despite an initial RT cost of $8700 due to higher local recurrence-related salvage costs incurred with the BCS alone strategy. An increase of 0.09 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) primarily reflected the lower risk of INV with RT, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $36,700/QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed the ICER to be affected by baseline probability of a local recurrence, relative efficacy of RT in preventing INV, negative impact of an INV on quality of life, and cost of initial RT. Cost of salvage BCS + RT and source of utilities (healthy women vs. DCIS patients) influenced the ICER albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions: Addition of RT following BCS for patients with DCIS should not be withheld because of concerns regarding its cost-effectiveness

  4. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Mazda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies.

  5. Increased accuracy of cost-estimation using product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Bredahl; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    This article describes an approach for utilizing Product Configuration Systems (PCS) for quantifying project costs in project-based companies. It presents a case study demonstrating a method of quantifying costs in a way that makes it possible to configure cost- and time estimates. Piecework costs......, material costs and sub-supplier costs are used as principle cost elements and linked to structural and process elements to facilitate configuration. The cost data are used by the PCS to generate fast and accurate cost-estimates, quotations, time estimates and cost summaries. The described cost...... quantification principles have been used in a Scandinavian SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) since the 90’s, but have since 2011 been adopted to be used in a configuration system. A longitudinal case study was conducted to compare cost and time-estimation accuracy before and after implementation. We...

  6. Streamlining: Reducing costs and increasing STS operations effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersburg, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of streamlining as a concept, its inclusion in the space transportation system engineering and operations support (STSEOS) contract, and how it serves as an incentive to management and technical support personnel is discussed. The mechanics of encouraging and processing streamlining suggestions, reviews, feedback to submitters, recognition, and how individual employee performance evaluations are used to motivation are discussed. Several items that were implemented are mentioned. Information reported and the methodology of determining estimated dollar savings are outlined. The overall effect of this activity on the ability of the McDonnell Douglas flight preparation and mission operations team to support a rapidly increasing flight rate without a proportional increase in cost is illustrated.

  7. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, ecosystems and their constituent flora and fauna face the localized and broad-scale influence of human activities. Conservation practitioners and environmental managers struggle to identify and mitigate threats, reverse species declines, restore degraded ecosystems, and manage natural resources sustainably. Scientific research and evidence are increasingly regarded as the foundation for new regulations, conservation actions, and management interventions. Conservation biologists and managers have traditionally focused on the characteristics (e.g. abundance, structure, trends) of populations, species, communities, and ecosystems, and simple indicators of the responses to environmental perturbations and other human activities. However, an understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying conservation problems is becoming increasingly important for decision-making, in part because physiological tools and knowledge are especially useful for developing cause-and-effect relationships, and for identifying the optimal range of habitats and stressor thresholds for different organisms. When physiological knowledge is incorporated into ecological models, it can improve predictions of organism responses to environmental change and provide tools to support management decisions. Without such knowledge, we may be left with simple associations. ‘Conservation physiology’ has been defined previously with a focus on vertebrates, but here we redefine the concept universally, for application to the diversity of taxa from microbes to plants, to animals, and to natural resources. We also consider ‘physiology’ in the broadest possible terms; i.e. how an organism functions, and any associated mechanisms, from development to bioenergetics, to environmental interactions, through to fitness. Moreover, we consider conservation physiology to include a wide range of applications beyond assisting imperiled populations, and include, for example, the eradication of invasive

  8. Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation and Productivity in the Context of Increasing Demands on Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Ralf; Beckmann, Michael; Ceauşu, Silvia; Cord, Anna F.; Gerstner, Katharina; Gurevitch, Jessica; Kambach, Stephan; Klotz, Stefan; Mendenhall, Chase; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Powell, Kristin; Verburg, Peter H.; Verhagen, Willem; Winter, Marten; Newbold, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biodiversity conservation and agricultural production are often seen as mutually exclusive objectives. Strategies for reconciling them are intensely debated. We argue that harmonization between biodiversity conservation and crop production can be improved by increasing our understanding of the underlying relationships between them. We provide a general conceptual framework that links biodiversity and agricultural production through the separate relationships between land use and biodiversity and between land use and production. Hypothesized relationships are derived by synthesizing existing empirical and theoretical ecological knowledge. The framework suggests nonlinear relationships caused by the multifaceted impacts of land use (composition, configuration, and intensity). We propose solutions for overcoming the apparently dichotomous aims of maximizing either biodiversity conservation or agricultural production and suggest new hypotheses that emerge from our proposed framework. PMID:29599534

  9. CERN reacts to increased costs to completion of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of LHC construction. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 120th session on 14 December under the chairmanship of Prof. Maurice Bourquin (CH). CERN adjusts to the LHC Director-General, Luciano Maiani, stressed that CERN was now fully engaged in the LHC and outlined the first moves to react to the increased cost to completion of the LHC. The new accelerator is an extremely complex, high-tech project which CERN is building under very severe conditions. However, the technical challenges are solved and industrial production of accelerator elements, and installation are starting. Professor Maiani said that 2001 had been a very hard but decisive year for CERN. An important milestone had been passed during this meeting with the approval of the LHC dipole magnets contract, the last major contract for the accelerator. The new costs to completion of the LHC project are now clear. A first propos...

  10. Promotional programmes for energy conservation and CO2 avoidance. Efficiency and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenboehmer, S.; Bach, W.

    1994-01-01

    Least-cost planning and demand-side management are attempts to bring into accord company policies of the energy utility with the targets of environmental and climate protection and resource savings. Since 1982 also the Stadtwerke Muenster have promotional programmes for heating system modernization. With the example of three current promotional programmes the article analysis the costs of such programmes, their impact with regard to energy conservation and CO 2 avoidance and their status within the scope of local climate protection. Moreover the volume of investment is assessed which is necessary in Muenster to reduce the heating energy consumption of existing residential buildings till 2005 by more than one third. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Costs and potentials of energy conservation in China's coal-fired power industry: A bottom-up approach considering price uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Kang, Jia-Ning; Liao, Hua; Tang, Bao-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Energy conservation technologies in the coal-fired power sector are important solutions for the environmental pollution and climate change issues. However, a unified framework for estimating their costs and potentials is still needed due to the wide technology choices, especially considering their economic feasibility under fuel and carbon price uncertainties. Therefore, this study has employed a bottom-up approach to analyze the costs and potentials of 32 key technologies’ new promotions during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016–2020), which combines the conservation supply curve (CSC) approach and break-even analysis. Findings show that (1) these 32 technologies have a total coal conservation potential of 275.77 Mt with a cost of 238.82 billion yuan, and their break-even coal price is 866 yuan/ton. (2) steam-water circulation system has the largest energy conservation potential in the coal-fired power industry. (3) considering the co-benefits will facilitate these technologies’ promotions, because their break-even coal prices will decrease by 2.35 yuan/ton when the carbon prices increase by 1 yuan/ton. (4) discount rates have the largest impacts on the technologies’ cost-effectiveness, while the future generation level affect their energy conservation potentials most. - Highlights: • The 32 technologies can save 275.77 Mt coal with a cost of 238.82 billion yuan. • The steam-water circulation system has the largest energy conservation potential. • Considering the co-benefits will facilitate the technology promotions • Discount rates have the largest impacts on the technologies’ cost-effectiveness.

  12. Increased Set Shifting Costs in Fasted Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Heather M.; Burgess, Paul W.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Serpell, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of temporary food restriction on a set shifting task requiring participants to judge clusters of pictures against a frequently changing rule. 60 healthy female participants underwent two testing sessions: once after fasting for 16 hours and once in a satiated state. Participants also completed a battery of questionnaires (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]; Persistence, Perseveration and Perfectionism Questionnaire [PPPQ-22]; and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire [EDE-Q6]). Set shifting costs were significantly increased after fasting; this effect was independent of self-reported mood and perseveration. Furthermore, higher levels of weight concern predicted a general performance decrement under conditions of fasting. We conclude that relatively short periods of fasting can lead to set shifting impairments. This finding may have relevance to studies of development, individual differences, and the interpretation of psychometric tests. It also could have implications for understanding the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, in which impaired set shifting has been implicated. PMID:25025179

  13. Qualitative and quantitative evidence on the true local welfare costs of forest conservation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakotonarivo, O. Sarobidy; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    Protected areas may impose local welfare costs through the enforcement of use restrictions. Predicting their welfare impacts before their establishment could help with the design of compensation schemes. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used for ex ante evaluations...

  14. Increasing the energy conservation awareness using the influential power of a lottery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amruta Vijay

    This thesis presents an influence maximization-driven approach to promoting energy conservation awareness, with the objective to generate a competitive environment for energy consumption supervision. As consumers are typically reluctant to invest their time and effort in the activities beyond their business, an incentive-based distribution strategy is proposed to encourage consumers to actively take part in energy conservation. The key idea of the thesis lies in leveraging the consumer instincts as a driving factor for spreading positive social influence, via a smart lottery program. In the proposed framework, saving energy automatically increases the consumers' chances of winning the lottery, thereby motivating them to save more, while the smart winner selection will maximize the word-of-mouth effect of the program. The thesis collects and organizes a large body of literature in support of the claim that the spread of awareness in a social network can play a key role in the emergence of energy conscious behavior. It also reports on the findings of a survey conducted to determine the present day consumer perspective toward energy conservation and the level of influence required to motivate them to conserve more energy. Finally, a mathematical model for smart lottery winner selection is presented, and insightful observations are made concerning the properties of optimal solutions to tractable, small problem instances.

  15. Towards Exit from the EU: The Conservative Party’s Increasing Euroscepticism since the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dorey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Britain’s Conservative Party has become increasingly critical of the European Union, and of the country’s membership of it. So contentious and controversial has this issue become that it was a significant factor in the downfall of three consecutive Conservative Prime Ministers, all of whom found it increasingly difficult to manage their Party in Parliament, and thereby maintain any semblance of Party unity. Initially, during the 1980s and 1990s, the intra-Party divisions were between Europhiles (pro-Europeans and Eurosceptics, but this demarcation was subsequently superseded by a division between soft Eurosceptics and hard Eurosceptics. The development and deepening of these intra-Party divisions are attributable to a plethora of endogenous and exogenous factors, the combined and cumulative effect of which ultimately led to the ‘Brexit’ vote in the June 2016 referendum.

  16. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  17. Conservation threats due to human-caused increases in fire frequency in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D; Radeloff, Volker C; Hawbaker, Todd J; Stewart, Susan I

    2009-06-01

    Periodic wildfire is an important natural process in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, but increasing fire recurrence threatens the fragile ecology of these regions. Because most fires are human-caused, we investigated how human population patterns affect fire frequency. Prior research in California suggests the relationship between population density and fire frequency is not linear. There are few human ignitions in areas with low population density, so fire frequency is low. As population density increases, human ignitions and fire frequency also increase, but beyond a density threshold, the relationship becomes negative as fuels become sparser and fire suppression resources are concentrated. We tested whether this hypothesis also applies to the other Mediterranean-climate ecosystems of the world. We used global satellite databases of population, fire activity, and land cover to evaluate the spatial relationship between humans and fire in the world's five Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Both the mean and median population densities were consistently and substantially higher in areas with than without fire, but fire again peaked at intermediate population densities, which suggests that the spatial relationship is complex and nonlinear. Some land-cover types burned more frequently than expected, but no systematic differences were observed across the five regions. The consistent association between higher population densities and fire suggests that regardless of differences between land-cover types, natural fire regimes, or overall population, the presence of people in Mediterranean-climate regions strongly affects the frequency of fires; thus, population growth in areas now sparsely settled presents a conservation concern. Considering the sensitivity of plant species to repeated burning and the global conservation significance of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems, conservation planning needs to consider the human influence on fire frequency. Fine-scale spatial

  18. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  19. Increased disease calls for a cost-benefits review of marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Wootton

    Full Text Available Marine reserves (or No-Take Zones are implemented to protect species and habitats, with the aim of restoring a balanced ecosystem. Although the benefits of marine reserves are commonly monitored, there is a lack of insight into the potential detriments of such highly protected waters. High population densities attained within reserves may induce negative impacts such as unfavourable trophic cascades and disease outbreaks. Hence, we investigated the health of lobster populations in the UK's Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ at Lundy Island. Comparisons were made between the fished, Refuge Zone (RZ and the un-fished, No-Take Zone (NTZ; marine reserve. We show ostensibly positive effects such as increased lobster abundance and size within the NTZ; however, we also demonstrate apparent negative effects such as increased injury and shell disease. Our findings suggest that robust cost-benefit analyses of marine reserves could improve marine reserve efficacy and subsequent management strategies.

  20. The ability of land owners and their cooperatives to leverage payments greater than opportunity costs from conservation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner’s willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners’ WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness,which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for land owners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation.

  1. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  2. 20 CFR 404.278 - Additional cost-of-living increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional cost-of-living increase. 404.278... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.278 Additional cost-of-living increase. (a) General. In addition to the cost-of-living increase explained in...

  3. 20 CFR 225.44 - When a cost-of-living increase is payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a cost-of-living increase is payable... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.44 When a cost-of-living increase is payable. A cost-of-living increase is payable beginning with December of the year for...

  4. The impact of a multidisciplinary blood conservation protocol on patient outcomes and cost after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Patel, Jay; Shuman, Deborah J; Massimiano, Paul S; Choi, Elmer; Fitzgerald, David; Halpin, Linda; Fornaresio, Lisa M

    2017-03-01

    Although associations between transfusion and inferior outcomes have been documented, there is a lack of blood transfusion standardization in cardiac surgery. At the Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, a multidisciplinary, criterion-driven algorithm for transfusion management was implemented. We examined the effect of our blood conservation protocol on transfusion rates and outcomes after cardiac surgery and on stability of transfusion over time. Patients undergoing first-time cardiac surgery from 2006 (full year before protocol) were compared with those in 2009 (after protocol) and propensity score matched to improve balance. Data were prospectively collected. Stability of transfusion incidence also was compared (2005-2006 vs 2008-2014). After matching, 890 patients from each year were included. Use of blood products decreased from 54% in 2006 to 25% in 2009 (P platelets (P conservation program can significantly control blood transfusion rates, improve outcomes, and be sustained over time. Efforts are needed to implement evidence-based protocols to standardize and decrease blood use in cardiac surgery to improve outcomes and reduce cost. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 20 CFR 404.273 - When are automatic cost-of-living increases effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are automatic cost-of-living increases..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.273 When are automatic cost-of-living increases effective? We make automatic cost-of-living...

  6. Cost Analysis of a Surgical Consensus Guideline in Breast-Conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer; Elmore, Leisha C; Cyr, Amy E; Aft, Rebecca L; Gillanders, William E; Margenthaler, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    The Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology consensus statement was the first professional guideline in breast oncology to declare "no ink on tumor" as a negative margin in patients with stages I/II breast cancer undergoing breast-conservation therapy. We sought to analyze the financial impact of this guideline at our institution using a historic cohort. We identified women undergoing re-excision after breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer from 2010 through 2013 using a prospectively maintained institutional database. Clinical and billing data were extracted from the medical record and from administrative resources using CPT codes. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Of 254 women in the study population, 238 (93.7%) had stage I/II disease and 182 (71.7%) had invasive disease with ductal carcinoma in situ. A subcohort of 83 patients (32.7%) who underwent breast-conservation therapy for stage I/II disease without neoadjuvant chemotherapy had negative margins after the index procedure, per the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology guideline. The majority had invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 70 [84.3%]) and had invasive disease (n = 45 [54.2%]), and/or ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 49 [59.0%]) within 1 mm of the specimen margin. Seventy-nine patients underwent 1 re-excision and 4 patients underwent 2 re-excisions, accounting for 81 hours of operative time. Considering facility fees and primary surgeon billing alone, the overall estimated cost reduction would have been $195,919, or $2,360 per affected patient, under the guideline recommendations. Implementation of the Society of Surgical Oncology and American Society of Radiation Oncology consensus guideline holds great potential to optimize resource use. Application of the guideline to a retrospective cohort at our institution would have decreased the overall re-excision rate by 5.6% and reduced costs by nearly $200

  7. Evaluation of ways and procedures to reduce construction cost and increase competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Construction cost inflation is affecting many state highway agencies including the Texas Department of : Transportation While some of this increase can be attributed to factors such as soaring cost of energy, : reports of large variations in cost of ...

  8. Tweet success? Scientific communication correlates with increased citations in Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton T. Lamb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communication is seen as critical for the disciplines of ecology and conservation, where research products are often used to shape policy and decision making. Scientists are increasing their online media communication, via social media and news. Such media engagement has been thought to influence or predict traditional metrics of scholarship, such as citation rates. Here, we measure the association between citation rates and the Altmetric Attention Score—an indicator of the amount and reach of the attention an article has received—along with other forms of bibliometric performance (year published, journal impact factor, and article type. We found that Attention Score was positively correlated with citation rates. However, in recent years, we detected increasing media exposure did not relate to the equivalent citations as in earlier years; signalling a diminishing return on investment. Citations correlated with journal impact factors up to ∼13, but then plateaued, demonstrating that maximizing citations does not require publishing in the highest-impact journals. We conclude that ecology and conservation researchers can increase exposure of their research through social media engagement and, simultaneously, enhance their performance under traditional measures of scholarly activity.

  9. Tweet success? Scientific communication correlates with increased citations in Ecology and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Clayton T; Gilbert, Sophie L; Ford, Adam T

    2018-01-01

    Science communication is seen as critical for the disciplines of ecology and conservation, where research products are often used to shape policy and decision making. Scientists are increasing their online media communication, via social media and news. Such media engagement has been thought to influence or predict traditional metrics of scholarship, such as citation rates. Here, we measure the association between citation rates and the Altmetric Attention Score-an indicator of the amount and reach of the attention an article has received-along with other forms of bibliometric performance (year published, journal impact factor, and article type). We found that Attention Score was positively correlated with citation rates. However, in recent years, we detected increasing media exposure did not relate to the equivalent citations as in earlier years; signalling a diminishing return on investment. Citations correlated with journal impact factors up to ∼13, but then plateaued, demonstrating that maximizing citations does not require publishing in the highest-impact journals. We conclude that ecology and conservation researchers can increase exposure of their research through social media engagement and, simultaneously, enhance their performance under traditional measures of scholarly activity.

  10. The Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Paradox: Cost per Treatment Is Increasing, but Cost per Cure Is Decreasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Shafran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention has been focused on the perceived increase in the cost of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection since the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents in 2011. Using Canadian list prices, the present analysis points out a paradox: while the cost per antiviral regimen is increasing, the cost per cure is decreasing, especially with interferon-free therapy. In a publicly funded health care system, the lowest cost per cure is a more valuable measure of value for public money than the cost per regimen.

  11. The hepatitis C genotype 1 paradox: cost per treatment is increasing, but cost per cure is decreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the perceived increase in the cost of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection since the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents in 2011. Using Canadian list prices, the present analysis points out a paradox: while the cost per antiviral regimen is increasing, the cost per cure is decreasing, especially with interferon-free therapy. In a publicly funded health care system, the lowest cost per cure is a more valuable measure of value for public money than the cost per regimen.

  12. 20 CFR 404.275 - How is an automatic cost-of-living increase calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is an automatic cost-of-living increase..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.275 How is an automatic cost-of-living increase calculated? (a) Increase based on the CPI. We...

  13. 20 CFR 404.271 - When automatic cost-of-living increases apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When automatic cost-of-living increases apply... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.271 When automatic cost-of-living increases apply. Besides increases in the primary insurance amounts...

  14. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  15. Harnessing Visual Media in Environmental Education: Increasing Knowledge of Orangutan Conservation Issues and Facilitating Sustainable Behaviour through Video Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…

  16. Future Capacity Procurements Under Unknown Demand and Increasing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Burnetas; Stephen Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study a situation in which a broker must manage the procurement of a short-life-cycle product. As the broker observes demand for the item, she learns about the demand process. However, as is often the case in practice, it becomes either more difficult or more expensive to procure the item as the selling season advances. Thus, the broker must trade off higher procurement costs against the benefit of making ordering decisions with better information about demand. Problems of th...

  17. Improving the Estimation of Local Welfare Costs of Conservation in Low-Income Countries Using Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakotonarivo, Onjamirindra Sarobidy

    and comprises a systematic review and three field tests of DCE in a new REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) project and national park in eastern Madagascar. I first conducted a systematic review of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of DCEs when valuing non-market...... the validity of DCE in estimating the costs of conservation restrictions ex-ante. I found that experience of forest protection matters; households who have been exposed to forest protection for a comparatively longer period had significantly higher welfare costs for restricting forest clearance than those who...... techniques. It also has major implications for how forest conservation policy may be devised in low-income countries, including devolution of secure forestland tenure to local people and genuinely negotiating conservation with forest users....

  18. Modeling social norms increasingly influences costly sharing in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Bailey R; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Prosocial and normative behavior emerges in early childhood, but substantial changes in prosocial behavior in middle childhood may be due to it becoming integrated with children's understanding of what is normative. Here we show that information about what is normative begins influencing children's costly sharing in middle childhood in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old German children. Information about what is normative was most influential when indicating what was "right" (i.e., "The right thing is to choose this"). It was less influential when indicating what was prescribed by a rule (i.e., "There is a rule that says to choose this") or when it indicated what the majority of people do (i.e., "Most people choose this"). These findings support the idea that middle childhood is when social norms begin to shape children's costly sharing and provide insight into the psychological foundations of the relationship between norms and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of increased fuel costs and inflation on the cost of desalting sea water and brackish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The combined increases in the cost of fuel, equipment, and money during the past four years have had a marked impact on the cost of desalting saline waters. The current costs of desalting seawater by distillation and reverse osmosis and brackish waters by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis as a function of plant size and feedwater chemistry are estimated. Typically, distillation plant capital costs have increased from dollar 1 per daily gallon to dollar 3 per daily gallon for large plants (100 Mgd) and from approximately dollar 1.40 per daily gallon to approximately dollar 5 per daily gallon per plant sizes of 5 Mgd or less. Consequently, water costs are now ranging from dollar 3 to dollar 4 per 1000 gal when oil is used to generate steam. Similarly, the costs of desalting inland brackish waters using reverse osmosis or electrodialysis have increased significantly

  20. 20 CFR 226.13 - Cost-of-living increase in employee vested dual benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost-of-living increase in employee vested... Annuity § 226.13 Cost-of-living increase in employee vested dual benefit. If the employee's annuity begins June 1, 1975 or later, a cost-of-living increase is added to the total vested dual benefit amount. This...

  1. 20 CFR 225.43 - PIA's subject to cost-of-living increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PIA's subject to cost-of-living increases... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.43 PIA's subject to cost-of-living increases. The Retirement Tier I, Overall Minimum, Survivor Tier I, Employee RIB and RLS...

  2. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost of living increase applicable to the... § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I annuity... the Federal Register annually. The cost-of-living increase is payable beginning with the benefit for...

  3. 20 CFR 225.41 - How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a cost-of-living increase is determined... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.41 How a cost-of-living increase is determined and applied. Depending on the condition of the social security...

  4. Preventive health screenings and health consultations in primary care increase life expectancy without increasing costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne R; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Kilsmark, Janni

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The intention was to investigate whether preventive health checks and health discussions are cost effective. METHODS: In a randomized trial the authors compared two intervention groups (A and B) and one control group. In 1991 2,000 30- to 49-year-old persons were invited and those who...... were given fixed appointments for health consultations. The follow-up period was six years. Analysis was carried out on the "intention to treat" principle. Outcome parameters were life years gained, and direct and total health costs (including productivity costs), discounted by 3% annually. Costs were...... in average direct (3,255 euro (3,703 euro) versus 4,186 euro) and total costs (10,409 euro (9,399 euro) versus 10,667 euro). The effect in group B is, however, better than in group A with no significant differences in costs. The results are insensitive to a range of assumptions regarding costs, effects...

  5. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA) Cranberry Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250) regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  6. Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA Cranberry Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Gaines-Day

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250 regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees.

  7. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  8. Economic efficiency and cost implications of habitat conservation: An example in the context of the Edwards Aquifer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Dhazn; McCarl, Bruce A.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Boadu, Frederick

    2004-04-01

    Groundwater management in the Edwards Aquifer in Texas is in the process of moving away from a traditional right of capture economic regime toward a more environmentally sensitive scheme designed to preserve endangered species habitats. This study explores economic and environmental implications of proposed groundwater management and water development strategies under a proposed regional Habitat Conservation Plan. Results show that enhancing the habitat by augmenting water flow costs $109-1427 per acre-foot and that regional water development would be accelerated by the more extreme possibilities under the Habitat Conservation Plan. The findings also indicate that a water market would improve regional welfare and lower water development but worsen environmental attributes.

  9. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  10. Combining modularity, conservation, and interactions of proteins significantly increases precision and coverage of protein function prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sers Christine T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of newly sequenced genomes and genes is constantly increasing, elucidation of their function still is a laborious and time-consuming task. This has led to the development of a wide range of methods for predicting protein functions in silico. We report on a new method that predicts function based on a combination of information about protein interactions, orthology, and the conservation of protein networks in different species. Results We show that aggregation of these independent sources of evidence leads to a drastic increase in number and quality of predictions when compared to baselines and other methods reported in the literature. For instance, our method generates more than 12,000 novel protein functions for human with an estimated precision of ~76%, among which are 7,500 new functional annotations for 1,973 human proteins that previously had zero or only one function annotated. We also verified our predictions on a set of genes that play an important role in colorectal cancer (MLH1, PMS2, EPHB4 and could confirm more than 73% of them based on evidence in the literature. Conclusions The combination of different methods into a single, comprehensive prediction method infers thousands of protein functions for every species included in the analysis at varying, yet always high levels of precision and very good coverage.

  11. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  12. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  13. Efficacy, complications, and cost of a comprehensive blood conservation program for cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W J; Rode, R; Castlemain, B; Kessler, R; Follis, F; Pett, S B; Wernly, J A

    1992-05-01

    We reviewed blood use in 118 consecutive patients who underwent primary, elective cardiac operations in 1989. In June 1989 we initiated a blood conservation program that included attempts to limit preoperative aspirin use, intraoperative phlebotomy and hemodilution, use of a cell conservation device (Electromedics, Inc., Englewood, Colo.) to concentrate residual oxygenator contents, reinfusion of chest drainage, and acceptance of a minimum hemoglobin level of 8.0 gm/dl in stable patients. Patient characteristics were similar for patients operated on both before (n = 58) and after (n = 60) initiation of the blood conservation program, except for age and preoperative aspirin use (both greater in postconservation patients). Fewer blood products were transfused (5.8 +/- 5.7 units per patient before conservation versus 4.0 +/- 7.4 units per patient after conservation; p = 0.005). More complete data were available for 82 patients (40 patients before conservation and 42 after conservation). In the postconservation patients, 20 of 42 had 575 +/- 140 ml of blood withdrawn before cardiopulmonary bypass and reinfused afterward, 26 of 42 had 806 +/- 376 ml of blood processed with the cell conservation device returned, and 21 of 42 patients had an average of 287 +/- 127 ml of chest drainage reinfused. Chest tube drainage, postoperative hematologic parameters, and the prevalence of complications were not significantly different between groups. Stepwise linear regression analysis identified intraoperative withdrawal of blood before cardiopulmonary bypass, bypass duration, and preoperative hematocrit value as predictors of blood use. Intraoperative withdrawal of blood before cardiopulmonary bypass is an important conservation measure, and its use should be expanded.

  14. Transaction costs economics of irreplaceability: ex ante and ex post evaluation of conservation networks' vulnerability to environmental shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusom, Henrik; Strange, Niels

    2008-04-01

    The theoretical concept, "asset specificity," is applied to real data in the context of Danish nature conservation network planning in order to produce illustrative examples of an economic measure of the network's vulnerability to exogenous shocks to the species composition. Three different measures of asset specificity are quantified from the shadow value of eliminating a key species from the individual grid cells. This represents a novel approach and a different interpretation of the term, as it is conventionally used as a qualitative indicator in the transaction cost economics literature. Apart from supplementing existing cost measures with an indicator of risk associated with investments in protected areas, this study demonstrates how the estimation and interpretation of various asset specificity measures for geographical areas may qualify policy makers' choice of policy instrument in conservation planning. This differs from the more intuitive approach of basing policy instrument choice solely on the rarity of the species in a given area.

  15. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  16. Focusing Conservation Efforts on Ecosystem Service Supply May Increase Vulnerability of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Laterra

    Full Text Available Growing concern about the loss of ecosystem services (ES promotes their spatial representation as a key tool for the internalization of the ES framework into land use policies. Paradoxically, mapping approaches meant to inform policy decisions focus on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the biophysical supply of ES, largely ignoring the social mechanisms by which these services influence human wellbeing. If social mechanisms affecting ES demand, enhancing it or reducing it, are taken more into account, then policies are more effective. By developing and applying a new mapping routine to two distinct socio-ecological systems, we show a strong spatial uncoupling between ES supply and socio-ecological vulnerability to the loss of ES, under scenarios of land use and cover change. Public policies based on ES supply might not only fail at detecting priority conservation areas for the wellbeing of human societies, but may also increase their vulnerability by neglecting areas of currently low, but highly valued ES supply.

  17. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  18. Cost-effective scat-detection dogs: unleashing a powerful new tool for international mammalian conservation biology

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph D. Orkin; Yuming Yang; Chunyan Yang; Douglas W. Yu; Xuelong Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, detection dogs have been utilized to collect fecal samples from cryptic and rare mammals. Despite the great promise of this technique for conservation biology, its broader application has been limited by the high cost (tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars) and logistical challenges of employing a scat-detection dog team while conducting international, collaborative research. Through an international collaboration of primatologists and the Chinese Ministry of Public Security, we ...

  19. The Brazilian policy of withholding treatment for ADHD is probably increasing health and social costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Maia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the economic consequences of the current Brazilian government policy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment and how much the country would save if treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR, as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO, was offered to patients with ADHD. Method: Based on conservative previous analyses, we assumed that 257,662 patients aged 5 to 19 years are not receiving ADHD treatment in Brazil. We estimated the direct costs and savings of treating and not treating ADHD on the basis of the following data: a spending on ADHD patients directly attributable to grade retention and emergency department visits; and b savings due to impact of ADHD treatment on these outcomes. Results: Considering outcomes for which data on the impact of MPH-IR treatment are available, Brazil is probably wasting approximately R$ 1.841 billion/year on the direct consequences of not treating ADHD in this age range alone. On the other hand, treating ADHD in accordance with WHO recommendations would save approximately R$ 1.163 billion/year. Conclusions: By increasing investments on MPH-IR treatment for ADHD to around R$ 377 million/year, the country would save approximately 3.1 times more than is currently spent on the consequences of not treating ADHD in patients aged 5 to 19 years.

  20. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74 Section 1552.217-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.217-74 Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed in 1517.208(e), insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  1. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  2. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  3. Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Martin C; Charlton, Judith; Prevost, Toby; Booth, Helen; Fildes, Alison; Ashworth, Mark; Littlejohns, Peter; Reddy, Marcus; Khan, Omar; Rudisill, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    To estimate costs and outcomes of increasing access to bariatric surgery in obese adults and in population subgroups of age, sex, deprivation, comorbidity, and obesity category. A cohort study was conducted using primary care electronic health records, with linked hospital utilization data, for 3,045 participants who underwent bariatric surgery and 247,537 participants who did not undergo bariatric surgery. Epidemiological analyses informed a probabilistic Markov model to compare bariatric surgery, including equal proportions with adjustable gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy, with standard nonsurgical management of obesity. Outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and net monetary benefits at a threshold of £30,000 per QALY. In a UK population of 250,000 adults, there may be 7,163 people with morbid obesity including 1,406 with diabetes. The immediate cost of 1,000 bariatric surgical procedures is £9.16 million, with incremental discounted lifetime health care costs of £15.26 million (95% confidence interval £15.18-£15.36 million). Patient-years with diabetes mellitus will decrease by 8,320 (range 8,123-8,502). Incremental QALYs will increase by 2,142 (range 2,032-2,256). The estimated cost per QALY gained is £7,129 (range £6,775-£7,506). Net monetary benefits will be £49.02 million (range £45.72-£52.41 million). Estimates are similar for subgroups of age, sex, and deprivation. Bariatric surgery remains cost-effective if the procedure is twice as costly, or if intervention effect declines over time. Diverse obese individuals may benefit from bariatric surgery at acceptable cost. Bariatric surgery is not cost-saving, but increased health care costs are exceeded by health benefits to obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective.

  5. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  6. The Payer and Patient Cost Burden of Open Breast Conserving Procedures Following Percutaneous Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Chloe C; Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous core-needle biopsy (PCNB) is the standard of care to biopsy and diagnose suspicious breast lesions. Dependent on histology, many patients require additional open procedures for definitive diagnosis and excision. This study estimated the payer and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) costs, and complication risk, among those requiring at least 1 open procedure following PCNB. This retrospective study used the Truven Commercial database (2009-2014). Women who underwent PCNB, with continuous insurance, and no history of cancer, chemotherapy, radiation, or breast surgery in the prior year were included. Open procedures were defined as open biopsy or lumpectomy. Study follow-up ended at chemotherapy, radiation, mastectomy, or 90 days-whichever occurred first. In total, 143 771 patients (mean age 48) met selection criteria; 85.1% underwent isolated PCNB, 12.4% one open procedure, and 2.5% re-excision. Incidence of complications was significantly lower among those with PCNB alone (9.2%) vs 1 open procedure (15.6%) or re-excision (25.3%, P  open procedure vs PCNB alone (US $17 125 vs US $3935, P  open procedure vs PCNB alone (US $1527 vs US $669), and US $247 greater for re-excision vs 1 procedure. A meaningful proportion of patients underwent open procedure(s) following PCNB which was associated with increased complication risk and costs to both the payer and the patient. These results suggest a need for technologies to reduce the proportion of cases requiring open surgery and, in some cases, re-excision.

  7. Explicit instructions increase cognitive costs of deception in predictable social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eFalkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT, which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e. atheist or conservative. In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue. In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue. With internal cues, reaction times are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues, reaction times are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when external cues were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only

  8. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... October 1, 2002, is the percentage increase projected by the hospital market basket index. (4) Target... target amount for the previous cost reporting period, updated by the market basket percentage increase... each cost reporting period, the ceiling is determined by multiplying the updated target amount, as...

  9. 78 FR 68133 - Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0057] Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY..., concerning the cost-of-living increase in Social Security benefits effective December 2013. The document...

  10. Estimated Cost of the Administration's Proposal to Increase the Army's and the Marine Corps's Personnel Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, Matt; Wheelock, Jason; Newman, David

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration also plans to increase the size of the Army Reserve and National Guard. The cost of the Administration's proposal to increase the size of the armed forces depends on the personnel levels it is being measured against...

  11. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... 5-year average ratio with heating oil prices published in the Monthly Energy Review, but the propane... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of conservation agriculture implementation in Syrdarya province of Uzbekistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daujanov, Azizbek; Groeneveld, R.A.; Pulatov, Alim; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Most irrigated lands of Central Asia suffer from land degradation, and unsustainable Agricultural practices are one of the factors contributing to land degradation. Conservation agriculture (CA) is seen as a way to mitigate land degradation and rationalize resource use. The aim of this article is to

  13. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... that of heating oil, based on the 2004-2008 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  14. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  15. Fitness cost of resistance to Bt cotton linked with increased gossypol content in pink bollworm larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Williams

    Full Text Available Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

  16. Hospital costs fell as numbers of LVADs were increasing: experiences from Oslo University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to examine total hospital costs per patient of a consecutive implantation series of two 3rd generation Left Ventricle Assist Devices (LVAD. Further we analyzed if increased clinical experience would reduce total hospital costs and the gap between costs and the diagnosis related grouped (DRG-reimbursement. Method Cost data of 20 LVAD implantations (VentrAssist™ from 2005-2009 (period 1 were analyzed together with costs from nine patients using another LVAD (HeartWare™ from 2009-June 2011 (period 2. For each patient, total costs were calculated for three phases - the pre-LVAD implantation phase, the LVAD implantation phase and the post LVAD implant phase. Patient specific costs were obtained prospectively from patient records and included personnel resources, medication, blood products, blood chemistry and microbiology, imaging and procedure costs including operating room costs. Overhead costs were registered retrospectively and allocated to the specific patient by predefined allocation keys. Finally, patient specific costs and overhead costs were aggregated into total hospital costs for each patient. All costs were calculated in 2011-prices. We used regression analyses to analyze cost variations over time and between the different devices. Results The average total hospital cost per patient for the pre-LVAD, LVAD and post-LVAD for period 1 was $ 585, 513 (range 132, 640- 1 247, 299, and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2009 was $ 143, 192 . The mean LOS was 54 days (range 12- 127. For period 2 the total hospital cost per patient was $ 413, 185 (range 314, 540- 622, 664 and the corresponding DRG- reimbursement (2010 was $ 136, 963. The mean LOS was 49 days (range 31- 93. The estimates from the regression analysis showed that the total hospital costs, excluding device costs, per patient were falling as the number of treated patients increased. The estimate from the trend variable was -14

  17. Cost-effectiveness of increasing access to mammography through mobile mammography for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeim, Arash; Keeler, Emmett; Bassett, Lawrence W; Parikh, Jay; Bastani, Roshan; Reuben, David B

    2009-02-01

    To compare the costs of mobile and stationary mammography and examine the incremental cost-effectiveness of using mobile mammography to increase screening rates. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using effectiveness data from a randomized clinical trial and modeling of costs associated with the mobile mammography intervention. The trial involved 60 community-based meal sites, senior centers, and clubs. Four hundred ninety-nine individuals were enrolled in the study, of whom 463 had outcome data available for analysis. Costs were calculated for stationary and mobile mammography, as well as costs due to differences in technology and film versus digital. Incremental cost-effectiveness (cost per additional screen) was modeled, and sensitivity analysis was performed by altering efficiency (throughput) and effectiveness based on subgroup data from the randomized trial. The estimated annual costs were $435,162 for a stationary unit, $539,052 for a mobile film unit, and $456, 392 for a mobile digital unit. Assuming mobile units are less efficient (50% annual volume), the cost per screen was $41 for a stationary unit, $86 for a mobile film unit, and $102 for a mobile digital unit. The incremental cost per additional screen were $207 for a mobile film unit and $264 for a mobile digital unit over a stationary unit. Although mobile mammography is a more effective way to screen older women, the absolute cost per screen of mobile units is higher, whereas the reimbursement is no different. Financial barriers may impede the widespread use of this approach.

  18. An agglomeration payment for cost-effective biodiversity conservation in spatially structured landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Drechsler, Martin; Johst, Karin; Wätzold, Frank; Shogren, Jason F.

    2007-01-01

    Compensation schemes in which land owners receive payments for voluntarily managing their land in a biodiversity-enhancing manner have become one of the most important instruments for biodiversity conservation worldwide. One key challenge when designing such schemes is to account for the spatial arrangement of habitats bearing in mind that for given total habitat area connected habitats are ecologically more valuable than isolated habitats. To integrate the spatial dimension in compensation s...

  19. Conservation efforts and possibilities for increased collaboration in the Santa Cruz River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; Emily M. Brott

    2013-01-01

    Attendees of the annual Santa Cruz River Researchers’ Day meetings have identified a need to expand collaboration, partnership, and sharing of lessons learned across the watershed. To help guide this interest, Sonoran Institute organized a symposium on 2 May 2012 entitled “Santa Cruz River Conservation.” The symposium had simultaneous Spanish/English translation and...

  20. Altered response hierarchy and increased T-cell breadth upon HIV-1 conserved element DNA vaccination in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag elements (CE induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist.

  1. When roads appear jaguars decline: Increased access to an Amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Santiago; Celis, Gerardo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Mortality and Increased Drug Costs in Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingliang; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Xiu-li; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Liu, Qing-sen; Huang, Qi-yang; Lau, James W Y; Yang, Yun-sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine risk factors associated with mortality and increased drug costs in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2001-December 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics and drug costs were documented. Univariate analysis determined possible risk factors for mortality. Statistically significant variables were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Multiple linear regression analyzed factors influencing drug costs. p study included data from 627 patients. Risk factors associated with increased mortality were age > 60, systolic blood pressurebleeding rate is 11.20% and mortality is 5.74%. The mortality risk in patients with comorbidities was higher than in patients without comorbidities, and was higher in patients requiring blood transfusion than in patients not requiring transfusion. Rebleeding was associ-ated with mortality. Rebleeding, blood transfusion, and prolonged hospital stay were associated with increased drug costs, whereas bleeding from lesions in the esophagus and duodenum was associated with lower drug costs.

  3. Cost effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in geriatric outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Meerding, Willen Jan; Looman, Caspar W.; Pols, Huibert A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs has been proven to be effective in older persons. However, given the enormous rise in healthcare costs in recent decades, the effect of such withdrawals on healthcare costs also needs to be considered. METHOD: Within a common geriatric outpatient

  4. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  5. A Novel and Cost-Effective Monitoring Approach for Outcomes in an Australian Biodiversity Conservation Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Zammit, Charles; Attwood, Simon J.; Burns, Emma; Shepherd, Claire L.; Kay, Geoff; Wood, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme – the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities). The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program’s policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program’s initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program’s investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5–10% of a program’s funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies. PMID:23236399

  6. A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities. The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies.

  7. Pokémon Go: benefits, costs, and lessons for the conservation movement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, L; Mittermeier, JC; Sandbrook, C; Spooner, F

    2016-01-01

    Pokémon Go, an augmented reality (AR) smartphone game, replicates many aspects of real-world wildlife watching and natural history by allowing players to find, capture, and collect Pokémon, which are effectively virtual animals. In this paper, we consider how the unprecedented success of Pokémon Go as a smartphone game might create opportunities and challenges for the conservation movement. By encouraging players to go outside and consider various aspects of virtual species’ biology, the game...

  8. High laboratory cost predicted per tuberculosis case diagnosed with increased case finding without a triage strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R; Naidoo, P; Beyers, N; Langley, I

    2017-09-01

    Cape Town, South Africa. To model the effects of increased case finding and triage strategies on laboratory costs per tuberculosis (TB) case diagnosed. We used a validated operational model and published laboratory cost data. We modelled the effect of varying the proportion with TB among presumptive cases and Xpert cartridge price reductions on cost per TB case and per additional TB case diagnosed in the Xpert-based vs. smear/culture-based algorithms. In our current scenario (18.3% with TB among presumptive cases), the proportion of cases diagnosed increased by 8.7% (16.7% vs. 15.0%), and the cost per case diagnosed increased by 142% (US$121 vs. US$50). The cost per additional case diagnosed was US$986. This would increase to US$1619 if the proportion with TB among presumptive cases was 10.6%. At 25.9-30.8% of TB prevalence among presumptive cases and a 50% reduction in Xpert cartridge price, the cost per TB case diagnosed would range from US$50 to US$59 (comparable to the US$48.77 found in routine practice with smear/culture). The operational model illustrates the effect of increased case finding on laboratory costs per TB case diagnosed. Unless triage strategies are identified, the approach will not be sustainable, even if Xpert cartridge prices are reduced.

  9. Cost-effective scat-detection dogs: unleashing a powerful new tool for international mammalian conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Joseph D; Yang, Yuming; Yang, Chunyan; Yu, Douglas W; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-10-10

    Recently, detection dogs have been utilized to collect fecal samples from cryptic and rare mammals. Despite the great promise of this technique for conservation biology, its broader application has been limited by the high cost (tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars) and logistical challenges of employing a scat-detection dog team while conducting international, collaborative research. Through an international collaboration of primatologists and the Chinese Ministry of Public Security, we trained and used a detection dog to find scat from three species of unhabituated, free-ranging primates, for less than $3,000. We collected 137 non-human primate fecal samples that we confirmed by sequencing taxonomically informative genetic markers. Our detection dog team had a 92% accuracy rate, significantly outperforming our human-only team. Our results demonstrate that detection dogs can locate fecal samples from unhabituated primates with variable diets, locomotion, and grouping patterns, despite challenging field conditions. We provide a model for in-country training, while also building local capacity for conservation and genetic monitoring. Unlike previous efforts, our approach will allow for the wide adoption of scat-detection dogs in international conservation biology.

  10. The management of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas--does adrenalectomy increase costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimel, Bethann; Zanocco, Kyle; Russo, Mark J; Zarnegar, Rasa; Clark, Orlo H; Allendorf, John D; Chabot, John A; Duh, Quan-Yang; Lee, James A; Sturgeon, Cord

    2010-12-01

    Most experts agree that primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA) caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is best treated by adrenalectomy. From a public health standpoint, the cost of treatment must be considered. We sought to compare the current guideline-based (surgical) strategy with universal pharmacologic management to determine the optimal strategy from a cost perspective. A decision analysis was performed using a Markov state transition model comparing the strategies for PHA treatment. Pharmacologic management for all patients with PHA was compared with a strategy of screening for and resecting an aldosterone-producing adenoma. Success rates were determined for treatment outcomes based on a literature review. Medicare reimbursement rates were calculated to estimate costs from a third-party payer perspective. Screening for and resecting APAs was the least costly strategy in this model. For a reference patient with 41 remaining years of life, the discounted expected cost of the surgical strategy was $27,821. The discounted expected cost of the medical strategy was $34,691. The cost of adrenalectomy would have to increase by 156% to $22,525 from $8,784 for universal pharmacologic therapy to be less costly. Screening for APA is more costly if fewer than 9.6% of PHA patients have resectable APA. Resection of APAs was the least costly treatment strategy in this decision analysis model. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  12. Margins in breast conserving surgery: The financial cost & potential savings associated with the new margin guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Lauren; Brown, Eric; Lanni, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we compare the indications for re-excision, the findings of additional tumor in the re-excision specimen as they relate to margin status, and costs associated with re-excision based on recent new consensus statements. A retrospective analysis was performed on 462 patients with invasive breast carcinoma who underwent at least one lumpectomy between January 2011 and December 2013. Postoperative data was analyzed based on where additional disease was found, as it relates to the margin status of the initial lumpectomy and the additional direct costs associated with additional procedures. Of the 462 patients sampled, 149 underwent a re-excision surgery (32.2%). Four patients underwent mastectomy as their second operation. In the 40 patients with additional disease found on re-excision, 36 (90.0%) of them had a positive margin on their initial lumpectomy. None of the four mastectomy patients had residual disease. The mean cost of the initial lumpectomy for all 462 patients was $2118.01 plus an additional $1801.92 for those who underwent re-excision. A positive margin was most predictive of finding residual tumor on re-excision as would be expected. Using old criteria only 0.07% (4/61) of patients who had undergone re-excision with a 'clear' margin, had additional tumor found, at a total cost of $106,354.11. Thus, the new consensus guidelines will lead to less overall cost, at no clinical risk to patients while reducing a patient's surgical risk and essentially eliminating delays in adjuvant care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Deas

    Full Text Available Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific, we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss considering i total catches, ii target fish families, iii local marine tenure, and iv gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katharine B.; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J.; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A.; Mai, Cara T.; Korhonen, Lauren C.; Frey, Meghan T.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus–related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus–associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs. PMID:27805547

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Simmons, Katharine B; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A; Mai, Cara T; Korhonen, Lauren C; Frey, Meghan T; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus-related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus-associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs.

  16. The price of information: Increased inspection costs reduce the confirmation bias in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay

    2018-04-01

    In visual search, there is a confirmation bias such that attention is biased towards stimuli that match a target template, which has been attributed to covert costs of updating the templates that guide search [Rajsic, Wilson, & Pratt, 2015. Confirmation bias in visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/xhp0000090]. In order to provide direct evidence for this speculation, the present study increased the cost of inspections in search by using gaze- and mouse-contingent searches, which restrict the manner in which information in search displays can be accrued, and incur additional motor costs (in the case of mouse-contingent searches). In a fourth experiment, we rhythmically mask elements in the search display to induce temporal inspection costs. Our results indicated that confirmation bias is indeed attenuated when inspection costs are increased. We conclude that confirmation bias results from the low-cost strategy of matching information to a single, concrete visual template, and that more sophisticated guidance strategies will be used when sufficiently beneficial. This demonstrates that search guidance itself comes at a cost, and that the form of guidance adopted in a given search depends on a comparison between guidance costs and the expected benefits of their implementation.

  17. STEM field courses that increase interest, opinions and confidence in conservation- related fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Freeman, A. S.; Donovan, C.; Cooperstein, D.; Foellmer, M.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies and Biology programs at Adelphi University, situated in the NYC metropolitan area, have had little exposure to the outdoors or nature and are often reluctant to engage in field activities. We developed three courses to provide outdoor experiences at different levels of intensity, financial and travel/ time commitments. Adelphi in Australia is a three-week field course taught mostly at a marine station that includes day and night hikes, snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and independent research. Adelphi in the U.S. Virgin Islands is a one-week field `starter course' focusing on snorkeling and hiking. Observing Nature is an on-campus, once a week course with nature-based readings, weekend hikes and camping. It was developed after Hurricane Sandy revealed a lack of experience and confidence living without some modern infrastructure. We evaluated student opinions, interests and career goals in a survey administered at the start and at the end of the course that focused on knowledge, skills, opinion, and interest in STEM. Opinion questions addressed confidence, awareness of conservation issues, and interest in outdoor activities. The survey confirmed most of our students have a limited relationship with the outdoors when they start our field classes. More than half had never camped. Most had learned about nature through school trips and family. When asked to rank hiking against other activities, the majority regularly placed hiking below `going to the beach' and 'watching a movie'. The post-survey asked how students would apply what they had learned (interest in the environment; staying in the sciences). The generally positive results indicate the courses play an important role in connecting our students with the outdoors, and may have a lasting impact if they in turn connect others or get involved with local conservation programs.

  18. Increasing value in plagiocephaly care: a time-driven activity-based costing pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Lappi, Michael D; Flath-Sporn, Susan J; Heald, Ronald; Kim, David C; Meara, John G

    2015-06-01

    Process management within a health care setting is poorly understood and often leads to an incomplete understanding of the true costs of patient care. Using time-driven activity-based costing methods, we evaluated the high-volume, low-complexity diagnosis of plagiocephaly to increase value within our clinic. A total of 59 plagiocephaly patients were evaluated in phase 1 (n = 31) and phase 2 (n = 28) of this study. During phase 1, a process map was created, encompassing each of the 5 clinicians and administrative personnel delivering 23 unique activities. After analysis of the phase 1 process maps, average times as well as costs of these activities were evaluated for potential modifications in workflow. These modifications were implemented in phase 2 to determine overall impact on visit-time and costs of care. Improvements in patient education, workflow coordination, and examination room allocation were implemented during phase 2, resulting in a reduced patient visit-time of 13:25 (19.9% improvement) and an increased cost of $8.22 per patient (7.7% increase) due to changes in physician process times. However, this increased cost was directly offset by the availability of 2 additional appointments per day, potentially generating $7904 of additional annual revenue. Quantifying the impact of a 19.9% reduction in patient visit-time at an increased cost of 7.7% resulted in an increased value ratio of 1.113. This pilot study effectively demonstrates the novel use of time-driven activity-based costing in combination with the value equation as a metric for continuous process improvement programs within the health care setting.

  19. Cost effectiveness of withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs in geriatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Meerding, Willen Jan; Looman, Caspar W; Pols, Huibert A P; van der Cammen, Tischa J M

    2008-01-01

    Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs has been proven to be effective in older persons. However, given the enormous rise in healthcare costs in recent decades, the effect of such withdrawals on healthcare costs also needs to be considered. Within a common geriatric outpatient population, patients with a history of falls were assessed for falls risk (n = 139). Fall-risk-increasing drugs were withdrawn when appropriate (n = 75). All participants had a 2-month follow-up for fall incidents. The number of prevented falls was calculated using a loglinear regression model. The savings on health expenditures as a result of prevented injuries (estimated from a literature review) and reduced consumption of pharmaceuticals were compared with the intervention costs. After adjustment for confounders, drug withdrawal resulted in a falls risk reduction of 0.89 (95% CI 0.33, 0.98) per patient compared with the non-withdrawal group. Net cost savings were euro1691 (95% CI 662, 2181) per patient in the cohort. This resulted in a cost saving of euro491 (95% CI 465, 497) per prevented fall. Withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs generates significant cost savings. Extrapolation of these findings to a national scale results in an estimated reduction of euro60 million in healthcare expenditures, that is, 15% of fall-related health costs.

  20. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    irrigation practices (timer based and manual watering systems) that are no longer sustainable given the limited water supplies in many U.S. locations and...Areas that have high local water costs or limited water supply options may also benefit from water harvesting. The implementation of smart ET...in potable water use. Smart ET controllers with centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, such as ET gauge, rain, soil moisture, and leak

  1. Bountiful crop with every drop: Using drip irrigation to increase yields and conserve water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower, broccoli, sweet pepper and many other nutritious vegetables used to be expensive in Mauritius. The island’s climate and traditional agricultural practices were not suitable for cultivating several high value vegetable crops, while importing them to the island state was prohibitively costly due to the long distances involved. This has all changed over the past few years, and local farms are now starting to supply the country’s growing population and burgeoning tourism industry with fresh, locally grown produce.

  2. Climate change and the insurance industry. The cost of increased risk and the impetus for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A convincing economic argument for taking action to prevent or ameliorate climate change has not developed because of both uncertainty about the degree of change and its timing. Recent costly weather-related catastrophes with consequent negative impacts on the insurance industry has made the insurance industry a potential advocate for slowing what has been identified as a causal factor in climate change: emissions of greenhouse gases. However, rising costs of claims, without a longer-term trend of such catastrophic losses, will make it difficult to present a strong case for taking costly economic action. Using the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model, it is shown that increasing levels of climate variability as embedded in the anticipated variability of damage to insured assets will have an immediate economic cost that could serve to bolster the argument for more immediate action. That cost is shown to be economically justified higher insurance premiums

  3. HIV-1 p24(gag derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24(gag DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE of 12-24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE ('toggle site', together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55(gag DNA induced poor, CD4(+ mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55(gag, which recognize the virus encoded p24(gag protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55(gag DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses.

  4. Metabolic and respiratory costs of increasing song amplitude in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Anne Zollinger

    Full Text Available Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.

  5. Climate change and electricity consumption-Witnessing increasing or decreasing use and costs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilli-Sihvola, Karoliina; Aatola, Piia; Ollikainen, Markku; Tuomenvirta, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects the need for heating and cooling. This paper examines the impact of gradually warming climate on the need for heating and cooling with an econometric multivariate regression model for five countries in Europe along the south-north line. The predicted changes in electricity demand are then used to analyze how climate change impacts the cost of electricity use, including carbon costs. Our main findings are, that in Central and North Europe, the decrease in heating due to climate warming, dominates and thus costs will decrease for both users of electricity and in carbon markets. In Southern Europe climate warming, and the consequential increase in cooling and electricity demand, overcomes the decreased need for heating. Therefore costs also increase. The main contributors are the role of electricity in heating and cooling, and the climatic zone.

  6. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS, cost per day (CPD, inpatient mortality rate (IMR, and length of stay (LOS, using a generalized additive model. FINDINGS: There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001, from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. INTERPRETATIONS: These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role

  7. Concepts of increasing productivity and reducing the processing cost of machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Кленов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic conditions to reduce the cost of processing technology and improve productivity through the use of modern cutting tools produced by leading foreign firms producing tools have been appraised from theory in the work. Theoretically, it has been found that an increase in the cost of processing varies according to extremum dependence, passing the minimum point. It is possible to reduce the minimum processing cost due to the increase of productivity using cutting edge tools, characterized by a high capacity for work in high cutting temperatures. The criterion showing the technological price cost minimum is the ratio of the expenditures on workers’ wages to the expenditures on the cutting tools, it being quite specific for various processing conditions. To analyze the possibilities of practical use of the proposed criterion, a complex of experimental researches of the technological prime cost and productivity of the processing with hard alloy cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings produced by the company «Iscar» has been carried out. It has been established that their use makes it possible by more than one half to reduce the labour consumption and overall costs as compared to the hard alloy cutting tools traditionally used in home industry. It has been shown that this effect is achieved by increasing the cutting speed and feed due to increased wear resistance and heat resistance of the «Iscar» company tools. It was established that it is much more possible to achieve low processing cost at milling than at turning. It was stated with regard to all major expenditures including the workers' wages, the cost of the cutting tools, equipment and other costs, allowing more correctly estimate the cost-effectiveness of mechanical processing. Experiments confirmed that the main condition for reducing the processing cost to its minimum value is to increase the processing performance through the use of a heat-resistant and wear-resistant cutting

  8. A METHOD OF THE MINIMIZING OF THE TOTAL ACQUISITIONS COST WITH THE INCREASING VARIABLE DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA IONELA FOCȘAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over time, mankind has tried to find different ways of costs reduction. This subject which we are facing more often nowadays, has been detailed studied, without reaching a general model, and also efficient, regarding the costs reduction. Costs reduction entails a number of benefits over the entity, the most important being: increase revenue and default to the profit, increase productivity, a higher level of services / products offered to clients, and last but not least, the risk mitigation of the economic deficit. Therefore, each entity search different modes to obtain most benefits, for the company to succeed in a competitive market. This article supports the companies, trying to make known a new way of minimizing the total cost of acquisitions, by presenting some hypotheses about the increasing variable demand, proving them, and development of formulas for reducing the costs. The hypotheses presented in the model described below, can be maximally exploited to obtain new models of reducing the total cost, according to the modes of the purchase of entities which approach it.

  9. Dynamic Cost-Contingency Management: A Method for Reducing Project Costs While Increasing the Probability of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    In the real world, "Money Allocated is Money Spent" (MAIMS). As a consequence, cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns, while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost...

  10. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  11. Economical Feedback of Increasing Fuel Enrichment on Electricity Cost for VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Dwiddar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of evaluating the economics of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle with a price change sensitivity analysis for a VVER-1000 reactor core as a case study is presented. The effect of increasing the fuel enrichment and its corresponding reactor cycle length on the energy cost is investigated. The enrichment component was found to represent the highly expenses dynamic component affecting the economics of the front-end fuel cycle. Nevertheless, the increase of the fuel enrichment will increase the reactor cycle length, which will have a positive feedback on the electricity generation cost (cent/KWh. A long reactor operation time with a cheaper energy cost set the nuclear energy as a competitive alternative when compared with other energy sources.

  12. 20 CFR 225.42 - Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.42 Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase. The percentage amount of the cost-of-living... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing organ donation: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, J; Harrison, R; Atal, R; Larraín, L

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present an economic evaluation of policies aimed at increasing deceased organ donation in Chile, a developing country that has low donation rates; it had 5.4 donors per million people (pmp) in 2010. Expert opinions of leading participants in donation and transplantation were analyzed, resulting in a set of local policies aimed at increasing donation rates. Using previous results of reported cost savings of increasing kidney transplantation in Chile, we estimated the net benefits of these policies, as a function of additional donors. The main problem of the Chilean system seems to be the low capability to identify potential donors and a deficit in intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Among considered policies central to increase donation are the following: increasing human and capital resources dedicated to identifying potential donors, providing ICU beds from private centers, and developing an online information system that facilitates procurement coordination and the evaluation of performance at each hospital. Our results show that there is a linear relationship between cost savings and incremental donors pmp. For example, if these policies are capable of elevating donation rates in Chile by 6 donors pmp net estimated cost savings are approximately US $1.9 million. Likewise, considering the effect on patients' quality of life, savings would amount to around $15.0 million dollars per year. Our estimates suggest that these policies have a large cost-saving potential. In fact, considering implementation costs, cost reduction is positive after 4 additional donors pmp, and increasing afterward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Control costs, enhance quality, and increase revenue in three top general public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang

    2013-01-01

    With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (Phospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely market-oriented health-care reform could also misguide future healthcare reform.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of using payment to increase living donor kidneys for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Manns, Braden J

    2013-12-01

    For eligible candidates, transplantation is considered the optimal treatment compared with dialysis for patients with ESRD. The growing number of patients with ESRD requires new strategies to increase the pool of potential donors. Using decision analysis modeling, this study compared a strategy of paying living kidney donors to waitlisted recipients on dialysis with the current organ donation system. In the base case estimate, this study assumed that the number of donors would increase by 5% with a payment of $10,000. Quality of life estimates, resource use, and costs (2010 Canadian dollars) were based on the best available published data. Compared with the current organ donation system, a strategy of increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 5% by paying living donors $10,000 has an incremental cost-savings of $340 and a gain of 0.11 quality-adjusted life years. Increasing the number of kidneys for transplantation by 10% and 20% would translate into incremental cost-savings of $1640 and $4030 and incremental quality-adjusted life years gain of 0.21 and 0.39, respectively. Although the impact is uncertain, this model suggests that a strategy of paying living donors to increase the number of kidneys available for transplantation could be cost-effective, even with a transplant rate increase of only 5%. Future work needs to examine the feasibility, legal policy, ethics, and public perception of a strategy to pay living donors.

  16. Component Commonality and Its Cost Implications - Increasing the Commonality of the Right Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Jouni; Suomala, Petri; Israelsen, Poul

    Component commonality (Labro 2004, Zhou & Gruppström 2004) can be defined as the use of the same version of a component across multiple products. It is usually seen as a means to manage costs without sacrificing product variety. However, when managing costs with component commonality, the managers...... constructions was identified as the most important bottleneck for the delivery process causing many indirect costs, especially with respect to project-management-related activities. Interestingly, by eliminating the need for mechanical engineering, the context starts to approach assembly-to-order context, also...... should be able to identify rather rapidly which group of components would enable the most significant cost reductions. Unfortunately, the existing literature lacks profound discussion of how to identify the right components for increased component commonality. The objective of the paper is to discuss how...

  17. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  18. Forest biodiversity conservation in the context of increasing woody biomass harvests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Christophe; Gosselin, Frederic; Gosselin, Marion

    2011-01-01

    After describing peculiarities and stakes in forest biodiversity, we discuss the response of biodiversity to potential habitat changes induced by increasing forest biomass harvesting: decrease in old trees and stands, and in forest areas unmanaged for decades, increase in overall felled areas, in forest road density and in habitat fragmentation, deleterious changes in soil conditions and forest ambience, development of short and very short rotation coppices. Positive or negative effects on several components of forest biodiversity (mainly soil fauna and flora, and dead wood associated species) are explored. Needs are highlighted: biodiversity monitoring, adaptive management and context-based recommendations. (authors)

  19. Cost of increasing access to artemisinin combination therapy: the Cambodian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socheat Duong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy from cheap ineffective monotherapies to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the global community are considering setting up a global subsidy to fund their purchase. However, in order to ensure that ACTs are correctly used and are accessible to the poor and remote communities who need them, specific interventions will be necessary and the additional costs need to be considered. Methods This paper presents an incremental cost analysis of some of these interventions in Cambodia, the first country to change national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine. These costs include the cost of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, the cost of blister-packaging the drugs locally and the costs of increasing access to diagnosis and treatment to remote communities through malaria outreach teams (MOTs and Village Malaria Workers (VMW. Results At optimum productive capacity, the cost of blister-packaging cost under $0.20 per package but in reality was significantly more than this because of the low rate of production. The annual fixed cost (exclusive of RDTs and drugs per capita of the MOT and VMW schemes was $0.44 and $0.69 respectively. However because the VMW scheme achieved a higher rate of coverage than the MOT scheme, the cost per patient treated was substantially lower at $5.14 compared to $12.74 per falciparum malaria patient treated. The annual cost inclusive of the RDTs and drugs was $19.31 for the MOT scheme and $11.28 for the VMW scheme given similar RDT positivity rates of around 22% and good provider compliance to test results. Conclusion In addition to the cost of ACTs themselves, substantial additional investments are required in order to ensure that they reach the targeted population via appropriate delivery systems and to ensure that they are used appropriately. In addition, differences

  20. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  1. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of increasing bisphosphonates adherence for osteoporosis in community pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Boven, J.F.M.; Oosterhof, P.; Hiddink, E.G.; Stuurman-Bieze, A.G.G.; Postma, M.J.; Vegter, S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increasing real-life adherence to bisphosphonates therapy is important to achieve the clinical benefits of reducing fractures reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). The aim of this pharmacoeconomic analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical care

  3. Increasing the cost-constrained availability of WDM Networks with Degree-3 Structured Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Georgakilas, Kostas; Katrinis, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    based on genetic algorithms, we evaluate the performance of structured topologies and compare it against a practical topology (NSFNET). The results manifest that nodal degree fairness leads to increased availability compared to conventional topologies, while not incurring higher capital and deployment...... cost....

  4. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  5. Cost-optimal electricity systems with increasing renewable energy penetration for islands across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Velzen, Leonore

    2018-01-01

    Cost-optimal electricity system configurations with increasing renewable energy penetration were determined in this article for six islands of different geographies, sizes and contexts, utilizing photovoltaic energy, wind energy, pumped hydro storage and battery storage. The results of the

  6. Cost-effectiveness of increasing statin adherence for primary and secondary prevention in community pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; Oosterhof, P.; Van Boven, J.F.; Stuurman-Bieze, A.G.G.; Hiddink, E.G.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Therapy persistence is important to achieve optimal clinical benefits of statin therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies, aimed to increase persistence with statin therapy for both primary and secondary

  7. 76 FR 66111 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0075] Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2012 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under title II of the...

  8. 77 FR 65754 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... eligibility or claiming benefits, call 1-800-772-1213, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0054] Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2013 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under title II of the...

  9. 75 FR 65696 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... eligibility or claiming benefits, call 1-800-772-1213, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Office of the Commissioner [Docket No. SSA-2010-0054] Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  10. Short-term responses of Dutch vacationers to a sharp increase in transport costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates vacationers’ short-term responses to a sharp increase in transport costs. It aims to (1) acquire an understanding of the relative popularity of the different types of responses among vacationers and (2) explore whether there are distinct market segments of vacationers that

  11. Near-linear cost increase to reduce climate-change risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, M. [Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kram, T.; Van Vuuren, D.P. [Climate and Global Sustainability Group, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Meinshausen, M.; Hare, W.L. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Schneider, S.H. (ed.) [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-12-30

    One approach in climate-change policy is to set normative long-term targets first and then infer the implied emissions pathways. An important example of a normative target is to limit the global-mean temperature change to a certain maximum. In general, reported cost estimates for limiting global warming often rise rapidly, even exponentially, as the scale of emission reductions from a reference level increases. This rapid rise may suggest that more ambitious policies may be prohibitively expensive. Here, we propose a probabilistic perspective, focused on the relationship between mitigation costs and the likelihood of achieving a climate target. We investigate the qualitative, functional relationship between the likelihood of achieving a normative target and the costs of climate-change mitigation. In contrast to the example of exponentially rising costs for lowering concentration levels, we show that the mitigation costs rise proportionally to the likelihood of meeting a temperature target, across a range of concentration levels. In economic terms investing in climate mitigation to increase the probability of achieving climate targets yields 'constant returns to scale', because of a counterbalancing rapid rise in the probabilities of meeting a temperature target as concentration is lowered.

  12. 20 CFR 404.277 - When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living adjustments? 404.277 Section 404.277 Employees' Benefits... Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.277 When does the frozen minimum primary insurance amount increase because of cost-of-living adjustments? (a) What is the frozen minimum primary...

  13. Non-linear increase of respiratory diseases and their costs under severe air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Wu, Yiyun; Chen, Guangdi; Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Baojing; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    China is experiencing severe and persistent air pollution, with concentrations of fine particulate matters (PM 2.5 ) reaching unprecedentedly high levels in many cities. Quantifying the detrimental effects on health and their costs derived from high PM 2.5 levels is crucial because of the unsolved challenges to mitigate air pollution in the following decades. Using the daily monitoring data on PM 2.5 concentrations and clinic visits, we found a non-linear increase of respiratory diseases, but not for other diseases (e.g., digestive diseases) under severe air pollution. We found an increase of respiratory diseases by 1% for each 10 μg m -3 increase in PM 2.5 when the annual average daily PM 2.5 concentration was less than 50 μg m -3 ; while this ratio was doubled (around 2%) with the daily PM 2.5 concentration larger than 50 μg m -3 . Under severe air pollution (PM 2.5 concentration >150 μg m -3 ), the respiratory diseases increased by over 50% compared to that in clean days. Children are more sensitive to the severe air pollution. The increase of clinic visits, especially for adults, was observed mainly in bigger (>500 beds) hospitals. Re-allocating medical resources (e.g., doctors) from big hospitals to community hospitals can benefit the respiratory patients due to air pollution. The total medical cost of clinic visits of respiratory diseases derived from PM 2.5 pollution was estimated at 17.2-57.0 billion Yuan in 2014 in China, accounting for 0.5-1.6% of national total health expenditure. Because these medical costs only represent a small part of total health cost derived from air pollution, the reduction of associated health costs would be an important co-benefit of implementation of air pollution preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sympathy for the Devil: Detailing the Effects of Planning-Unit Size, Thematic Resolution of Reef Classes, and Socioeconomic Costs on Spatial Priorities for Marine Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Jessica; Pressey, Robert L; Weeks, Rebecca; Andréfouët, Serge; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Spatial data characteristics have the potential to influence various aspects of prioritising biodiversity areas for systematic conservation planning. There has been some exploration of the combined effects of size of planning units and level of classification of physical environments on the pattern and extent of priority areas. However, these data characteristics have yet to be explicitly investigated in terms of their interaction with different socioeconomic cost data during the spatial prioritisation process. We quantify the individual and interacting effects of three factors-planning-unit size, thematic resolution of reef classes, and spatial variability of socioeconomic costs-on spatial priorities for marine conservation, in typical marine planning exercises that use reef classification maps as a proxy for biodiversity. We assess these factors by creating 20 unique prioritisation scenarios involving combinations of different levels of each factor. Because output data from these scenarios are analogous to ecological data, we applied ecological statistics to determine spatial similarities between reserve designs. All three factors influenced prioritisations to different extents, with cost variability having the largest influence, followed by planning-unit size and thematic resolution of reef classes. The effect of thematic resolution on spatial design depended on the variability of cost data used. In terms of incidental representation of conservation objectives derived from finer-resolution data, scenarios prioritised with uniform cost outperformed those prioritised with variable cost. Following our analyses, we make recommendations to help maximise the spatial and cost efficiency and potential effectiveness of future marine conservation plans in similar planning scenarios. We recommend that planners: employ the smallest planning-unit size practical; invest in data at the highest possible resolution; and, when planning across regional extents with the intention

  15. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; Pcost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  16. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  19. Increased length of stay and costs associated with weekend admissions for failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel T; Bennett, William E; Finnell, S Maria E; Downs, Stephen M; Carroll, Aaron E

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether admission day of the week affects the length of stay (LOS) and health care costs for failure to thrive (FTT) admissions. Administrative data were obtained for all children aged <2 years (N = 23 332) with a primary admission diagnosis of FTT from 2003-2011 from 42 freestanding US hospitals. Demographic characteristics, day of admission, LOS, costs per stay, number of discharge diagnoses, primary discharge diagnoses, primary procedure code, number of radiologic and laboratory units billed during admission were obtained for each admission. Linear regression and zero-truncated Poisson regression were used for analysis. Weekend admission was significantly correlated with increased LOS and increased average cost (P < .002). This finding was also true for children with both admission and discharge diagnoses of FTT (P < .001). The number of procedures for children admitted on the weekend was not significantly different compared with children admitted on the weekdays (incident rate ratio [IRR]:1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.09]). However, weekend admissions did have more radiologic studies (IRR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.10-1.16]) and laboratory tests (IRR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.38-1.40]) performed. If one-half of weekend admissions in 2010 with both admission and discharge diagnoses of FTT were converted to Monday admissions, total savings in health care dollars for 2010 would be $534, 145. Scheduled FTT admissions on weekends increased LOS and health care costs compared with weekday admissions of similar levels of complexity. Reduction in planned weekend admissions for FTT could significantly reduce health care costs.

  20. Blood Transfusion During Total Ankle Arthroplasty Is Associated With Increased In-Hospital Complications and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Michael A; Huntley, Samuel R; Baker, Dustin K; Smith, Kenneth S; Hudson, Parke W; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent A; Johnson, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly used, effective treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Although numerous studies have associated blood transfusion with complications following hip and knee arthroplasty, its effects following TAA are largely unknown. This study uses data from a large, nationally representative database to estimate the association between blood transfusion and inpatient complications and hospital costs following TAA. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2004 to 2014, 25 412 patients who underwent TAA were identified, with 286 (1.1%) receiving a blood transfusion. Univariate analysis assessed patient and hospital factors associated with blood transfusion following TAA. Patients requiring blood transfusion were more likely to be female, African American, Medicare recipients, and treated in nonteaching hospitals. Average length of stay for patients following transfusion was 3.0 days longer, while average inpatient cost was increased by approximately 50%. Patients who received blood transfusion were significantly more likely to suffer from congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, hypothyroidism, coagulation disorder, or anemia. Acute renal failure was significantly more common among patients receiving blood transfusion ( P < .001). Blood transfusions following TAA are infrequent and are associated with multiple medical comorbidities, increased complications, longer hospital stays, and increased overall cost. Level III: Retrospective, comparative study.

  1. Increased care demand and medical costs after falls in nursing homes: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterke, Carolyn Shanty; Panneman, Martien J; Erasmus, Vicki; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F

    2018-04-21

    To estimate the increased care demand and medical costs caused by falls in nursing homes. There is compelling evidence that falls in nursing homes are preventable. However, proper implementation of evidence-based guidelines to prevent falls is often hindered by insufficient management support, staff time and funding. A three-round Delphi study. A panel of 41 experts, all working in nursing homes in the Netherlands, received three online questionnaires to estimate the extra hours of care needed during the first year after the fall. This was estimated for ten falls categories with different levels of injury severity, in three scenarios, that is a best-case, a typical-case and a worst-case scenario. We calculated the costs of falls by multiplying the mean amount of extra hours that the participants spent on the care for a resident after a fall with their hourly wages. In case of a noninjurious fall, the extra time spent on the faller is on average almost 5 hr, expressed in euros that add to € 193. The extra staff time and costs of falls increased with increasing severity of injury. In the case of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 132 hr, expressed in euros that is € 4,604. In the worst-case scenario of a fracture of the lower limb, the extra staff time increased to 284 hr, expressed in euros that is € 10,170. Falls in nursing homes result in a great deal of extra staff time spent on care, with extra costs varying between € 193 for a noninjurious fall and € 10,170 for serious falls. This study could aid decision-making on investing in appropriate implementation of falls prevention interventions in nursing homes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cost benefit analysis of energy conservation measures on the motor car traffic sector. Nutzen-Kosten-Analyse fuer Energiesparmassnahmen auf dem Sektor Kraftwagenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner-Newton, I.; Lenz, H.P.; Vecernik, P.; Biberschick, D.; Wailzer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The book consists of 6 chapters and an introduction. The following subjects are discussed: Chapter 2: Search for relevant publications. Chapter 3: Austria's energy situation and its influence on individual motor car traffic. Chapter 4: Ways to reduce fuel consumption. Chapter 5: Cost benefit analyses. Chapter 6: Evaluation of the possible energy conservation measures.

  3. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1) to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of biochar made from rice husk, (2) to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3) to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approa...

  4. Climate-based policies may increase life-cycle social costs of vehicle fleet operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac; Mbonimpa, Eric; Thal, Alfred E.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability guidelines and regulations in the United States often focus exclusively on carbon or petroleum reductions. Though some of these policies have resulted in substantial progress toward their goals, the effects of these efforts on other social and environmental externalities are often ignored. In this study, we examine the life-cycle air pollutant emissions for alternative fuel and vehicle purchase scenarios at a military installation near a typical urban area in the United States (U.S.). We find that scenarios which minimize petroleum use or greenhouse gas emissions do not concomitantly minimize criteria air pollutant emissions. We also employ social cost methodologies to quantify economic externalities due to climate change and health-related air pollutant impacts. Accounting for the social costs of climate change and air pollution from vehicle use reveals that criteria air pollutants may have a greater total impact than greenhouse gas emissions in locations similar to the urban area examined in this study. Use of first-generation biofuels, particularly corn grain ethanol, may reduce net petroleum use at the cost of increased total health impacts. More comprehensive policies may be needed to ensure that sustainability policies result in a net benefit to society. - Highlights: • U.S. energy and transportation policies focus on petroleum use and greenhouse gases. • Use of corn ethanol at a military base in Ohio, U.S. increases total social costs vs. gasoline. • Renewable electricity provides cost-effective climate and health protection. • DOD strategy to improve energy security may damage Americans' health. • More inclusive policies needed to protect health and climate.

  5. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  6. Effect of increasing energy cost on arm coordination in elite sprint swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, J; Leprêtre, P M; Alberty, M; Vantorre, J; Fernandes, R J; Hellard, P; Chollet, D; Seifert, L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in stroke parameters, motor organization and swimming efficiency with increasing energy cost in aquatic locomotion. Seven elite sprint swimmers performed a 6×300-m incremental swimming test. Stroke parameters (speed, stroke rate and stroke length), motor organization (arm stroke phases and arm coordination index), swimming efficiency (swimming speed squared and hand speed squared) and stroke index were calculated from aerial and underwater side-view cameras. The energy cost of locomotion was assessed by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate. Results showed that the increase in energy cost of locomotion was correlated to an increase in the index of coordination and stroke rate, and a decrease in stroke length (pstroke index did not change significantly with the speed increments (pstroke rate were observed, along with a decrease in stroke length, stroke index and hand speed squared with each increment, revealing an adaptation to the fatigue within the 300m. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased lower limb muscle coactivation reduces gait performance and increases metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Martina; Ranavolo, Alberto; Conforto, Silvia; Martino, Giovanni; Draicchio, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Bini, Fabiano; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait. Energy consumption and energy recovery were measured as well. In addition to the correlation analysis between coactivation indexes and clinical variables, correlations between coactivation indexes and time-distance, kinematic, kinetic, and energetic parameters were estimated. Increased coactivity indexes of both knee and ankle muscles throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait were observed in patients compared with controls. Energetic parameters were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Both knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were positively correlated with knee and ankle spasticity (Ashworth score), respectively. Knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were both positively correlated with energy consumption and both negatively correlated with energy recovery. Positive correlations between the Ashworth score and lower limb muscle coactivation suggest that abnormal lower limb muscle coactivation in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis reflects a primary deficit linked to lower limb spasticity. Furthermore, these abnormalities influence the energetic mechanisms during walking. Identifying excessive muscle coactivation may be helpful in individuating the rehabilitative treatments and designing specific orthosis to restrain spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. US/FRG joint report on the pebble bed high temperature reactor resource conservation potential and associated fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuchert, E.; Ruetten, H.J.; Worley, B.A.; Vondy, D.R.

    1979-11-01

    Independent analyses at ORNL and KFA have led to the general conclusion that the flexibility in design and operation of a high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor (PBR) can result in favorable ore utilization and fuel costs in comparison with other reactor types, in particular, with light-water reactors (LWRs). Fuel reprocessign and recycle show considerable promise for reducing ore consumption, and even the PBR throwaway cycle is competitive with fuel recycle in an LWR. The best performance results from the use of highly enriched fuel. Proliferation-resistant measures can be taken using medium-enriched fuel at a modest ore penalty, while use of low-enriched fuel would incur further ore penalty. Breeding is possible but net generation of fuel at a significant rate would be expensive, becoming more feasible as ore costs increase substantially. The 233 U inventory for a breeder could be produced by prebreeders using 235 U fuel

  9. Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  10. Public financing of the Medicare program will make its uniform structure increasingly costly to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Shepard, Mark; Skinner, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    The US Medicare program consumes an ever-rising share of the federal budget. Although this public spending can produce health and social benefits, raising taxes to finance it comes at the cost of slower economic growth. In this article we describe a model incorporating the benefits of public programs and the cost of tax financing. The model implies that the "one-size-fits-all" Medicare program, with everyone covered by the same insurance policy, will be increasingly difficult to sustain. We show that a Medicare program with guaranteed basic benefits and the option to purchase additional coverage could lead to more unequal health spending but slower growth in taxation, greater overall well-being, and more rapid growth of gross domestic product. Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare spending and economic prosperity.

  11. Low-Cost Behavioral Nudges Increase Medicaid Take-Up Among Eligible Residents Of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill J; Garcia-Alexander, Ginny; Weller, Margarette A; Baicker, Katherine

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to reduce the ranks of the uninsured hinge on take-up of available programs and subsidies, but take-up of even free insurance is often less than complete. The evidence of the effectiveness of policies aiming to increase take-up is limited. We used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of improved communication and behaviorally informed "nudges" designed to increase Medicaid take-up among eligible populations. Fielding randomized interventions in two different study populations in Oregon, we found that even very low-cost interventions substantially increased enrollment. Effects were larger in a population whose members had already expressed interest in obtaining coverage, but the effects were more persistent in low-income populations whose members were already enrolled in other state assistance programs but had not expressed interest in health insurance. The effects were similar across different demographic groups. Our results suggest that improving the design of enrollment processes and using low-cost mass-outreach efforts have the potential to substantially increase insurance coverage of vulnerable populations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Increase in Total Joint Arthroplasty Projected from 2014 to 2046 in Australia: A Conservative Local Model With International Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen E; Pratt, Nicole L; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Nemes, Szilard

    2017-08-01

    100,000; 95% PI, 402-717 per 100,000) compared with 2013 (IR = 437 per 100,000; 95% CI, 397-479 per 100,000) and the volume to increase by 142%. A large increase in the volume of arthroplasties is expected using a conservative projection model that accounts for past surgical trends and future population changes in Australia. These findings have international implications, as they show that using country- specific, conservative projection approaches, a substantial increase in the number of these procedures is expected. This increase in joint arthroplasty volume will require appropriate workforce planning, resource allocation, and budget planning so that demand can be met. Level II, economic and decision analysis.

  13. Smart spatial incentives for market-based conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig, Florian; Drechsler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as payments, auctions or tradable permits have been proposed as flexible and cost-effective instruments for biodiversity conservation on private lands. Trading the service of conservation requires one to define a metric that determines the extent to which a conserved site adds to the regional conservation objective. Yet, while markets for conservation are widely discussed and increasingly applied, little research has been conducted on explicitly accounting for sp...

  14. Ablation - breakthrough technology to reduce uranium mining cost and increase resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, D.

    2014-01-01

    Ablation Technologies, LLC has developed and patented a revolutionary mining technology termed “ablation”. Ablation is a process using only mechanical forces to upgrade sandstone uranium ores. Uranium bearing sandstone orebodies are formed from a uranium enriched solution flowing through an aquifer until it reached some type of a “red/ox” zone forcing the uranium and other heavy metals to come out of solution. The precipitate forms a thin coating on the sand grains and fills the interstitial space between the sand grains but does no penetrate the sand grains. The ablation process knocks the precipitate off the sand grains using the forces of abrasion, elastic compression and rebounding, much like a mud coated tennis ball will sheds the mud when bounced off the ground, and to some extent, sonic waves. This produces a product which collectively is exactly the same as the ore going in but with all the individual components separated. This allows for disgressionary separation, the most important of which is screening. The uranium and heavy metals report to the finer fractions of the material, typically less than 250 mesh. The larger fractions contain less than five percent of the uranium but 90 to 95 percent of the mass. The advantages of making an enriched ore are numerous: • Reduce haulage costs from 90 to 95 percent. • Reduce milling costs by reducing material handling costs, acid consumption and tailings disposal costs. • In addition to reducing overall mining and milling costs, the overall recovery of the recourse is increased because the ablation process is so inexpensive, if the material has to be mined it will be ablated and screened. This basically means ore control is significantly reduced, cutoff grade goes to practically zero and overall resource recovery is significantly increased. • Environmentally, the two major advantages are reduced tailings requirements at the mill site and cleaner waste dumps at the mine site. This paper will show

  15. SLAM family markers are conserved among hematopoietic stem cells from old and reconstituted mice and markedly increase their purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Omer H; Kiel, Mark J; Morrison, Sean J

    2006-02-01

    Recent advances have increased the purity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) isolated from young mouse bone marrow. However, little attention has been paid to the purity of HSCs from other contexts. Although Thy-1 low Sca-1+ Lineage- c-kit+ cells from young bone marrow are highly enriched for HSCs (1 in 5 cells gives long-term multilineage reconstitution after transplantation into irradiated mice), the same population from old, reconstituted, or cytokine-mobilized mice engrafts much less efficiently (1 in 78 to 1 in 185 cells gives long-term multilineage reconstitution). To test whether we could increase the purity of HSCs isolated from these contexts, we examined the SLAM family markers CD150 and CD48. All detectable HSCs from old, reconstituted, and cyclophosphamide/G-CSF-mobilized mice were CD150+ CD48-, just as in normal young bone marrow. Thy-1 low Sca-1+ Lineage- c-kit+ cells from old, reconstituted, or mobilized mice included mainly CD48+ and/or CD150- cells that lacked reconstituting ability. CD150+ CD48- Sca-1+ Lineage- c-kit+ cells from old, reconstituted, or mobilized mice were much more highly enriched for HSCs, with 1 in 3 to 1 in 7 cells giving long-term multilineage reconstitution. SLAM family receptor expression is conserved among HSCs from diverse contexts, and HSCs from old, reconstituted, and mobilized mice engraft relatively efficiently after transplantation when contaminating cells are eliminated.

  16. The influence of increased distal loading on metabolic cost, efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Bessone, Veronica; Federolf, Peter; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively. At 12% incline, there was a significant increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in gross efficiency with added weight (P0.05). No changes in cycle characteristics were observed between the different ski loadings at either incline, although the lateral and vertical displacements of the foot/skis were slightly altered at 12% incline with added weight. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increased loading of the ski increases the metabolic cost and reduces gross efficiency during steep uphill roller skiing in G2 skating, whereas no significant effect was revealed when skating on relatively flat terrain in G3. Cycle characteristics remained unchanged across conditions at both inclines, whereas small adjustments in the displacement of the foot coincided with the efficiency changes in uphill terrain. The increased RPE values with added ski-weight at both inclines indicates that other factors than those measured here could have influenced effort and/or fatigue when lifting a heavier ski.

  17. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1 to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR of biochar made from rice husk, (2 to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3 to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approach. The result showed that, firstly, the BCR of biochar from rice husks was 1.35 which indicated that biochar productivity as feasible. Secondly, the provision of biochar and fertilizer on agricultural could increase rice productivity of 4.2 ton/ha (control treatment to 5.5 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer and 6 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizers. Thirdly, the benefit cost ratio of paddy farming system for control treatment (1.54, higher than biochar+organic fertilizer treatment (1.46 and biochar+organic fertilizer+chemical fertilizer treatment.

  18. Room Service Improves Nutritional Intake and Increases Patient Satisfaction While Decreasing Food Waste and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Sally; Maunder, Kirsty; Krikowa, Renee; MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen

    2018-02-01

    Room service is a foodservice model that has been increasingly implemented across health care facilities in an effort to improve patient satisfaction and reduce food waste. In 2013, Mater Private Hospital Brisbane, Australia, was the first hospital in Australia to implement room service, with the aim of improving patient nutrition care and reducing costs. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the nutritional intake, plate waste, patient satisfaction, and patient meal costs of room service compared to a traditional foodservice model. A retrospective analysis of quality-assurance data audits was undertaken to assess patient nutritional intake between a facility utilizing a traditional foodservice model and a facility utilizing room service and in a pre-post study design to assess plate waste, patient satisfaction, and patient meal costs before and after the room service implementation. Audit data were collected for eligible adult inpatients in Mater Private Hospital Brisbane and Mater Hospital Brisbane, Australia, between July 2012 and May 2015. The primary outcome measures were nutritional intake, plate waste, patient satisfaction, and patient meal costs. Independent samples t-tests and χ 2 analyses were conducted between pre and post data for continuous data and categorical data, respectively. Pearson χ 2 analysis of count data for sex and reasons for plate waste for data with counts more than five was used to determine asymptotic (two-sided) significance and n-1 χ 2 used for the plate waste analysis. Significance was assessed at P<0.05. This study reported an increased nutritional intake, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced plate waste and patient meal costs with room service compared to a traditional foodservice model. Comparison of nutritional intake between a traditional foodservice model (n=85) and room service (n=63) showed statistically significant increases with room service in both energy (1,306 kcal/day vs 1,588 kcal/day; P=0

  19. Bird community conservation and carbon offsets in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Richard; Martin, Tara G; Arcese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Conservation initiatives to protect and restore valued species and communities in human-dominated landscapes face huge challenges linked to the cost of acquiring habitat. We ask how the sale of forest carbon offsets could reduce land acquisition costs, and how the alternate goals of maximizing α or β-diversity in focal communities could affect the prioritization land parcels over a range of conservation targets. Maximizing total carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential reduced land acquisition costs by up to 48%. Maximizing β rather than α-diversity within forest and savannah bird communities reduced acquisition costs by up to 15%, and when these solutions included potential carbon credit revenues, acquisition cost reductions up to 32% were achieved. However, the total cost of conservation networks increased exponentially as area targets increased in all scenarios. Our results indicate that carbon credit sales have the potential to enhance conservation outcomes in human-dominated landscapes by reducing the net acquisition costs of land conservation in old and maturing forests essential for the persistence of old forest plant and animal communities. Maximizing β versus α-diversity may further reduce costs by reducing the total area required to meet conservation targets and enhancing landscape heterogeneity. Although the potential value of carbon credit sales declined as a fraction of total acquisition costs, even conservative scenarios using a carbon credit value of $12.5/T suggest reductions in acquisition cost of up to $235 M, indicating that carbon credit sales could substantially reduce the costs of conservation.

  20. Reducing Nitrogen Pollution while Decreasing Farmers' Costs and Increasing Fertilizer Industry Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is emerging as one of the most important environmental issues of the 21st Century, contributing to air and water pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone depletion. With agriculture being the dominant source, we tested whether it is possible to reduce agricultural N pollution in a way that benefits the environment, reduces farmers' costs, and increases fertilizer industry profitability, thereby creating a "sweet spot" for decision-makers that could significantly increase the viability of improved N management initiatives. Although studies of the economic impacts of improved N management have begun to take into account farmers and the environment, this is the first study to consider the fertilizer industry. Our "sweet spot" hypothesis is evaluated via a cost-benefit analysis of moderate and ambitious N use efficiency targets in U.S. and China corn sectors over the period 2015-2035. We use a blend of publicly available crop and energy price projections, original time-series modeling, and expert elicitation. The results present a mixed picture: although the potential for a "sweet spot" exists in both countries, it is more likely that one occurs in China due to the currently extensive overapplication of fertilizer, which creates a greater potential for farmers and the fertilizer industry to gain economically from improved N management. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of improving N management consistently dwarf the economic impacts on farmers and the fertilizer industry in both countries, suggesting that viable policy options could include incentives to farmers and the fertilizer industry to increase their support for N management policies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. The dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) increases both hepatic and extrahepatic ornithine urea cycle enzyme activities for nitrogen conservation after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Makiko; Walsh, Patrick J; Mommsen, Thomas P; Wood, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Urea not only is utilized as a major osmolyte in marine elasmobranchs but also constitutes their main nitrogenous waste. This study investigated the effect of feeding, and thus elevated nitrogen intake, on nitrogen metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias. We determined the activities of ornithine urea cycle (O-UC) and related enzymes in liver and nonhepatic tissues. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (the rate-limiting enzyme of the O-UC) activity in muscle is high compared with liver, and the activities in both tissues increased after feeding. The contribution of muscle to urea synthesis in the dogfish body appears to be much larger than that of liver when body mass is considered. Furthermore, enhanced activities of the O-UC and related enzymes (glutamine synthetase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, arginase) were seen after feeding in both liver and muscle and were accompanied by delayed increases in plasma urea, trimethylamine oxide, total free amino acids, alanine, and chloride concentrations, as well as in total osmolality. The O-UC and related enzymes also occurred in the intestine but showed little change after feeding. Feeding did not change the rate of urea excretion, indicating strong N retention after feeding. Ammonia excretion, which constituted only a small percentage of total N excretion, was raised in fed fish, while plasma ammonia did not change, suggesting that excess ammonia in plasma is quickly ushered into synthesis of urea or protein. In conclusion, we suggest that N conservation is a high priority in this elasmobranch and that feeding promotes ureogenesis and growth. Furthermore, exogenous nitrogen from food is converted into urea not only by the liver but also by the muscle and to a small extent by the intestine.

  2. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad; Kundu, Manik Chandra; Hazra, Gora Chand; Santra, Gour Hari; Mandal, Biswapati

    2010-01-01

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity.

  4. Rehabilitating acid soils for increasing crop productivity through low-cost liming material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Javid Ahmad [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Kundu, Manik Chandra, E-mail: mckundu@rediffmail.com [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Hazra, Gora Chand [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India); Santra, Gour Hari [Department of Soil Science and Agril. Chemistry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751003, Orissa (India); Mandal, Biswapati [Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, West Bengal (India)

    2010-09-15

    Productivity of red and lateritic soils is low because of their acidity and deficiencies in few essential nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, boron, molybdenum etc. We compared the effectiveness of basic slag, a low-cost liming material, with that of calcite as an ameliorant for these soils using mustard followed by rice as test crops. Experiments were conducted with three levels of each of basic slag and calcite along with a control on farmers' fields at 14 different locations. Influence of farmyard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) on the effectiveness of the slag was also tested. On an average, basic slag performed better than calcite in increasing yields of both mustard and rice and left over higher amounts of available Ca, Si and Zn in residual soils. The slag also improved N, P, K and Ca nutrition of mustard and Si and Zn nutrition of rice with a favorable benefit:cost (B:C) ratio over the calcite (4.82 vs. 1.44). Effectiveness of the basic slag improved when it was applied in combination with FYM or PM (B:C, 5.83 and 6.27). Basic slag can, therefore, be advocated for use in the acidic red and lateritic soils for economically improving their productivity.

  5. Why does the energy price increase when cheaper-than-avoided-cost DSM is added?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper systematically approaches the various cost implications of including demand-side management (DMS) in a utility's resource mix. A multidimensional cost structure is developed. The costs of DSM programmes are identified and displayed separately from the standard utility resource costs. Through the use of different marketplace conditions, likely scenarios are identified and described. Cheaper-than-avoided-cost DSM programmes are added to the cost framework, and the results are displayed and examined. The results are then generalized, and the conditions are identified wherein additions of DSM to the utility's resource mix will have a positive (or negative) effect on the utility's prices. (author)

  6. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the cost-benefit of radioactive seed localization versus wire localization for breast-conserving surgery in fee-for-service health care systems compared with accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Vilert A; Edwards, David B; Roche, Kevin T; Steele, Joseph R; Sapareto, Stephen A; Byrum, Stephanie C; Schomer, Donald F

    2014-06-01

    In breast-conserving surgery for nonpalpable breast cancers, surgical reexcision rates are lower with radioactive seed localization (RSL) than wire localization. We evaluated the cost-benefit of switching from wire localization to RSL in two competing payment systems: a fee-for-service (FFS) system and a bundled payment system, which is typical for accountable care organizations. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to compare the cost-benefit of RSL and wire localization. Equipment utilization, procedural workflows, and regulatory overhead differentiate the cost between RSL and wire localization. To define a distribution of possible cost scenarios, the simulation randomly varied cost drivers within fixed ranges determined by hospital data, published literature, and expert input. Each scenario was replicated 1000 times using the pseudorandom number generator within Microsoft Excel, and results were analyzed for convergence. In a bundled payment system, RSL reduced total health care cost per patient relative to wire localization by an average of $115, translating into increased facility margin. In an FFS system, RSL reduced total health care cost per patient relative to wire localization by an average of $595 but resulted in decreased facility margin because of fewer surgeries. In a bundled payment system, RSL results in a modest reduction of cost per patient over wire localization and slightly increased margin. A fee-for-service system suffers moderate loss of revenue per patient with RSL, largely due to lower reexcision rates. The fee-for-service system creates a significant financial disincentive for providers to use RSL, although it improves clinical outcomes and reduces total health care costs.

  8. Europe's gas consumption and imports to increase with adequate low cost supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Gas in Europe has always been sold above its long-run supply price. Lower prices, however, still permit profitable indigeneous supply expansion. As further reductions in production and transport costs from technological advances are expected, this will continue based on the exploitation of large proven and probable reserves. By 2025, indigeneous output will be 60% up on 1995. Nevertheless, an average 2.2%/annum growth in gas demand will increase import dependence from 130 to 320 BCM over this period. Future international oil prices indicate gas-equivalent border values adequate to secure profitable supply from a range of external sources, leading to continuing competition for markets and the diversification of imports. (9 tables; 31 references). (author)

  9. Can broader diffusion of value-based insurance design increase benefits from US health care without increasing costs? Evidence from a computer simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, R Scott; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S

    2010-02-16

    Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles) decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID) has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1) applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2) applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices). We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services (value services ($100,000-$300,000 per life-year or unknown), and would be increased for low-value services (>$300,000 per life-year). All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80%) of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase

  10. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  11. Can broader diffusion of value-based insurance design increase benefits from US health care without increasing costs? Evidence from a computer simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Braithwaite

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1 applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2 applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices. We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services ($300,000 per life-year. All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80% of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase. CONCLUSION: Broader diffusion of VBID may amplify benefits from

  12. Chimeric β-Lactamases: Global Conservation of Parental Function and Fast Time-Scale Dynamics with Increased Slow Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Christopher M.; Morin, Sébastien; Gobeil, Sophie M. C.; Doucet, Nicolas; Blanchet, Jonathan; Nguyen, Elisabeth; Gagné, Stéphane M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme engineering has been facilitated by recombination of close homologues, followed by functional screening. In one such effort, chimeras of two class-A β-lactamases – TEM-1 and PSE-4 – were created according to structure-guided protein recombination and selected for their capacity to promote bacterial proliferation in the presence of ampicillin (Voigt et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002 9:553). To provide a more detailed assessment of the effects of protein recombination on the structure and function of the resulting chimeric enzymes, we characterized a series of functional TEM-1/PSE-4 chimeras possessing between 17 and 92 substitutions relative to TEM-1 β-lactamase. Circular dichroism and thermal scanning fluorimetry revealed that the chimeras were generally well folded. Despite harbouring important sequence variation relative to either of the two ‘parental’ β-lactamases, the chimeric β-lactamases displayed substrate recognition spectra and reactivity similar to their most closely-related parent. To gain further insight into the changes induced by chimerization, the chimera with 17 substitutions was investigated by NMR spin relaxation. While high order was conserved on the ps-ns timescale, a hallmark of class A β-lactamases, evidence of additional slow motions on the µs-ms timescale was extracted from model-free calculations. This is consistent with the greater number of resonances that could not be assigned in this chimera relative to the parental β-lactamases, and is consistent with this well-folded and functional chimeric β-lactamase displaying increased slow time-scale motions. PMID:23284969

  13. Widespread Shortening of 3' Untranslated Regions and Increased Exon Inclusion Are Evolutionarily Conserved Features of Innate Immune Responses to Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athma A Pai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of pre-mRNA processing mechanisms to the regulation of immune responses remains poorly studied despite emerging examples of their role as regulators of immune defenses. We sought to investigate the role of mRNA processing in the cellular responses of human macrophages to live bacterial infections. Here, we used mRNA sequencing to quantify gene expression and isoform abundances in primary macrophages from 60 individuals, before and after infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In response to both bacteria we identified thousands of genes that significantly change isoform usage in response to infection, characterized by an overall increase in isoform diversity after infection. In response to both bacteria, we found global shifts towards (i the inclusion of cassette exons and (ii shorter 3' UTRs, with near-universal shifts towards usage of more upstream polyadenylation sites. Using complementary data collected in non-human primates, we show that these features are evolutionarily conserved among primates. Following infection, we identify candidate RNA processing factors whose expression is associated with individual-specific variation in isoform abundance. Finally, by profiling microRNA levels, we show that 3' UTRs with reduced abundance after infection are significantly enriched for target sites for particular miRNAs. These results suggest that the pervasive usage of shorter 3' UTRs is a mechanism for particular genes to evade repression by immune-activated miRNAs. Collectively, our results suggest that dynamic changes in RNA processing may play key roles in the regulation of innate immune responses.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery: Increasing the Economic Viability of the Most Effective Treatment for Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy A; Ewing, Joseph A; Hale, Allyson L; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Bour, Eric S; Scott, John D

    2015-08-01

    There has been considerable debate on the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery within larger population groups. Despite the recognition that morbid obesity and its comorbidities are best treated surgically, insurance coverage is not universally available. One of the more costly comorbidities of obesity is Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose a model that demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of bariatric surgical operations performed on patients with T2DM in the United States. We applied published population cost estimates (2012) for medical care of T2DM to a retrospective cohort of morbidly obese patients in South Carolina. We compared differences in 10-year medical costs between those having bariatric surgery and controls. Resolution of T2DM in the bariatric cohort was assumed to be 40 per cent. Considering only the direct medical costs of T2DM, the 10-year aggregate cost savings compared with a control group is $2.7 million/1000 patients; the total (direct and indirect) cost savings is $5.4 million/1000 patients. When considering resolution of T2DM alone, increasing the number of bariatric operations for a given population leads to a substantial cost savings over a 10-year period. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery is a cost-effective means of caring for the obese patient.

  15. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2013-01-01

    conservation outcomes. Alternative risk measures generally resulted in the allocation of conservation funds to the same priority clusters of cacao (Criollo and Curaray). However, the use of the number of locally common alleles as an alternative to the original Weitzman diversity measure produced a markedly...... different result, prioritising the Purús cluster in Western Amazonia. The Curaray cluster was highly prioritised under both diversity measures, indicating its distinctiveness relative to both the Criollo and Purús clusters. We conclude that the Weitzman approach can indeed allow diversity comparisons...

  16. Cost-free and sustainable incentive increases healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, D W; Parker, J S; Getz, B R; Jackson, C M; Le, T-A P; Riggs, S B; Shay, J M

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to develop a cost-free and sustainable program to influence healthier eating decisions during elementary school lunch. Baseline food and beverage choices were assessed for 9 days during lunch service at two racially and economically diverse elementary schools in Spartanburg County, SC, USA. After being informed that the labeled items on the daily lunch menu represented the healthiest choice, students were allowed to ring a call bell in the cafeteria for public recognition when they chose all of the identified healthiest food and beverage items during lunch service. Using menus matched to the baseline phase, food and beverage choices were measured during a 9-day intervention phase. After 30 days, food and beverage choices were reassessed during a 3-day follow-up phase. Healthiest food & beverage choices increased 49% with >60% of students choosing non-flavored milk over flavored milk during the intervention phase. There was no difference in the success of the program between the two schools. The program continued and healthy eating decisions were significantly sustained at a 30-day follow-up assessment. Public recognition through bell ringing appears to be an effective practice to sustain increases in healthy eating decisions during elementary school lunch and warrants expansion to larger scale, longitudinal trials.

  17. Hydric "Costs" of Reproduction: Pregnancy Increases Evaporative Water Loss in the Snake Vipera aspis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, Olivier; Dupoué, Andréaz; Guillon, Michaël; Guiller, Gaëtan; Michaud, Bruno; DeNardo, Dale F

    Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper. We found that both physiological (increased metabolism and body temperature) and morphological (body distension) changes contribute to an increased evaporative water loss in pregnant females. We also found that pregnant females in the wild select warmer and moister basking locations than nonreproductive females, likely to mitigate the conflict between thermal needs and water loss. Water resources likely induce significant reproductive constraints across diverse taxa and thus warrant further consideration in ecological research. From an evolutionary perspective, water constraints during reproduction may contribute to shaping reproductive effort.

  18. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  19. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  20. Estimated Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive Interdisciplinary Behavioral Treatment for Increasing Oral Intake in Children With Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Burdo-Hartman, Wendelin; Halpin, Elizabeth; Williams, Carol

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE : To examine the cost-effectiveness of intensive interdisciplinary behavioral treatment (IIBT) to address severe pediatric feeding difficulties and lead to the removal or prevention of gastrostomy tubes (G tubes) from the perspective of the insurance company.  METHODS : Costs associated with G tubes and IIBT were compiled from the available literature and national databases. Costs were updated to price at the start of 2015 to allow data from different years to be analyzed on the same scale.  RESULTS : One-way sensitivity and two-way threshold analyses demonstrated that IIBT may be a cost-effective treatment for prevention and removal of G tubes over 5 and 10 years.  DISCUSSION : Data from this study can be used to justify cost of services for IIBT, and programs can use these data to discuss conservative savings of IIBT based on their treatment model and level of effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  2. QUALITY COSTS AS THE FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS INCREASE AT DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Lazibat, Tonći; Matić, Božo

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of quality costs as the factor of competitiveness at the world market. For this purpose it is given definition of quality costs, their structure and characteristics, and the control system-supervision, as the subsystem of quality system determined by international standards ISO 9000ff. There are also analyzed experiences in monitoring the quality costs in developed countries and countries in transition-transitional countries, with a special retrospect to the...

  3. Dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing diet cost according to income: An analysis among French adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Maillot

    Full Text Available To explore the dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy across income levels at constant energy and diet cost.Individual diet modelling was used to design iso-caloric, nutritionally adequate optimised diets for each observed diet in a sample of adult normo-reporters aged ≥20 years (n = 1,719 from the Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2, 2006-2007. Diet cost was estimated from mean national food prices (2006-2007. A first set of free-cost models explored the impact of optimisation on the variation of diet cost. A second set of iso-cost models explored the dietary changes induced by the optimisation with cost set equal to the observed one. Analyses of dietary changes were conducted by income quintiles, adjusting for energy intake, sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables, and smoking status.The cost of observed diets increased with increasing income quintiles. In free-cost models, the optimisation increased diet cost on average (+0.22 ± 1.03 euros/d and within each income quintile, with no significant difference between quintiles, but with systematic increases for observed costs lower than 3.85 euros/d. In iso-cost models, it was possible to design nutritionally adequate diets whatever the initial observed cost. On average, the optimisation at iso-cost increased fruits and vegetables (+171 g/day, starchy foods (+121 g/d, water and beverages (+91 g/d, and dairy products (+20 g/d, and decreased the other food groups (e.g. mixed dishes and salted snacks, leading to increased total diet weight (+300 g/d. Those changes were mostly similar across income quintiles, but lower-income individuals needed to introduce significantly more fruit and vegetables than higher-income ones.In France, the dietary changes needed to reach nutritional adequacy without increasing cost are similar regardless of income, but may be more difficult to implement when the budget for food is lower than 3.85 euros/d.

  4. The Customer Isn't Always Right—Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P.; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Baker, Sandra E.; D'Cruze, Neil C.; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20–40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6–6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists’ feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500–13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000–340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000–550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide. PMID:26489092

  5. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P Moorhouse

    Full Text Available Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  6. The Customer Isn't Always Right-Conservation and Animal Welfare Implications of the Increasing Demand for Wildlife Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Tom P; Dahlsjö, Cecilia A L; Baker, Sandra E; D'Cruze, Neil C; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tourism accounts for 9% of global GDP and comprises 1.1 billion tourist arrivals per annum. Visits to wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs) may account for 20-40% of global tourism, but no studies have audited the diversity of WTAs and their impacts on the conservation status and welfare of subject animals. We scored these impacts for 24 types of WTA, visited by 3.6-6 million tourists per year, and compared our scores to tourists' feedback on TripAdvisor. Six WTA types (impacting 1,500-13,000 individual animals) had net positive conservation/welfare impacts, but 14 (120,000-340,000 individuals) had negative conservation impacts and 18 (230,000-550,000 individuals) had negative welfare impacts. Despite these figures only 7.8% of all tourist feedback on these WTAs was negative due to conservation/welfare concerns. We demonstrate that WTAs have substantial negative effects that are unrecognised by the majority of tourists, suggesting an urgent need for tourist education and regulation of WTAs worldwide.

  7. Newly patented process enables low-cost solution for increasing white light spectrum of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie

    2017-10-01

    A newly patented process for completing the spectral light array emitted by LED bulbs provides a low-cost method for producing better human centered lighting (HCL). This process uses non-luminescent colorant filters, filling out the jagged LED spectral emission into a full, white light array. While LED bulbs have the distinct economic advantages of using less energy, producing less heat and lasting years longer than traditional incandescent bulbs, the persistent metameric failure of LED bulbs has resulted in slower, and sometimes reluctant, adoption of LED lighting by the residential, retail and architectural markets. Adding missing wavelengths to LED generated bulbs via colorant filters increases the aesthetic appeal of the light by decreasing current levels of metameric failure, reducing the `flatness', `harshness', and `dullness' of LED generated light reported by consumers. LED phosphor-converted light can be successfully tuned to "whiter" white light with selective color filtering using permanent, durable transparent pigments. These transparent pigments are selectively applied in combination with existing manufacturing technologies and utilized as a final color-tuning step in bulb design. The quantity of emitted light chosen for color filtering can be adjusted from 1% to 100% of emitted light, creating a custom balance of light quantity with light quality. This invention recognizes that "better light" is frequently chosen over "more light" in the consumer marketplace.

  8. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)

    2011-06-15

    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  9. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of a Demand Creation Intervention to Increase Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania: Spending More to Spend Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rueda, Sergio; Wambura, Mwita; Weiss, Helen A; Plotkin, Marya; Kripke, Katharine; Chilongani, Joseph; Mahler, Hally; Kuringe, Evodius; Makokha, Maende; Hellar, Augustino; Schutte, Carl; Kazaura, Kokuhumbya J; Simbeye, Daimon; Mshana, Gerry; Larke, Natasha; Lija, Gissenge; Changalucha, John; Vassall, Anna; Hayes, Richard; Grund, Jonathan M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2018-03-19

    Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness. Tanzania (Njombe and Tabora regions). Cost data were collected on surgery, demand creation activities and monitoring and supervision related to VMMC implementation across clusters in both trial arms, as well as start-up activities for the intervention arm. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool was used to estimate the number of HIV infections averted and related cost savings given total VMMCs per cluster. Disability-adjusted life years were calculated and used to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Client load was higher in the intervention arms than in the control arms: 4394 v. 2901, respectively, in Tabora and 1797 v. 1025 in Njombe. Despite additional costs of tailored demand creation, demand increased more than proportionally: mean costs per VMMC in the intervention arms were $62 in Tabora and $130 in Njombe, and in the control arms $70 and $191, respectively. More infections were averted in the intervention arm than in the control arm in Tabora (123 v. 67, respectively) and in Njombe (164 v. 102, respectively). The intervention dominated the control as it was both less costly and more effective. Cost-savings were observed in both regions stemming from the antiretroviral treatment costs averted as a result of the VMMCs performed. Spending more to address local preferences as a way to increase uptake of VMMC can be cost-saving.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  10. Routes to increasing efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Barink, M.; Klerk, L.; Voorthuijzen, P.; Hovestad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most development work in the laboratory is dedicated to efficiency enhancements at the cell level; improvements in efficiency can lead to higher cost-competitiveness of PV. However, the cost of panel manufacturing is an important aspect as well. For CIGS panels the deposition of the active layer is

  11. Energy Costs and Energy Conservation Programs in Colleges and Universities: 1972-73, 1974-75. Higher Education Panel Reports, Number 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was initiated at the request of the U.S. Office of Education and the Energy Task Force to: (1) measure the increase in energy expenditures since the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-74; (2) assess changes in energy consumption over a two-year period; and (3) examine some of the specific conservation practices of higher education institutions.…

  12. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg−1 day−1), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102......Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs...

  13. 20 CFR 404.274 - What are the measuring periods we use to calculate cost-of-living increases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts... determine whether there will be an automatic cost-of-living increase and if so, its amount. (b) Measuring... increase is effective; or (ii) The third calendar quarter of any year in which the last automatic increase...

  14. Coping With Constraints: Achieving Effective Conservation With Limited Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walls

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1 strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2 complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3 minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  15. Coping with constraints: Achieving effective conservation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1) strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2) complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3) minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  16. Impact of Cost-Sharing Increases on Continuity of Specialty Drug Use: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengxiang; Hu, Tianyan; Yu, Xinyan; Chahin, Salim; Dahodwala, Nabila; Blum, Marissa; Pettit, Amy R; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2017-07-24

    To examine the impact of cost-sharing increases on continuity of specialty drug use in Medicare beneficiaries with multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Five percent Medicare claims data (2007-2010). Quasi-experimental study examining changes in specialty drug use among a group of Medicare Part D beneficiaries without low-income subsidies (non-LIS) as they transitioned from a 5 percent cost-sharing preperiod to a ≥25 percent cost-sharing postperiod, as compared to changes among a disease-matched contemporaneous control group of patients eligible for full low-income subsidies (LIS), who faced minor cost sharing (≤$6.30 copayment) in both the pre- and postperiods. Key variables were extracted from Medicare data. Relative to the LIS group, the non-LIS group had a greater increase in incidence of 30-day continuous gaps in any Part D treatment from the lower cost-sharing period to the higher cost-sharing period (MS, absolute increase = 10.1 percent, OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.19-2.17; RA, absolute increase = 21.9 percent, OR = 2.75, 95% CI 2.15-3.51). The increase in Part D treatment gaps was not offset by increased Part B specialty drug use. Cost-sharing increases due to specialty tier-level cost sharing were associated with interruptions in MS and RA specialty drug treatments. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis

  18. The cost-effectiveness of routine radiation therapy (RT) following conservative surgery (CS) for early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Hillner, Bruce E.; Harris, Jay R.; Weeks, Jane C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The routine use of RT following CS has been shown to decrease the rate of LR by at least 75%, but its ultimate impact on survival remains less clear. Given concerns about its toxicity, inconvenience, and cost, the need for routine RT has been questioned. These concerns, however, need to be balanced against the improved quality of life and reduced salvage costs associated with routine RT. We performed an incremental cost-utility analysis to evaluate whether, even in the assumed absence of a survival advantage, the use of RT in this situation would be considered cost-effective. Materials and Methods: A Markov decision analytic model was developed to examine the incremental impact of the addition of RT to CS on the relevant outcomes and costs from a societal perspective. Using a cycle length of one year, the analysis was performed on a theoretical cohort of 60 year old patients over a 10 year time horizon. To account for quality of life benefits, outcomes were measured in Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). The LR, distant recurrence (DR), and overall survival rates used in the model were drawn principally from NSABP B-06. It was assumed for the baseline analysis that the addition of RT reduces the rate of LR by 75%, but has no impact on overall survival. Salvage for LR following CS and RT consisted of mastectomy and reconstructive surgery (MRS), while, following CS alone, it was assumed that equal numbers of patients would be salvaged by CS and RT and by MRS. The rate of DR was assumed to be constant with and without RT. The utilities of 97 patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with CS and RT were used to adjust the relevant local outcomes for quality of life, while expert judgement was used to estimate the utilities for the DR states. Baseline costs were determined using Medicare charges, ratios of costs to charges and RVUs, all at the Medical College of Virginia. When uncertainties existed, the model was biased against RT. Both benefits and

  19. Increasing Consistency and Transparency in Considering Costs and Benefits in the Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for standardizing terminology and specificity provided in each law regarding the nature and scope of the cost and benefit considerations when setting pollution standards.

  20. Corruption Significantly Increases the Capital Cost of Power Plants in Developing Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Biswajit Debnath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging economies with rapidly growing population and energy demand, own some of the most expensive power plants in the world. We hypothesized that corruption has a relationship with the capital cost of power plants in developing countries such as Bangladesh. For this study, we analyzed the capital cost of 61 operational and planned power plants in Bangladesh. Initial comparison study revealed that the mean capital cost of a power plant in Bangladesh is twice than that of the global average. Then, the statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between corruption and the cost of power plants, indicating that higher corruption leads to greater capital cost. The high up-front cost can be a significant burden on the economy, at present and in the future, as most are financed through international loans with extended repayment terms. There is, therefore, an urgent need for the review of the procurement and due diligence process of establishing power plants, and for the implementation of a more transparent system to mitigate adverse effects of corruption on megaprojects.

  1. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  2. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  3. How to increase the value of urban areas for butterfly conservation? A lesson form Prague nature reserves and parks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Kadlec, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 2 (2011), s. 219-229 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) VaV/620/2/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect conservation * habitat fragments * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1610

  4. ADAPTIF CONSERVATION (ACM MODEL IN INCREASING FAMILY SUPPORT AND COMPLIANCE TREATMENT IN PATIENT WITH PULONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN SURABAYA CITY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Kholifah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB in Indonesia is still health problem and the prevalence rate is high. Discontinuing medication and lack of family support are the causalities. Numbers of strategies to overcome are seemingly not succeeded. Roles and responsibilities of family nursing are crucial to improve participation, motivation of individual, family and community in prevention, including pulmonary tuberculosis. Unfortunately, models of pulmonary tuberculosis currently unavailable. The combination of adaptation and conservation in complementarily improving family support and compliance in medication is introduced in this study. Method: This research intended to analyze Adaptive Conservation Model (ACM in extending family support and treatment compliance. Modeling steps including model analysis, expert validation, field trial, implementation and recommending the output model. Research subject involves 15 families who implement family Assistance and supervision in Medication (ASM and other 15 families with ACM. Result: The study revealed ACM is better than ASM on the case of family support and medication compliances. It supports the role of environment as influential factor on individual health belief, values and decision making. Therefore, it is advised to apply ACM in enhancing family support and compliance of pulmonary TB patients. Discussion: Social and family supports to ACM group obtained by developing interaction through communication. Family interaction necessary to improve family support to pulmonary tuberculosis patients. And social support plays as motivator to maintain compliance on medication

  5. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase coverage of routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J A; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela

    2004-09-01

    Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches.

  6. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  7. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  8. Near-linear cost increase to reduce climate-change risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, M.; Kram, T.; Meinshausen, M.; Vuuren, van D.P.; Hare, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    One approach in climate-change policy is to set normative long-term targets first and then infer the implied emissions pathways. An important example of a normative target is to limit the global-mean temperature change to a certain maximum. In general, reported cost estimates for limiting global

  9. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Internal Controls to Increase Cost Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-P-0144, April 27, 2009. Within a sample of removal actions we reviewed, EPA collected from responsible parties approximately 11 percent ($31.4 of $294.5 million) of the Federal Government’s costs for conducting the removal actions.

  10. What factors increase the risk of incurring high market impact costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, L.; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This article applies quantile regression to assess the factors that influence the risk of incurring high trading costs. Using data on the equity trades of the world’s second largest pension fund in the first quarter of 2002, we show that trade timing, momentum, volatility and the type of broker

  11. Army Corps of Engineers: Cost Increases in Flood Control Projects and Improving Communication with Nonfederal Sponsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    such poor condition that it had to have major rehabilitation work performed. Work to fix the deteriorated tunnel cost $10 million more than had...originally been estimated.19 Corps officials on the Little Calumet project said during construction they encountered a former landfill along one portion

  12. 75 FR 33987 - Disposing of Unneeded Federal Real Estate Increasing Sales Proceeds, Cutting Operating Costs, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... operations and maintenance costs. Past attempts at reducing the Federal Government's civilian real property..., save energy and water, and further reduce greenhouse gas pollution, I hereby direct executive... eliminating all forms of Government waste and to leading by example as our Nation transitions to a clean...

  13. 78 FR 66413 - Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... General The minimum amount an election official and election worker must earn so that such earnings are... administrative-cost fee assessment charged to an appointed representative such as an attorney, agent, or other... be $1,900 for domestic workers and $1,600 for election officials and election workers. FOR FURTHER...

  14. What factors increase the risk of incurring high market impact costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter-Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This article applies quantile regression to assess the factors that influence the risk of incurring high trading costs. Using data on the equity trades of the world's second largest pension fund in the first quarter of 2002, we show that trade timing, momentum, volatility and the type of broker

  15. Molecular evidence for increased regulatory conservation during metamorphosis, and against deleterious cascading effects of hybrid breakdown in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artieri Carlo G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speculation regarding the importance of changes in gene regulation in determining major phylogenetic patterns continues to accrue, despite a lack of broad-scale comparative studies examining how patterns of gene expression vary during development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of adult interspecific hybrids and their parental species has uncovered widespread divergence of the mechanisms controlling gene regulation, revealing incompatibilities that are masked in comparisons between the pure species. However, this has prompted the suggestion that misexpression in adult hybrids results from the downstream cascading effects of a subset of genes improperly regulated in early development. Results We sought to determine how gene expression diverges over development, as well as test the cascade hypothesis, by profiling expression in males of Drosophila melanogaster, D. sechellia, and D. simulans, as well as the D. simulans (♀ × D. sechellia (♂ male F1 hybrids, at four different developmental time points (3rd instar larval, early pupal, late pupal, and newly-emerged adult. Contrary to the cascade model of misexpression, we find that there is considerable stage-specific autonomy of regulatory breakdown in hybrids, with the larval and adult stages showing significantly more hybrid misexpression as compared to the pupal stage. However, comparisons between pure species indicate that genes expressed during earlier stages of development tend to be more conserved in terms of their level of expression than those expressed during later stages, suggesting that while Von Baer's famous law applies at both the level of nucleotide sequence and expression, it may not apply necessarily to the underlying overall regulatory network, which appears to diverge over the course of ontogeny and which can only be ascertained by combining divergent genomes in species hybrids. Conclusion Our results suggest that complex integration of regulatory

  16. Cost-effectiveness of increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in the Middle East: An example from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monisha; Seoud, Muhieddine; Kim, Jane J

    2017-01-23

    Most cervical cancer (CC) cases in Lebanon are detected at later stages and associated with high mortality. There is no national organized CC screening program so screening is opportunistic and limited to women who can pay out-of-pocket. Therefore, a small percentage of women receive repeated screenings while most are under-or never screened. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing screening coverage and extending intervals. We used an individual-based Monte Carlo model simulating HPV and CC natural history and screening. We calibrated the model to epidemiological data from Lebanon, including CC incidence and HPV type distribution. We evaluated cytology and HPV DNA screening for women aged 25-65years, varying coverage from 20 to 70% and frequency from 1 to 5years. At 20% coverage, annual cytologic screening reduced lifetime CC risk by 14% and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of I$80,670/year of life saved (YLS), far exceeding Lebanon's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (I$17,460), a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold. By comparison, increasing cytologic screening coverage to 50% and extending screening intervals to 3 and 5years provided greater CC reduction (26.1% and 21.4, respectively) at lower costs compared to 20% coverage with annual screening. Screening every 5years with HPV DNA testing at 50% coverage provided greater CC reductions than cytology at the same frequency (23.4%) and was cost-effective assuming a cost of I$18 per HPV test administered (I$12,210/YLS); HPV DNA testing every 4years at 50% coverage was also cost-effective at the same cost per test (I$16,340). Increasing coverage of annual cytology was not found to be cost-effective. Current practice of repeated cytology in a small percentage of women is inefficient. Increasing coverage to 50% with extended screening intervals provides greater health benefits at a reasonable cost and can more equitably distribute health gains. Novel HPV DNA strategies offer greater

  17. Between Cost Cheap Prices And Increasing High Quality Educational University In Pekanbaru City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prama Widayat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The need of higher education in the community has become the main thing for the future, not all can study at State Universities (PTN but some must enter in Private Universities (PTS. But the problem that arises is the problem of tuition fees in the PTS course higher than the state university, the tendency of prospective students in choosing Higher Education (PT based on cost and quality. While the problems from the PT side lies in the budget constraints in improving quality because of talk about the quality of course comprehensive from the means of lectures to the specialization of universities. Limitations of costs can at least be overcome by the synergy of universities, private companies and governments so it is not always student.

  18. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  19. Increased Patient Cost-Sharing, Weak US Economy, and Poor Health Habits: Implications for Employers and Insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haren, Melinda C; McConnell, Kirk; Shinn, Arthur F

    2009-04-01

    Many healthcare stakeholders, including insurers and employers, agree that growth in healthcare costs is inevitable. But the current trend toward further cost-shifting to employees and other health plan members is unsustainable. In 2008, the Zitter Group conducted a large national study on the relationship between insurers and employers, to understand how these 2 healthcare stakeholders interact in the creation of health benefit design. The survey results were previously summarized and discussed in the February/March 2009 issue of this journal. The present article aims to assess the implications of those results in the context of the growing tendency to increase patient cost-sharing, a weak US economy, and poor health habits. Increasing cost-sharing is a blunt instrument: although it may reduce utilization of frivolous services, it may also result in individuals forgoing medically necessary care. Increases in deductibles will lead to an overall decrease in optimal care-seeking behavior as families juggle healthcare costs with a weak economy and stagnating wages.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of investing in sidewalks as a means of increasing physical activity: a RESIDE modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Gunn, Lucy; McCormack, Gavin R; Cobiac, Linda J; Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shiell, Alan

    2016-09-20

    Studies consistently find that supportive neighbourhood built environments increase physical activity by encouraging walking and cycling. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of investing in built environment interventions as a means of promoting physical activity is lacking. In this study, we assess the cost-effectiveness of increasing sidewalk availability as one means of encouraging walking. Using data from the RESIDE study in Perth, Australia, we modelled the cost impact and change in health-adjusted life years (HALYs) of installing additional sidewalks in established neighbourhoods. Estimates of the relationship between sidewalk availability and walking were taken from a previous study. Multistate life table models were used to estimate HALYs associated with changes in walking frequency and duration. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of variations in population density, discount rates, sidewalk costs and the inclusion of unrelated healthcare costs in added life years. Installing and maintaining an additional 10 km of sidewalk in an average neighbourhood with 19 000 adult residents was estimated to cost A$4.2 million over 30 years and gain 24 HALYs over the lifetime of an average neighbourhood adult resident population. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$176 000/HALY. However, sensitivity results indicated that increasing population densities improves cost-effectiveness. In low-density cities such as in Australia, installing sidewalks in established neighbourhoods as a single intervention is unlikely to cost-effectively improve health. Sidewalks must be considered alongside other complementary elements of walkability, such as density, land use mix and street connectivity. Population density is particularly important because at higher densities, more residents are exposed and this improves the cost-effectiveness. Health gain is one of many benefits of enhancing neighbourhood walkability and future studies might

  1. [Increasing cost of insulin therapy in Belgium. From a critical analysis of the situation to a search for practical solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2006-09-01

    Cost related to insulin therapy is markedly increasing in Belgium, as in other Eucopean countries. In the present paper, we will briefly analyze the main reasons for such aa increase, integrate such observation withIn the global context of diabetes management and suggest some solutions to provide best care to insulin-treated diabetic patients at a reasonable cost. The rise of the cost of insulin therapy has a multifactorial origin. It mainly results from an increase in the number of diabetic patients, a more intensive management, In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a greater use of more expansive insulin analogues. It is important to analyze the increase of the cost of insulin therapy within the global burden of diabetes melitus. Only a better responsibility of all health care partners, patients, physicians, pharmaceutical companies, public health authorities, could provide solutions allowing diabetic people to profit from best treatments they should receive in order to prevent diabetic complications, by far the main cause of expenses.

  2. How Performance-Contingent Reward Prospect Modulates Cognitive Control: Increased Cue Maintenance at the Cost of Decreased Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Carmen; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that reward prospect promotes cognitive stability in terms of increased context or cue maintenance. In 3 Experiments, using different versions of the AX-continuous performance task, we investigated whether this reward effect comes at the cost of decreased cognitive flexibility. Experiment 1 shows that the reward induced…

  3. 75 FR 74123 - Office of the Commissioner; Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... claiming benefits, call 1-800-772- 1213, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0054] Office of the Commissioner; Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of counseling and pedometer use to increase physical activity in the Netherlands: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.B. Over (Eelco); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); M. van den Berg (Matthijs); H.H.H. Reenen (Heleen ); L. Tariq (Luqman); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Counseling in combination with pedometer use has proven to be effective in increasing physical activity and improving health outcomes. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of this intervention targeted at one million insufficiently active adults who visit their general

  5. Increasing the Benefit from Cost-Minimizing Loads via Centralized Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several demand response (DR strategies rely on real-time pricing and selfish local optimization, which may not result in optimal electricity consumption patterns from the viewpoint of an energy supplier or a power system. Thus, this paper proposes a strategy enabling centralized adjustments to cost-minimize consumers’ load. By employing the strategy, an aggregator is able to alter electricity consumption in order to remove power imbalances and to participate in the balancing power market (BPM. In this paper, we focus on direct electric space heating (DESH loads that aim to minimize their heating cost locally. The consumers and an aggregator agree about an indoor temperature band, within which the aggregator is allowed to alter the temperature, and thus the electricity consumption. Centrally, the aggregator procures its electricity demand from a day-ahead (DA market by utilizing the allowed temperature band and employs the band later in real-time (RT operation for the balancing of its own imbalances or regulating power in the BPM.

  6. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  7. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  8. Spacecraft Software Maintenance: An Effective Approach to Reducing Costs and Increasing Science Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Elaine M.; Lue, Yvonne; Chu, Martha I.

    1999-01-01

    Flight software is a mission critical element of spacecraft functionality and performance. When ground operations personnel interface to a spacecraft, they are typically dealing almost entirely with the capabilities of onboard software. This software, even more than critical ground/flight communications systems, is expected to perform perfectly during all phases of spacecraft life. Due to the fact that it can be reprogrammed on-orbit to accommodate degradations or failures in flight hardware, new insights into spacecraft characteristics, new control options which permit enhanced science options, etc., the on- orbit flight software maintenance team is usually significantly responsible for the long term success of a science mission. Failure of flight software to perform as needed can result in very expensive operations work-around costs and lost science opportunities. There are three basic approaches to maintaining spacecraft software--namely using the original developers, using the mission operations personnel, or assembling a center of excellence for multi-spacecraft software maintenance. Not planning properly for flight software maintenance can lead to unnecessarily high on-orbit costs and/or unacceptably long delays, or errors, in patch installations. A common approach for flight software maintenance is to access the original development staff. The argument for utilizing the development staff is that the people who developed the software will be the best people to modify the software on-orbit. However, it can quickly becomes a challenge to obtain the services of these key people. They may no longer be available to the organization. They may have a more urgent job to perform, quite likely on another project under different project management. If they havn't worked on the software for a long time, they may need precious time for refamiliarization to the software, testbeds and tools. Further, a lack of insight into issues related to flight software in its on

  9. Increased Burden of Healthcare Utilization and Cost Associated with Opioid-Related Constipation Among Patients with Noncancer Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ancilla W.; Kern, David M.; Datto, Catherine; Chen, Yen-Wen; McLeskey, Charles; Tunceli, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioids are widely accepted as treatment for moderate to severe pain, and opioid-induced constipation is one of the most common side effects of opioids. This side effect negatively affects pain management and patients’ quality of life, which could result in increased healthcare utilization and costs. Objective To assess healthcare utilization and costs (all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related) for individuals with and without opioid-induced constipation during the 12 months after initiation of opioid therapy for noncancer pain. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims data from HealthCore Integrated Research Environment between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2014. The analysis was limited to patients aged ≥18 years who filled a prescription for continuous opioid treatment (≥28 days) for noncancer pain. Propensity scores were used to match opioid users with constipation (cohort 1) and opioid users without constipation (cohort 2), using a 1:1 ratio. Generalized linear models were used to estimate all-cause, constipation-related, and pain-related healthcare utilization and costs during the 12 months after the initiation of opioid therapy. Results After matching and balancing for all prespecified variables, 17,384 patients were retained in each cohort (mean age, 56 years; 63% female). Opioid users with constipation were twice as likely as those without constipation to have ≥1 inpatient hospitalizations (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.39) during the 12 months. The total mean adjusted overall costs per patient during the study period were $12,413 higher for patients with constipation versus those without it (95% CI, $11,726–$13,116). The total mean adjusted overall pain-related costs per patient were $6778 (95% CI, $6293–$7279) higher for the patients with constipation than those without. Among patients using opioids for noncancer pain, the annual mean constipation

  10. Is reproduction costly? No increase of oxidative damage in breeding bank voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Chrzaácik, Katarzyna M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł; Taylor, Jan R E

    2012-06-01

    According to life-history theory, investment in reproduction is associated with costs, which should appear as decreased survival to the next reproduction or lower future reproductive success. It has been suggested that oxidative stress may be the proximate mechanism of these trade-offs. Despite numerous studies of the defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) during reproduction, very little is known about the damage caused by ROS to the tissues of wild breeding animals. We measured oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in breeding bank vole (Myodes glareolus) females after rearing one and two litters, and in non-breeding females. We used bank voles from lines selected for high maximum aerobic metabolic rates (which also had high resting metabolic rates and food intake) and non-selected control lines. The oxidative damage was determined in heart, kidneys and skeletal muscles by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, as markers of lipid peroxidation, and carbonyl groups in proteins, as markers of protein oxidation. Surprisingly, we found that the oxidative damage to lipids in kidneys and muscles was actually lower in breeding than in non-breeding voles, and it did not differ between animals from the selected and control lines. Thus, contrary to our predictions, females that bred suffered lower levels of oxidative stress than those that did not reproduce. Elevated production of antioxidant enzymes and the protective role of sex hormones may explain the results. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that oxidative damage to tissues is the proximate mechanism of reproduction costs.

  11. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This 'was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE)

  12. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  13. Stated Preferences for Forest Conservation in Southern Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Emmi; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Pouta, Eija

    % support decreasing forest conservation. An average willingness-to-pay for increased biodiversity conservation was 60-212 € per household per year, depending on the described project and measurement method. In addition to costs per household, the number of conserved biotopes and endangered plant and animal......This study analyses Finnish citizens’ valuations and attitudes towards a forest conservation programme for southern Finland and the Pohjanmaa region. In particular, Finnish households’ willingness to accept expenses through increased taxation to guarantee a certain level of biodiversity...... conservation was investigated. Contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE) methods were applied. According to the CV results, 74% of respondents are prepared to pay for increased conservation and 16% support increased conservation but are not willing to pay for it. A further 5% are indifferent and 5...

  14. The Costs and Benefits of Increasing the Minimum Service Requirement for NROTC Graduates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankes, Karen J

    2008-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, during the Future Years Defense Program Officer Accessions Brief, the Chief of Naval Personnel requested more information on increasing the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of increasing the reach of smoking cessation interventions in Germany: results from the EQUIPTMOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Manuel B; Präger, Maximilian; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Lester-George, Adam; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Nemeth, Bertalan; Cheung, Kei Long; Stark, Renee; Vogl, Matthias; Pokhrel, Subhash; Leidl, Reiner

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of increased reach of specific smoking cessation interventions in Germany. A Markov-based state transition return on investment model (EQUIPTMOD) was used to evaluate current smoking cessation interventions as well as two prospective investment scenarios. A health-care perspective (extended to include out-of-pocket payments) with life-time horizon was considered. A probabilistic analysis was used to assess uncertainty concerning predicted estimates. Germany. Cohort of current smoking population (18+ years) in Germany. Interventions included group-based behavioural support, financial incentive programmes and varenicline. For prospective scenario 1 the reach of group-based behavioral support, financial incentive programme and varenicline was increased by 1% of yearly quit attempts (= 57 915 quit attempts), while prospective scenario 2 represented a higher reach, mirroring the levels observed in England. EQUIPTMOD considered reach, intervention cost, number of quitters, quality-of-life years (QALYs) gained, cost-effectiveness and return on investment. The highest returns through reduction in smoking-related health-care costs were seen for the financial incentive programme (€2.71 per €1 invested), followed by that of group-based behavioural support (€1.63 per €1 invested), compared with no interventions. Varenicline had lower returns (€1.02 per €1 invested) than the other two interventions. At the population level, prospective scenario 1 led to 15 034 QALYs gained and €27 million cost-savings, compared with current investment. Intervention effects and reach contributed most to the uncertainty around the return-on-investment estimates. At a hypothetical willingness-to-pay threshold of only €5000, the probability of being cost-effective is approximately 75% for prospective scenario 1. Increasing the reach of group-based behavioural support, financial incentives and varenicline for smoking cessation by

  16. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  17. Energy Transition-Index Germany. Costs are increasing steadily; Energiewende-Index Deutschland. Die Kosten steigen weiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Kropeit, Julia [McKinsey and Company, Duesseldorf (Germany); Ritzenhofen, Ingmar [McKinsey and Company, Koeln (Germany); Gersema, Gerke [McKinsey and Company, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    How expensive the energy transition truly will be? The question of costs is coming more and more into the focus: The Bundesrechnungshof calls for more transparency, the policy confronted with the complexity of the subject matter is not able to quantify concrete costs. At the same time, all participants are working to curb spending growth. The fact is, the total costs will continue to rise. It is already foreseeable that by 2025 the annual electricity costs will increase by Euro 14 billion - to then Euro 77 billion. The main drivers are grid charges and rising fuel costs. [German] Wie teuer wird die Energiewende wirklich? Die Frage nach den Kosten geraet zunehmend in den Fokus: Der Bundesrechnungshof fordert mehr Transparenz, die Politik sieht sich mit Blick auf die Komplexitaet der Thematik ausserstande, konkrete Kosten zu beziffern. Gleichzeitig treten alle Beteiligten dafuer ein, die Ausgabenentwicklung zu bremsen. Fakt ist: Die Gesamtkosten werden weiter steigen. Bereits heute ist absehbar, dass sich bis 2025 die jaehrlich anfallenden Stromkosten um 14 Mrd. Euro erhoehen werden - auf dann 77 Mrd. Euro. Haupttreiber sind die Netzentgelte und steigende Brennstoffkosten.

  18. Can Broader Diffusion of Value-Based Insurance Design Increase Benefits from US Health Care without Increasing Costs? Evidence from a Computer Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Braithwaite, R.; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C.; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background More money is spent per person on health care in the US than in any other country. US health care expenditure accounts for 16.2% of the gross domestic product and this figure is rising. Indeed, the increase in health care costs is outstripping the economy's growth rate. Consequently, US policy makers and providers of health insurance?health care in the US is largely provided by the private sector and is paid for through private health insurance or through governmen...

  19. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed in-service inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.

    2001-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less that 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components, to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components, to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure, and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits from past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for WWER plant design. (author)

  20. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed In-Service Inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.; Doumont, C.

    2000-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less than 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used: to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components; to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components; to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure; and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits of past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for VVER plant design. (author)

  1. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  2. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  3. Increased natural reproduction and genetic diversity one generation after cessation of a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) conservation hatchery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejikian, Barry A; Van Doornik, Donald M

    2018-01-01

    Spatial and temporal fluctuations in productivity and abundance confound assessments of captive propagation programs aimed at recovery of Threatened and Endangered populations. We conducted a 17 year before-after-control-impact experiment to determine the effects of a captive rearing program for anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on a key indicator of natural spawner abundance (naturally produced nests or 'redds'). The supplemented population exhibited a significant (2.6-fold) increase in redd abundance in the generation following supplementation. Four non-supplemented (control) populations monitored over the same 17 year period exhibited stable or decreasing trends in redd abundance. Expected heterozygosity in the supplemented population increased significantly. Allelic richness increased, but to a lesser (non-significant) degree. Estimates of the effective number of breeders increased from a harmonic mean of 24.4 in the generation before supplementation to 38.9 after supplementation. Several non-conventional aspects of the captive rearing program may have contributed to the positive response in the natural population.

  4. Increased natural reproduction and genetic diversity one generation after cessation of a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss conservation hatchery program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry A Berejikian

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal fluctuations in productivity and abundance confound assessments of captive propagation programs aimed at recovery of Threatened and Endangered populations. We conducted a 17 year before-after-control-impact experiment to determine the effects of a captive rearing program for anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss on a key indicator of natural spawner abundance (naturally produced nests or 'redds'. The supplemented population exhibited a significant (2.6-fold increase in redd abundance in the generation following supplementation. Four non-supplemented (control populations monitored over the same 17 year period exhibited stable or decreasing trends in redd abundance. Expected heterozygosity in the supplemented population increased significantly. Allelic richness increased, but to a lesser (non-significant degree. Estimates of the effective number of breeders increased from a harmonic mean of 24.4 in the generation before supplementation to 38.9 after supplementation. Several non-conventional aspects of the captive rearing program may have contributed to the positive response in the natural population.

  5. [Statistical Process Control (SPC) can help prevent treatment errors without increasing costs in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Llueguera, E; Melero, A; Molero, J; Soler, N; Rueda, C; Paradinas, C

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) was applied to monitor patient set-up in radiotherapy and, when the measured set-up error values indicated a loss of process stability, its root cause was identified and eliminated to prevent set-up errors. Set up errors were measured for medial-lateral (ml), cranial-caudal (cc) and anterior-posterior (ap) dimensions and then the upper control limits were calculated. Once the control limits were known and the range variability was acceptable, treatment set-up errors were monitored using sub-groups of 3 patients, three times each shift. These values were plotted on a control chart in real time. Control limit values showed that the existing variation was acceptable. Set-up errors, measured and plotted on a X chart, helped monitor the set-up process stability and, if and when the stability was lost, treatment was interrupted, the particular cause responsible for the non-random pattern was identified and corrective action was taken before proceeding with the treatment. SPC protocol focuses on controlling the variability due to assignable cause instead of focusing on patient-to-patient variability which normally does not exist. Compared to weekly sampling of set-up error in each and every patient, which may only ensure that just those sampled sessions were set-up correctly, the SPC method enables set-up error prevention in all treatment sessions for all patients and, at the same time, reduces the control costs. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing Water Use Efficiency Comes at a Cost for Norway Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Sanders

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi in trees is an indication of the ratio of carbon assimilation to the rate of transpiration. It is generally assumed that it is a response to water availability. In agricultural research, the question of drought tolerance by increased WUEi has been well studied. In general, the increase is a trade-off for productivity and is therefore not desired. For forest trees, this question is less clearly understood. Using stable carbon isotopes derived from tree rings combined with productivity as the product of the annual growth increment and annual density measurements, we compared the change in WUEi over a 15 year period. While WUEi increased over this period, the productivity decreased, causing an opposing trend. The gradient of the correlation between WUEi and productivity varies between provenances and sites. Counterintuitively, the populations at the drier site showed low WUEi values at the beginning of the investigation. Slopes vary with the provenance from Poland showing the least decline in productivity. In general, we found that a decline in productivity aligned with an increase in WUEi.

  7. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  8. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory C Kidwell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories.

  9. Cost efficiency of measures to increase the amount of coarse woody debris in managed Norway spruce forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Ekvall, Hans; Jonsson, Mattias; Bostedt, Göran

    2005-01-01

    Changing silvicultural methods in managed forestland to improve habitat quality for forest organisms has become one of the main means to preserve forest biodiversity in Fennoscandia. In boreal forests, coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important substrate for red-listed species. In this study, we analyse cost efficiency of five management measures taken in Swedish forestry, which aim at increasing CWD in managed forests: retention of living trees at harvest, artificial creation of high stumps, ...

  10. Health, Health Inequality, and Cost Impacts of Annual Increases in Tobacco Tax: Multistate Life Table Modeling in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Blakely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries are increasingly considering how to reduce or even end tobacco consumption, and raising tobacco taxes is a potential strategy to achieve these goals. We estimated the impacts on health, health inequalities, and health system costs of ongoing tobacco tax increases (10% annually from 2011 to 2031, compared to no tax increases from 2011 ["business as usual," BAU], in a country (New Zealand with large ethnic inequalities in smoking-related and noncommunicable disease (NCD burden.We modeled 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, using rich national data by sex, age, and ethnicity, to estimate undiscounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs gained and net health system costs over the remaining life of the 2011 population (n = 4.4 million. A total of 260,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 155,000-419,000 QALYs were gained among the 2011 cohort exposed to annual tobacco tax increases, compared to BAU, and cost savings were US$2,550 million (95% UI: US$1,480 to US$4,000. QALY gains and cost savings took 50 y to peak, owing to such factors as the price sensitivity of youth and young adult smokers. The QALY gains per capita were 3.7 times greater for Māori (indigenous population compared to non-Māori because of higher background smoking prevalence and price sensitivity in Māori. Health inequalities measured by differences in 45+ y-old standardized mortality rates between Māori and non-Māori were projected to be 2.31% (95% UI: 1.49% to 3.41% less in 2041 with ongoing tax rises, compared to BAU. Percentage reductions in inequalities in 2041 were maximal for 45-64-y-old women (3.01%. As with all such modeling, there were limitations pertaining to the model structure and input parameters.Ongoing tobacco tax increases deliver sizeable health gains and health sector cost savings and are likely to reduce health inequalities. However, if policy makers are to achieve more rapid reductions in the NCD burden and health inequalities, they will also

  11. Health, Health Inequality, and Cost Impacts of Annual Increases in Tobacco Tax: Multistate Life Table Modeling in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; Cobiac, Linda J.; Cleghorn, Christine L.; Pearson, Amber L.; van der Deen, Frederieke S.; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nghiem, Nhung; McLeod, Melissa; Wilson, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Countries are increasingly considering how to reduce or even end tobacco consumption, and raising tobacco taxes is a potential strategy to achieve these goals. We estimated the impacts on health, health inequalities, and health system costs of ongoing tobacco tax increases (10% annually from 2011 to 2031, compared to no tax increases from 2011 [“business as usual,” BAU]), in a country (New Zealand) with large ethnic inequalities in smoking-related and noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden. Methods and Findings We modeled 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, using rich national data by sex, age, and ethnicity, to estimate undiscounted quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and net health system costs over the remaining life of the 2011 population (n = 4.4 million). A total of 260,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 155,000–419,000) QALYs were gained among the 2011 cohort exposed to annual tobacco tax increases, compared to BAU, and cost savings were US$2,550 million (95% UI: US$1,480 to US$4,000). QALY gains and cost savings took 50 y to peak, owing to such factors as the price sensitivity of youth and young adult smokers. The QALY gains per capita were 3.7 times greater for Māori (indigenous population) compared to non-Māori because of higher background smoking prevalence and price sensitivity in Māori. Health inequalities measured by differences in 45+ y-old standardized mortality rates between Māori and non-Māori were projected to be 2.31% (95% UI: 1.49% to 3.41%) less in 2041 with ongoing tax rises, compared to BAU. Percentage reductions in inequalities in 2041 were maximal for 45–64-y-old women (3.01%). As with all such modeling, there were limitations pertaining to the model structure and input parameters. Conclusions Ongoing tobacco tax increases deliver sizeable health gains and health sector cost savings and are likely to reduce health inequalities. However, if policy makers are to achieve more rapid reductions in the NCD

  12. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Krajnc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-based accounting of logistics costs in a production company, and to test its efficiency in the disclosure of logistics costs compared with traditional cost accounting. The application of the model in a production company shows that an activity-based approach discloses as much as 108% more logistics costs at the level of a group of products than the traditional cost-accounting approach. Further, detailed information on logistics costs obtained in this way enables their more efficient management. Key words: logistics costs; activity-based costing; cost allocation; cost visibility; cost management

  13. Simulation for Teaching Orthopaedic Residents in a Competency-based Curriculum: Do the Benefits Justify the Increased Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Markku T; McQueen, Sydney A; Ferguson, Peter; Alman, Benjamin; Kraemer, William; Safir, Oleg; Reznick, Richard; Sonnadara, Ranil

    2016-04-01

    among the competency-based curriculum and regular stream residents for teaching (60 residents) and among 14 competency-based curriculum residents and 21 regular stream residents for assessment. The total costs of using simulation to teach and assess all residents in the competency-based curriculum and regular stream programs (academic year 2012-2013) (CDN 155,750, USD 158,050) were approximately 15 times higher than the cost of using simulation to teach residents before the implementation of the competency-based curriculum (academic year 2008-2009) (CDN 10,090, USD 11,140). The number of hours spent teaching and assessing trainees increased from 96 to 317 hours during this period, representing a threefold increase. Although the financial costs and time demands on faculty in running the simulation program in the new competency-based curriculum at the University of Toronto have been substantial, augmented learner and trainer satisfaction has been accompanied by direct evidence of improved and more efficient learning outcomes. The higher costs and demands on faculty time associated with implementing simulation for teaching and assessment must be considered when it is used to enhance surgical training.

  14. Increasing personal exemption of fixed income earners: A cost-benefit analysis on government revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Maquiling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal exemption (PE was one of the remedies of the government to offset the burden of taxation imposed to its sovereignty. In the Philippines, a motion to increase the PE has already been made by lawmakers, and this prompted the researchers to conduct a study on the effect of this disposable income of fixed income earners on their spending pattern on identified goods and services to VAT and other taxes collected by the government. The study made use of descriptive-survey method given to 100 random respondents earning fixed income in the City of Davao, Philippines. The study determined that the respondents’ age, civil status, sex, and number of qualified dependents affects her/his spending pattern. Married people spend more on basic commodities than single people, male spends more alcohol and tobacco than the female, zero dependents spends more on recreation than more dependents and there is a decrease of spending in recreation as people aged. Moreover, the survey revealed that implementing additional PE will decrease direct income tax of the government. However, forty percent of this will return in the form of indirect taxes since respondents have lower marginal propensity to save than their marginal propensity to consume, it results in a positive impact in the economy as a whole. This is done through the use of the concept of the Tax Cut Multiplier (m[tax]= -MPC/MPS effect. Given the prospective increase in PE, consumers spend their additional disposable income on basic commodities, additional clothing, recreation and excises taxed products, among others.

  15. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-27

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.

  16. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  17. Promoting Approaches For Increasing The Cost-Efficiency Of Energy Wood And Pulpwood Harvesting In Young Stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikari, Markku; Palander, Teijo; Ovaskainen, Heikki (Univ. of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Science FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)); Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy , FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Potential approaches for increasing the cost-efficiency of energy wood and industrial roundwood (i.e. pulpwood) harvesting from early thinnings in Finland were ranked in the survey carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and the University of Joensuu. The study was implemented by conducting personal interviews. Research data, based on a total of 40 interviews, were collected during January and February, 2008. In this study, employment, education, and operator issues proved to be of decisive importance for improving energy wood and industrial roundwood harvesting. In the opinion of the respondents, there is considerable potential for increasing the cost-efficiency of wood harvesting by improving harvesting conditions (i.e. effective tending of seedling stands, delaying harvesting operations, pre-clearance of undergrowth, and new wood production methods). The interviewees also stressed that harvesting methods can be rationalized, e.g. multiple-tree handling in industrial roundwood cuttings, integrated pulpwood and energy wood harvesting, and grapple scale measuring. If the most potential methods and techniques were utilized completely in wood harvesting, then there would be significant possibilities for cost savings in young stands. Based on the suggestions of this study, the most profitable guidelines should be utilized immediately

  18. A wider pelvis does not increase locomotor cost in humans, with implications for the evolution of childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Warrener

    Full Text Available The shape of the human female pelvis is thought to reflect an evolutionary trade-off between two competing demands: a pelvis wide enough to permit the birth of large-brained infants, and narrow enough for efficient bipedal locomotion. This trade-off, known as the obstetrical dilemma, is invoked to explain the relative difficulty of human childbirth and differences in locomotor performance between men and women. The basis for the obstetrical dilemma is a standard static biomechanical model that predicts wider pelves in females increase the metabolic cost of locomotion by decreasing the effective mechanical advantage of the hip abductor muscles for pelvic stabilization during the single-leg support phase of walking and running, requiring these muscles to produce more force. Here we experimentally test this model against a more accurate dynamic model of hip abductor mechanics in men and women. The results show that pelvic width does not predict hip abductor mechanics or locomotor cost in either women or men, and that women and men are equally efficient at both walking and running. Since a wider birth canal does not increase a woman's locomotor cost, and because selection for successful birthing must be strong, other factors affecting maternal pelvic and fetal size should be investigated in order to help explain the prevalence of birth complications caused by a neonate too large to fit through the birth canal.

  19. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  20. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Julijana Krajnc; Klavdij Logožar; Bojana Korošec

    2012-01-01

    Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect) costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-...

  1. Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L E; Smiseth, P T

    2016-02-01

    In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent's own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort relative to female effort. We tested this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by setting up experimental broods with three different hatching patterns: synchronous, asynchronous and highly asynchronous broods. As predicted, we found that males provided care for longer in asynchronous broods whereas the opposite was true of females. However, we did not find any benefit to females of reducing their duration of care in terms of increased lifespan or reduced mass loss during breeding. We found substantial negative effects of hatching asynchrony on offspring fitness as larval mass was lower and fewer larvae survived to dispersal in highly asynchronous broods compared to synchronous or asynchronous broods. Our results suggest that, even though females can increase male parental effort by hatching their broods more asynchronously, females pay a substantial cost from doing so in terms of reducing offspring growth and survival. Thus, females should be under selection to produce a hatching pattern that provides the best possible trade-off between the benefits of increased male parental effort and the costs due to reduced offspring fitness. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  3. Disgust and the politics of sex: exposure to a disgusting odorant increases politically conservative views on sex and decreases support for gay marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas G; Stewart, Patrick A; Blanchar, John C

    2014-01-01

    Disgust has been implicated as a potential causal agent underlying socio-political attitudes and behaviors. Several recent studies have suggested that pathogen disgust may be a causal mechanism underlying social conservatism. However, the specificity of this effect is still in question. The present study tested the effects of disgust on a range of policy preferences to clarify whether disgust is generally implicated in political conservatism across public policy attitudes or is uniquely related to specific content domains. Self-reported socio-political attitudes were compared between participants in two experimental conditions: 1) an odorless control condition, and 2) a disgusting odor condition. In keeping with previous research, the present study showed that exposure to a disgusting odor increased endorsement of socially conservative attitudes related to sexuality. In particular, there was a strong and consistent link between induced disgust and less support for gay marriage.

  4. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    While the environmental benefits of scenarios geared to increased recycling have been convincingly demonstrated by previous studies, the question arises whether such scenarios bring economic benefits, too. This study therefore assesses the main economic effects of increased recycling in the Netherlands, providing data that can be used to advance policy development in this area. To address the main issue we performed a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), a welfare-theory-based tool that can be used to chart the full range of economic impacts ('welfare impacts') of a project or policy intervention. In doing so, a broad definition of welfare is adopted, encompassing not only financial and economic consequences, but also environmental and employment impacts and so on. Using SimaPro, all the environmental interventions inventoried (including energy consumption, transport and recycling process emissions) were assessed for each individual material flow, with impacts being expressed as far as possible in monetary terms to enable comparison. The main social costs of increased recycling are the higher costs for local authorities associated with separate waste collection. There is also reduced revenue for waste incinerators, because more waste will need to be imported from abroad. Finally, there are the policy costs of incentives for increased recycling and extra efforts to induce citizens to separate their waste. The latter costs were not quantified. Over and against these costs are positive welfare impacts. The main benefits are environmental, expressed monetarily in the present study in terms of avoided damage costs for society as a whole and avoided measures for securing government reduction targets. In addition, the separated waste has a value, reflected in lower processing costs. Increased recycling also creates new jobs, while recycling firms generate more profit than waste incinerators. Finally, there are the benefits accruing from greater innovation and

  5. A Cost-effective Method for Resolution Increase of the Twostage Piecewise Linear ADC Used for Sensor Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective method for resolution increase of a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter used for sensor linearization is proposed in this paper. In both conversion stages flash analog-to-digital converters are employed. Resolution increase by one bit per conversion stage is performed by introducing one additional comparator in front of each of two flash analog-to-digital converters, while the converters’ resolutions remain the same. As a result, the number of employed comparators, as well as the circuit complexity and the power consumption originating from employed comparators are for almost 50 % lower in comparison to the same parameters referring to the linearization circuit of the conventional design and of the same resolution. Since the number of employed comparators is significantly reduced according to the proposed method, special modifications of the linearization circuit are needed in order to properly adjust reference voltages of employed comparators.

  6. Socioeconomic disparities in access to ART treatment and the differential impact of a policy that increased consumer costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, G M; Hoang, V P; Illingworth, P J

    2013-11-01

    What was the impact on access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment by different socioeconomic status (SES) groups after the introduction of a policy that increased patient out-of-pocket costs? After the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs in Australia, all SES groups experienced a similar percentage reduction in fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age. Higher SES groups experienced a progressively greater reduction in absolute numbers of fresh ART cycles due to existing higher levels of utilization. Australia has supportive public funding arrangements for ARTs. Policies that substantially increase out-of-pocket costs for ART treatment create financial barriers to access and an overall reduction in utilization. Data from the USA suggests that disparities exist in access to ART treatment based on ethnicity, education level and income. Time series analysis of utilization of ART, intrauterine insemination (IUI) and clomiphene citrate by women from varying SES groups before and after the introduction of a change in the level of public funding for ART. Women undertaking fertility treatment in Australia between 2007 and 2010. Women from higher SES quintiles use more ART treatment than those in lower SES quintiles, which likely reflects a greater ability to pay for treatment and a greater need for ART treatment as indicated by the trend to later childbearing. In 2009, 10.13 and 5.17 fresh ART cycles per 1000 women of reproductive age were performed in women in the highest and lowest SES quintiles respectively. In the 12 months after the introduction of a policy that increased out-of-pocket costs from ∼$1500 Australian dollars (€1000) to ∼$2500 (€1670) for a fresh IVF cycle, there was a 21-25% reduction in fresh ART cycles across all SES quintiles. The absolute reduction in fresh ART cycles in the highest SES quintile was double that in the lowest SES quintile. In this study, SES was based on the average relative

  7. Application and utility of a low-cost unmanned aerial system to manage and conserve aquatic resources in four Texas rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, Timothy W.; Bean, Megan; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Hardy, Thomas B.; Heard, Thomas; Holdstock, Derrick; Kollaus, Kristy; Magnelia, Stephan J.; Tolman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have recently gained increasing attention in natural resources management due to their versatility and demonstrated utility in collection of high-resolution, temporally-specific geospatial data. This study applied low-cost UAS to support the geospatial data needs of aquatic resources management projects in four Texas rivers. Specifically, a UAS was used to (1) map invasive salt cedar (multiple species in the genus Tamarix) that have degraded instream habitat conditions in the Pease River, (2) map instream meso-habitats and structural habitat features (e.g., boulders, woody debris) in the South Llano River as a baseline prior to watershed-scale habitat improvements, (3) map enduring pools in the Blanco River during drought conditions to guide smallmouth bass removal efforts, and (4) quantify river use by anglers in the Guadalupe River. These four case studies represent an initial step toward assessing the full range of UAS applications in aquatic resources management, including their ability to offer potential cost savings, time efficiencies, and higher quality data over traditional survey methods.

  8. Increased mechanical cost of walking in children with diplegia: the role of the passenger unit cannot be neglected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, P; Hallemans, A; Truijen, S; Gosselink, R; Heyrman, L; Molenaers, G; Desloovere, K

    2012-01-01

    Gait efficiency in children with cerebral palsy is decreased. To date, most research did not include the upper body as a separate functional unit when exploring these changes in gait efficiency. Since children with spastic diplegia often experience problems with trunk control, they could benefit from separate evaluation of the so-called 'passenger unit'. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to improve insights in the role of the passenger unit in decreased gait efficiency in children with diplegia. Mechanical cost of walking was investigated by calculating work by the integrated joint power approach in 18 children with diplegia and 25 age-related typical developing controls. The total mechanical work in children with diplegia was 1.5 times higher than in typical children. In children with diplegia work at the lower limbs was increased by 37% compared to typical children. Substantially higher increases, up to 222%, were noted at the passenger unit. Trunk and head were the main contributors to the increased work of the passenger unit, but the role of the arms cannot be neglected. Due to these disproportional increases in locomotor and passenger unit, the demands of the passenger unit in pathological gait can no longer be considered minor, as in typical gait. Therefore, the role of the passenger unit must be recognized in the decrease of gait efficiency in children with spastic diplegia and should be part of the evaluation of gait efficiency in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  10. Consumers Buy Lower-Cost Plans On Covered California, Suggesting Exposure To Premium Increases Is Less Than Commonly Reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Stromberg, Sam T; Green, Matthew; Whitmore, Heidi; Scheffler, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    With the notable exception of California, states have not made enrollment data for their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace plans publicly available. Researchers thus have tracked premium trends by calculating changes in the average price for plans offered (a straight average across plans) rather than for plans purchased (a weighted average). Using publicly available enrollment data for Covered California, we found that the average purchased price for all plans was 11.6 percent less than the average offered price in 2014, 13.2 percent less in 2015, and 15.2 percent less in 2016. Premium growth measured by plans purchased was roughly 2 percentage points less than when measured by plans offered in 2014-15 and 2015-16. We observed shifts in consumer choices toward less costly plans, both between and within tiers, and we estimate that a $100 increase in a plan's net annual premium reduces its probability of selection. These findings suggest that the Marketplaces are helping consumers moderate premium cost growth. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Second cancers after conservative surgery and radiation for stages I-II breast cancer: identifying a subset of women at increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, Barbara; Hanlon, Alexandra; Freedman, Gary; Nicolaou, Nicos; Anderson, Penny

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk and patterns of second malignancy in a group of women treated with conservative surgery and radiation in a relatively contemporary manner for early-stage invasive breast cancer, and to identify a subgroup of these women at increased risk for a second cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1978 to 1994, 1,253 women with unilateral Stage I-II breast cancer underwent wide excision, axillary dissection, and radiation. The median follow-up was 8.9 years, with 446 patients followed for ≥10 years. The median age was 55 years. Sixty-eight percent had T1 tumors and 74% were axillary-node negative. Radiation was directed to the breast only in 78%. Adjuvant therapy consisted of chemotherapy in 19%, tamoxifen in 19%, and both in 8%. Factors analyzed for their association with the cumulative incidence of all second malignancies, contralateral breast cancer, and non-breast cancer malignancy were: age, menopausal status, race, family history, obesity, smoking, tumor size, location, histology, pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and the use and type of adjuvant therapy. Results: One hundred seventy-six women developed a second malignancy (87 contralateral breast cancers at a median interval of 5.8 years, and 98 non-breast cancer malignancies at a median interval of 7.2 years). Nine women had both a contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of a second malignancy were 5% and 16% for all cancers, 3% and 7% for contralateral breast cancer, 3% and 8%, for all second non-breast cancer malignancies, and 1% and 5%, respectively, for second non-breast cancer malignancies, excluding skin cancers. Patient age was a significant factor for contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. Young age was associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, while older age was associated with an increased the risk of a second non-breast cancer

  12. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  13. Development of a method for efficient cost-effective screening of Aspergillus niger mutants having increased production of glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Arman, Bessembayev; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yonghong; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-05-01

    To develop an efficient cost-effective screening process to improve production of glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger. The cultivation of A. niger was achieved with well-dispersed morphology in 48-deep-well microtiter plates, which increased the throughput of the samples compared to traditional flask cultivation. There was a close negative correlation between glucoamylase and its pH of the fermentation broth. A novel high-throughput analysis method using Methyl Orange was developed. When compared to the conventional analysis method using 4-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate, a correlation coefficient of 0.96 by statistical analysis was obtained. Using this novel screening method, we acquired a strain with an activity of 2.2 × 10 3  U ml -1 , a 70% higher yield of glucoamylase than its parent strain.

  14. Succumbing to Bottom-Up Biases on Task Choice Predicts Increased Switch Costs in the Voluntary Task Switching Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Joseph M.; Weissman, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom-up biases are widely thought to influence task choice in the voluntary task switching paradigm. Definitive support for this hypothesis is lacking, however, because task choice and task performance are usually confounded. We therefore revisited this hypothesis using a paradigm in which task choice and task performance are temporally separated. As predicted, participants tended to choose the task that was primed by bottom-up biases. Moreover, such choices were linked to increased switch costs during subsequent task performance. These findings provide compelling evidence that bottom-up biases influence voluntary task choice. They also suggest that succumbing to such biases reflects a reduction of top-down control that persists to influence upcoming task performance. PMID:21713192

  15. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task suffers some risk of delay and changed cost. Ignoring budget constraints, we use Monte Carlo simulation of the duration of each task in the project to infer the probability distribution of the project completion time...

  16. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  17. The Budget Impact of Increased Use of Febuxostat in the Management of Gout: A US Health Plan Managed Care Pharmacy and Medical Costs Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Lee J; Gahn, James C; Mitri, Ghaith; Shiozawa, Aki

    2016-07-01

    Gout is a chronic disease characterized by the deposition of urate crystals in the joints and throughout the body, caused by an excess burden of serum uric acid (sUA). The study estimates pharmacy and medical cost budgetary impacts of wider adoption by US payers of febuxostat, a urate-lowering therapy (ULT) for the treatment of gout. A US payer-perspective budget impact model followed ULT patients from a 1,000,000-member plan over 3 years. The current market share scenario, febuxostat (6%) and ULT allopurinol (94%), was compared with an 18% febuxostat market share. Data were implemented from randomized controlled trials, census and epidemiologic studies, and real-world database analyses. An innovation was the inclusion of gout-related chronic kidney disease costs. Cost results were estimated as annual and cumulative incremental costs, expressed as total costs, cost per member per month, and cost per treated member per month. Clinical results were also estimated. Increasing the febuxostat market share resulted in a 6.3% increase in patients achieving the sUA target level of <6.0 mg/dL and a 1.4% reduction in gout flares during the 3-year period. Total cost increased 1.4%, with a 49.9% increase in ULT costs, a 1.4% reduction in flare costs, a 1.2% reduction in chronic kidney disease costs, and a 2.8% reduction in gout care costs. The cumulative incremental costs were $1,307,425 in the first year, $1,939,016 through the second year, and $2,092,744 through the third year. By the third year, savings in medical costs offset most of the increase in treatment costs. Impacts on cumulative cost per member per month and cumulative cost per treated member per month followed the same pattern, with the highest impact in the first year and cumulative impacts declining during the 3-year period. The cumulative cost per member per month impact was estimated as $0.109, $0.081, and $0.058 and the cumulative cost per treated member per month impact was estimated as $12.416, $9.207, and

  18. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  19. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20-29 in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined.Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10-19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20-29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups.When circumcision coverage among men ages 20-29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5 is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario.Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20-29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group.

  20. Multi-modal defences in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adam J; Doremus, Matthew R; Kraft, Laura J; Kim, Kyungsun L; Oliver, Kerry M

    2018-03-01

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defences. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defence individually, occasionally both defences together, or neither. In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections. To better understand these patterns, we sought to compare the strengths and costs of both types of defence, individually and together, in order to elucidate the selective pressures that maintain multi-modal defence mechanisms or that may favour one over the other. We experimentally infected five aphid genotypes (two lowly and three highly resistant), each with two symbiont strains, Hamiltonella-APSE8 (moderate protection) and Hamiltonella-APSE3 (high protection). This resulted in three sublines per genotype: uninfected, +APSE8 and +APSE3. Each of the 15 total sublines was first subjected to a parasitism assay to determine its resistance phenotype and in a second experiment, a subset was chosen to compare fitness (fecundity and survivorship) in the presence and absence of parasitism. In susceptible aphid genotypes, parasitized sublines infected with Hamiltonella generally showed increased protection with direct fitness benefits, but clear infection costs to fitness in the absence of parasitism. In resistant genotypes, Hamiltonella infection rarely conferred additional protection, often further reduced fecundity and survivorship when enemy challenged, and resulted in constitutive fitness costs in the absence of parasitism. We also identified strong aphid genotype × symbiont-strain interactions, such that the best defensive

  1. Optimal distribution feeder reconfiguration for increasing the penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and minimizing network costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Abbasi, Alireza; Rostami, Mohammad-Amin; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of PEVs (Plug-in Electric Vehicles) in future transportation sector brings forward opportunities and challenges from grid perspective. Increased utilization of PEVs will result in problems such as greater total loss, unbalanced load factor, feeder congestion and voltage drop. PEVs are mobile energy storages dispersed all over the network with benefits to both owners and utilities in case of V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) possibility. The intelligent bidirectional power flow between grid and large number of vehicles adds complexity to the system and requires operative tools to schedule V2G energy and subdue PEV impacts. In this paper, DFR (Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration) is utilized to optimally coordinate PEV operation in a stochastic framework. Uncertainty in PEVs characteristics can be due to several sources from location and time of grid connection to driving pattern and battery SoC (State-of-Charge). The proposed stochastic problem is solved with a self-adaptive evolutionary swarm algorithm based on SSO (Social Spider Optimization) algorithm. Numerical studies verify the efficacy of the proposed DFR to improve the system performance and optimal dispatch of V2G. - Highlights: • Consideration effect of PEVS on the distribution feeder reconfiguration. • Increasing the penetration of PEVS. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm. • Modeling the uncertainty in network. • Investigating the degradation cost of batteries in V2G technology.

  2. Increased temperature mitigates the effects of ocean acidification on the calcification of juvenile Pocillopora damicornis, but at a cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Guo, Ming-Lan; Guo, Ya-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Cai, Lin; Lian, Jian-Sheng; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Huang, Hui

    2018-03-01

    This study tested the interactive effects of increased seawater temperature and CO2 partial pressure ( pCO2) on the photochemistry, bleaching, and early growth of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis. New recruits were maintained at ambient or high temperature (29 or 30.8 °C) and pCO2 ( 500 and 1100 μatm) in a full-factorial experiment for 3 weeks. Neither a sharp decline in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) nor evident bleaching was observed at high temperature and/or high pCO2. Furthermore, elevated temperature greatly promoted lateral growth and calcification, while polyp budding exhibited temperature-dependent responses to pCO2. High pCO2 depressed calcification by 28% at ambient temperature, but did not impact calcification at 30.8 °C. Interestingly, elevated temperature in concert with high pCO2 significantly retarded the budding process. These results suggest that increased temperature can mitigate the adverse effects of acidification on the calcification of juvenile P. damicornis, but at a substantial cost to asexual budding.

  3. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  4. Impaired photosynthesis and increased leaf construction costs may induce floral stress during episodes of global warming over macroevolutionary timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Belcher, Claire M; Killi, Dilek; Dewhirst, Rebecca A; Materassi, Alessandro; Raschi, Antonio; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-04-18

    Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO 2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected. Stomatal conductance and the potential for evaporative cooling of the leaves was reduced at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the capacity of the leaves to dissipate excess energy was also reduced at 35/30 °C, indicating that photo-protective mechanisms were no longer functioning effectively. Leaf economics were adversely affected by heat stress, exhibiting an increase in leaf mass per area and leaf construction costs. This may be consistent with the selective pressures experienced by fossil Ginkgoales during intervals of global warming such as the Triassic - Jurassic boundary or Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. The physiological and morphological responses of the G. biloba leaves were closely interrelated; these relationships may be used to infer the leaf economics and photosynthetic/stress physiology of fossil plants.

  5. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  6. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  7. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  8. Dietary standards for school catering in France: serving moderate quantities to improve dietary quality without increasing the food-related cost of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  10. Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Anderson, Peter; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Jane, Stephen M; Dworkin, Sebastian

    2016-10-18

    Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development. Using advanced imaging techniques and quantitative measurement, we show that genetic deletion of the highly-conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) in mice (Grhl3 -/- ) leads to decreased skull size, aberrant skull morphology and premature apposition of the coronal sutures during embryogenesis. Furthermore, Grhl3 -/- mice also present with premature collagen deposition and osteoblast alignment at the sutures, and the physical interaction between the developing skull, and outermost covering of the brain (the dura mater), as well as the overlying dermis and subcutaneous tissue, appears compromised in embryos lacking Grhl3. Although Grhl3 -/- mice die at birth, we investigated skull morphology and size in adult animals lacking one Grhl3 allele (heterozygous; Grhl3 +/- ), which are viable and fertile. We found that these adult mice also present with a smaller cranial cavity, suggestive of post-natal haploinsufficiency in the context of cranial development. Our findings show that our Grhl3 mice present with increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones, suggesting that Grhl3 may be involved in the developmental pathogenesis of craniosynostosis.

  11. The value of information in conservation planning: Selecting retention trees for lichen conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin Perhans; Robert G. Haight; Lena Gustafsson

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning studies at small scales such as forest stands and below are uncommon. However, for retention forestry, developed during the last two decades and with current wide and increasing application in boreal and temperate regions, the need for cost-effective selection of individual trees is evident. In retention forestry certain trees are left at final...

  12. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure cost-effectiveness ratios cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa J Klein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming and in the sea (e.g. overfishing. Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification. Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  14. Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Ban, Natalie C; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beger, Maria; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley S; Green, Alison; Klein, Travis J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Treml, Eric; Wilson, Kerrie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-08-30

    Coral reefs have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming) and in the sea (e.g. overfishing). Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of coral reefs to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification). Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain coral reef ecosystems. Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to coral reefs, and apply it to the Coral Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving coral reefs. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective coral reef conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the Coral Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.

  15. Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure—A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hadin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A transition to renewable energy sources and a circular economy has increased interest in renewable resources not usually considered as energy sources or plant nutrient resources. Horse manure exemplifies this, as it is sometimes recycled but not often used for energy purposes. The purpose of this study was to explore horse manure management in a Swedish municipality and prospects for energy recovery. The case study includes a survey of horse manure practices, environmental assessment of horse manure treatment in a biogas plant, including associated transport, compared to on-site unmanaged composting, and finally a simplified economic analysis. It was found that horse manure management was characterized by indoor collection of manure most of the year and storage on concrete slabs or in containers, followed by direct application on arable land. Softwood was predominantly used as bedding, and bedding accounted for a relatively small proportion (13% of the total mix. Anaerobic digestion was indicated to reduce potential environmental impact in comparison to unmanaged composting, mainly due to biogas substituting use of fossil fuels. The relative environmental impact from transport of manure from horse facilities to anaerobic digestion plant was small. Results also indicate a relatively high cost for horse keepers to change from composting on site to anaerobic digestion in a centralized plant.

  16. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  17. The Cost of Distribution System Upgrades to Accommodate Increasing Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems on Real Feeders in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The increasing deployment of distributed photovoltaic systems (DPV) can impact operations at the distribution level and the transmission level of the electric grid. It is important to develop and implement forward-looking approaches for calculating distribution upgrade costs that can be used to inform system planning, market and tariff design, cost allocation, and other policymaking as penetration levels of DPV increase. Using a bottom-up approach that involves iterative hosting capacity analysis, this report calculates distribution upgrade costs as a function of DPV penetration on three real feeders - two in California and one in the Northeastern United States.

  18. Optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation in China: a systematic conservation planning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng; Malanson, George P; Garber, Paul A; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Diqiang; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Longzhu; Duo, Hairui

    2014-01-01

    By addressing several key features overlooked in previous studies, i.e. human disturbance, integration of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and principles of complementarity and representativeness, we present the first national-scale systematic conservation planning for China to determine the optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation. We compiled a spatial database on the distributions of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and modeled a human disturbance index (HDI) by aggregating information using several socioeconomic proxies. We ran Marxan with two scenarios (HDI-ignored and HDI-considered) to investigate the effects of human disturbance, and explored the geographic patterns of the optimized spatial conservation priorities. Compared to when HDI was ignored, the HDI-considered scenario resulted in (1) a marked reduction (∼9%) in the total HDI score and a slight increase (∼7%) in the total area of the portfolio of priority units, (2) a significant increase (∼43%) in the total irreplaceable area and (3) more irreplaceable units being identified in almost all environmental zones and highly-disturbed provinces. Thus the inclusion of human disturbance is essential for cost-effective priority-setting. Attention should be targeted to the areas that are characterized as moderately-disturbed, conservation. We delineated 23 primary large-scale priority areas that are significant for conserving China's biodiversity, but those isolated priority units in disturbed regions are in more urgent need of conservation actions so as to prevent immediate and severe biodiversity loss. This study presents a spatially optimized national-scale portfolio of conservation priorities--effectively representing the overall biodiversity of China while minimizing conflicts with economic development. Our results offer critical insights for current conservation and strategic land-use planning in China. The approach is transferable and easy

  19. Increasing character value and conservation behavior through integrated ethnoscience chemistry in chemistry learning: A Case Study in The Department of Science Universitas Negeri Semarang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmin; Sumarni, Woro

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a factual picture of the improvement of students' conservation character and conservation behavior through the application integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning. This research was a case study on students majoring in the Department Of Science Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty Universitas Negeri Semarang. The subjects of the study were 30 students attending ethnoscience course in one of the teacher education institutions in the even semester of the academic year of 2016/2017. The subjects were given chemistry learning integrated into ethnoscience for eight weeks. The technique of data collection was done by using attitude scale arranged based on Likert scale. The data were analyzed by using qualitative descriptive. The results showed that the integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning contributed positively to the improvement of the character value and conservation behavior

  20. Visible cost - invisible profit. The heating, ventilation and sanitary sector and the realization of energy conservation. Among politics, knowledge and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubak, Marit

    1998-01-01

    In social research, technology has customarily been considered problem-generating. What is needed to turn new technology into a positive instrument in environmental work? To answer this question one must understand the interaction between politics, knowledge and practice that is important for dealing with the environmental challenges. It is a main objective of this book to contribute to this understanding by analysing how the building industry deals with the energy and environmental challenges that are commonly known as energy conservation. Specifically, the book deals with the heating, ventilation and sanitary sector since this is where most of the companies working with energy conservation are found. The discussion applies to Norway

  1. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  2. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  3. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  4. Conservation economics. Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Christopher

    2015-02-13

    Banks-Leite et al. (Reports, 29 August 2014, p. 1041) conclude that a large-scale program to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest using payments for environmental services (PES) is economically feasible. They do not analyze transaction costs, which are quantified infrequently and incompletely in the literature. Transaction costs can exceed 20% of total project costs and should be included in future research. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Conservation economics. Response to Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Tambosi, Leandro R; Pearse, William D; Bueno, Adriana A; Bruscagin, Roberta T; Condez, Thais H; Dixo, Marianna; Igari, Alexandre T; Martensen, Alexandre C; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-02-13

    Finney claims that we did not include transaction costs while assessing the economic costs of a set-aside program in Brazil and that accounting for them could potentially render large payments for environmental services (PES) projects unfeasible. We agree with the need for a better understanding of transaction costs but provide evidence that they do not alter the feasibility of the set-aside scheme we proposed. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  7. The Conserver Society revisited. Un regard neuf sur la societe de conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrecker, T

    1983-01-01

    A discussion paper is presented on the applicability of the ''conserver society'' concept to Canada. Such a concept involves phenomena as increasing energy efficiency throughout society, encouraging energy conservation and use of renewable resources, and promoting life styles not needing a large consumption of goods or energy. Recent encouraging signs of energy conservation trends in Canada are offset by lags in the application of state of the art energy efficiency techniques in construction and manufacturing. Institutional barriers, such as division of conservation costs between building owners and renters, are also mentioned. Some institutional innovations are being implemented to overcome these constraints, however. Renewable energy options considered in this paper are limited to solar thermal energy and biomass. Waste recycling is also considered as an area of considerable potential. Renewable resources in Canada include forests and water, and expenditures to conserve these resources are seen as essential investments for the future, especially in view of the fact that impacts take years to appear. In the economic sphere, a number of developments are outlined, relating to conserver technologies (e.g. those that reduce environmental impacts while recovering materials or energy) and industries. The effect of conserver strategies on employment is also examined. A separate section of this report discusses Quebec, its cultural development and its approach to the conserver society; government actions have been taken with respect to forests, agricultural land, home energy use, recycling, and changing of public attitudes. 50 refs.

  8. Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ian J.; Coombes, Emma; Fitzherbert, Emily; Binner, Amy; Bad’ura, Tomáš; Carbone, Chris; Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin; Watkinson, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The recent report from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity [(2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3] acknowledges that ongoing biodiversity loss necessitates swift, radical action. Protecting undisturbed lands, although vital, is clearly insufficient, and the key role of unprotected, private land owned is being increasingly recognized. Seeking to avoid common assumptions of a social planner backed by government interventions, the present work focuses on the incentives of the individual landowner. We use detailed data to show that successful conservation on private land depends on three factors: conservation effectiveness (impact on target species), private costs (especially reductions in production), and private benefits (the extent to which conservation activities provide compensation, for example, by enhancing the value of remaining production). By examining the high-profile issue of palm-oil production in a major tropical biodiversity hotspot, we show that the levels of both conservation effectiveness and private costs are inherently spatial; varying the location of conservation activities can radically change both their effectiveness and private cost implications. We also use an economic choice experiment to show that consumers' willingness to pay for conservation-grade palm-oil products has the potential to incentivize private producers sufficiently to engage in conservation activities, supporting vulnerable International Union for Conservation of Nature Red Listed species. However, these incentives vary according to the scale and efficiency of production and the extent to which conservation is targeted to optimize its cost-effectiveness. Our integrated, interdisciplinary approach shows how strategies to harness the power of the market can usefully complement existing—and to-date insufficient—approaches to conservation. PMID:26077906

  9. Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ian J; Coombes, Emma; Fitzherbert, Emily; Binner, Amy; Bad'ura, Tomáš; Carbone, Chris; Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin; Watkinson, Andrew R

    2015-06-16

    The recent report from the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity [(2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3] acknowledges that ongoing biodiversity loss necessitates swift, radical action. Protecting undisturbed lands, although vital, is clearly insufficient, and the key role of unprotected, private land owned is being increasingly recognized. Seeking to avoid common assumptions of a social planner backed by government interventions, the present work focuses on the incentives of the individual landowner. We use detailed data to show that successful conservation on private land depends on three factors: conservation effectiveness (impact on target species), private costs (especially reductions in production), and private benefits (the extent to which conservation activities provide compensation, for example, by enhancing the value of remaining production). By examining the high-profile issue of palm-oil production in a major tropical biodiversity hotspot, we show that the levels of both conservation effectiveness and private costs are inherently spatial; varying the location of conservation activities can radically change both their effectiveness and private cost implications. We also use an economic choice experiment to show that consumers' willingness to pay for conservation-grade palm-oil products has the potential to incentivize private producers sufficiently to engage in conservation activities, supporting vulnerable International Union for Conservation of Nature Red Listed species. However, these incentives vary according to the scale and efficiency of production and the extent to which conservation is targeted to optimize its cost-effectiveness. Our integrated, interdisciplinary approach shows how strategies to harness the power of the market can usefully complement existing--and to-date insufficient--approaches to conservation.

  10. Four Simple Questions: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Half-Day Community Workshops Designed to Increase Awareness of Coastal Cetacean Conservation Issues in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Gianna; Poh, Anna Norliza Zulkifli; Ngeian, Jenny; Peter, Cindy; Tuen, Andrew Alek

    2012-01-01

    Community workshops were held in coastal locations in Sarawak to raise awareness of cetacean conservation. Interviews were conducted up to 2 years later in four "workshop communities" as well as four villages where workshops were not conducted. Comparison of responses between respondents who had attended workshops (n = 127) versus those…

  11. The increased cost of medical services for people diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma: a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Li, Jim Z; Nichol, Michael B; Wu, Joanne; Fain, Joel

    2010-07-01

    Glaucoma accounts for more than 11% of all cases of blindness in the United States, but there have been few studies of economic impact. We examine incremental cost of primary open-angle glaucoma considering both visual and nonvisual medical costs over a lifetime of glaucoma. A decision analytic approach taking the payor's perspective with microsimulation estimation. We constructed a Markov model to replicate health events over the remaining lifetime of someone newly diagnosed with glaucoma. Costs of this group were compared with those estimated for a control group without glaucoma. The cost of management of glaucoma (including medications) before the onset of visual impairment was not considered. The model was populated with probability data estimated from Medicare claims data (1999 through 2005). Cost of nonocular medications and nursing home use was estimated from California Medicare claims, and all other costs were estimated from Medicare claims data. We found modest differences in the incidence of comorbid conditions and health service use between people with glaucoma and the control group. Over their expected lifetime, the cost of care for people with primary open-angle glaucoma was higher than that of people without primary open-angle glaucoma by $1688 or approximately $137 per year. Among Medicare beneficiaries, glaucoma diagnosis not found to be associated with significant risk of comorbidities before development of visual impairment. Further study is necessary to consider the impact of glaucoma on quality of life, as well as aspects of physical and visual function not captured in this claims-based analysis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  13. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  14. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Cranking up the heat: relationships between energetically costly song features and the increase in thorax temperature in male crickets and katydids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erregger, Bettina; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Hartbauer, Manfred; Römer, Heinrich; Schmidt, Arne K D

    2017-07-15

    Sexual displays of acoustically signalling insects are used in the context of mate attraction and mate choice. While energetic investment in sound production can increase the reproductive success of the sender, this entails metabolic costs. Resource allocation to sexually selected, reproductive traits can trade off against allocation to naturally selected traits (e.g. growth, immunity) when individuals' energy budgets are limited. Estimating the magnitude of the costs invested in acoustic signalling is necessary to understand this trade-off and its influence on fitness and life history. To compare the costs associated with acoustic signalling for two ensiferan species, we simultaneously took respiratory measurements to record the rate of CO 2 production and used infrared thermography to measure the increase in thorax temperature. Furthermore, to identify what combinations of acoustic parameters were energetically costly for the sender, we recorded the calling songs of 22 different cricket and katydid species for a comparative analysis and measured their thorax temperature while they sang. Acoustic signalling was energetically costly for Mecopoda sp. and Anurogryllus muticus , requiring a 12- and 16-fold increase over resting levels in the CO 2 production rate. Moreover, calling increased thorax temperature, on average by 7.6 and 5.8°C, respectively. We found that the song intensity and effective calling rate, not simply the chirp/trill duty cycle or the pulse rate alone, were good predictors for the thorax temperature increase in males. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Utility and Cost-Effectiveness of Motivational Messaging to Increase Survey Response in Physicians: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C. H.; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Pang, Ingrid H. Y.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Tang, Wai Kwong; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Woo, Jean; Lee, Diana T. F.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether, when, and how motivational messaging can boost the response rate of postal surveys for physicians based on Higgin's regulatory focus theory, accounting for its cost-effectiveness. A three-arm, blinded, randomized controlled design was used. A total of 3,270 doctors were randomly selected from the registration…

  17. Ship Maintenance Processes with Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management and 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanning Tools: Reducing Costs and Increasing Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    that the normal cost-reduction learning curve for common ship alterations, across a series of common ship platforms, has not materialized . This study...ship alterations, across a series of common ship platforms, has not materialized . This study uses the knowledge value added (KVA) + systems dynamics...Valuation Services and Global Financial Services practice of KPMG Consulting and a Manager with the Economic Consulting Services practice at KPMG LLP. He

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Strategies for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy in an Era of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyueun; Drekonja, Dimitri M; Enns, Eva A

    2018-03-01

    To determine the optimal antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) as a function of the local antibiotic resistance profile. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of four antibiotic prophylaxis strategies: ciprofloxacin alone, ceftriaxone alone, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in combination, and directed prophylaxis selection based on susceptibility testing. We used a payer's perspective and estimated the health care costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy for a cohort of 66-year-old men undergoing TRPB. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Base-case resistance prevalence was 29% to ciprofloxacin and 7% to ceftriaxone, reflecting susceptibility patterns observed at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Resistance levels were varied in sensitivity analysis. In the base case, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were dominated. Directed prophylaxis strategy was the optimal strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY gained. Relative to the directed prophylaxis strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the combination strategy was $123,333/QALY gained over the lifetime time horizon. In sensitivity analysis, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were preferred only at extreme levels of resistance. Directed or combination prophylaxis strategies were optimal for a wide range of resistance levels. Facilities using single-agent antibiotic prophylaxis strategies before TRPB should re-evaluate their strategies unless extremely low levels of antimicrobial resistance are documented. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  20. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of the Zonal Program of Castro Verde (Portugal): Highlighting the trade-off between biodiversity and soil conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marta-Predoso, C.; Domingos, T.; Freitas, H.; Groot, de R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We address the effects of erosion on the environmental services provided by the soil and explore possibilities for integrating soil erosion impacts in cost-benefit analyses of agri-environmental policies. As a case study, we considered the continued soil erosion caused by the traditional cereal

  2. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Increasing the use of second-line therapy is a cost-effective approach to prevent the spread of drug-resistant HIV: a mathematical modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Brooke E.; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Kityo, Cissy; Hamers, Raph L.; Baltussen, Rob; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R.; Hallett, Timothy B.; Boucher, Charles A. B.; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation reduces HIV-1 incidence. This benefit may be offset by increased transmitted drug resistance (TDR), which could limit future HIV treatment options. We analyze the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce TDR. We develop a

  4. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Ischemic Stroke Increases Disability-Free Survival, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy and Reduces Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. V. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEndovascular thrombectomy improves functional outcome in large vessel occlusion ischemic stroke. We examined disability, quality of life, survival and acute care costs in the EXTEND-IA trial, which used CT-perfusion imaging selection.MethodsLarge vessel ischemic stroke patients with favorable CT-perfusion were randomized to endovascular thrombectomy after alteplase versus alteplase-only. Clinical outcome was prospectively measured using 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS. Individual patient expected survival and net difference in Disability/Quality-adjusted life years (DALY/QALY up to 15 years from stroke were modeled using age, sex, 90-day mRS, and utility scores. Level of care within the first 90 days was prospectively measured and used to estimate procedure and inpatient care costs (US$ reference year 2014.ResultsThere were 70 patients, 35 in each arm, mean age 69, median NIHSS 15 (IQR 12–19. The median (IQR disability-weighted utility score at 90 days was 0.65 (0.00–0.91 in the alteplase-only versus 0.91 (0.65–1.00 in the endovascular group (p = 0.005. Modeled life expectancy was greater in the endovascular versus alteplase-only group (median 15.6 versus 11.2 years, p = 0.02. The endovascular thrombectomy group had fewer simulated DALYs lost over 15 years [median (IQR 5.5 (3.2–8.7 versus 8.9 (4.7–13.8, p = 0.02] and more QALY gained [median (IQR 9.3 (4.2–13.1 versus 4.9 (0.3–8.5, p = 0.03]. Endovascular patients spent less time in hospital [median (IQR 5 (3–11 days versus 8 (5–14 days, p = 0.04] and rehabilitation [median (IQR 0 (0–28 versus 27 (0–65 days, p = 0.03]. The estimated inpatient costs in the first 90 days were less in the thrombectomy group (average US$15,689 versus US$30,569, p = 0.008 offsetting the costs of interhospital transport and the thrombectomy procedure (average US$10,515. The average saving per patient treated with thrombectomy was US$4

  5. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    populations, the level of genetic differentiation found here is comparable to that among pan-African populations. Overall, correlations between conservancy area and indices of genetic diversity suggest buffalo populations inhabiting small parks are showing signs of genetic erosion, stressing the need for more......The Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) is one of the dominant and most widespread herbivores in sub-Saharan Africa. High levels of genetic diversity and exceptionally low levels of population differentiation have been found in the Cape buffalo compared to other African savannah ungulates...... active management of such populations. Our findings raise concerns about the future of other African savannah ungulates with lower population sizes and inferior dispersal capabilities compared with the buffalo....

  6. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Simmons, David; Devlieger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    was performed alongside a European multicenter-randomized controlled trial. A total of 435 pregnant women at increased risk of GDM in primary and secondary care settings in nine European countries, were recruited and randomly allocated to a healthy eating and physical activity promotion intervention (HE + PA...... intervention), a healthy eating promotion intervention (HE intervention), or a physical activity promotion intervention (PA intervention). Main outcome measures were gestational weight gain, fasting glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and societal costs. Results: Between...... intervention strategy. At 35-37 weeks, it depends on the decision-makers' willingness to pay per kilogram reduction in gestational weight gain whether the HE + PA intervention is cost-effective for gestational weight gain, whereas it was not cost-effective for fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. After delivery...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Simmons, David; Devlieger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    for pregnant women at increased risk for GDM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion intervention compared to usual care among pregnant women at increased risk of GDM from a societal perspective. Methods: An economic evaluation...... was performed alongside a European multicenter-randomized controlled trial. A total of 435 pregnant women at increased risk of GDM in primary and secondary care settings in nine European countries, were recruited and randomly allocated to a healthy eating and physical activity promotion intervention (HE + PA...... intervention), a healthy eating promotion intervention (HE intervention), or a physical activity promotion intervention (PA intervention). Main outcome measures were gestational weight gain, fasting glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and societal costs. Results: Between...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of using a social franchise network to increase uptake of oral rehydration salts and zinc for childhood diarrhea in rural Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David; Sachathep, Karampreet; LeFevre, Amnesty; Thant, Hnin New Nwe; Zaw, Min; Aung, Tin; McFarland, Willi; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of achieving increases in the use of oral rehydration solution and zinc supplementation in the management of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years through social franchising. The study uses cost and outcome data from an initiative by Population Services International (PSI) in 3 townships of Myanmar in 2010 to promote an ORS-Zinc product called ORASEL. The objective of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a strategy to promote ORS-Z use through private sector franchising compared to standard government and private sector practices. Costing from a societal perspective included program, provider, and household costs for the 2010 calendar year. Program costs including ORASEL program launch, distribution, and administration costs were obtained through a retrospective review of financial records and key informant interviews with staff in the central Yangon office. Household out of pocket payments for diarrheal episodes were obtained from a household survey conducted in the study area and additional estimates of household income lost due to parental care-giving time for a sick child were estimated. Incremental cost-effectiveness relative to status quo conditions was calculated per child death and DALY averted in 2010. Health effects included deaths and DALYs averted; the former modeled based on coverage estimates from a household survey that were entered into the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Uncertainty was modeled with Monte Carlo methods. Based on the model, the promotional strategy would translate to 2.85 (SD 0.29) deaths averted in a community population of 1 million where there would be 81,000 children under 5 expecting 48,373 cases of diarrhea. The incremental cost effectiveness of the franchised approach to improving ORASEL coverage is estimated at a median $5,955 (IQR: $3437-$7589) per death averted and $214 (IQR: $127-$287) per discounted DALY averted. Investing in developing a network of

  10. Decision and cost analysis of empirical antibiotic therapy of acute sinusitis in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: do we have an additional tool for antibiotic policy decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babela, Robert; Jarcuska, Pavol; Uraz, Vladimir; Krčméry, Vladimír; Jadud, Branislav; Stevlik, Jan; Gould, Ian M

    2017-11-01

    No previous analyses have attempted to determine optimal therapy for upper respiratory tract infections on the basis of cost-minimization models and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Slovakia. This investigation compares macrolides and cephalosporines for empirical therapy and look at this new tool from the aspect of potential antibiotic policy decision-making process. We employed a decision tree model to determine the threshold level of macrolides and cephalosporines resistance among community respiratory pathogens that would make cephalosporines or macrolides cost-minimising. To obtain information on clinical outcomes and cost of URTIs, a systematic review of the literature was performed. The cost-minimization model of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) treatment was derived from the review of literature and published models. We found that the mean cost of empirical treatment with macrolides for an URTIs was €93.27 when the percentage of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the community was 0%; at 5%, the mean cost was €96.45; at 10%, €99.63; at 20%, €105.99, and at 30%, €112.36. Our model demonstrated that when the percentage of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae exceeds 13.8%, use of empirical cephalosporines rather than macrolides minimizes the treatment cost of URTIs. Empirical macrolide therapy is less expensive than cephalosporines therapy for URTIs unless macrolide resistance exceeds 13.8% in the community. Results have important antibiotic policy implications, since presented model can be use as an additional decision-making tool for new guidelines and reimbursement processes by local authorities in the era of continual increase in antibiotic resistance.

  11. Incremento de costes atribuible a la infección quirúrgica de la apendicectomía y colectomía Increase in costs attributable to surgical infection after appendicectomy and colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ríos

    2003-06-01

    and 23 controls for patients operated on apendicectomy and 20 cases and 20 controls for those operated on colectomy. In matching 2, the sample consisted on 17 pairs of cases and controls on apendicectomy and 14 pairs of cases and controls on colectomy. The infection increased the average length of stay between 7.7 days (matching 1 and 7.3 days (matching 2 in cases of infected apendicectomy and between 17.6 days (matching 1 and 15.4 days (matching 2 in cases of infected colectomy. The patients with apendicectomy infection presented an average cost three times higher than the ones not infected, both in matching 1 (2,998.60 versus 941.89 €, respectively; p < 0.0001 and in matching 2 (2,751.70 versus 870.81 €, respectively; p < 0.0001. Similar findings were observed in colectomy both in matching 1 (10,705.34 versus 2,600.55 €, respectively; p < 0.0001 and in matching 2 (9,081.12 versus 2,621.39 €, respectively; p < 0.0001. The average cost of surgical site infection oscillated between 2,056.71 € (matching 1 and 1,880.89 € (matching 2 in apendicectomy and between 8,140.79 € (matching 1 and 6,405.65 € (matching 2 in colectomy. Conclusions: Under the study conditions, the infection of surgical site determines the prolongation of the hospital stay in more than one week in apendicectomy and in more than two in colectomy, with an increase higher than 300% in the total direct cost.

  12. The SpikerBox: A Low Cost, Open-Source BioAmplifier for Increasing Public Participation in Neuroscience Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Timothy C.; Gage, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Although people are generally interested in how the brain functions, neuroscience education for the public is hampered by a lack of low cost and engaging teaching materials. To address this, we developed an open-source tool, the SpikerBox, which is appropriate for use in middle/high school educational programs and by amateurs. This device can be used in easy experiments in which students insert sewing pins into the leg of a cockroach, or other invertebrate, to amplify and listen to the electrical activity of neurons. With the cockroach leg preparation, students can hear and see (using a smartphone oscilloscope app we have developed) the dramatic changes in activity caused by touching the mechanosensitive barbs. Students can also experiment with other manipulations such as temperature, drugs, and microstimulation that affect the neural activity. We include teaching guides and other resources in the supplemental materials. These hands-on lessons with the SpikerBox have proven to be effective in teaching basic neuroscience. PMID:22470415

  13. The SpikerBox: a low cost, open-source bioamplifier for increasing public participation in neuroscience inquiry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Although people are generally interested in how the brain functions, neuroscience education for the public is hampered by a lack of low cost and engaging teaching materials. To address this, we developed an open-source tool, the SpikerBox, which is appropriate for use in middle/high school educational programs and by amateurs. This device can be used in easy experiments in which students insert sewing pins into the leg of a cockroach, or other invertebrate, to amplify and listen to the electrical activity of neurons. With the cockroach leg preparation, students can hear and see (using a smartphone oscilloscope app we have developed the dramatic changes in activity caused by touching the mechanosensitive barbs. Students can also experiment with other manipulations such as temperature, drugs, and microstimulation that affect the neural activity. We include teaching guides and other resources in the supplemental materials. These hands-on lessons with the SpikerBox have proven to be effective in teaching basic neuroscience.

  14. Increased Virulence and Competitive Advantage of a/α Over a/a or α/α Offspring Conserves the Mating System of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B.; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/α and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or α/α to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/α strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and α/α offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/α strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or α/α offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/α and offspring a/a or α/α cells were co-injected, a/α always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/α2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/α2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/α genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature. PMID:15695357

  15. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  16. Sci-Fri AM: Quality, Safety, and Professional Issues 03: The Increasing Costs of Shielding Diagnostic CT Scanners in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Jeff; Frimeth, Jeff; Nesbitt, James [Windsor Regional Hospital, Xspect Inc., XRCT Inc. (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: In Ontario, shielding for all X-ray machines, including CT scanners, must be evaluated according to Safety Code 20A (Health Canada, 1983) which is based on NCRP-49 (NCRP, 1976). NCRP-147 (NCRP, 2004) is the international standard for shielding calculations of CT scanners and is also referenced in Safety Code 35 (Health Canada, 2008) which, was published to supersede SC20A. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of NCRP-147 for CT scanner shielding. Methods: CT scanner shielding calculations are performed using SC20A and NCRP-147: A room located on the third floor with the nearest building 75m away A room with high occupancy uncontrolled adjacent spaces Two side by side rooms on the main floor Results: 1. SC20A: The exterior windows required 0.1mm of Pb to protect the public who may occupy the building at 75m. 1. NCRP-147: No additional shielding required. 2. SC20A: Two walls adjacent to high occupancy uncontrolled space required an additional 1.58mm Pb. 2. NCRP-147: No additional shielding required. 3. SC20A: The entire floor and ceiling slabs in both rooms required an additional 0.79mm Pb. In addition, 0.79mm Pb was added to the walls from the ceiling to overlap the existing Pb shielding in the walls. 3. NCRP-147: No additional shielding required. Conclusion: The application of NCRP Report No. 147 affords the required protection to staff and the public, in the true spirit of the ALARA principle, taking into account relevant social and economic factors.

  17. A lesson in business: cost-effectiveness analysis of a novel financial incentive intervention for increasing physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Mary Anne T; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Cairns, Karen J; Kee, Frank

    2013-10-10

    Recently both the UK and US governments have advocated the use of financial incentives to encourage healthier lifestyle choices but evidence for the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking. Our aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a quasi-experimental trial, exploring the use of financial incentives to increase employee physical activity levels, from a healthcare and employer's perspective. Employees used a 'loyalty card' to objectively monitor their physical activity at work over 12 weeks. The Incentive Group (n=199) collected points and received rewards for minutes of physical activity completed. The No Incentive Group (n=207) self-monitored their physical activity only. Quality of life (QOL) and absenteeism were assessed at baseline and 6 months follow-up. QOL scores were also converted into productivity estimates using a validated algorithm. The additional costs of the Incentive Group were divided by the additional quality adjusted life years (QALYs) or productivity gained to calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and population expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was used to characterize and value the uncertainty in our estimates. The Incentive Group performed more physical activity over 12 weeks and by 6 months had achieved greater gains in QOL and productivity, although these mean differences were not statistically significant. The ICERs were £2,900/QALY and £2,700 per percentage increase in overall employee productivity. Whilst the confidence intervals surrounding these ICERs were wide, CEACs showed a high chance of the intervention being cost-effective at low willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds. The Physical Activity Loyalty card (PAL) scheme is potentially cost-effective from both a healthcare and employer's perspective but further research is warranted to reduce uncertainty in our results. It is based on a sustainable "business model" which

  18. Technology Alliance Portfolios and Financial Performance : Value-Enhancing and Cost-Increasing Effects of Open Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; de Visser, Matthias; Andries, Petra; Van Looy, Bart

    Firms increasingly adopt an open innovation model in which they rely on technology alliances to complement and supplement their internal innovation efforts. Although previous studies provide in-depth insight into the impact of technology alliances on the innovation performance, they remain

  19. Technology alliance portfolios and financial performance: Value-enhancing and cost-increasing effects of open innovation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D.L.M.; de Visser, Matthias; Andries, Petra; van Looy, Bart; van Looy, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Firms increasingly adopt an open innovation model in which they rely on technology alliances to complement and supplement their internal innovation efforts. Although previous studies provide in-depth insight into the impact of technology alliances on the innovation performance, they remain

  20. Technology Alliance Portfolios and Financial Performance : Value-Enhancing and Cost-Increasing Effects of Open Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; de Visser, Matthias; Andries, Petra; Van Looy, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Firms increasingly adopt an open innovation model in which they rely on technology alliances to complement and supplement their internal innovation efforts. Although previous studies provide in-depth insight into the impact of technology alliances on the innovation performance, they remain

  1. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  2. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  3. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  4. Increased mobility and on/off ratio in organic field-effect transistors using low-cost guanine-pentacene multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yifan; Taylor, André D.; Yu, Junsheng; Katz, Howard E.

    2017-07-01

    Layer-by-layer deposited guanine and pentacene in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is introduced. Through adjusting the layer thickness ratio of guanine and pentacene, the tradeoff of two electronic parameters in OFETs, charge carrier mobility and current on/off ratio, was controlled. The charge mobility was enhanced by depositing pentacene over and between guanine layers and by increasing the proportion of pentacene in the layer-by-layer system, while the current on/off ratio was increased via the decreased off current induced by the guanine layers. The tunable device performance was mainly ascribed to the trap and dopant neutralizing properties of the guanine layers, which would decrease the density of free hydroxyl groups in the OFETs. Furthermore, the cost of the devices could be reduced remarkably via the adoption of low-cost guanine.

  5. Promoting energy conservation in China's metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization, with consequent dramatic increase in energy demand. Given energy scarcity, environmental pollution, energy security and energy cost constraints, energy conservation will be the major strategy in China's transition to a low-carbon economy. Since the metallurgy industry is a main sector of energy consumption, the efficiency of energy conservation in this industry will affect the future prospects of energy savings. This paper analyzes the energy conservation potential of China's metallurgy industry. First, seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to investigate the relationship between energy relative price, R&D input, enterprise ownership structure, enterprise scale and energy intensity of the metallurgy industry. Then, based on the SUR results, we use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consumption and savings potential in the industry in different scenarios. This paper provides references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to analyze the energy intensity of metallurgy industry. • We use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consuming and energy saving of Chinese metallurgy industry. • Provide references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies.

  6. The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil's gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta trees

    OpenAIRE

    Frederickson, Megan E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2007-01-01

    ‘Devil's gardens’ are nearly pure stands of the myrmecophyte, Duroia hirsuta, that occur in Amazonian rainforests. Devil's gardens are created by Myrmelachista schumanni ants, which nest in D. hirsuta trees and kill other plants using formic acid as an herbicide. Here, we show that this ant–plant mutualism has an associated cost; by making devil's gardens, M. schumanni increases herbivory on D. hirsuta. We measured standing leaf herbivory on D. hirsuta trees and found that they sustain higher...

  7. Technique to increase performance of C-program for control systems. Compiler technique for low-cost CPU; Seigyoyo C gengo program no kosokuka gijutsu. Tei cost CPU no tame no gengo compiler gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The software of automotive control systems has become increasingly large and complex. High level languages (primarily C) and the compilers become more important to reduce coding time. Most compilers represent real number in the floating point format specified by IEEE standard 754. Most microprocessors in the automotive industry have no hardware for the operation using the IEEE standard due to the cost requirements, resulting in the slow execution speed and large code size. Alternative formats to increase execution speed and reduce code size are proposed. Experimental results for the alternative formats show the improvement in execution speed and code size. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of increased adherence and cost savings of an employer value-based benefits program targeting generic antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bobby; DuChane, Janeen; Hou, John; Rubinstein, Elan; McMurray, Jennifer; Duncan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    .001). Similar results were found among users of antihyperlipidemics. The mean adherence rate was sustained over time for participants (77.7% vs. 78.3%) but declined over time for nonparticipants (77.6% vs. 70.8%). The difference in mean change over time was statistically significant between participants and nonparticipants (0.6% vs. -6,8%, P  less than  0.001). Average prescription costs PMPY increased for participants of the ZCP program during the post-implementation period; however, the increase was not larger than the cost increase among nonparticipants ($581 vs. $584, P = 0.95). Furthermore, among antihyperlipidemics the cost increase post-implementation was actually significantly less for participants than nonparticipants ($51 vs. $143, P  less than  0.001).  Plan sponsors are increasingly evaluating the use of value-based benefit design (VBBD) to change member behavior. This ZCP program used a reduction in cost sharing to incentivize members to use more generic drugs and to enroll in a care management coaching program. The study also demonstrated that a VBBD program can have a positive impact on adherence and cost outcomes among those who participate compared with nonparticipants. 

  9. Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of environmental decisions: Benefit-cost analysis and effluent fees: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lave, L.; Gruenspecht, H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this critical review is to evaluate and summarize the literature on economic tools used to improve environmental decision making. Environmental decisions are complicated by pervasive uncertainty, and the lack of consensus on goals and on tradeoffs, such as air versus water pollution and versus loss of coal mining jobs. Five decision frameworks are used by regulatory agencies to simplify decision making. Congress' choice of a decision framework designates the amount of data and analysis that will be required and the range and depth of social values that must be considered. Economic incentives have worked well for phasing out lead in gasoline, for increasing recycling and for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste. Congress has mandated incentives for acid rain and CFCs, and several countries have implemented carbon taxes to abate greenhouse gas emissions. Economic tools have become more central to the analysis and implementation of environmental policies; their role should continue to increase. We conclude that economic tools are extremely valuable, although their application is difficult

  10. Drive Cost Reduction, Increase Innovation and Mitigate Risk with Advanced Knowledge Discovery Tools Designed to Unlock and Leverage Prior Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is knowledge-intensive and includes a diverse number of stakeholders. Much of this knowledge is at risk as engineers, technicians and project professionals retire, leaving a widening skills and information gap. This knowledge is critical in an increasingly complex environment with information from past projects often buried in decades-old, non-integrated systems enterprise. Engineers can spend 40% or more of their time searching for answers across the enterprise instead of solving problems. The inability to access trusted industry knowledge results in increased risk and expense. Advanced knowledge discovery technologies slash research times by as much as 75% and accelerate innovation and problem solving by giving technical professionals access to the information they need, in the context of the problems they are trying to solve. Unlike traditional knowledge management approaches, knowledge discovery tools powered by semantic search technologies are adept at uncovering answers in unstructured data and require no tagging, organization or moving of data, meaning a smaller IT footprint and faster time-to-knowledge. This session will highlight best-in-class knowledge discovery technologies, content, and strategies to give nuclear industry organizations the ability to leverage the corpus of enterprise knowledge into the future. (author

  11. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  12. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  13. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value of net cost savings attributable to an energy conservation measure to the present value of the net increase in investment, maintenance and operating, and replacement... present value. The format for displaying life-cycle costs shall be a savings-to-investment ratio. (b) An...

  14. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  15. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  16. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  17. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Wu Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Aly, Amal [Division of Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Golhar, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk [Department of Biostatistics, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log-rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their clinical

  18. Low p53 Binding Protein 1 (53BP1) Expression Is Associated With Increased Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neboori, Hanmanth J.R.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wu Hao; Yang Qifeng; Aly, Amal; Goyal, Sharad; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Golhar, Ryan; Chen Chunxia; Moore, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the expression of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) has prognostic significance in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (BCS+RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray of early-stage breast cancer treated with BCS+RT from a cohort of 514 women was assayed for 53BP1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Through log–rank tests and univariate and multivariate models, the staining profile of each tumor was correlated with clinical endpoints, including ipsilateral breast recurrence–free survival (IBRFS), distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Of the 477 (93%) evaluable tumors, 63 (13%) were scored as low. Low expression of 53BP1 was associated with worse outcomes for all endpoints studied, including 10-year IBRFS (76.8% vs. 90.5%; P=.01), OS (66.4% vs. 81.7%; P=.02), CSS (66.0% vs. 87.4%; P<.01), DMFS (55.9% vs. 87.0%; P<.01), and RFS (45.2% vs. 80.6%; P<.01). Multivariate analysis incorporating various clinico-pathologic markers and 53BP1 expression found that 53BP1 expression was again an independent predictor of all endpoints (IBRFS: P=.0254; OS: P=.0094; CSS: P=.0033; DMFS: P=.0006; RFS: P=.0002). Low 53BP1 expression was also found to correlate with triple-negative (TN) phenotype (P<.01). Furthermore, in subset analysis of all TN breast cancer, negative 53BP1 expression trended for lower IBRFS (72.3% vs. 93.9%; P=.0361) and was significant for worse DMFS (48.2% vs. 86.8%; P=.0035) and RFS (37.8% vs. 83.7%; P=.0014). Conclusion: Our data indicate that low 53BP1 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for local relapse among other endpoints in early-stage breast cancer and TN breast cancer patients treated with BCS+RT. These results should be verified in larger cohorts of patients to validate their

  19. Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, Walid; Murphy, Frederic; Pierru, Axel; Rioux, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Using a multi-sector equilibrium model of the Saudi energy system that handles administered prices in a mixed-complementarity formulation, we present results from a set of policy scenarios that lower oil consumption in the country. Some of these scenarios are the solutions to Mathematical Programs subject to Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs) that maximize the net economic gain for the Saudi economy. The policies examined have the potential to generate economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011, or about 4% of Saudi Arabia's GDP. This economic gain comes mainly from inter-sectoral fuel pricing policies that incent shifting the mix in technologies that generate electricity and produce water from energy intensive technologies to more efficient ones. We show that when complemented by credits for investments in solar and nuclear power generation capacities, a modest increase in the transfer prices of fuels among sectors is sufficient to produce economic gains close to those achieved by deregulating transfer prices. The approach we develop here is an alternative to the classic recommendation of deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices in situations where the conditions for successful liberalized markets do not exist. It is a template for introducing the notions of incentivizing behavior using prices into countries that rely more on administrative procedures than markets, leading to a deeper understanding of how markets can lead to economic gain. - Highlights: • The policies examined would have potentially generated economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011. • We design policies that produce economic benefits close to those achieved by deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices. • This paper provides a template for building multi-sector models when transfer prices between sectors are administered

  20. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  1. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  2. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  3. Options to address concerns regarding EU ETS induced increases in power prices and generators' profits. The case of carbon cost pass-through in Germany and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Hers, J.S.; Wetzelaer, B.J.H.W.

    2008-02-01

    Power prices in EU countries have increased significantly since the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) became effective on 1 January 2005. This suggests that these increases in power prices are due to this scheme, in particular the pass-through of the costs of EU allowances (EUAs) to cover the CO2 emissions of eligible installations. In all sectors, however - including the power sector - eligible installations have usually received almost all of their needed allowances for free during the first phase of the EU ETS (2005-07). In several EU countries, the coincidence of the increases in power prices and the implementation of the EU ETS has raised questions, and sometimes fierce political debate, on whether power producers have indeed passed through the costs of freely allocated CO2 allowances to electricity prices, and to what extent the increase in these prices can be attributed to this pass-through or to other factors. In addition, it has raised discussions on whether - and to what extent - the supposed passing through of these costs has led to additional profits for power producers, that is, the so-called 'windfall profits' induced by the EU ETS. Finally, the supposed ETSinduced increases in power prices and generators' profits has raised concerns affecting the legitimacy of the present EU ETS, including concerns regarding its impact on the international competitiveness of some powerintensive industries, the purchasing power of electricity end-users such as small households or, more generally, the distribution of social welfare among power producers and consumers. As a result, in several countries policy makers and stakeholders have suggested a variety of options to address these concerns, including changing the emissions trading allocation system, taxing windfall profits or controlling market prices of EU carbon allowances, electricity or both. Against this background, the objectives of this chapter include: (a) To analyse empirically the trends in power

  4. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  5. Increasing faculty participation in resident education and providing cost-effective self-assessment module credit to faculty through resident-generated didactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Malatesta, Theresa M; Anné, Pramila R; McAna, John; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

    Board certified radiation oncologists and medical physicists are required to earn self-assessment module (SAM) continuing medical education (CME) credit, which may require travel costs or usage fees. Data indicate that faculty participation in resident teaching activities is beneficial to resident education. Our hypothesis was that providing the opportunity to earn SAM credit in resident didactics would increase faculty participation in and improve resident education. SAM applications, comprising CME certified category 1 resident didactic lectures and faculty-generated questions with respective answers, rationales, and references, were submitted to the American Board of Radiology for formal review. Surveys were distributed to assess main academic campus physician, affiliate campus physician, physicist, and radiation oncology resident impressions regarding the quality of the lectures. Survey responses were designed in Likert-scale format. Sign-test was performed with P motivation to attend resident didactics (P = .004). Residents reported an increased amount of time required to prepare lectures (P = .008). We are the first department, to our knowledge, to offer SAM credit to clinical faculty for participation in resident-generated didactics. Offering SAM credit at resident lectures is a cost-effective alternative to purchasing SAM resources, increases faculty attendance, and may improve the quality of radiation oncology resident education. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Summoning compassion to address the challenges of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Bekoff, Marc; Batavia, Chelsea; Nelson, Michael P; Ramp, Daniel

    2018-04-27

    Conservation practice is informed by science, but also reflects ethical beliefs about how we ought to value and interact with the Earth's biota. As human activities continue to drive extinctions and diminish critical life-sustaining ecosystem processes, achieving conservation goals becomes increasingly urgent. In our determination to react decisively, conservation challenges can be handled without due deliberation, particularly when wildlife individuals are sacrificed "for the greater good" of wildlife collectives (populations, species, ecosystems). With growing recognition of the widespread sentience and sapience of many nonhuman animals, standard conservation practices that categorically prioritize collectives without due consideration for the wellbeing of individuals are ethically untenable. Here we highlight three overarching ethical orientations characterizing current and historical practices in conservation that suppress compassion: instrumentalism, collectivism, and nativism. We illustrate how establishing a commitment to compassion could re-orient conservation in more ethically expansive directions, which incorporate recognition of the intrinsic value of wildlife, the sentience of nonhuman animals, and the values of novel ecosystems, introduced species and their members. A compassionate conservation approach allays practices that intentionally and unnecessarily harm wildlife individuals, while aligning with critical conservation goals. Although the urgency of achieving effective outcomes for solving major conservation problems may enhance the appeal of quick and harsh measures, the costs are too high. Continuing to justify moral indifference when causing the suffering of wildlife individuals, particularly those who possess sophisticated capacities for emotion, consciousness, and sociality, risks estranging conservation practice from prevailing, and appropriate, social values. As conservationists and compassionate beings, we must demonstrate concern for both

  8. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation methods: the industrial view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, C.W.

    1977-10-15

    It is pointed out that New Zealand industry has been identified as putting little effort into energy conservation. An energy conservation campaign in industry to increase efficiency and reduce wastage could have major benefits for New Zealand as a whole. Little progress in implementing energy conservation techniques in industry is apparent at present. Business decisions are in the main motivated by profits. Because of the low place of energy in industry's costs of production, seen as a single factor, it hardly rates greater priority over other established production costs. A need to integrate energy costs and material costs is apparent. The need for education is obvious, now, with cheap and limitless energy no longer existing.

  9. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation methods: the industrial view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, C. W.

    1977-10-15

    It is pointed out that New Zealand industry has been identified as putting little effort into energy conservation. An energy conservation campaign in industry to increase efficiency and reduce wastage could have major benefits for New Zealand as a whole. Little progress in implementing energy conservation techniques in industry is apparent at present. Business decisions are in the main motivated by profits. Because of the low place of energy in industry's costs of production, seen as a single factor, it hardly rates greater priority over other established production costs. A need to integrate energy costs and material costs is apparent. The need for education is obvious, now, with cheap and limitless energy no longer existing.

  10. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to

  11. Promoting electricity conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    Electricity conservation helps meet national goals and does not imply reducing economic growth or lowering standards of living. Improving efficiency raises economic productivity. Cutting back on the construction of costly new power plants reduces public debt and the need to increase tariffs. Also, more customers can be added to the power grid if there is a transition to more efficient equipment among all customers. And if developing countries do not produce and use energy-efficient equipment, they could be burdened with outdated products and factories. 35 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Study protocol: the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of an employer-led intervention to increase walking during the daily commute: the Travel to Work randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Cooper, Ashley R; Hollingworth, William; Metcalfe, Chris; Procter, Sunita; Davis, Adrian; Campbell, Rona; Gillison, Fiona; Rodgers, Sarah E

    2015-02-18

    Physical inactivity increases the risk of many chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. It is recommended that adults should undertake at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity throughout the week but many adults do not achieve this. An opportunity for working adults to accumulate the recommended activity levels is through the daily commute. Employees will be recruited from workplaces in south-west England and south Wales. In the intervention arm, workplace Walk-to-Work promoters will be recruited and trained. Participating employees will receive Walk-to-Work materials and support will be provided through four contacts from the promoters over 10 weeks. Workplaces in the control arm will continue with their usual practice. The intervention will be evaluated by a cluster randomized controlled trial including economic and process evaluations. The primary outcome is daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes are: overall physical activity; sedentary time; modal shift away from private car use during the commute; and physical activity/MVPA during the commute. Accelerometers, GPS receivers and travel diaries will be used at baseline and one year follow-up. Questionnaires will be used at baseline, immediately post intervention, and one year follow-up. The process evaluation will examine the context, delivery and response to the intervention from the perspectives of employers, Walk-to-Work promoters and employees using questionnaires, descriptive statistics, fieldnotes and interviews. A cost-consequence study will include employer, employee and health service costs and outcomes. Time and consumables used in implementing the intervention will be measured. Journey time, household commuting costs and expenses will be recorded using travel diaries to estimate costs to employees. Presenteeism, absenteeism, employee wellbeing and health service use will be recorded. Compared

  13. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  14. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  15. Health Care Resource Utilization and Costs in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Better Adherence to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Increased Molecular Monitoring Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Guerin, Annie; Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Patrick; Dea, Katherine; Cohen, Benjamin G; Joseph, George J

    2017-02-01

    Frequent molecular monitoring (qPCR tests), as recommended by evidence-based monitoring guidelines, is associated with higher adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); both factors have been associated with better clinical and economic outcomes. To (a) estimate the effect of more frequent qPCR tests on health care resource utilization (HRU) and associated costs, including direct (effect of qPCR test frequency on HRU) and indirect (through TKI adherence) effects, and (b) develop an economic model applicable to multiple clinical practice scenarios. Adult patients newly diagnosed with CML who started TKI firstline therapy were identified from U.S. administrative claims data (2010-2015). TKI adherence (medication possession ratio [MPR]), number of inpatient days, emergency room (ER) visits, outpatient service days, and mean costs per HRU event were measured during the first year of CML treatment. Direct and indirect effects of qPCR test frequency were estimated using multivariate regression models. Subsequently, an economic model was developed to assess the overall effect of varying qPCR test frequency on HRU and associated costs during the first year of CML treatment under different clinical practice scenarios; the scenario reported is the increase from 1 to 2 qPCR tests. Of the 1,431 patients included, 36% had no qPCR tests, the average qPCR test frequency was 1.6, and the average MPR was 0.86 during the first year of CML treatment. The direct effect of increasing qPCR test frequency by 1 was associated with 13.0% fewer inpatient days (adjusted incidence rate ratio [adjusted IRR] = 0.87; P = 0.010); 8.3% fewer ER visits (adjusted IRR = 0.92; P = 0.043); and 3.0% more outpatient service days (adjusted IRR = 1.03; P = 0.002). Each increase of 1 test was associated with an increase in TKI adherence by 2.2 percentage points (adjusted MPR difference = 0.022; P better adherence to TKIs were associated with lower HRU

  16. Net-Immobilization of β-glucosidase on Nonwoven Fabrics to Lower the Cost of “Cellulosic Ethanol” and Increase Cellulose Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Guan; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-03-01

    The main limitation preventing the use of enzymatic cellulosic ethanol in industrial production is its higher cost which is mainly due to the elevated price of β-glucosidase (BG). Herein, we report on a simple strategy for the in-situ encapsulation of BG for repeated cellulosic ethanol production. In this strategy, BG was net-immobilized into a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) net-cloth layer on a PP nonwoven fabric by way of the visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. The visible light and mild reaction conditions could ensure the activity retention of BG during immobilization, while the non-swelling uniform net-mesh formed by living cross-linking polymerization could prevent the leakage of BG effectively (at the immobilization rate of more than 98.6% and the leakage rate of only 0.4%). When the BG-loaded fabric was used in combination with free cellulase (CEL), the results of the catalytic reaction demonstrated that these BG-loaded fabrics could not only give a 40% increase in cellulose conversions but also be reused for more than fifteen batches without losing the activity. These BG-loaded fabrics with characteristics including easy separation, excellent operation stability, a low cost of the polymeric matrix and a simple fabrication process are particularly interesting for a future bio-fuel production strategy.

  17. Prevention of Biofouling in Hydrocarbons by Antimicrobial Vessel and Pipeline Coating for Cost Savings and an Increase in Safety and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lackner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are prone to bacterial and fungal contamination. Bacteria and fungi live and proliferate in water droplets within the fuels and on surfaces surrounding them. This can cause corrosion in oil exploration and production, clogging of fuel lines in aviation and higher emissions in diesel combustion engines to state few examples. State-of-the-art is the addition of biocides to fuels, which is associated with several disadvantages like costs and environmental burden. A novel technology to prevent biofouling in hydrocarbons is presented here. By applying an anti-microbial coating to the surfaces of hydrocarbon processing units, pipelines, and fuel containers, microbial growth can effectively be reduced. The coating can be a paint or varnish, for instance, epoxy resin as already used in aircraft fuel tanks to today. It contains transition metal oxides, thus an acidic surface is produced. This acidic surface was shown to eliminate up to 109 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU.ml-1 of bacteria of the species of agrobacterium tumefaciens and others in diesel, kerosene, and biodiesel, where other anti-microbial coatings based on silver did not perform. The technology has the potential to bring huge cost savings to the oil and gas industry, alongside an increase in safety and equipment reliability.

  18. Assessing the costs and benefits of improved land management practices in three watershed areas in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abonesh Tesfaye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable land use management and the resulting soil erosion are among the most pervasive problems in rural Ethiopia, where most of the country’s people live, jeopardizing food security. Despite various efforts to introduce soil conservation measures and assess their costs and benefits, it is unclear how efficient these measures are from an economic point of view in securing food production. This paper examines the costs and benefits of three soil conservation measures applied in the country in three different rural districts facing different degrees of soil erosion problems using survey data collected from 750 farm households. A production function is estimated to quantify the costs and benefits of more sustainable land use management practices. We show that the soil conservation measures significantly increase productivity and hence food security. Comparing the costs and benefits, the results indicate that implementing soil conservation measures would benefit farm communities in the case study areas through increased grain productivity and food security.

  19. Emerging conservation challenges and prospects in an era of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Salit; Brokovich, Eran; Mazor, Tessa; Levin, Noam

    2015-12-01

    Globally, extensive marine areas important for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning are undergoing exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas resources. Such operations are expanding to previously inaccessible deep waters and other frontier regions, while conservation-related legislation and planning is often lacking. Conservation challenges arising from offshore hydrocarbon development are wide-ranging. These challenges include threats to ecosystems and marine species from oil spills, negative impacts on native biodiversity from invasive species colonizing drilling infrastructure, and increased political conflicts that can delay conservation actions. With mounting offshore operations, conservationists need to urgently consider some possible opportunities that could be leveraged for conservation. Leveraging options, as part of multi-billion dollar marine hydrocarbon operations, include the use of facilities and costly equipment of the deep and ultra-deep hydrocarbon industry for deep-sea conservation research and monitoring and establishing new conservation research, practice, and monitoring funds and environmental offsetting schemes. The conservation community, including conservation scientists, should become more involved in the earliest planning and exploration phases and remain involved throughout the operations so as to influence decision making and promote continuous monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystems. A prompt response by conservation professionals to offshore oil and gas developments can mitigate impacts of future decisions and actions of the industry and governments. New environmental decision support tools can be used to explicitly incorporate the impacts of hydrocarbon operations on biodiversity into marine spatial and conservation plans and thus allow for optimum trade-offs among multiple objectives, costs, and risks. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness evaluation of 'booster' interventions to sustain increases in physical activity in middle-aged adults in deprived urban neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyder, Elizabeth; Hind, Daniel; Breckon, Jeff; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Minton, Jonathan; Everson-Hock, Emma; Read, Simon; Copeland, Robert; Crank, Helen; Horspool, Kimberly; Humphreys, Liam; Hutchison, Andrew; Kesterton, Sue; Latimer, Nicolas; Scott, Emma; Swaile, Peter; Walters, Stephen J; Wood, Rebecca; Collins, Karen; Cooper, Cindy

    2014-02-01

    More evidence is needed on the potential role of 'booster' interventions in the maintenance of increases in physical activity levels after a brief intervention in relatively sedentary populations. To determine whether objectively measured physical activity, 6 months after a brief intervention, is increased in those receiving physical activity 'booster' consultations delivered in a motivational interviewing (MI) style, either face to face or by telephone. Three-arm, parallel-group, pragmatic, superiority randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative research fidelity and geographical information systems and health economic substudies. Treatment allocation was carried out using a web-based simple randomisation procedure with equal allocation probabilities. Principal investigators and study statisticians were blinded to treatment allocation until after the final analysis only. Deprived areas of Sheffield, UK. Previously sedentary people, aged 40-64 years, living in deprived areas of Sheffield, UK, who had increased their physical activity levels after receiving a brief intervention. Participants were randomised to the control group (no further intervention) or to two sessions of MI, either face to face ('full booster') or by telephone ('mini booster'). Sessions were delivered 1 and 2 months post-randomisation. The primary outcome was total energy expenditure (TEE) per day in kcal from 7-day accelerometry, measured using an Actiheart device (CamNtech Ltd, Cambridge, UK). Independent evaluation of practitioner competence was carried out using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity assessment. An estimate of the per-participant intervention costs, resource use data collected by questionnaire and health-related quality of life data were analysed to produce a range of economic models from a short-term NHS perspective. An additional series of models were developed that used TEE values to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness. In total, 282 people were

  1. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  2. Maximizing conservation benefit for grassland species with contrasting management requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Cabeza, M.; Poyry, J.; Raatikainen, K.; Kuussaari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Conservation management often encompasses multiple, alternative management actions on a given site, involving habitat restoration and maintenance for example. Which actions are preferable depends on the conservation goals, the expected outcomes of actions, and their associated costs. When actions

  3. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  4. Erythropoietic therapy: cost efficiency and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspan, David

    2007-08-15

    The practice of blood conservation is aimed at improving patient outcomes by avoiding allogeneic transfusions via a coordinated multidisciplinary, multipronged approach. The numerous blood conservation techniques and transfusion alternatives now available are described. Ongoing concerns exist regarding the availability of the nation's and the world's blood supply. In addition, the number of measures required to ensure blood safety has led to increases in the price of blood and blood products over the past 10-15 years. Moreover, blood transfusion carries inherent risks even under the most favorable circumstances. Investigations have established that injudicious transfusion is associated with development of ventilator-associated pneumonia, nosocomial infection, and organ dysfunction. Because most single blood-conservation techniques reduce blood usage by a mere 1-2 units, a series of integrated conservation approaches are required. These include preoperative autologous donation, use of erythropoietic agents, blood conservation techniques such as acute normovolemic hemodilution, individualized assessment of anemia tolerance, implementation of conservative transfusion thresholds, meticulous surgical techniques, and judicious use of phlebotomy and pharmacologic agents for limiting blood loss. Erythropoietic agents such as epoetin alfa have been used successfully to increase hemoglobin and decrease transfusion requirements, and are appropriate when used in advance of elective surgical procedures. Acquisition costs of erythropoietic stimulating agents versus costs of blood justify economic evaluation by hospitals to make the most cost-effective choice under current economic constraints. Initiating a blood management program requires planning and support from those who are concerned about blood usage reduction and outcomes improvement. Launching a vigorous and ongoing educational program to raise awareness about the risks and hazards associated with blood transfusion is an

  5. Constraints of philanthropy on determining the distribution of biodiversity conservation funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Howell, Stephen; Kareiva, Peter; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Caught between ongoing habitat destruction and funding shortfalls, conservation organizations are using systematic planning approaches to identify places that offer the highest biodiversity return per dollar invested. However, available tools do not account for the landscape of funding for conservation or quantify the constraints this landscape imposes on conservation outcomes. Using state-level data on philanthropic giving to and investments in land conservation by a large nonprofit organization, we applied linear regression to evaluate whether the spatial distribution of conservation philanthropy better explained expenditures on conservation than maps of biodiversity priorities, which were derived from a planning process internal to the organization and return on investment (ROI) analyses based on data on species richness, land costs, and existing protected areas. Philanthropic fund raising accounted for considerably more spatial variation in conservation spending (r(2) = 0.64) than either of the 2 systematic conservation planning approaches (r(2) = 0.08-0.21). We used results of one of the ROI analyses to evaluate whether increases in flexibility to reallocate funding across space provides conservation gains. Small but plausible "tax" increments of 1-10% on states redistributed to the optimal funding allocation from the ROI analysis could result in gains in endemic species protected of 8.5-80.2%. When such increases in spatial flexibility are not possible, conservation organizations should seek to cultivate increased support for conservation in priority locations. We used lagged correlations of giving to and spending by the organization to evaluate whether investments in habitat protection stimulate future giving to conservation. The most common outcome at the state level was that conservation spending quarters correlated significantly and positively with lagged fund raising quarters. In effect, periods of high fund raising for biodiversity followed (rather than

  6. A low-cost ultrasound program leads to increased antenatal clinic visits and attended deliveries at a health care clinic in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Ross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In June of 2010, an antenatal ultrasound program to perform basic screening for high-risk pregnancies was introduced at a community health care center in rural Uganda. Whether the addition of ultrasound scanning to antenatal visits at the health center would encourage or discourage potential patients was unknown. Our study sought to evaluate trends in the numbers of antenatal visits and deliveries at the clinic, pre- and post-introduction of antenatal ultrasound to determine what effect the presence of ultrasound at the clinic had on these metrics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Records at Nawanyago clinic were reviewed to obtain the number of antenatal visits and deliveries for the 42 months preceding the introduction of ultrasound and the 23 months following. The monthly mean deliveries and antenatal visits by category (first visit through fourth return visit were compared pre- and post- ultrasound using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. Following the introduction of ultrasound, significant increases were seen in the number of mean monthly deliveries and antenatal visits. The mean number of monthly deliveries at the clinic increased by 17.0 (13.3-20.6, 95% CI from a pre-ultrasound average of 28.4 to a post-ultrasound monthly average of 45.4. The number of deliveries at a comparison clinic remained flat over this same time period. The monthly mean number of antenatal visits increased by 97.4 (83.3-111.5, 95% CI from a baseline monthly average of 133.5 to a post-ultrasound monthly mean of 231.0, with increases seen in all categories of antenatal visits. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of a low-cost antenatal ultrasound program may assist progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 by encouraging women in a rural environment to come to a health care facility for skilled antenatal care and delivery assistance instead of utilizing more traditional methods.

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Precision Medicine Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Cancer Reveals Improved Progression-Free Survival Without Increased Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Derrick S; Van Norman, S Burke; Fulde, Gail; Knighton, Andrew J; Belnap, Tom; Butler, Allison M; Rhagunath, Sharanya; Newman, David; Gilbert, Heather; Tudor, Brian P; Lin, Karen; Stone, Gary R; Loughmiller, David L; Mishra, Pravin J; Srivastava, Rajendu; Ford, James M; Nadauld, Lincoln D

    2017-02-01

    The advent of genomic diagnostic technologies such as next-generation sequencing has recently enabled the use of genomic information to guide targeted treatment in patients with cancer, an approach known as precision medicine. However, clinical outcomes, including survival and the cost of health care associated with precision cancer medicine, have been challenging to measure and remain largely unreported. We conducted a matched cohort study of 72 patients with metastatic cancer of diverse subtypes in the setting of a large, integrated health care delivery system. We analyzed the outcomes of 36 patients who received genomic testing and targeted therapy (precision cancer medicine) between July 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, compared with 36 historical control patients who received standard chemotherapy (n = 29) or best supportive care (n = 7). The average progression-free survival was 22.9 weeks for the precision medicine group and 12.0 weeks for the control group ( P = .002) with a hazard ratio of 0.47 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.75) when matching on age, sex, histologic diagnosis, and previous lines of treatment. In a subset analysis of patients who received all care within the Intermountain Healthcare system (n = 44), per patient charges per week were $4,665 in the precision treatment group and $5,000 in the control group ( P = .126). These findings suggest that precision cancer medicine may improve survival for patients with refractory cancer without increasing health care costs. Although the results of this study warrant further validation, this precision medicine approach may be a viable option for patients with advanced cancer.

  8. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jay G; Lam, Fred C W; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-01-01

    Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET), wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each). As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest that its modest

  9. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  10. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  11. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  12. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  13. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  14. Socio-Economic Factors Assessment Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies on Rwenzori Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabalegwa Wambede Muhamud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the role of socio-economic factors in influencing farmers’ adoption to soil conservation technologies in Bugoye Sub-county, Rwenzori Mountain. A cross sectional household survey design was used in this study, using systematic sampling to obtain 150 household samples. Qualitative analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze these data. Results indicated that only 54% of the sampled households have adopted soil conservation, and revealed that eight of the nine factors significantly influenced farmers’ adoption, which are slope, farm size, farm distance from home, education level, family income, training, membership to NGOs, and credit accessibility. Only family size was insignificant. Other constraints are labour demands, cost of conservation work, land fragmentation, crop pests, and the limited agricultural extension services. It is recommended to perform training for farmers on designing soil conservation structures. Policies for empowering farmers with extra income are crucial to increase the adoption of soil conservation efforts.

  15. Four-fold increase in direct costs of stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity: the first year after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Erik; Smits, Anja; Borg, Jörgen; Terént, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of spasticity after first-ever stroke is approximately 20%, but there are no health economic studies on costs associated with spasticity after stroke. The objective of our study was to estimate direct costs of stroke with spasticity for patients surviving up to 1 year after the stroke event in comparison to costs of stroke without spasticity. A representative sample of patients with first-ever stroke hospitalized at Uppsala University Hospital was eligible for our cross-sectional survey. All direct costs during 1 year were identified for each patient, including costs for hospitalization (acute and rehabilitation), primary health care, medication, and costs for municipality services. Swedish currency was converted to Purchasing Power Parities US dollar (PPP$). Median age (interquartile range) was 73 years (18), and the proportion of women was 48%. The majority of the direct costs (78%) was associated with hospitalization, whereas 20% was associated with municipality services during 1 year after a first-ever stroke. Only 1% of all direct costs were related to primary health care and 1% to medication. The level of costs for patients with stroke was correlated with the presence of spasticity as measured with the modified Ashworth scale (r(s)=0.524) and with the degree of disability as measured with modified Rankin Scale (r(s)=0.624). The mean (median, interquartile range) direct cost for stroke patients with spasticity was PPP$ 84,195 (72,116, 53,707) compared with PPP$ 21,842 (12,385, 17,484) for patients with stroke without spasticity (Pstroke survivors are 4 times higher than direct costs for patients with stroke without spasticity during the first year after the event.

  16. Understanding the Data Complexity continuum to reduce data management costs and increase data usability through partnerships with the National Centers for Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesick, S.; Weathers, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Data complexity can be seen as a continuum from complex to simple. The term data complexity refers to data collections that are disorganized, poorly documented, and generally do not follow best data management practices. Complex data collections are challenging and expensive to manage. Simplified collections readily support automated archival processes, enhanced discovery and data access, as well as production of services that make data easier to reuse. In this session, NOAA NCEI scientific data stewards will discuss the data complexity continuum. This talk will explore data simplification concepts, methods, and tools that data managers can employ which may offer more control over data management costs and processes, while achieving policy goals for open data access and ready reuse. Topics will include guidance for data managers on best allocation of limited data management resources; models for partnering with NCEI to accomplish shared data management goals; and will demonstrate through case studies the benefits of investing in documentation, accessibility, and services to increase data value and return on investment.

  17. The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil's gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2007-01-01

    ‘Devil's gardens’ are nearly pure stands of the myrmecophyte, Duroia hirsuta, that occur in Amazonian rainforests. Devil's gardens are created by Myrmelachista schumanni ants, which nest in D. hirsuta trees and kill other plants using formic acid as an herbicide. Here, we show that this ant–plant mutualism has an associated cost; by making devil's gardens, M. schumanni increases herbivory on D. hirsuta. We measured standing leaf herbivory on D. hirsuta trees and found that they sustain higher herbivory inside than outside devil's gardens. We also measured the rate of herbivory on nursery-grown D. hirsuta saplings planted inside and outside devil's gardens in ant-exclusion and control treatments. We found that when we excluded ants, herbivory on D. hirsuta was higher inside than outside devil's gardens. These results suggest that devil's gardens are a concentrated resource for herbivores. Myrmelachista schumanni workers defend D. hirsuta against herbivores, but do not fully counterbalance the high herbivore pressure in devil's gardens. We suggest that high herbivory may limit the spread of devil's gardens, possibly explaining why devil's gardens do not overrun Amazonian rainforests. PMID:17301016

  18. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natu, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  19. More Useful, or Not so Bad? Evaluating the Effects of Interventions to Reduce Perceived Cost and Increase Utility Value with College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Emily Quinn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study I developed and evaluated the effects of two interventions designed to target students' motivation to learn in an introductory college physics course. One intervention was designed to improve students' perceptions of utility value and the other was designed to reduce students' perceptions of cost. Utility value and cost both…

  20. Cost-effectiveness of interventions for increasing the possession of functioning smoke alarms in households with pre-school children: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Pedro; Cooper, Nicola J; Sutton, Alex J; Hayes, Mike; Dunn, Ken; Manca, Andrea; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-05-16

    The UK has one of the highest rates for deaths from fire and flames in children aged 0-14 years compared to other high income countries. Evidence shows that smoke alarms can reduce the risk of fire-related injury but little exists on their cost-effectiveness. We aimed to compare the cost effectiveness of different interventions for the uptake of 'functioning' smoke alarms and consequently for the prevention of fire-related injuries in children in the UK. We carried out a decision model-based probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis. We used a hypothetical population of newborns and evaluated the impact of living in a household with or without a functioning smoke alarm during the first 5 years of their life on overall lifetime costs and quality of life from a public health perspective. We compared seven interventions, ranging from usual care to more complex interventions comprising of education, free/low cost equipment giveaway, equipment fitting and/or home safety inspection. Education and free/low cost equipment was the most cost-effective intervention with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £34,200 per QALY gained compared to usual care. This was reduced to approximately £4,500 per QALY gained when 1.8 children under the age of 5 were assumed per household. Assessing cost-effectiveness, as well as effectiveness, is important in a public sector system operating under a fixed budget restraint. As highlighted in this study, the more effective interventions (in this case the more complex interventions) may not necessarily be the ones considered the most cost-effective.

  1. Makahiki: An Open Source Serious Game Framework for Sustainability Education and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongwen; Johnson, Philip M.; Lee, George E.; Moore, Carleton A.; Brewer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability education and conservation have become an international imperative due to the rising cost of energy, increasing scarcity of natural resource and irresponsible environmental practices. This paper presents Makahiki, an open source serious game framework for sustainability, which implements an extensible framework for different…

  2. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood conservation operations in pediatric cardiac patients: a paradigm shift of blood use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Weatherred, Ted; Qadeer, Ahsan; Rosenberg, Carol Ann; Hudacko, Andrea; Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is associated with high morbidity in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects and outcomes of blood conservation for our pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 168 pediatric patients who underwent biventricular (BV) and univentricular (UV) cardiac operations from 2006 to 2010. Patients were grouped into no blood conservation (n = 86 [BV = 74, UV = 12]) and blood conservation (n = 82 [BV = 68, UV = 14]) cohorts. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, and preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels in the BV groups. Even though the blood conservation group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (p conservation group, there were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, CPB and cross-clamp times, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and red blood cell transfusions despite lower intraoperative hemoglobin levels (p conservation group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between intraoperative blood transfusion and increased inotropic score, longer duration on the ventilator, and increased length of hospitalization. Blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations is associated with fewer ventilator days, lower inotropic scores, and shorter lengths of stay. These findings, in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness evaluation of "booster" interventions to sustain increases in physical activity in middle-aged adults in deprived urban neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholl Jon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews have identified a range of brief interventions which increase physical activity in previously sedentary people. There is an absence of evidence about whether follow up beyond three months can maintain long term physical activity. This study assesses whether it is worth providing motivational interviews, three months after giving initial advice, to those who have become more active. Methods/Design Study candidates (n = 1500 will initially be given an interactive DVD and receive two telephone follow ups at monthly intervals checking on receipt and use of the DVD. Only those that have increased their physical activity after three months (n = 600 will be randomised into the study. These participants will receive either a "mini booster" (n = 200, "full booster" (n = 200 or no booster (n = 200. The "mini booster" consists of two telephone calls one month apart to discuss physical activity and maintenance strategies. The "full booster" consists of a face-to-face meeting with the facilitator at the same intervals. The purpose of these booster sessions is to help the individual maintain their increase in physical activity. Differences in physical activity, quality of life and costs associated with the booster interventions, will be measured three and nine months from randomisation. The research will be conducted in 20 of the most deprived neighbourhoods in Sheffield, which have large, ethnically diverse populations, high levels of economic deprivation, low levels of physical activity, poorer health and shorter life expectancy. Participants will be recruited through general practices and community groups, as well as by postal invitation, to ensure the participation of minority ethnic groups and those with lower levels of literacy. Sheffield City Council and Primary Care Trust fund a range of facilities and activities to promote physical activity and variations in access to these between neighbourhoods will make it

  5. Water Conservation Study, Ft. Drum, New York, Watertown, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost to savings ratio...

  6. Water Conservation Study, Ft. Drum, New York, Watertown, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost-to-savings ratio...

  7. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting wi